(
I
BURIED
ANTENNA
PERFORMANCE:
AD783
274
DE~lELOPMENT OF SMAL L RESONP~NT
BUPIED
ANTENNAS
Howard E. 
Buss ey, 
e 
t 
aI 

Nation al Bureau 
of 
5t and ar ds 

Prepared 
for: 

Rome 
Air 
Develop men t 
Cent er 

Ju ne 
1974 
DISTRIBUTED BY:
National Technical Information Service U. S. DEPAR!MEHT OF COMMERCE
5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield Va. 22151
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May 2011
UNCLASSIFIED 
A.1>. ?~~~ 7 'I 

S£CUltITY CLUSIFICATIOIC Of' THIS ~AGI:r Del. ~ 
_{} 

 
^{} 

READ DlSTRUcn0N3 

REPORT DOCUMENTA~ PAGE' 

 
BEFORE COIIPLETI!(G FORM 

I. 'r:;:~O"~T NU 
B'!1l 
^{} 
.r t:;OVTACCUIION NO 
1. 
ItECI~IENT'SCATALOG NUMBEIl 

RAocTR74169 

 
 

^{} 

4. T'TLEJ~~l".J 
S. T~E Of' IlIE~OllT• ~E"'OD COVEllED 

. "~H::r AiiIENHA PEIlOIDWICE; DEVEI.OPHEIri OF SKALL 
Final Report 

Hay 
72 
Aug 73 

 

RESONA.'fT BURIED AH'I'EINAS 

. 

I. ~EIlf'OIbiINGOIlG. IlE~OllTMUM.EIl 

Project 2727438 

7. AUTHOIt(.' 
•• 
c.>NT'UlCT Oil G;tANT MU"'E"C., 

Hovard E. 
^{B}^{u}^{s}^{s}^{e}^{y} 
F3060272F0332 

. Ezra B. Larsen 

,. PIERFO ,NG 
OllGANIZATION MAIlE AND ADDRUS 
IC. 

National Bureau of Standards Electromagnetics Division Ba~lder. Colorado 80302 
,.~ ELEilEMT.PIlOJIECr. TASK It£A • WOIlJt UNIT NUNBEIlS JO fi92B0304 

I"' 
cc.iiO:=! '·'!:IG OFFICE !'.::;, AND ADDRUS 
I:. RIE~RT DATE 

I~ 1 44 " 
; 
1 ~ r.p.nter 
i'June 1974 

u 
r 

Griffiss Air Force Base, Nev Yor~ 13441 
11. 
NUN'ER OF PAGii>'! 

II •• 
MONITORING AGENCY NAIIIE • 
ADDIlUIC" ~1It 
, " eIII 
c. 'Ie., 
IS. 
SECURITY CLASS. (0' ~/. ,_", 

Same 
Unclassified 

15 DECLAS5IFICA"'ON/OO.~;C."ADING 

N IlCHIEOULE 

16. 
DISTRIBUTION STATENENT (ollJl'. If• 
.", 

Approved for public release. 
_{D}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{b}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{~}_{n}_{u}_{n}_{l}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{.} 

17. 
DISTRIBUT':>N STATEMENT (01 ,,, • • ".'tac' 
,.,.d'lt ./oc" 20, II Ill"., ,I.If_,,, 

Same 

'1. 
SUPPLEMEIlTARV NOTES 

None 

.,. 
KEV WOIIDS (Conl/nu. on , • .,.,. • • 'd. "n.c ••• ary 
d 'd.nl/,y Ily "'ocl< n ".r' 

Antenna ^{E}^{f}^{f}^{i}^{c}^{i}^{e}^{n}^{c}^{y} 

Buried Antennas Depth Attenuation Interface Loss Resonant Antennas 
[<'.prMuel'd tv NATIONAL TECHNICAL _{I}_{N}_{F}_{O}_{R}_{M}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N} _{S}_{E}_{R}_{V}_{I}_{C}_{E} U S Oep:lrlm,.nt of C(j,y,m~rce 

