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SPWLA 35thAnnualLeggingSymposium,June19-22,1994


N. A. Wiltgen, Qatar General Petroleum Corporation

Abstract conductivity along with porosity devices such as

gammaray-neutron and acoustic logs. Density logs are
This article covers the essentials of the tools aud not widely available therefore very few densities are
practice of basic Russian well logs and Russian log run.
analysis techniques used by the geophysical analyst. Soviet log data, when received, may not be all available.
Emphasis is placed on those tools used in Russia which We find that not all logs that are run on a well are
are significantly different than their counterparts in the widely available and that includes the BKZ, BK, MBK,
western oil fields. BK3, PK, MK3 and Acoustic logs. Becauseof that, we
will demonstratethe interpretation techniques with and
This is surely a rapidly changing world. MAY without certain tools for estimation of Rt and porosity.
companies are on their way to Russia or one of its This will include corrected laterals, skin-effect
former republics, or is contemplating such a move. In corrected induction’s, invasion corrections, calibrating
truth, it might be simpler if you were going to gamma rayneutron porosity, transforming acoustic
Antarctica. data, gas identification and a method to provide very
The learning curve of many disciplines will be an realistic porosity.
important early part of your venture. There is a
multitude of significantly different technologies to Table 1 includes a glossary of common Russian
understand. Those professionals dealing with wireline measurementsand their western equivalent. Also an
logs probably will have a tougher time than most. Not appendix is provided with a list of Russian surveys with
only will they be evaluating logs with very uufamiliar a translation along with their units of measurment.
curves and analytical techniques, but they will also have
a log heading with some important information written The data that is available aud that is to be acquired in
in Russian, and no idea where to get the other equally thesefields representsseveral eras of development. The
important information. The penalty for not learning needto cross-calibrate and integrate these disparate sets
this new technology is the loss of a mountain of of data into a coherent analysis of the reservoirs is
valuable information. obvious. Not so obvious is the methodology that must
be utilized to effect this integration in a timely and
The well log analyst or in Russian terminology the economical fashion.
geophysical analyst needs to understand scaling and
calibration, curve responsesand many other facets of
the logs to be able to obtain values from curves and Electrical Resistivity
correct them if necessary, for use as input into the
various equations, etc. The geologist must know curve One of the most important parameters obtained by
responses to know how to correlate, for example, an applying geophysical methods of investigation is the
existing Russian log and a newly run western style log. electrical resistivity of rocks. This information is of use
Engineers doing recompletions will need to understand in defining sequences, in detailing lithology, in II
the well in which he is working. The geotechnician, delineating reservoirs, and in evaluating their
digitizing a Russian log must be able to follow one hydrocarbon potential.
curve all the way, which is no mean feat when there is
no line style and the curves with which he is working Electrical logs and the BKZ (the lateral log technique)
are copies in black and white. are normally applied in studing formation resistivity.
However, there are a number of prevailing difficulties,
and unreliable results are obtained in low resistivity
Introduction sections, in large invasion zones, thin beds, and in air
drilled wells or wells drilled with oil base mud.
Soviet standard wells logs are hand traced and hand-
labeled in four colors; red, green, blue and black. All In the former Soviet Union, sonding is widely
wells have many types of resistivity logs. The typical employed to study the resistivity of strata.. The essence
equivalent curves are SP, 204nch normal, 7-foot lateral of the method consists in measuring apparent resistivity
and inverted lateral, 14-foot lateral, 29-foot lateral, opposite the interval being studied by means of lateral
focused laterolog, microlaterolog, induction (gradient) and normal (potential) sondes of various
SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

spacing. So that the resistivities of the invaded zone During the nmning of a sonding it is necessary to
and uncontaminated part of the formation are determine the resistivity of the drilling mud by means
determined with sufkient accuracy, and the existence of a resistivity meter and the diameter of the well by
of strata penetrated by the drilling mud (and the depth means of calipers, and also to take measurementswith
of penetration) discovered, it is necessary to measure microsondes.
the apparent resistivity of the interval concerned by
means of many sondes of different length (and Processingof the sonding consists
consequently of different radii of investigation).
(a) in distinguishing formations and calculating the
actual value of their apparentresistivity;
Lateral and Normal Devices
(b) in plotting curves of the dependenceof apparent
ln practice lateral sondes are usually employed with resistivity on the sonding curves;
spacing corresponding to one to thirty well-diameters.
And so as to obtain equal spacing of plots on log-scale (4 in comparing these curves with computed ones to
graph paper, the size of sondesis selectedin a geometric determine the resistivity of the formations and whether
progression with the exponent of 2.0 or 2.5. they have been penetratedby drilling mud.
The lateral sondes most often used in the wells are the
following: bottom sondes - A0.4MO.lN, AlMO.lN, Formations are delineated and their boundaries defined
A2M0.4N, A4MO.5N, ASMlN; top sondes - from the aggregateof all the apparentresistivity (AR)
NO.lM0.5A, NO.lMlA, N0.5M2A, N0.5M4A, curves obtained with sondesof different spacing. In
NlM8A. One of the sondesis also the standard sonde; addition, the SP curve, caliper log, and the traces
and accordingly as it is a top (A2M0.5N) or bottom one obtained from microsondesare employed.
(NO.5M2A), the sonding is run with top or bottom Sonding is usually run for all the layers to be studied,
lateral sondes. and especially for those presenting practical interest
The resistivity curves obtained by the bottom sondesare (productive formations). During delineation of the
more symmetrical than those obtained by the top sonde. boundaries of a layer, its lithological boundaries must
Still, the resistivity log obtained by a normal sonde in also be defined, but they should not be expected to
beds of large and medium thickness have symmetrical coincide. A lithologically uniformation may be divided
maxima. into several layers according to their electrical
Region Reservoir Sonde
For each of the layers, delineated curves of the
South Caspian Sand/shale B0.5A2M dependenceof apparent resistivity on the dimensions of
NW Caucasus Sand/shale N0.25M2.25A the sonde (sonding curves) are plotted. The magnitude
M2.5A0.25B of apparent resistivity varies for different points in the
Caspian Sand/shale B2.5A0.25M layer. The essential values (i.e. those of the greatest
Depression B0.5A3M interest) are the mean, maximum, minimum, and
B0.5a2M optimum resistivities.
W. Seberia Sand/shale B0.25A2M The curves of the relation between AR and the spacing
of the sonding for layers of infinite thickness are known
East & Central Sand/shale B0.25A2M as sonding curves; they are divided into theoretical or
North Caucasus Carbonates computed curves and actual ones. Theoretical sonding
curves are those plotted from data computed by means
Volga-Urals Sand/shale M4A0.5B of grid modelling or graph analysis. Actual sonding
Carbonates B7.5A0.75M curves are those plotted from mean or optimum AR
B0.5A4M values calculated from logs run against layers of great
thickness. When the thickness of a formation exceeds
Ukraine Sand/shale B2.5A0.25M 20 meters it can in practice be equated with infinite
Carbonates M2A0,25B thickness; the sonding curves then correspond to the
sonding curves and are interpreted by direct comparison
Ferghana Sand/shale B0.25A2.5M with theoretical curves.
Valley Carbonates

