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Head Start Aff SDI Coulter- Lewis-DeFoor Lab

2009-10

Head Start Aff


Head Start Aff...............................................................................1 *****...............................................................................................4 1AC (1/10).......................................................................................5 ................................................................................................5 1AC (2/10).......................................................................................6 1AC (3/10).......................................................................................7 1 AC (4/10)......................................................................................8 1AC (5/10).......................................................................................9 1AC (6/10).....................................................................................11 1 AC (7/10)....................................................................................12 1AC (8/10).....................................................................................13 1AC (9/10).....................................................................................14 1AC (10/10)...................................................................................15 Inherency Extension......................................................................16 Inherency Extensions.....................................................................17 Inherency Extensions.....................................................................18 As the 105th Congress of the United States wrapped up its legislative activities in 1998, it failed once again to produce any significant improvement in the nation's system of child care provision. Despite persistent, strong demands from organizations representing children and working women, and despite a highly publicized and historically rare public initiative announced by President Bill Clinton in January of that year, child care policy was largely ignored by the Congress. A small increase in funding for day care subsidies for public assistance recipients was approved but lawmakers did not pass-or even proposea national system of provision for children in need of custodial care. Advocates of state-sponsored child care are likely to attribute the failure of Congress to act to any number of contingent political factors: Lawmakers were distracted by impeachment proceedings, for example, and partisan differences prevented cooperation between the legislative and executive branches. But the inaction of the 105th Congress was merely the continuation of U.S. policy on child care. The United States consistently ranks among the poorest providers of day care for children among comparable Western industrial capitalist democracies (Gornick, Meyers, and Ross 1998). It has held this laggard status at least since the end of World War II, when many Western European nations implemented fairly extensive family policies, including publicly supported child care programs. Most did so by expanding on programs established during the war, but the United

Head Start Aff SDI Coulter- Lewis-DeFoor Lab 2009-10 States declined to extend its own wartime child care program. Instead, in 1962, the Congress passed a set of Public Welfare Amendments that codified American day care policy as an adjunct to public assistance policy. In so doing, lawmakers ensured that the program would be small, poorly funded, and beyond the reach of most American parents. It has remained so ever since. ...........................18 Inherency Extensions.....................................................................19 In a pledge to improve the human rights of women and girls, more than 185 nations have ratified the Treaty for the Rights of Women, formally known as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The CEDAW Treaty encourages governments to address areas of discrimination against women and ensure that women and girls have equal access to health, education, employment and legal systemsgiving women the tools to move out of poverty. To strengthen worldwide commitments to womens human rights, CEDPA strengthens the advocacy skills of women leaders and works hand-in-hand with them to mobilize womens organizations and communities worldwide. ......................19 Inherency Extension......................................................................20 ...................................................................................................20 Solvency- Head Start Solves Poverty..............................................21 Solvency Head Start Solves poverty..............................................22 ...................................................................................................22 Solvency - Head Start solves Poverty..............................................23 Solvency- Head Start Solves Poverty..............................................24 Solvency- Head Start Solves Rich Poor Gap.....................................25 Solvency Head Start solves Competitiveness................................26 Solvency- Head Start Solves Competitiveness.................................27 Solvency- Education Solves Competitiveness...................................28 Solvency- Education Solves Competitiveness...................................29 Solvency- Education Solves Poverty................................................30 Solvency- Education Solves Poverty................................................31 Solvency- Education Solves Poverty................................................33 Solvency- Education Solves Poverty................................................34 Solvency Head Start Solves Education...........................................35 ...................................................................................................35 Solvency Head Start Solves Education...........................................36 Solvency Head Start Solves the Economy......................................37