Sl.'"nr,f,d1 VA 22151 

20. 
A8ST!'ACT (Conllnu. on , , •• • 'd. "n.e 
ary 
d Id.n"f)' "1' "'ocl< num".,' 

Small resonant dipole antennas at 145 MHz were developed suitaJ1e to be 

buried for concealment. 
Theory of the pattern and the loss of buried dipoles 

is summarized. 
Experiments are described that confirm the th~o~y. 
The cir 

cuit ~epresentationof a resonator is'ti~~lized in 
measuring and analyzing the 

Q. bandwidth. and impedance of 
the antennas. 
The field strength performance 

of buried candidate antennas was measured and agreed with expected losses due 

to burial and inefficiency. 
Theoretically a reRonant horizontal magnetic 

DO 
FORM 

I JAN _{7}_{3} _{1}_{4}_{7}_{3} EDITION OF I NOV "S IS OBSOLETE 
_{U}_{N}_{C}_{L}_{A}_{S}_{S}_{I}_{F}_{I}_{'}_{:}_{:}_{D} 
SE~URITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ("".n n.l. Enl~,r"J
,
"J
lIN{:i.ASSIFIED
loss in practice beca~se its
I
I
dipole has the lowest burj~l loss for the fulJy buried condition. A resonant
horiz~ntal electric d~pole may have equally low
effi~ler.cy is better (for the size allowed). Lov (ten centimeter) proil1~ vertical electric dipoles. not fully ~uriedt exhibit ever. ssalleT l~sses and vculd be useful. The performance of these buried ante~~ could be icF~oved by allowing a larger encapsu!3tion.
UNCLASSIFIED
S£CU~ITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(W'll.n D.,. Enl.,.")
FOREWORD
This Final Report is by the National Bureau of Standards,
Electr~agneticsDivision, Boulder, Colorado, for Rome Air Develop ment Center, Griffiss Air Fo~ce Base, New York, under Contract
F3060272F0332, Job Order 692B0304.
Mr. Russell A. King (DCCN) was the RADC Project Engineer.
The xeport describes a study performed from Hay 1972 to August
NBS Project Number is 2727438.
1913.
authors ackn~Mledge the helpful advice and contributions as
readers of R.C. Baird, C.F. Stuben Rauch, and R.G. ~ltsgeI:el. ~.A. Hufford gave helpful explanations. M.L. Crawford and A.C. Wilson gave information on antennas and with J.E. Chultosld aided lor~i:h cali bration and f1eld measurements.
This report ha~ been reviewed by the RADC Information Office (~:\ and is releasable to the National Technical Information Service (NTl').
The
This technical report has been reviewed and is approved.
APPROVED:
APPROVED:
RUSSELL A. KING Project Engineer
FRED I.
Communications and Navigation Division
DIAMOND, Technical Director
FOR THE C<J1MANDER:
,. ~:
J
~HN P.
"
/
HUSS
/""")
//
~
Acting Chief, Plans Office
11
Evaluation
This
effort was a study to
investigate,
theoretically
and experimet~ally, the possibility of Burst Communication
by radio transmission frem an antenna buried for conceal ment. low transmitter power, 1 watt, maximum antenna
width
The emphasis was on antenna design and not communications
of the study indicate theoreti
of 5 inches and VHF frequency were major parameters.
The results
feasibility
system design. cally useful
ground to airborne communications.
and experimental
In view of the theoretical
indicate~an expansion of the effort is recommended. It should include further experimentation and fliqht testing to explore the more practical a~pects of adapting the experimental antennas to existing buried transmit devices. An experimental buried antenna/transmit combination unit should be constructed for this purpose.
tv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section 
Title 
Page 

1. 
INTRODUCTION 
1 

2. 
THEORETICAL FIELD CALCULATIONS 
2 

A. 
Introduction 2 

Gain Pattern in Air of a Buried Dipcle 
2 

C. Theoretical Derivation of Pattern Gain 
6 

D. Ptysica1 Optic.s of Buried Antennas 
8 

E. Ground Wave 10 

F. Calculation of Fieid From Equations (1) 11 

G. Efficiency 17 

3. 
EXPERIMENTS COMPARED TO EQUATIONS (1) 
18 

A. Introduction 18 B. Transmitted Power 18 C. Field Strength Calibration 22 Comparison of Theory and Experiment for a 23 II Re fe ren ce II ~fonopo1e                        

E. Far Field Pattern Versus Elevation Angle 
25 

F. Measured Loss of Rather Ideal Buried Dipoles 
25 

G. Effect of Shallow Burial 
30 

H. Summary 32 

4. 
DEVELOPMENT OF MINIATURE RESONANT ANTENNAS 
34 
A. Introduction 34
B. Construction Uetai1s 34
C. Impedance Measurements with the Network Analyzer 42
D. Ci rcui t Representation and Q Analys is          
43 

E. Antenna Effil.:iency 
46 

F. Coupling Coefficients, 
Theory, and Experiments 

for One Antenna 
51 

G. Coupling, and Radiation Resistance 
Discussion 

of All Ante"ilnaS 
56 
H. Interaction with Burial Medium 61
v
Section
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title
(Concluded)
Page
I. 
Bandwidth Improvement 
62 

J. 
Additional Modification of Antennas; Resulting Bandwidth and Interaction with Media 
64 

K. 
Conclusions for Section 4 
67 

5. 
FIELD TESTS OF BURIED ANTENNAS 
69 
A. Introduction 69
B. Theoretical and Practic~l Considerations
69
70
C. Field Site Performance of Small Antennas
D. 
Summary of Resonant Antennas 
76 
6. PREDICTED DISTANCE OF CO~~NICATION 
77 
A. Introduction 77
B. Assumed Transmitter Power and Receiver
L~aracteristics 77
C. Gain PattE:rn Over a Spherical Earth 
78 
D. Field Strength Versus Distance 
78 
7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 
81 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 84 REFERENCES 85
BIBLIOGRAPHY ON BURIED ANTENNAS
87
vi
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
1.
Title
(a)
The ray
at
critical
angle
Rays
6 _{c} becomes hori outsid& of the
zontal after refraction.
cone 6 _{c} suffer total
internal reflection.
(b)
Illustrating the divergence of the refraction
from a buried point source.
Page
5
2. Interface and
pattern loss of the TM wave,
E _{e} wave,
of a buried horizontal magnetic dipole (depth
attenuation omitted).
from a buried HED has this loss olus the small additional end fire pattern loss~shown in figure 4. 13
The TM wave
(end fire)
3. Depth attenuation, dB, at 145 MHz versus e' with
The ordi
cond~ctivity, a, Sim, as
a parameter.
nate is nearly linear in S except at lowe'. Elevation angle is 2°, but results are accurate for the range )f 1 to 10° to within approximately 0.01 dB. 14
Loss
end fire direction from a buried horizontal dipole, and for a buried vertical dipole. The
elevation angle of the fi~ld point in the air is
4.
due to
the underground pat tern
factor
for the
1°; however,
at any angle below 10° elevation the
results are accurate to 0.1 dB. 15
s. Interface and pattern loss
)f the TE wave,
E~
wave, of buried horizontal electric dipole (HED) broadside (depth attenuation omitted). The TE wave (end fire) from a buried HMD has this loss plus ~he small additional end fire loss shown in
figure 4.
16
6. (a)
Equipment arrangement
(b)
for measuring gain pattern Showing the main measure
of buried antenna.
ment paramet~rs,
powers, attenuation. The
cluded as
and cable
frequency,
forward and reverse
lengths u and u _{r} which contribute
attenuation due to u _{r} was in
part of the
calibration. 19
an
integral
FIM sensitivity
7. Attenuation of the
transmitting RG9B cable versus
frequency
curve
at
32° and 72°F,
and an
interpolated
at SO°F.
20
vii
Figure
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
(Continued)
Title 
Page 