SPWJA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

In fact, formations of great thickness are seldom the true resistivity of the formation. But if the
encountered, the overwhelming majority of those in a resistivities determined by the various sondesdiffer
section being of average thickness or thin. Therefore from one another, that is evidence of the presenceof an
sonding curves differ from lateral-sonding curves, and invaded zone. The apparent resistivities obtained with
cannot be interpreted by direct comparison with sondes of small and large radii of investigation then
theoretical lateral-sonding curves. have to be treated separately. Sondesof small radius of
investigation are used to determine the resistivity of the
To interpret these sonding curves for layers of no great invaded zone and those of large radius to determine the
thickness and of a resistivity greater than that of the resistivity of the uncontaminated part of the layer.
surrounding rocks, charts of theoretical curves (see
Figure 1) of maximum aud extreme lateral sonding
values are employed. Induction Logging
The actual lateral sonding curve or sonde curve is
compared with the theoretical ones to find which of the Electrical logs and the BKZ (the lateral log) are
latter resembles it most closely and gives grounds for normally applied in studing formation resistivity.
considering that it has the sameparameters. However, there are a number of prevailing difficulties,
On that basis the true resistivity of the formation is and unreliable results are obtained in low resistivity
determined, and the presence or absence of filtrate sections, in large invasion zones, thin beds, and in air
invasion; in favourable conditions the depth of the drilled wells or wells drilled with oil base mud.
filtrate penetration can also be measured.
To overcome these difficulties, methods of electrical
A technique for interpreting lateral sonding logs (BKZ) investigations were developed. In the USSR, the
from graphic constructions has been worked out and development of the induction logging apparatus
described in detail by Komarov, Alpin, and others commenced in 1957 (S. M. Axel’rod and M. I.
(Alpin, 1938; Komarov, 1950, 1963; Itenberg, 1961; Plyusnin) .
Wiltgen and Truman, 1993).
There is a serial production of apparatustypes M-2 and
But it has several shortcomings (its advantagesapart), PM-1 and the induction method of investigation has
as follows: been introduced into these Russian logging suites.

(1) the difficulty in employing measurementsobtained The induction logging apparatus type PIK-1 was
with sondes other than normal or lateral ones; developed by the Azneft-Geophysical Unit. It consists
nevertheless, in order to obtain more reliable estimates of a borehole device and calibration equipment. The
of resistivity, the laterolog method is employed, or borehole device PlK-1 is designed for operation with a
induction logs run, to supplement the lateral sonding single conductor cable and the OKC-56 unit; the panel
logs or instead of certain sondes in the lateral sonding of the electrologging unit is used as the control panel.
set; Borehole device PIK-1 has the following
(2) the unsuitability of the results for processing on a characteristics: (1) the resistivity recording range is 0.2-
general purpose digital computer. 20.0 ohm m; (2) induction sondetype 4F0.75.
In this connection a general-purposemethod of The M-2 induction log apparatuswas developedjointly
interpreting sonding logs is employed in addition to the by the Ordjhonikid Moscow Geological Exploration
graphical methods. With this general-purposemethod it Institute and the Geophysical Petroleum Exploration
is possible to determine the resistivity of formations Department. Two models have been in serial
from the apparentresistivities obtained with various production since 1966; one (IK-2-OKC) was prepared
sondes. The first step in the interpretation is to for operation with laboratory type OKC-56, and the
determine the true resistivity of the formation from the other (IK-2-AKC) with any unit using a three core
apparent resistivities, measuredwith different sondes cable,
assumingthat there is no invaded zone and that the
medium is two-layered. If the results obtained in The IK-2-AKC apparatus differs from apparatus IK-2-
practice for all sondesare uniform, that conliis the OKC in the construction of the surface panel and the
correcmessof this assumption; and they correspondto power transformer. The apparatus IK-2-OKC is used
for the case of a single core cable. The IK-2-OKC
borehole device has the following characteristics:

