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Acknowledgment

I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this report .I want to thank the Department of Built and Natural Environment for giving permission to commence this report to do the necessary research work. I like to thank Mr. Mohammed Abdul Nasir who helps me in writing this report by coordinating site visit in Samail station of sewage water also to Faisal Al-Gabri who is operation manager of station for giving useful and details information of every stages of the system .

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Introduction
This assignment is individual work that required visit wastewater treatment station in Samail and write report on it which includes wastewater collection, description the process of treatment and the way of disposal. In addition, the aim of this report is to identify the process of wastewater treatment in Samail station for sewage water and how disposal. While to achieve this aim, I have to follow these objectives: 1. Improving the observation skill by collection the data and analyze it. 2. Understanding the process of wastewater treatment. Therefore, wastewater is the water that includes impurities like suspended solids, biodegradable organic matter, pathogens; dissolve inorganic solid and heavy metals .it categorized as domestic and industry wastewater. It was treated to prevent spread of communicable diseases and prevent pollution of surface and ground water. Moreover, Samail station for sewage treatment is located in Samail .It is under the Ministry of regional municipalities and water resources. The capacity of the station around 2400 cubic meters and average daily discharge is 1200 cubic meters. The station does not suffer from any problems or complaints from nearby areas such as odors, noise, and in case of any problem is addressed and controlled quickly. The water in this plant is collected from surrounding areas. The final product of water treatment send to Samail Municipality and they use it for agricultural and irrigation purpose. While in this report I will explain the process of wastewater treatment process especially in Samail station for sewage water that consist of primary , secondary and tertiary treatment.

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A. Wastewater treatment System :


Wastewater treatment system is categorized to primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment is physical stage and it function is to protect the equipment and pipes of the station. Secondary treatment is biological process and it function is carrying out all operations and biotic oxidation of organic material and disposal of toxins. Tertiary treatment is Chemical process and it function is filtering clear water that comes from the clarifiers and then disinfected by chlorine as the figure shows in Appendix 1.

Primary treatment
Primary treatment process includes main pump station, screen, grit chamber removal and Settling Tank "Primary sedimentation tank ". Firstly, the water will be pumped from the sewage lift stations, mean pump station and tanker filling to the basic station. Then the influent sewage water collects in inlet chamber. After that it goes to screen that remove all large objects and floating materials that greater than 3 mm, like cans, rags, sticks and plastic packets which may damage the equipment because of clogging of pipes and accumulate in settling basins. Then , it goes to grit chamber removal to remove inert and inorganic material like sand, gravel, road grit, metal and glass pieces to protect equipment from abrasion and prevent pipe clogging, accumulation in settling basin and digesters. The length of the channel of grit removal is between 10 20 cm and the depth of it 30 40 cm. There is counter the speed of water flow that count the flow of water and controlled. The speed of flowing water is between 30 35 m/s Finally, the sewage water goes to settling tank that used to remove the suspended organic solids by gravity settling and thus reduce the load on subsequent biological treatment units. So the solid will settle at the bottom of the tank and it will form as sludge, then it removes by mechanical scrapers. Also at the top of tank, the grease and oils rise to the surface and they are removed by a skimming system. As shown in figure1, the process of primary treatment.

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Figure 1

Secondary treatment
Secondary treatment is known as biological treatment. It includes two distribution boxes, two oxidation ditches, two clarifiers, recycle activated sludge pumps and filter feed pumps.

The wastewater goes and collects in the distribution box 1 which is used for mixing water and distribute evenly to oxidation ditches. The length of Oxidation ditch are between 30 40 m and it is between 4.5 5 m depth. Then the wastewater goes to Oxidation ditches which consists of large tanks is divided into four parts (anaerobic, aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic basins) and provide fans to move the water and mix it with dissolve oxygen and bacteria to grow and removed by settling tank . The anaerobic basins content anaerobic bacteria which is in the nitrification process that elimination of nitrite and convert it to ammonia as indicates in the following equation[ No3 basins which N3 ] . It must take care on the amount of dissolved oxygen in the has been 0.5 mg per liter.

While aerobic basin content aerobic bacteria and should provide suitable environment for growing bacteria in aerobic basins by provide dissolve Oxygen and fans for mixing.

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The amount of bacteria in the basin is around 600 m3. Then the bacteria get rid of ammonia and converted to nitrate as indicates in the following equation [ NH3 No2,No3 ] by nitrification process . It must take care on the amount of

dissolved oxygen in the basin which has been 1- 4 milligrams per liter. After one day of Oxidation process, the wastewater will collect again in distribution box2 to mix it and distribute evenly to two clarifiers to separate the clear water from the sludge by settling the sludge and the sludge appear in three colors, white, brown and black. White sludge means the size of bacteria very small, brown sludge means the process going well and black sludge means the amount of sludge high in water and should remove .The sludge daily test is done to determine the amount of deposition of the active sludge in the oxidation basin by using Cylinder of measuring sludge. It must the amount of sludge be between 300-450 milligrams per liter. If the quantity of sludge increased, then it must discharge to the sludge drying beds. The sludge will goes to recycle activated sludge pumps to treat the sludge and use it for agriculture purpose as form of fertilizer and the clear water goes to filter feed pumps and then to sand filters. As shown in Figure 2

recycle activated sludge pumps

sludge

clarifier

oxidation

ditches

Figure 2

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Tertiary treatment
Tertiary treatment is Chemical treatment of the basic filtering is relatively clear water that comes from the clarifiers and then disinfected by chlorine. It consists of sand filters, chlorine dosing and treated water tank. The water goes to sand filters by filter feed pumps that used to get rid of suspended solids in the effluent of the clarifiers. The sand filter is consist of one layer of carbon to protect the filter from corrosion then three layers of sand in different sizes small , medium and large. The capacity of water in one filter is between 130 m3 160 m3 and the water remain one day in filter. Then the water disinfects by chlorine systems that use chlorine gas which remains 6 hours in water to kill bacteria and germs which remaining in the effluent of sand filters. Finally the treated water will saved in treated effluent tank. As shown in figure 3

treated effluent tank

pipes of mix the water with chlorine gas

chlorine gas

sand filter

Figure 3

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Conclusion
Wastewater is comprises a mixture of domestic and industrial effluent. It contents amount of dissolved and suspended solid material. At treatment plants the wastewater undergoes a multi-stage treatment process to clean it before discharge or reuse. The process of treatment is primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. It is very useful process to protect the environment and to reduce spread of communicable diseases .I think Samail station for sewage water is used advance method of treatment than other stations. It is suitable station for visiting the student to get brief information on wastewater treatment system.

Reference
Mr. Mohammed Abdul Nasser , Environmental Protection tutor Mr. Faisal Al-Gabri , Operating manager (Samail station of sewage water)

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Appendix

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