Field strength conversion factor 
for Field Inten 

sity Meter (FIM), as measured/by NBS standard field method. The factor in dB is added to the ~oltmete~ indication to give the electric field 1n the a1r. 
11 
Theoretical far erence monopole
wavelength diameter ground plane set on the earth's
su~face). 26
Measured field
field power gain pattern of ref (quarter wavelength Whip on a one
1
strength
in
dB
>
1
pV/m at
and reference
R =
MHz.
W;
E'
~
Antenna power,
P _{a} of equa
10;
a ~ 0.06 S/m.
strength
in
dB
>
uV/m at
F
is
=
1
R =
300 MHz.
W;
30.5 m distance of sleeved dipole
monopole at 145
tion
I
Measured field
(21)t
is
28
30.5 m distance, of a folded dipole,
Antenna power,
P
a of equation
(21),
E'
~
10;
conductivity ~ 0.06 S/m.
29
Measured field
30.5 m,
F
= 300
strength
in
dB
~lliz, P _{a} = 1 W,
>
I
~V/m at R =
from antenna A3,
which is
~ED, measured as
Antenna A8,
asymmetric vertical
tn
a miniature
a coil
vertical
electric dipole,
a function of antenna height.
and a capacitor excited as
an
dipole.
Also may be
referred
as
a monopole on a base plate.
31
3S
An·~enna C4,
a resonant h()lix partially
imaged by
36
Antenna B3,
capa~itor. .
Antenna B4, HED formed by coil and capacitor. 38
Antenna D3, HMD, a loop approximately 10 cm square resonated by a capacito~, C = 6 pF. 39
37
the base.
HED formed
by
a resonant
coil
and
Antenna D4,
coupled;
horizontal
coil, probably much over
see section
4F for
coupling adjustment.
40
viii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
(Continued)
Figure 
TitIe Page 
19. 
Antenna D5, self resonant helix with diameter and Lumped circuit representation of a resonator ter 41 
20. 
pitch to make HMD equal to HED. 
minating a transmission line. (a) Represents a 

series resonant circuit. (b) Transforms to (c), 

a parallel resonant circuit, which agrees with 

experiment. 44 

21. 
Impedance plot and Q analysis of impedance points flot and Q analysis as in figure 21 except that 47 
22. 
measured at 0.2 MHz intervals, in the rectangular impedance plane for antenna D3 (10 cm diameter leop) enclvsed in a copper. cavity (radiansphere). Points are fitted by a circle. 
the ~ntenna D3 is radiating into an anechoic chamber. 48 

23. 
Impedance plot for antenna model D32 with 
length of coupling link d = 6.7 cm. 54 

24. 
Impedance plot for model D34, d = 4.5 cm. 54 
25. 
Impedance plot for model D36, d = 2.5 cm. 5S 
26. 
Impedance plot for model D38, with coupling d = 4.5 cm as in D34, and firmly soldered in 
place. 5S 

27. 
Impedance plot for model D38, buried in con crete, permittivity ~ 6.5, loss tangent ~ 0.01. 57 
28. 
 'pedance plot for antenna AS in anechoic room. 57 
29. 
Impedance plot for antenna C4 in anechoic room. 58 
30. 
Impedance plot for antenna B3 in anechoic room. 58 
31 
Impedance plot for antenna B4 in anechoic room. 59 
32. Impedanc~ plot for antenna D3 in anechoic room. 
59 

33. Impedance plot for antenna D5 in anechoic room. 
60 

34. Circuit used for analyzing change of resonant 

frequency due 
to burial. 
60 
ix
Figure
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
TitIe
(Concluded)
35. Field strength versus elevation angle of various
buried antennas,
pole, normalized to 1 Wpower accepted by the an
tenna. Burial is in distance is 30.5 m. are e' = 12, a = 0.05
and the unburied reference mono
Range
Estimated ground constants
concrete,
e'
~
6.5.
S/m.
Page
71
36. Field strength versus elevation angle of modified antennas; as in figure 35, burial is in concrete.
Ground is
drie~, estimate e'
= 7,
a = 0.03
S/m.
Antellnas AS and C4 are at the i_nterface, par tially buried. 
74 
37. Electric field strength, dBV/m, from various an 

tennas accepting I W power. The curves marked ~~lD are for a buried horizontal magnetic dipole. Curve 

M is for a low profile VED with efficiency = 0.4. space field of an isotropic source. 