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

(1) range of recording resistivity 0.3-40.0 ohm m; (2) These two values are found by extrapolating between
induction sondetype 5F1.2 or 6Fl. the lines with fixed values for Rt/Rw and D/d on the
The apparent conductivity ignoring skin effect for all
tools is calculated from the induction log according to a The choice of the normal or lateral sonde in addition to
preliminary establishedrecording scale. Following this, the induction sonde, depends on the probable depth of
the apparent resistivity is found from a graph for the invaded zone; with a shallow depth (D/d = 2 to 4)
introducing the correction for skin effect. This can be small radius sondes give good results; with an average
used for direct calculation of apparent resistivity from depth (D/d = 4 to 8) the lateral and normal sondeswith
the induction log. The scale can also be conveniently an average radius of investigation are s&able; and for
marked on a transparent ruler and accordingly shifted an invaded zone of more than 8 d, sondeswith increased
along the log. The entire set of charts for the 5F1.2 and depth of investigation (focus) should be used, e.g. the
the 6Fl sondesare published in the VNII Geophysics. ABK-3, or a short induction sonde.

While using three sondes for determining Rt besides A comparison of the complex chart for a combination
using the universal method of interpretation, complex of induction sondes with lateral and normal sondes,
combined charts are also used with the curves of the shows, that in wells with increased penetration of mud
type Rl/Rw = f(R2/Rw), where Rl is the apparent f&ate it is advisable that in addition to induction
resistivity obtained from the sonde with an average sondeswith bigger radii of investigation a combination
radius of investigation; R2 is the apparent resistivity with the normal sondes should be used, since the chart
obtained from the induction sonde and Rw the shows that in the zone of increased penetration, the
resistivity of the mud. The resistivity of the invaded curves are distributed more favorably for this
zone RA can be determined from the values recorded combination of sondes than for the combination with
with the third sonde. Figures 2 and 3 present examples the lateral sonde of equivalent length. ln zones with
of the combined chart. The combined chart given in decreasing penetration, the application of the normal
figure 3 is intended for combination interpretation of sonde is limited since complicated results can be
data of the 5F1.2 induction sonde, and of data of the 1 obtained while determining formation parameters from
m spacing lateral sondewith a borehole diameter of d = the complex charts.
0.2 m and with ratio R*/Rw = 10.
The main advantage of this method lies in its favorable
The chart of ligure 2 has been plotted for combination areal characteristics, i.e., a larger radius of investigation
of the 6Fl induction sonde and the normal sonde with and good focusing properties. For measuring the true
AM = 0.5 m when d = 0.2 m and RVRw = 5. The resistivity of the formation, the induction log with a
values for the relative resistivities of the lateral and large depth of investigation is used in combination with
normal sondes( Rlat/Rw and Rnor/Rw respectively) are one or two sondes of other types which have low or
plotted along the horizontal axis. The continuous lines medium depths of investigation.
in the graphs correspond to the constant values of the
relative diameter of the invaded zone @/d = 1; 2; 4; 8) Highly accurate results are obtained for low resistivity
the dotted lines represent the constant values for RtRw rocks (less than 10 ohm m). Another advantage of the
(Rt/Rw = 0.25; 0.5; 1.2; 5; 10; 20; 40; 100). The left induction method is, that its measuring schemedoes not
side of the chart (Rind/Rw < R*/Rw) correspondsto an require direct contact with the drilling mud. It can,
increase in invasion, and the right side, to a decrease. therefore, be used in air drilled wells, in wells drilled
with an oil base mud and in boreholes which are filled
Interpretation with the application of the combined with oil.
charts is carried out as follows: the value RVRw is Ideal conditions for induction logging are low rock
evaluated from the log of the small radius sonde. From resistivity (less than 50 ohm m) and medium or low
this the required graph is selected. The values RlatRw salinity drilling mud; this method is not sensitive to
(or RnoriRw) and Rind/Rw corrected for borehole resistivity measurementsexceeding 200 ohm m.
effect and the invaded zone are introduced into the
chart. The intersection of the perpendiculars to the axis The induction log is used to solve several other
of the chart from the actual values of Rlat/Rw (or problems: the position of the oil water contact in the
Rnor/Rw) and Rind/Rw give a point, the coordinates of formation, and the study of conductive layers of pyritic
which, in a system of continuous and dotted lines, or sulphidic ores, graphites and anthracites (Plyusnin,
correspond to the required values Rt/Rw and D/d, M. I., 1977).