E _{f} is the free 
79 
x
LIST OF TABLES
Table
Short Title
Page
1. Power gains
2. Theoretical and measured fields
of various antennas. c  4
of "reference"
monopole. 24
3. Comparison of lowangle
losses
of "r~ference"
monopole
and buried antennas with interface
loss
only. 27
4. Measured Q, resistance, and efficiency of antennas. 50
5. Theoretically estim~ted resistances and ef ficiencies of antennas. 52
6. Change of resonant freq~~ncy due to burial. 
63 
7. Measured bandwidths of antennas. 
65 
8. Characteristics of changed antennas. 
66 
9. Conversion factor to obtain field strength from
voltage measured by FIM.~ 73
xi
1.
INTRODUCTION
The ~bjective of this effort is to provide engineering services to study the feasibility and practicality of low power radio fxequency t~~Lsmissions from antennas chat are buried just below the surfoce of the e~rth. Burial is for concealment only.
The main purpose is to predict the communications range to m~ assumed receiver from a buried trans~tting antenna. In doing t~is the theory of buried antennas; which is av~ilable in the literature~ is outlined; experiments were performed to con firm the theory; and small resonant antennas f~T burial were developed and tested. Construction details are given fOl som~ candidate antennas. Compromises and tradeoffs are describ~d for various types of antennas J e. g. J vertical and horizontal ,ij poles. The r~ain factor in the research is the requirement of a small antenna to allow convenient burial deployment. This requirement was ac complished by the use of resonant antennas at the assigned fre quency, 145 MHz. The theory of emission fr~m a buried source to the air space is discussed in section 2. The general properties of resonant antennas arc described in section 3. The effects of burial on impedance, bandwidth, efficiency, and pattern are described in section 4, and a series of candidate antennas is described. Experimental results for the candidates are given in section s. The maximum communication range is predicted in section 6.
1
2. TIlEORETICAL FIELD CALCULATIONS
A.
INTRODUCTION
A theoretical discussion o! Lhe effect of burial in the ground on antenna performance consists of three main aspects:
one aspect is the change of the efficiency of the antenna; the second aspect is the exact field pattern calculation; and the third aspect is the ch~~ge in i~pedance, and especially the change in the resonant frequency of resonant antennas. The determination of efficiency of buried antennas by theoretical methods has been done only for certain antennas, e.g., for a spherical dipole [1]. Theoretical TA'ork on efficieIlcy was not done in the present con tract. Experimental determinations of efficiency are discussed in a lateT section.
The field
at
a recelvlng poin~ in the air may be compared
the
radiation emerges from the buried antenna. This method makes it
clear how much loss arises from the burial. A more rigorous method is to sLate the los~ relative to an isotropic sourc~. This method shows the total effect of the burial and the propa gation. Both presentations will be used.
to that from a monopole set on the ground at the
place where
B. GAIN PATTERN IN AIR OF A BURIED DIPOLE
The
field
in the air space
is
greatly influenced by the
burial. The notation TM and TE waves will be used to denote*
the wave components with horizontal magnetic vector and hori
some
characteristics of the waves
reference quarter wavelength monopole set on the earth. The
latter is a useful basis for comparison.
3 dB gain with respect to
zontal electric vector respectively.
Table 1 indicates
and
from buried dipoles
from a
It has approximately
isotropic at 10° elevation angle.
*Another nota~ion for TM and TE is polarized respectively.
2
vertically and horizontally
Dipole antennas, including a small loop which is a magnetic dipole, are considered almost exclusively. The following nota tion will be used:
VED, 
vertical electric dipole; 

VMD, 
vertical magnetic dipole; 

HED, 
horizontal 
electric dipole; 
HMD, 
horizontal 
magnetic dipole. 
A buried vertical dipole gives a weaker field throughout the
air space than does a buried horizontal dipole, other things
being equal, and the dielectric constant, E', of the ground being greater than 2, which is almost always the case. This is due to the cone of emission from the ground into the air space (fig. 1).
For
give no emission straight up and at 24° the underground pattern factor of the dipole is 8 dB weaker than the m~ximum, which
occurs in the broadside direction. The buried horizontal dipole sends maximum energy straight
up. The horizontally traveling surface wave is emitted at 24° from maximum of the dipole, for both the TE and TiM polari zations, causing at most 0.7 dB loss due to the underground pattern factor of the dipole at 24° from broadside, £ being 6.
E' = 6 the cone angular radius is 24°. The vertical dipoles
For any antenna system the
field strength decreases
at low
elevation angles, as indicated in table 1. At low angles the buried antenna exhibits an approximately constant loss compared to an antenna on the surface, see last line of table 1. This extra loss due to burial is explained in sections C and D below.
The loss is about 30 dB for TM wave and 40 dB for
TE waves at
1° elevation angle,
E'
being 6.
The TM wave
is
almost
always
stronger than the TE wave and is therefore more useful. Also it gives a ground wave, useful for nearby ontheground
reception. Power gain is
defined in the
footnote
of table
1.
3
Tabl€ 1. Fields of a monopole~ and various dipoles buried in
earth~ with dielectric constant
stated relative to an isotropic emitter. Depth is assumed zero.
The eighth line shews the depth attenuation per meter.
= 6 and conductivity = 0.003 S/m,
_{!}_{M}_{I}_{T}_{E}
Power Gain (a)
Antenna _{C}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r} 10 ^{0} 
Elevation 1 ^{0} Elevation _{2} ^{0} 
_{E}_{l}_{e}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} 

} /4 monopole 
TM 
_{'}_{"} 
3 
dB 
'" 
18 
dB 
'" 
14 dB 

with }"/2 radius 

metal ground plane 

Buried 
VED 
TM 
21. 8 dB 
38.7 
dB 
33.0 dB 

Buried VMD 
TI; 
25.9 dB 
46.1 dB 
40.2 dB 

Buried HED 
TIl 
14.6 
dB 
_{}_{3}_{1}_{.}_{7} dB 
_{}_{2}_{6}_{.}_{1} dB 

TE 
19.0 
dB 
38.3 
dB 
_{'}_{"} 
_{} _{3}_{2}_{.}_{6} 
dB 

Buried HMD 
TM 
_{}_{1}_{3}_{.}_{8} _{d}_{B} 
_{}_{3}_{0}_{.}_{9} dB 
25.4 dB 

TE 
19.8 dB 
39.1 dB 
_{}_{3}_{3}_{.}_{3} _{d}_{B} 

_{1} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{h} absorption 
TE,TM 
2.19 dB 
2.20 dB 
_{} 
_{2}_{.}_{2}_{0} 
_{d}_{B} 

Buried HED re lative to surface monopole 
TM 
11.6 
dB 
13.7 dB 
12.1 dB 
(a) The power gain of an antenna at
any angle
is
the
ratio
of
the power density observed to the
that would have been furnished by an isotropic emitter in
free
theoretical power density
space at the
same distance.
4
AIR
JLo
I
f EARTH
(T
•
€
1.0"
= € of. I Wi" == n
o
2
;
Be = arcsin {I/n}
DIVERGENCE
POINT SOURCE
^{(}^{0} ^{)}
I
SOURCE
n sin 9, =sin 9) (Snell)
(b)
Figure I,
a.
Ra.ys at critical angle;
b.
divereence.*
*Lot"Jg captions
for all figures are
given in the
"List of Figures ".
accompanying each figure will
usually be abbreviated.
5
The cnptioi1
C.
THEORETICAL DERIVATION OF THE PATrE~~
GAIN
A convenient summary of buried antenna theory .i5 that of
Hufford
Sommerfeld method for a dipole in a half space is used. The
final results are given below.
[1].
Earlier results include
[2],
[3],
[4].
as
The
The notation is
follows:
space.
EO'
In the ground
lI _{a} are
the constitutive parameters of frN:.
lJ _{I}
=
11 _{0} ,
and the
complex refractive
index,
n,
is
given by
n ^{2}
= El/E _{O} :
E'
+
i
a = conductivity,
al(w£O); also E* = EjiEO. S/m.
loss
k _{O} = =
^{k}
_{l}
W(lJOEO)~' Zo = IlJO!E _{O} '
nk _{O} '
Zl = Zo/n,
sin
8 _{1}
= sin
9/n
(~omplex Snell's law),
8 _{1} tangent = E"/E'
cos
= (n2sin2e)~/n,
= al(E'EOw), W = 2nf.
A ray
at
the
critical angle of
In
incide~ce
emerges horizontally with sin
sin
e
= 1
in the air,
I
cos 
a 
= 

c 
a
c
= lIn,
the ground,
e
c ,
figure
la,
thus
The equations
for
the
far fields
in the
air at
a
height
greater than a few wavelengths, due to dipoles buried 
in 
a flat 
earth (half space), for 1E and TM waves Lespectively, 
are stated 

relative to the field of an isotropic emitter in free follows _{[}_{1}_{]} _{:} 
space as 
where
Ee/E _{f}
E
m ^{t}
'E
= L
=
L
C _{e} 
D A 
e 

C m 
D A 
m 

I 
f
_{L}
D _{=} exp
_{=} 2/(Re n)~
(i
k _{o} hen cos
aIcos
C _{e}
C
m
= 
cos 
a/en cos 8l+cos 
a) 
_{=} cos 
a/ (cos alTn cos 
a) , 
6
an
(1)
A
e
m
A
_{=} _{0}_{"}
VED
J
_{=} i(3!2)'i sin _{8} _{1} _{,}
_{V}_{E}_{D}
A
e
_{=} i (3/2j~ _{c}_{o}_{s} _{¢}_{,}
A :: i(3/2)~ cos
m
8 _{1}
_{H}_{E}_{D}
_{s}_{i}_{n}
_{~}_{"}
A _{e}
Am
= i
= 0,
n/lnl
x
J
(3/2)'i sin
VMD
HED
8 _{1} ,
VMD
A _{e} :: i n/lni x (3/2)~ cos 8 _{1} sin 9.
Am
= i
n/lnl
x
J
(3/2)'i
cos
$,
HlfD
HMD
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
$ = the azimuth angle measured from an axis that is perpendicular to the horizontal dipoles.
Equations
(2)
to
(5)
are equations
(7.18),
(7.19),
(7.23),
and (7.24) of [1]. The p.~duct LCD of equation
used for a buried isotropic point source. The factor A repre sents the effects of coupling the dipole pattern to the angular cone of emission. The field E _{f} of an isotrop~c emitter of power
Wwatts in free space is
(1)
would be
E _{f}
=
J
(W ZO/4nR2)~ Vim, rms
1
= (30 W);ZIR.
(6)
The range R is measured in meters. The simplicity and utilit~· of HuffordJs normali~ation (to an isotropic source) should be not~d. Many of the theoretical
formulations ghre the fi~ld pattern for a dipole with a speci fied current or ~ specified dipole moment, which Ie l'lTf:;S the reader
wi th
power. By che
some wor:\. to do,
to find the current or moment from the
from Wand R,
the
Ii
preser.t method [1]
fie 1d of
an isotropic source is found from equation (6), assuming 100 per cent efficiency. Then one applies the gain pattern of the buried source, equations (1)(5), and ge~s the predictecl fi~ld in the air.
7
The predicted ground wave is
found in the
equations
(18)(20),
section E, below.
D. PH'i. I.CAL OPTICS OF BURIED ANTENNAS,
(9]
sam~ way using
It is instructive to try to obtain the transmitted far field based on physical optics. There are three main steps:
one step is to find the power transmission factor of the inter face using plane wave concepts; a second step is to obtain the change in the spnerical wave divergence factor at the interface, considering the poiilt source aspects; and the third step is to calculate the absorption in the ground.
found from
Fresnel's equations and conservation of energy. The refrac·
tive index is temporarily assumed to be real, and losses are added later. The power transmission coefficients for a plane
wave in
The
interface
transmission coefficient may be
the dense medium refracted into the vacuum (air)
are:
4n cos
(n cos
8 _{1}
cos
8l+cos
8
6)2
,
(7)
4n cos
6 _{1}
(cos
6 _{l} +n
cos
cos
0
8)2
,
(8)
where e and m denote TE and 1M waves respectively. These are obtained from Fresnel's field equation, section 9.5 of [5]. taking into account changes of the impedance and the area of
a beam
an Considering the spherical wave
at
interface.
from an elementary doublet
as
to refraction
angles
a bundle
are
of rays we
find
the
change
in
into the air space,
figure
the solid angle due
The spherical
1.
dD _{l}
= sin 0ldOld. _{l} ,
dD = sin
OdOd.,
in
in
the air.
the earth
(9 )
8
It
is
true that
From Snell's
law
and by differentials
cos
sin
ada
6
= n
= n
sin
cos
6
1 ^{,}
a _{l} d6 _{l} •
(10)
(11)
(12)
Using equation (10) and equation (12) in equation (9) we have
dO = sin 
ad~l n 
cos 
61del/cos 
6. 
(13) 