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

(natural or artificially generated) taking place in the

nuclei of elements are lmown as radioactivity or
Laterolog Resistivity radiation logging (RL).
The following methods of radiation logging are now
The Laterolog method is recommendedfor all wells in widely used in the Russian oil industry: (a) gamma-ray
which conventional sonde logging does not yield logging for studing the natural gamma-radiation of
satisfactory results. That applies to wells drilled with rocks; @I)gamma-gammalogging (density method) and
highly saline mud (resistivities of 0.5 ohm m and less), neutron logging based on study of the effect of the
and to those encountering carbonates and interaction of gamma rays and neutrons respectively
hydrochemical formations of high resistivity. In these with rocks.
conditions Laterolog ensuresdetailed delineation of the Gamma-radiation possessesgreat penetrating power so
section and demarcation of the boundaries both of thick that radioactivity logs can be run both cased and
and thin layers, including alternations of high- uncasedwells, which is their great advantage.
resistivity beds (low-porosity carbonate formations),
even with highly saline mud.
Gamma-ray logging (GL) consists in measuring the
The results obtained with the special seven-electrode intensity of the natural gamma-radiation of the rocks
and three-electrode sondesare practically the same,but along a borehole by means of a gamma-ray detector
the three-electode system,being simpler in operation, is contained in a sonde. The plot of the results obtained,
the one mainly used. The measured potential, and which characterizes the intensity of the gamma-
consequently the magnitude of the apparent resistivity, radiation encountered,is known as a gamma-ray log.
are determined mainly by the resistivity of the rock. To compare the quantitative estimates of the natural
The effect of the borehole on the results of radioactivity of rocks the following unit are used:
measurementswith the laterolog method is not great, roentgenhour (r/h); gram-equivalent Ra per gram of
and that is its main advantage over conventional rock (g-equ Ra/g). A roentgen (r) is the quantity (dose)
logging in high resistivities. of X or gamma-radiation that will produce 2.1*10**9
pairs of ions in one cubic centimetre of air at 0 deg. C
and 760 mm Hg. For practical purposes the unit of
Microresistivity Devices intensity of gamma-radiation is taken as the intensity of
the dose of radiation per unit time, expressed in
The MicroLog method is widely used to solve the roentgen/hours.
following problems: delineation of the section into The gram-equivalent of radium per gram of rock is that
permeable and non-permeable beds; correction of the concentration of radioactive elements in the rock that
lithology, demarcation of the boundaries of formations gives to the same intensity of gamma-radiation as the
and determination of their thickness; evaluation of the decay of one gram of radium. Since the radioactivity of
resistivity of the region of the formation adjacent to the sedimentary rocks is very small, the unit used in
borehole wall and of the intermediate layer (mud cake practice is the micro-microgram-equivalent of radium
and film). per gram of rock:

In the presence of mud cake against permeable beds, the II

apparent resistivity recorded with the normal Gamma-gamma loggging (GGL) consists in the
microsonde is substantially greater than that measured irradiation of the wall of a borehole with gamma quanta
simultaneously with a lateral microsonde posessing a and study of the effect of their interaction with the rocks
considerably smaller radius of investigation. This An apparatusconsisting of a source of gamma-radiation
excess in the readings is called positive separation. It
and gamma-ray detector located at a certain distance
can also be observed against impermeable beds of high from it is used for gamma-gammalogging. A screen
resistivity owing to the effect of mud film trapped separating the source from the detector reduces the
between the pad and the borehole wall. effect of the former’s direct rays on the latter. Most
often radioactive cobalt (Co 60) is used as a source of
gamma-radiation. To eliminate interference from
Radioactivity Logging background and natural radiation a quite strong source
of radiation is used (2-10 microgram equivalent of
Geophysical methods of studing the geological sections radium). The results of measurementsare expressedin
of wells based on utilization of radioactive processes impulses per minute, or in arbitrary units, such as the

SPWLA 35th Annual LoggingSymposium, June 19-22,1994

reading against water (a medium of unit density). The reduce the exactnessof determinations of rock density
value of the arbitrary unit (I) is determined by readings which is displayed on the log.
taken in a tank of water, and is equal to the difference in
the readings obtained using a source of radiation, and
without one. Neutron logging is based on investigation of the effect
When a gamma-gamma log is run in a well, the of the interaction of a neutron beam and rock, for which
indicator is the sonde measures scattered gamma- a sondeis used containing a source of fast neutrons and
radiation. The intensity of the latter depends on the a detectorpositioned at a given distance from it.
density and chemical composition of the rocks, diameter Readings on the neutron logs are given in arbitrary
of the borehole, the power of the radiation source, and units, correspondingto the readings for fresh water.
the distance between it and the indicator. To reduce
borehole effect sondesare usually fitted with a device to Severalversions on neutron logging are used:
press it against the wall and with lead screensto shield
the indicator from radiation scattered by the drilling (1) neutron-gamma logging (NGL), which consists in
mud. In that way the effect of the mud or borehole fhtid measmingthe gammaradiation induced by the action of
is reduced with consequentbetter differentiation of the the neutrons on the rock;
The spacing of a gamma-gamma sonde (the distance (2) thermal neutron logging (NTL) and epithemal
between the radiation source and the mid-point of the neutron logging (NEL), which consist respectively in
detector) is taken at 30 to 50 centimetres. To discount measurementof the density of thermal and epithermal
the effect of the borehole on the intensity of scattered neutrons.
gamma-radiation it is essential to have caliper-log data
on its diameter. The distance from the source to the middle of the
gamma-radiation or neutron-density detector is a
It has been established with the normal type of gamma- characteristic parameterknown as the spacing (I,) of the
gamma log that when the energy of the source sonde.
emmitting gamma-quanta is comparatively high (1.3-
1.17 MeV) the magnitude of the measuredradiation is Neutron-gammalogging (NGL) is significantly affected
mainly determined by scattering; soft components(200 by elements possessingan anomalously high ability to
kev or less) are absorbed before reaching the detector. capture thermal neutrons such as chlorine, boron,
The intensity of the scattered radiation is thus lithium, cadmium, and cobalt Chlorine prsents the
determined by the number of electrons per unit volume greastestinterest in the study of oil strata, owing to its
of the rock which in turn depends on its density. This wide occurrence in sedimentary series. The absorption
type of gamma-gammalogging is known, accordingly, (capture) cross section of chlorine for thermal neutrons
as formation density logging (FDL). Between the is approximately 100 times that of hydrogen. In
density of the rocks and the intensity of the scattered addition the capture of neutrons by chlorine nuclei is
radiation there is an inverse relationship: the higher rhe accompanied by emission of large number of gamma
density, the greater is the scattering and the lower is the quanta which causesan increase in radiative capture and
recorded gamma radiation. Thus minima on the density a resultant increase in the NGL reading.
log correspond to dense rocks like anhydrites, while
maxima delineate the least denserocks such as salt. Thus the presenceof chlorine in highly saline formation
If account is taken of data characterizing the waters leads to an increase in the intensity of the
measurementconditions in the borehole and efficiency gamma-radiation, and enrichment of the gamma-
of the recording apparatus used, density logs can be radiation spectrum with high-energy components.
converted into formation bulk density. Consequently the NGL reading against the water-
The effective radius of investigation of a gamma- bearing part of a productive layer is more than that
gamma log does not exceed ten or eleven centimetres, against its oil-bearing parts. This feature of the
and increases with reduction in the density of the neutron-gamma log is utilized to locate the oil-water
medium (drilling mud and the surrounding rocks). The contact (OWC) and to study its movement during
borehole wall is usually rough and uneven so that layer exploitation of homogeneousoil sands with a constant
of drilling fluid and mud cake between it and the sonde lithological composition and porosity, (provided the
varies, even though the latter is pressed against it; this formation water is of high salinity).
circumstance tends to raise readings on the sonde and Since oil and water contain approximately the same
amount of hydrogen, oil- and water-bearing strata with