The power par solid angle 
in the air relative 
to the 

power per solid angle in medium ] 
is the power gain of the 

interface transmitting into the air. Denoting this 
as P12 
e 

, 
for
a TE mode wave
P
l2,e
II;
en cos
6 _{l} +cOS
Po
Po
4n
6)2
cos
sin
6 _{1}
cos
6d~1 n
4
cos 2
6
6
cos
6 _{l} dS _{l} /cos
6
Likewise
for the TM case
4
cos 2
9
P = 
12,m
(cos
6 _{l} +n
cos
6)2
n
(14 )
(15 )
Equations (14) and (15) are identical to (L C _{e} )2 and (L C _{m} )2 of equations (1) using a real refractive index. The inclusion of complex nand 6 _{1} requires that the squares be replaced by absolute values squared.
9
1!Tl,
The pattern factor A of a dipole
and sin
6 _{1}
for vertical
in the ground includes
dipoles, cos 6 _{1} for horizontal
dipoles, end fire, and a sine or cosine of $ appears, see equations (2) to (5). Finally the attenuation in the ground may be obtained approximately from the propagati.on factor in the ground and the ray optical distance,
ik1d/cos
Dl
= e
6i
,
_{(}_{1}_{6}_{)}
6i is
where k _{1} = kOn
angle defined as
ground using the velocity in the ground, c/n'. Snell's law with this assumption is
sin 6i
where n ^{t} is the real part of the complex refractive index of th~ ground. The attenuations given by D of (lquations (1) and by D' of equation (16) are ne4r1y the same in spite of the different forms. The attenuation exponent in equation (16) becomes 1 percent greater than in equations (1) when the 10ss*
is
the complex wave number and
a real
the direction of a plane wave refracted by the
= n' 1
sin
6,
An approximate
(17)
tangent is 0.6. A correct electromagnetic treatment of equation
(16)
is given in section 9.8 of reference
E. GROUND WAVE
[5]
as well
as
in
[1].
type
The
nf theory.
ground wave
(8 = 90~) is obtained from a Sommerfeld
(1)
are ~eplaced by [1],
Equations
where
R is
_{E}_{e}_{/}_{E} _{f}
EmlE _{f}
= _{S}_{e}_{U}_{e} DAel (ikOR)
= S U
m m
DAml ( ikOR) ,
the horizontal
distance
to the
field _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{,}
Se
S
m
= 
21 (CRe 
n)~ x 
Cn ^{2} 1)), 

= 
2 n ^{3} /(CRe n)~ x Cn ^{2} 
1)), 
WIrrovided arso~' > 5.
_{a}_{n}_{d}
(18)
(19)
10
U
_{e}
Urn
= 1
= 1


i
i
k _{O} z
k _{O}
z
Zo cos 
Sc/Zl' 
Zl cos 
Sc/ZO' 
(20)
where z is the height of the field point above the intertacej z is restricted to a few wavelengths. At greater heights the space wave approximation, equations (1), are used. Equations (18) state that the ground wave field decays at IIR relative to the reference field E _{f} which already decays as IIR, equation (6). The ground wave is not important when the receiving station is an aircraft. There is evidence of the ground wave in the field
trials described below. The receiving tower was
tally from the point of burial. The theoretical loss at low
30.5
m horizon
angles is greater than that observed at low angles. For example, the gain at 2° elevation angle should be approximately 12 dB less than the gain at 10° elevation angle. The experiments show ap proximately a 6 dB difference. We therefore usually discuss results at 10° elevation angle. Another evidence of the ground wave occurs in figure 11. With no ground wave the results for the two reference monopoles would nearly coincide, as in figure
9.
The
ground wave,
stronger at lower frequencies,
shows
clearly
as a difference in the fields at low angles.
F. CALCULATION OF THE FIELD FROM EQUATIONS
(1)
A computer program was written to evaluate the field in the air of a buried dipole, from equations (1). The import~nt factor from these equations for lowangle reception is LC which, as we have seen in section 2D, arises from divergence and from the Fresnel transmission. The power gain due to LC combined with the broadside power gain of a dipole, 1.5, will be denoted as the interface gain, I. However, the term interfa~e loss will also be used for I. Figure 2 shows the TM wave interface loss in dB, at certain angles, versus £' of the earth. Specifically the curves give the value in dB of
I
~ 1.51LC1 ^{2}
= 6
cos ^{2}
e/Cn'lcos
11
el+n cos
01 ^{2} ).
The transformation fr':;'!1 t.·e t·t'!'" ed dipole 'to the air space
often adequately reprl :';Ill:~d l~Y J., since depth attenuation anJ underground pattern J .(';'1.\: ~ ~f be :aken as zero dB.
is
The next facto:.' l·VJl
:h~)'ed is depth attenuation computed
from IDI ^{2} in equations (1:, Figure 3 shows the depth attenuation in dBlm for a range of ground conditions. There are some simple factors remaining to obtain a
complete evaluation of equations
1. The azimuthal variation of a horizontal dipole is either sin $ or cos $ as indicated in equations (2)(5).
2. The vertical dipole has an important factor Isin 8112, see figure 4. (This factor is sufficient to remove the full~r buried vertical dipcle from consideration fer high E'; how ever, partial burial will be discussed.)
3.
(1):
The horizontal
dipole
has
a factor
Icos ^{2} 811
for the
end fire comporent. This is of interest
wave
usual conditions (fig. 4).
In summary,
factor
for
under
the T~t
from the HED.
figures
It
2,
is
3,
a small
4 can
be
used to
determine
the
loss (neglecting inefficiency) of the TiM wave from a buried
horizontal elementary dipole,
or a buried YEO.
The
graphs, which concentrate on low elevation
angles,
are
based entirely on equations (1). For the TE wave emitted end fire from a HMD use figures 3, 4, a~d 5. The TE and TM waves
emitted broadside from the horizontal electric and magnetic
dipoles do not suffer the underground pat~ern factor, figure 4.
An example of using the
curves may be useful.
Consider the
TM wave of a horizontal 
electric dipole 
buried 0.1 m deep in 

ground with E ^{t} = 10 and 
a = 0.01 S/m. 
The 
receiving point 
is 
at 2° elevation angle. 
We sum the following 
losses 
Interface
Depth attenuation
loss
(fig.
2)27.0 dB
3) 0.55 dB
(fig.
Underground pattern 
(fig. 
4) 
0.45 dB 