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

a low chlorine content are characterized by mainly used, as porosity changes are clearly expressed
approximately the sameNGL readings. on NGL in favorable conditions,

Gas-bearing strata are generally marked by higher NGL The charts compiled from measurementsof formation
readings than oil- and water-bearing ones of the same models are used to determine porosity from NG
lithology and porosity since, owing to its low density, readings. The models are built up from blocks of rock
gas has a low hydrogen content. In practice, however, that resemble the rocks being studied in
owing to mud invasion of strata and the limited radius lithopetrographic composition and porosity. Curves
of investigation of the method, NGL readings against showing the relationship between NG logs and porosity
gas-bearing formations are considerably reduced and it are plotted for given conditions taking into account the
is difficult to differentiate them from oil- and water- well design (well diameter, casing, cement collar, etc.),
bearing layers. The sonde spacing (distance from the thickness of the mud cake, the salinity of the drilling
source to detector) usually used for neutron-gamma mud, sondespacing, type of log, etc.
logging is 0.6 m. With that length an increase in the
amount of constituent minerals containing chemically The curves in Figure 4 show the relationship between
bound water results in a reduction in the NGL reading. NG readings and porosity for carbonate rocks in an
uncased well. It is clear that in the range of porosity
ir;hermal (NTL) and epithermal neutron (NEL) logging changebetween 5 and 25 per cent the NG readings are
consists in the study of the density of thermal and approximately inversely proportional to the logarithm
epithermal neutrons, respectively, along the borehole. of porosity. In the remaining intervals the relationship
On neutron thermal logs recorded with long sondes, between these two factors is far more complex, and is
formations of high hydrogen content are marked by low unsuitable for rocks with a porosity of over 25 per cent
readings, as with NGL. Low porosity rocks are (where small changes in NG readings correspond to
characterized by high NTL readings. But the NTL log considerable changes in porosity). The graph was
is largely affected by elements having a large capture plotted for a definite type of apparatus with a sonde
cross section for thermal neutrons; therefore it is rather spacing of 60 centimeters. Results differ according to
sensitive to chlorine content and the results obtained are the type of apparatus and the sonde spacing used. But
strongly dependent on the salinity of the drilling mud the method for determining the porosity is the same.
and formation water. With the arbitrary units and core porosity the same
relationship can be developed using the arbitrary unit
On the contrary, the epithermal neutron log (NEL) does being inversely proportional to the logarithm of core
not depend on the surrounding medium’s content of porosity.
elements like chlorine with a large capture cross section
for thermal neutrons, NEL readings are determined
mainly by the slowing-down properties of the hydrogen Pulse Neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) consists of a
in the medium, so that this log is more closely related to neutron source of periodic action and a detector of
the hydrogen content of the rocks than the NGL and neutron density placed at a certain given distance from
N-IL. it. What is measuredby pulse neutron-neutron logging
is the variation in density of thermal neutrons with time
A small radius of investigation is quite characteristic of after stoppage of the pulse, and their density during a
neutron logging. It varies between 20 to 60 cm certain interval lo**-3 to lo**-4 seconds after
depending on the nature of the rocks, and falls with rise cessation of the pulse. This density falls off
in hydrogen content. The NEL method has the smallest exponentially with time aud depends on the medium’s
radius of investigation, since the field of distribution of content of elements with large capture cross sections,
epithermal neutrons is smaller than that of thermal ones. particularly atoms of chlorine. In this connection, the
The neutron-gamma log is mainly used in the average life of thermal neutrons in water-bearing strata
investigation of oil and gas wells to detect reservoirs containing highly saline waters is much less than that of
and estimate their porosity. oil- or gas-bearingstrata.
To determine porosity from neutron log data, the
different relationships between porosity and reading of Pulse neutron-neutron logging has a wider radius of
the neutron-gamma, thermal-neutron and epithermal- investigation and higher sensitivity to the chlorine
neutron logs are used (Fillipov, 1962). In practice, content of a formation than the other methods of
neutron-gamma (NG) readings in arbitrary units are neutron logging. Its main purpose is to the
determination of the oil-water contact of strata

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

intersected by cased wells. It also has special value in determination of total porosity of a formation from
regions with low-salinity formation waters where the acoustic log data would appear to be the same as
more usual methods (NL and induced activity-IA) do western methods.
not give positive results owing to their lower sensitivity
to the sodium chloride content of the formation.
Photography of the Walls of Wells
Radioactivity logging methods are widely used in
conjunction with other geophysical methods of Photographs of the walls of a borehole, taken by a
investigation to obtain precision in the lithology of special camera, can be used to study its geological
formations, to detect reservoirs, and to estimate section. They have proved useful when other
porosity. With carbonates and geochemical deposits geophysical methods, such as the electric logging and
radioactivity logging is a basic method for resolving neutron logging, ones, have failed to distinguish the
these problems. In oil and gas wells it is often characterof the rocks penetrated.
employed to determine gas/fluid and oil/water contacts
(Itenberg, 1961; Filippov, 1962). In the former USSR, borehole walls are photographed
by means of a FAS-1 camera, which is contained in a
cylinder 1574 mm long and 102 mm in diameter. The
main assembly consists of an illumination source (two
Acoustic or Sonic Logging IS-20 flash units), a Jupiter-12 lens located on the axis
of the camera,and a filming mechanism with tine-film,
The method of determining the elastic properties of housed in a case with an inspection windqw made of
rocks penetrated by the borehole by recording the toughened glass 13 mm thick. The wall of the well is
velocity of propagation of elastic waves through them is both illuminated and photographed through this
known as acoustic logging. Rocks are not absolutely window. A steel spring attached to the case of the
elastic, therefore the energy of an elastic wave is camera on the opposite face presses the instrument
absorbed and dispersed in them. Absorption occurs against the part of the wall nearestthe window.
through the mutual friction of neighboring rock Behind the observation window is a mirror positioned
particles and dispersal from the heterogeneity of the at an angle of 45 degrees. The image of the lighted
rock. In a laminated medium the formation of reflected portion of the well is reflected by the mirror into the
and refracted waves, which leads to a dispersal of some lens. The capacity of the film cartridge is 3.5 meters
energy, is observed. (280 frames). Photographscan be taken either when the
apparatusis stationary or moving at a given depth (see
Acoustic logging can be carried out in two ways: (a) Figure 5).
velocity logging and (b) attenuation logging. Velocity
logging is the main version, and is used to determine the
velocity of propagation of an elastic wave through the Determination of Porosity and Oil and Gas Potential
rocks penetrated by the borehole. Two main type of
sonde are used - three-element and two-element. Sonde For estimating reserves,planning the development of a
spacing for acoustic logging has to be selectedin such a field, and to resolve a number of exploitation problems,
way that the damaged zone does not effect the data on the storage capacity and oil and gas potential of
measurement of velocity in the virgin part of a productive formations are required. These are best
formation (Rabinovich, 1964). In selecting the spacing obtained from well logs.
between generators (receivers) it should be borne in
mind that the resolving power of the sondeis improved Komarov (1963) classifies the determination of
with a reduction in the length of the base spacing since reservoir properties from geophysical data into three
that ensuresthe detection of thin layers; but accuracy in groups of methods-direct, empirical, and indirect.
receiving signals from the close and remote receivers is
thereby reduced. With the LAK-1 acoustic log a three- 1. Direct methods (for which the dependence of the
element sonde R1.25V0.75V, which is equivalent to an geophysical data on reservoir properties is established
acoustic sonde V1.25R0.75R, gives the optimum results by theoretical calculations substantiated by
(distance between the element is expressedin meters). measurementof models or experimental investigations)
include the techniques of determining oil and gas
Acoustic attenuation logging is also used to check the saturations from resistivity indices, porosity from the
quality of the cement behind the well casing. Also formation factor, the velocity of elastic wave

SPWJA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

propagation from acoustic logging and neutron-gamma combined study of these logs. The most promising
log data. These all have au adequate theoretical basis, method for evaluating porosity, however, is acoustic
and are highly promising. logging. In practice, the neutron-gamma (NG) readings
are also used, as porosity changesare clearly expressed
2. Empirical methods are based on establishing the on NGL in favorable conditions.
relation between the geophysical parameters and the
various formation characteristics by correlating core
and well-log data. They are widely employed; porosity Formation Factor
is determined from the SP log and permeability from
resistivity indices, etc. Relationship between Formation Factor and Porosity is
the constant a and index m depend on the character of
3. Indirect methods involve, initially, determination of the rock. In practice, cmves showing the relation
an auxiliary parameter from a geophysical value, the between formation factor and porosity are used ( see
reservoir property of interest is then approached Figure 6). From these curves it can be seen that,
through it. because of the effect of the shape of pore space, the
statistical association between F and PHI is not simple.
The bulk density of a formation, for example, can be Various methods exist for determining the formation
determined from the gamma-gamma log and then, factor, one of these is core data (this index may vary
proceeding from that known relation, the porosity of the within limits 1.40 and 6.20 - average 2.00).
rock is obtained. Porosity and permeability can also be
determined from shaliness, which in turn is evaluated
from the gamma-ray and SPlogs. Resistivity Index
The relationship obtained by empirical or indirect
methods is statistical and is established concretely for The resistivity index indicates how much the true
separateformations or groups of similar strata in an area resistivity of a water-bearing reservoir increases with
or district. It does not always contain supplementary partial saturation of its pore volume by oil and gas. An
information as compared with core analyses, and it is inverse relationship exists between the resistivity index
only useful therefore, when there are definite conditions I, and the coefficient of water saturation SW. (n) is the
to detail the physical properties of the a formation from index of the degree of water saturation (saturation
geophysical data. exponent) dependent on the lithological petrographic
character of the rock and the properties of the oil and
Komarov’s classification of methods of determining water (see Figure 7; this index may vary within the
reservoir properties from geophysical data is limits 1.73 and 4.33 - average 2.15).
provisional, since the connection between them and
core data sometimes has to be established by a
combination of techniques and so involves more than Example Application
one of his groups.
The logs presented are CKB No. 1 (Denisov and
Porosity and permeability are two principal properties Diakonova, 1992). This example is an anhydrite and
of reservoirs. Porosity may be determined from limestone section.. Below the anhydrite is limestone
geophysical data by various methods and the values with gas until 2112 meters (GWC) with water down to
obtained are widely employed, but the possibilities of 2177 meters. Looking at the deferent resistivities there
determining permeability from logging data are limited. are many values one might use for determining Rt, and
It is sometimesuseful, in making a qualitative estimate with that the water saturation.
of changesin the filtration properties of formations, to
determine their shalinessfrom gamma-ray and SPlogs. The first log suite, Figure 8, has the following logs:
Let us now examine the principle methods of micro lateral, micro normal, SP, 0.45m lateral, 1.05m
determining the physical properties of formations from lateral, 2.25m lateral, 4.25m lateral, 8.50m lateral and a
geophysical well data. microlaterolog. The second log suite, Figure 9, has a
laterolog-3, induction conductivity, gamma ray,
Porosity is most often calculated from electric gamma-neutronand acoustic.
(resistivity)/ SP and radioactivity (neutron and gamma-
gamma) logs; in addition, it is customary to calculate An analysis using the BKZ method yields improved
the volume of fractured and caved reservoirs from a resistivity decrimination between the gas and water.