Total 
loss 
28.0 
dB 
12
r
rrr., r~ fI , 40r
,

,
al
on
~
z .~4
Q
3 ~
z
UJ
^{t}^{}
~
UJ
(J
<l
t!.
cr:
UJ
t
~
2
3
4
5
6
7
_{8}
9
10
15
_{2}_{0}
25
E
I
Figure 2. Intcrface.divcrgc,,~.:: of TM way"~.
ss
13
E
co
·0
z
0
!i
:J
z
lLJ
^{I}^{}
I
<l
:c
t
o
W
0
=0.03 S/m
f
_{2}_{1} ~'"
J =:,
O.OO3S/m
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
_{2}_{0}
_{2}_{5}
E
I
Fig'.lre 3
Depth Attenuation
14
m
"'0
en en
9
z
0:
w
~
u
0
z
::::>
0
0:
(!)
a:::
w
0
z
::::>
4
16
°2
J
I
I
0
3 _{4}
5
_{6}
_{7}
_{8}
9
10
15
20
25
£
I
Figure 4.
Underground pattern lo5~.
15
44rrrrr~
~J1


Z
o
~
::::>
z
LLJ
t
~
W
U
~
^{~} a::
w
t
Z
Figure 5.
8
I
«
9
10
15
20
Interfacedivergence loss of T E wave.
16
25
At an elevation angle of 10°.
Interface less (fig. 2)16.0 dB Depth Attenuation (computer) 0.54 dB Underground pattern (computer) 0.44 dB
16.98 dB
Total loss
The main factor during shallow burial will be the interface loss, and it depends strongly on the elevation angle. The TM wave from a horizontal magnetic dipole (HMD) has ~ small advantage over that from the HED in that the underground pattern factor is zero dB. Figure 4 shows that the vertical dipoles have more loss than the horizontal dipoles. This is because the vertical dipole is working mainly end fire in exciting the interface within the critical angle a •
c
G.
EFFICIENCY
The received field strength also depends on the efficiency
of the antenna, which is
be treated experimentally, below.
influenced by burial.
17
Efficiency \ii!!
3. EXPERIMENTS COMPARED TO EQUATIONS
A. INTRODUCTION
(1)
Experiments were carried out initially mainly to verify the theory contained in equations (1). Later, the main purpose was to develop resonant antennas where the focus is on eificienc1, impedance, Q f&ctor, and ground effects on these. The compari son with theory was quite satisfactory, thus allowing the main
emphasis to be on the resonant antenna development in the later work which is described in sections 4 and s. The agreement of the experiments with the theo~y contained in equations (1) occurs mainly in two areas:
(1)
(2)
The predicted absolute value of the fields relative tv an isotropic source are approximately correct, including the fact that the TE waves are weaker than TM waves. The gain pattern as a function of elevation angle is approximately correct.
The
measurement method and illustrates above conclusions.
remainder of this
section describes the experimental
results
that yield the
Figure 6 shows
r8]
the main elements of an experimental system field strength and antenna gain.
for measuring
B. TRANSMITTED POWER
Direction couplers measure the
P _{z} respectively.
forward and reverse power,
The attenuation
denoted as PI and
the RG9 cable of length u was measured at 72° and 3ZoF using
a network analyzer. The curve shown for SOoF was interpolated.
(fig.
7)
of
Assuming that
the
directivity of the
two couplers
is
infinite, the power delivered to the antenna is
P
a
= P
1
dB /10
+dB /10
10 
c 
 
P _{z} 10 
c 
18 
,
(Zl)
9m TOWER
)./2 DIPOLE
(0)
L
X~~
u
~r1 FIM :I
u,
Figure 6.
( b)
Experimental system for field measurements.
19
N
o
3.41
I
I
I
1
1
1
lit
I
200
~
l±!
8
ffi
a
m 2.6
"0
FREQUENCY I
MHz
Figure 7.
Measured on~'way attenuation of cnblu.
2or~rr"
a::
o
t>
<t
U.
Z
o
en
ffi
>
z
o
u
W
J
o
~
o
~O~O~:I=50="":'2J OO3 JOO4 J(jO
Figure 8.
FREQUENCYt
MHz
Field strength conversion f.a.ctor of receiver.
21
where dB
tionless
c is the one way attenuation of the cable with reflec terminations.
The radiated power, P _{r} ,
J, of the antenna
is
P _{a} multiplied by the efficiency,
P
P
(22)
r The efficiency of an antenna is
the total input power, which consists of ohmic heating power plus radiated power
=
J
a· the ratio of radiated power to
J = Pr/P _{t} = Pr/(Pr+Pcu)~
(23)
where P
denotes ohmi.c heating power.
cu The efficiency of the
antennas was measured and estimated,
as will be discussed in section 4E.
C. FIELD STRENGTH CALIBRATION
The field intensity meter (FIM) at the rece1v1ng terminal consists of a calibrated rf voltmeter and its associated antenna and cable of known characteristics and calibration factors. The rf voltmeter had an internal calibration system. This was re calibrated and corrected where necessary.* The antenna and impedance factvrs were measured by the NBS standard field method [6], with results as shown in figure 8. At 145 MHz the factor is 9.3 dE, which can be approximately explained as follows:
1. The effective length conversion factor, from the fie Id in VIm to the voltage across an open circuited half wave
dipole
is
A/",
or
3.63 dB at
145 MHz.
2. 
The conversion from an open circuited generator to a matched load, the receiver, is 0.5 in voltage or 6 aBo 

3. 
A conversion factor, arising from the mismatch of the antenna and receiver tn the cable, and consequent inter actions, is unknown. 