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

The readings for the induction and laterolog in the gas References
and water are what would be expected for Rxo < Rt in
the gas and Rxo > Rt in the water zone. 1. Alpin, L. M., 1938, Theory of Electric Well-
Logging, Moscow
Gas Water 2. Axel’rod, S. M., 1961, The Scale of Induction
Log Curves, VUZ series Neftigas, No. 3
BKZ 15 5 3. Denisov, S.B. and T.F. Diakonova, 1993, Book of
Induction 6Fl 10 7 Problems, Sphere(CG1)
Laterolog 3 16 10 4. Fillipov, E. M., 1962, App ird Nuclear
Geophysics, Moscow
5. Itenberg, S. S., 1961, Well-Site Geophysics,
In the gas interval, where Rxo < Rt the laterolog is little Moscow
influenced by the lower resistivity in the invaded zone 6. Komarov, S. G., 1950, Resistivity Well-Logging,
and reads close_ to Rt. In fact, in this case, Rt is Interpretation Moscow
probably higher than indicated by either the BKZ 7. Komarov, S. G., 1963, Geophysical Methods of
method or the laterlog. The induction log is influenced Investigating Wells, Moscow
to a greater extent than the laterolog by the lower 8. Komarov, S. G., Mikolaevich, E. Yu., Sokhranov,
resistivity in the invaded zone. N. N., 1969, Estimating Oil Potential from
Logging Data, Prikladnaya Geofizika No. 54
Conversely, in the water zone, where Rxo > Rt, the 9. Plyusnin, M. I., 1977, Induction Logging, Nedra
laterolog is influenced to a greater extent by the invaded 10. Wiltgen, N. A. and Truman, R. B., 1993, Russian
zone than is the induction. The BKZ method yields Lateral (BKZ) Analysis, SPE 26433, Society of
results that are less influenced by invasion than either Petroleum Engineers
the laterolog or the induction.

Porosity was calculated involving sonic and neutron or

both. First, transformed sonic to porosity by using the
Hunt-Raymer equation and then calibrated the neutron
(NG) from arbitrary units with little or no mud cake.

Then calculated cross plot sonic-neutron porosity and if

available calibrated with core porosity. A gas flag can
be developed from the difference of sonic minus
neutron porosity after achieving a threshold value.

Porosity Water
Total Saturation
sonic 23 wet 100
29 gas 48 Nick A. Wiltgen is the Head of Petrophysical Studies at
Neutron 31 wet 79 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation in Doha, Qatar in
30 gas 47 the Arabian Gulf.
Crossplot 27 wet 91 He previously was Manager of Petrophysics at ResTech
30 gas 47 Houston, and held various engineering positions with
Oryx Energy Company, Amerada Hess International,
Also in sand-shales the micro lateral or micro normal Shell Offshore Inc., and Schlmberger Well Services.
can be used as a shale indicator and in all areas as a He received his BS in Electrical Engineering from
permeability indicator. Purdue University (1974) and is a Registered
Professional Engineer. He is a member of the Society
The results of quantitative interpretations are usually of Petroleum Engineers AIME, Society of Exploration
presented in a written form (not log) accompanied by Geophysicists and Society of Professional Well Log
tables and graphs. In some organizations the form of Analyst
presenting is laid down in their regulations (standards).

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994


BHC sonic A<

&fCTMWcHEl~ 40bWH- CBL cement
TOM9p bond log
EOKOBOil XapoTax PJ LL Laterlog R,
0M.M 0hm.m
LL-3 Laterlog 3 R,
Boil KapoTallr 0M.M 0hm.m
&lMWI9HT~O@ib~~ 60~~ PJ LL-7 Laterlog 7 RJ
BOR XapoTax OMJd 0hlIl.m
rjOKOBO0 KapOTaXHCN3 P, BKZ 5 Lateral Fl,
30H#tpOBaHHB OM.M log curves 0hm.m
bIHOBOfi @lWleKTpH- 6 Dielectric c
WCKHR KapoTax OTH.9 A lOR reltun
ILIIOTHOCTHO~~ rama- F, DL Density
Uhf-n) -rawa-xapoTax IA 3

TJ GR Gammaray -
b6pHOMeTpMR dcJ Caliper dh'
CM(Ml cm(m)
MtlJQ4X4tOHHbIfi KapOTaZ 6, IL Induction C,
MhI/M mmhos/m
Powered II
Neutron tool

HSl;jiTpOHHbI~ KapOTZG% Is,, Compensa-
ted dual 'nl
% spacing p.u.

SPWLA35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994


HHK coring
pJ ES Electrical R,
0M.M Survey 0hm.m
kfKpO6OKOBOti HapOT&% Pj MLL Microlater- R,
OM.M log 0hm.m
bbIKpOrpafiH9 HT 3 OHA P, ML Microlateral R,
0M.M 0hm.m

b&HP03 OHAbl J', ML Micro log R,

OM.M 0bm.m
&KpOIlOTf3Hl&IfaJI PI - Micronormal R,
Oh4.M 0hm.m
H8RTpOHHblft raMMa -* me& NG Neutron MI,
KapoTax r HMII/MHld gamma gamma
HefiTpoHHblfi KapOTa% -,ycn.eJJ. NL Neutron log API,

HOitTpOHHblfi KapOTaX -,yc~.a& NT Neutron- API,

II0 TBXUIOBblM HeiiTpOHaM (KMII/MHH) -termal termoal
FT Formation
SP Spontaneous -?
potential mV
F'83MCTHBMMBTp PC ub Resistivi- h,
0M.d meter 0hm.m
CKBZUKWHHblftZlKJ'CTiI'i~C- - BHTV borehole
KHfi T9JIEIBM3Op acustic-

raMMa-rama Gamma-
l@MeHTOM9p gamma cement &m3
bond log

TepMOMeTp t,OC TL Temperature


SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994



A 0,s M 0,l N Lateral 0.55 m, 2 ft

M0,5AO,l B Lateral 0.55 m, 2 ft
Al,OMO,lN Lateral 1.05 m, 3 ft
Ml,OAO,lB Lateral 1.05 m, 3 ft
A2,OM0,5N Lateral 2.25 m, 7 ft
M2,OA0,5B Lateral 2.25 m, 7 ft
NO,5M2,OA Inverted Lateral
2.25 m, 7 ft
BO,5A2,OM Inverted Lateral
2.25 m, 7 ft
A2,5M0,25M Lateral 2.625 m, 9 ft
M2,5AO,ZJB Lateral 2.625 m, 9 ft
A4,OM0,5N Lateral 4.24 m, 14 ft
M4,OA0,5B Lateral 4.25 m, 14 ft
N0,5A4,OM Inverted Lateral
4.25 m, 14 ft
BO,5A4,OM Inverted Lateral
4.25 m, 14 ft
A5,28M0,82N Lateral 5.69 m, exact 18’ 8’
A5,7OMO,4ON Lateral 5.9 m, 19 ft
M8,OA0,5B Lateral 8.25 m, 27 ft
A&OMl,ON Lateral 8.50 m, 28 ft
MI,OAl,OB Lateral 8.50 m, 28 ft
M9,OA0,5B Lateral 9.25 m, 39 ft

B2,5A0,25M Normal 0.25 m, 10 in

N5,70M0,40A Normal 0.4 m, exact 16 in
N6,OM0,5A Normal 0.5 m, 20 in
NS,OMO,SA Normal 0.5 m, 20 in
N2,OA0,5A Normal 0.5 m, 20 in
BZ,OA0,5M Normal 0.5 m, 20 in
N4,48M1,62A Normal 1.62 m, exact 64 in

A0,025M0,025N Microlateral
0.0375 m, 1 x 1 in
Mk-1 Microlateral
0.0375 m, 1 x 1 in
A0,05M Micronormal 0.05 m, 2 in
Mk-2 Micronormal 0.05 m, 2 in II
BK or BK-3 Laterolog-3, guard equivalent
Mbk Microlaterolog equivalent
M-pamma Microcaliper

NK 6FF40 Induction Conductivity

K-pamma Caliper
DT Delta T

HLK Gamma-Neutron
LK Gamma Ray
LLK-HHK Density

Table 1

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

.am c
I I I I 1 11



Figure 1 - ORIGNAL BKZ

Rt /Rm VS A0 Spacing

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium,June 19-22,1994

t i j i ii-iii i i i i iiiiit

Figurr ComW chart for interpretation of mmrdd V&CT obhined

byrcndc 5F 12 and nod made with dM=0.5m.
d - 0.2 m; -PA - 5; cipher of cuwe&- ,,;p -oo.5;1;2;3
pl p*

Figure 2

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

Relationship between neutron-gamma readings in arbitrary units and

porosity for carbonate rocks in an uncased well

Figure 4

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

f n b

2 5 IO 20 5&
Fig. Curvesof the relationshiu betweenLheFormation iactor F and Dorasib0

stern BuftWrfa; d-Palreogene sandstone of ~ra~,,~,,r I&r Robnova): b-Carbonrtc rockx

I-carbonlfemua llnteslonec of the Vote vailr~ ,.slmto~ e ion) bfter Lidman); Z-lfmertono
of lhe Bnsbktr level in the Kulbyshev Rdon (after ~~~ %uflnr): 8-Kazakhstan limes:oncs
falter Sigal]: #-data sflcr Archy

Figure 6


Figure 7

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994



Figure 8

SPWLA 35th Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-22,1994

CKB. Nti

I--- r .;eL- : . 1 -r- ---I-i-- E

Figure 9