*This 
calibration 
includes 
the 
loss of the cable. 

22
The sum of factors I and 2 nearly equals the measured conversion factor, 9.3 dB, which implies that the third factor was small.
D. CmfP ARISON OF TIIEORY AND EXPERIMENT FOR A "REFERENCE" ltlONOPOLE
A quantiLative comparison using the ratheT predictable field of a "reference" monopole adds considerable confidence to the evaluation of unknown HF and VHF antennas. (The term reference is in quotes. The gain pattern of this type of antenna has shown good agreement between theory and experiment.) The so called reference monopole is a quarter wavelength slim wire antenna on a ground plane one wavelength in diameter set on the earth. Available welldeveloped theory [7] is then applied to predict the space wave over an earth with dielectric param eters E' and G. The use of a reference monopole in c0mpact range experim~nts, as in the present work, thus provides a check on the transmitted power calibration and the FIM cali bration described above. Figure 9 exhibits the theoretical far field power gain pattern of the reference monopoles at two frequencies, for certain ground constants. Measurements to be c0mpared with theory were made at a rented alfalfa field site, 5 miles east of Boulder, Colorado. The horizontal distance from the monopole antenna to the re ceiver tower (fig. 6) was 100 feet (3~.S m).
Table 2 gives
the
steps
in comparing the
theoretically
calculated field and the measured field of reference monopole antennas at 145 and 300 MHz. The comparison is made at an eleva tion angle of 10° where the field is less dependent on surface imperfections and surface waves than at low angles. The predicted and measured voltmeter readings with all
conversion factors taken into account are seen to agree te:
,vi thin I dB.
23
Table 2. Theoretical and measured field strengths of the
reference monopole antennas at 145 and 300 MHz. The ground
was dry, E' = 5.0 ± 1.0 receiving point is 10°.
at the surface.
Elevation angle of
"Frequency
145 MHz
300 MHz
Theoretical field(a) 
at 
30.5 m 
105.1 
105.1 

of 
1 
W isotropic sources 

dB 
> 
1 
lJV/m 

Resonant dipole 
field strength 
9.3 dB 
16.0 
dJ3 

conversion factor (fig. 
8) 

Theoretical(b) 
factor 
3.1 dB 
 3.0 
dB 

at 10°, E' 
= 5, gain pattern = 0.05 Sim a 

Predicted voltage of receiver, 
92.7 dB 
86.1 dB 

dB 
> 
1 
uV 
(theoretical). 
Measured voltage 
at 10° elevation 
101.5 dB 
90.7 
dB 

Conversion to 1 W source (c) _{}_{1}_{1}_{.}_{0} 
dB 
7.0 
dB 

Transmitter cable and VSWR factor, 
+1.5 
dB 
+2.1 dB 

_{E}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l} _{1}_{0}_{~} reading converted 
92.0 
dB 
_{8}_{5}_{.}_{8} _{d}_{B} 
to 1 W radiated
(a) 
From equation 
(6). 

(b) 
Reference 
[7]. 

(c) 
At 
145 
~iz PI 
is 
12.56 W; 5 W were 
the direc 

tional 
coupler was 
4 
dB from the indicated but rated value at 
145 Mc. 

At 300 
Mc 
PI 
is 
5 
W. 
Values of P _{2} are 0.32 Wand 0.19 
W 
at 145 and 300 MHz respectively.
24
From this
close agreement we conclude that the transmitted
power,
the FIM voltage,
and
the
cable attenuations have been
accurately determined.
to the antenna and the field strength at the receiving antenna
are being measured with an accuracy of ± 1.0 dB.
It is estimated that the power delivered
E. FAR FIELD PATTERN VERSUS ELEVATION ANGLE
The height dependence of the field pattern is quite similar for a b~ried source and for the monopole set on the interface. As shown in table 3, the theoretical pattern5 differ by nearly a constant ratio (constant number of dB), and the difference is
due to interface loss plus depth attenuation. We may say that the buried antenna becomes, to a good approximation, a weakened virtual monopole on the surface. The presentation in table 3 makes it clear that loss due to burial at low angles is mainly an interface loss, plus depth attenuation if present, and not a change in shape of the space
wave pattern compared to
the pattern of a monopole at the
inter
face. 

F. 
MEASURED LOSS OF RATHER IDEAL 
BURIED DIPOLES 
Experiments were done to check the loss of a buried horizon tal dipole against the theory [1]. A sleeved dipole was constructed using handbook values of length and diameter to attain resonance at 145 MHz and an im~ pedance of SO ohms. The dipole diameter was 2.5 cm and the length was 98 cm. The dipole was contained in a 10 cm diameter lucite tube to reduce the effect on the resonant frequency of
the
surrounding ground.
The
dipole was buried as
a received in the end fire
HED IS
cm below
the
The TM wave was
direction.
surface.
25
Figure 9&
POWER GAIN, dB
Theoretical far
field pattern of monopole.
26
20
Table 3.
TMwave
gain pattern of a "reference" monopole set on
the interface and of a buried horizontal magnetic dipole
face gain only, depth loss
£' = 10, a = 0.03 81m; frequency = 145 MHz.
(inter
is zero).
Ground constants are
dB Gain, 
Interface 

Elevation 
Reference 
_{d}_{B} _{G}_{a}_{i}_{n} 
Angle 
Monopole (a) 
of HMD~b) 
_{d}_{B}
Difference
2 
12.28 
27.01 
14.73 
4 
7.16 
21.86 
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{7}_{0} 
6 
4.46 
19.14 
14.68 
8 
2.75 
17.38 
14.63 
10 
1.53 
16.13 
14.60 
(a) Reference
(b) Only the interface
[7], by an approximate calculation.
gain is
given.
Depth attenuation would
be neaTly constant versus
angle, see
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