Head Start Aff SDI Coulter- Lewis-DeFoor Lab 2009-10 Solvency-Head Start Solves Crime..................................................38 Solvency- Head Start Solves Crime.................................................39 Solvency- Head Start Solves Laundry List........................................40 Solvency- Head Start Solves Laundry List........................................41 Solvency- Head Start Solves Womens Rights..................................42 ...................................................................................................42 Solvency- Head Start Solves Womens Rights..................................43 Solvency- Womens Rights Key to Poverty Solvency........................44 Solvency- Generic Poverty..............................................................45 Impact Extensions- Education key to Economy................................46 Impact Extension- Leadership Solves Nuclear War...........................47 Impact Extension- Leadership Solves Global Econ Collapse..............48 Impact Extension- Leadership solves genocide, poverty, and climate change..........................................................................................49 Impact Extensions Patriarchy=> Nuke War...................................50 Impact Extensions- Poverty = Econ/ Envior......................................51 Impact Extensions- Poverty = Dehum.............................................52 Impact Extensions- Womens Rights...............................................53 Impact Extensions- Womens Rights...............................................54 Impact Extensions- Womens Rights...............................................56 Impact Extensions- Womens Rights...............................................57 A2: Econ Disads............................................................................59 States CP Thumper .......................................................................61 ...................................................................................................61 Fed Key Warrants..........................................................................62 Fed Key Warrants..........................................................................63 *****Case Neg*****.........................................................................64 Solvency Fronline..........................................................................64 Solvency Frontline.........................................................................65 States CP Solvency........................................................................66 Head Start Bad..............................................................................68 Head Start Bad..............................................................................70

Head Start Aff SDI Coulter- Lewis-DeFoor Lab

2009-10

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Head Start Aff SDI Coulter- Lewis-DeFoor Lab

2009-10

1AC (1/10)
Observation I. Inherency Head Start funding has been cut drastically, and the 2009 funding is woefully inadequate
Parrott2008.(Sharon,2008OmnibusAppropriationsBillCutsFundingforHead Start BipartisanReauthorizationBillEnactedTwoWeeksBeforeOmnibusWasCompleted CalledforIncreasedInvestment.http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=1151
To meet these goals, the legislation authorized significant new resources for Head Start. Members of both parties spoke of the importance of giving more low-income children access to the program. However, Head Starts actual funding level each year is set in appropriations bills, and just 14 days after signing the reauthorization legislation, the President signed into law an omnibus appropriations bill that cut Head Start funding for fiscal year 2008, even before adjusting for inflation. The 2008 cut follows five years in which Head Start was

repeatedly funded below the level needed just to keep pace with inflation. In 2008, funding for Head Start is 11 percent or $893 million below the 2002 funding level,

adjusted for inflation. Head Start did not suddenly fall from favor on Capitol Hill. Instead, under Administration pressure to reduce the overall level of funding for appropriated programs or face certain vetoes of appropriations bills,

Congress cut funding for numerous programs across the budget, including Head Start. The final omnibus appropriations bill provided $164 million less in Head Start funding than Congress had provided in the Labor-HHS appropriations bill that it passed earlier but that the President then vetoed. This funding difference is equivalent to the cost of serving more than 20,000 children in Head Start this year. The Presidents 2009 budget proposes to fund Head Start at $7 billion, just a hair under what is needed to maintain 2008 funding levels adjusted for inflation, and about 12 percent below the 2002 funding level adjusted for inflation.

Head Start Aff SDI Coulter- Lewis-DeFoor Lab

2009-10

1AC (2/10)

(_/_) Funding for Head Start is only enough to assist 49% of eligible children in need
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_lu

dwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf
The importance of these early years in affecting the ability of children to realize their full potentials is not matched by government budget priorities. The United States currently spends around $7,300 on elementary and secondary public schooling for each school-age child (ve to seventeen years old), for a total of around $530 billion (see U.S. Department of Education 2005).1 But family background gener- ates large differences in child outcomes well before children start school and even before they are old enough to participate in the federal governments preschool program for disadvantaged children, Head Start.

Per student spending in Head Start is similar to that in public elementary and s e c o n d - ary schools, but the p r o g r a m s annual budget of $7 billion covers only 49 percent of i n c om e - e li g i b l e three- and fou r -yea r -olds (HHS 2005). The newer Early Head Start program is designed to p r o v i d e preschool and other services to disadvantaged c h ildren during the highly malleable years b e t w ee n birth and age three years, but Early Head S t a r t s budget is only around $700 million and covers just a small fraction of all eligible children (ibid). Most of Americas social policies try to play catch-up against these early disadvantagesand most d i s a d v a n t a g e d children never catch up .

Head Start Aff SDI Coulter- Lewis-DeFoor Lab

2009-10

1AC (3/10)
Thus, we offer the following plan, resolved: The United States federal government will substantially increase social services for persons living in poverty by adopting the Brooking Institutions Success By Ten proposal: The Head Start and Early Head Start programs will partner with elementary schools in order to offer full-day early childhood education for children from birth through age 5 for the children of all families living in poverty. The plan will be administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Funding will come from general federal revenues.

Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

1 AC (4/10)
Advantage 1: Poverty Millions of children are now trapped in a destructive cycle of poverty disproportionately effecting racial and ethnic minorities
SusanNeuman,(Prof.,EducationalStudies,U.Michigan),CHANGINGTHEODDSFOR CHILDRENATRISK,2009,152. Low-income and neighborhood poverty together pose near-lethal risks for children and their families. When economic conditions bode ill, unemployment rises, the real value of the minimum wage declines, and as most of society's ills it hits the poorest hardest. Our nation has seen an alarming growth in the ratio of poor families living in concentrated poverty, increases that have been even more dramatic for black and Hispanic children.

Poverty is the equivalent to a thermonuclear war between Russia and the US this systemic impact is bigger and more probable than any war James Gilligan, Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, 2000 edition, Violence: Reflections on Our Deadliest Epidemic, p. 195-196
The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100,000 deaths per year from armed conflict. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence, such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths, including those caused by genocide--or about eight million per year, 1935-1945), the Indonesian massacre of 1965-1966 (perhaps 575,000 deaths), the Vietnam war (possibly two million, 1954-1973), and even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R (232 million), it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence, which continues year after year. In other word, every fifteen years, on the average, as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed in a nuclear war that caused 232 million deaths; and every single year, two to three times as many people die from poverty throughout the world as were killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period. This is, in effect, the equivalent of an ongoing, unending, in fact accelerating, thermonuclear war, or genocide, perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade, throughout the world.

Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

1AC (5/10)
Funding Head Start and Early Head Start empower children to break the bonds of poverty
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf Our Success by T en proposal argues for a m a j o r expansion and intensication of Head Start a n d Early Head Start, so that every disadvantaged c h il d has the opportunity to enroll in an intensive, h i g h - quality program of education and care during t h e rst ve years of life . Our proposal is based on a growing sense among scientists that intervening early in the lives of disadvantaged children may be particularly important and productive. Research from a variety of sources (see 3.13.2) shows t h a t early education can make a dramatic difference f o r impoverished children, despite their d i s a d v a n t a g e d environmental surroundings. The benets of this intensive intervention may be squandered, how- ever, if disadvantaged children go from this pro- gram to a low-quality elementary school, and there is currently little reason to believe that comp ensatory federal T itle I spending does much to i mp r o v e these c h il d r e n s schooling experiences. As a r e s u l t , the second part of our proposal is to require t h a t schools devote their T itle I spending to i n s t r u c t i o n - al programs that are proven effective, which w ou l d further improve the skills of poor children a n d help guard against fade out of preschool g ai n s . In short, our Success by Ten proposal argues both for more resources and for using existing resources more effectively.

Funding early head start solves by helping children during key developmental years
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf

Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

These differences in early environments contribute to large gaps in test scores, which show up at a very early age. Numerous studies have compared the outcomes of preschool children from different socioeconomic backgrounds, or racial or ethnic groups, and nd large differences in cognitive skills in children as young as three or four years old (Jencks and Phillips 1998, Fryer and Levitt 2004, Lee and Burkam 2002, Rouse et al. 2005, Rock and Stenner 2005). Figure 1 summarizes some recent results showing marked differences in average math and reading scores by socioeconomic status for a

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

1AC (6/10)
Advantage 2: Leadership Improving Education is Key to bolstering US economic competitiveness
SanJoseMercuryNews2005.EducationIsKeyToOurCompetitiveness Prominent Governors,HighTechCEODiscussDauntingChallenges. http://ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfm?kaid=85&subid=900184&contentid=253629

What's the key to improving California's business climate and economic competitiveness? The answer -- improved education -- was easy and unanimous for John
Thompson, chairman and CEO of Symantec; Arizona Democratic Gov. Janet Napolitano, who also is vice chair of the National Governors Association; and Iowa Gov. Tom Vilsack, who also is chair of the Democratic Leadership Council. The three were interviewed last month by Mercury News Executive Editor Susan Goldberg at the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's annual Public Policy Luncheon. Here is an edited transcript of the questions and answers. [... Snip ...] Goldberg: Do you worry more about competitive threats among states? Or do you worry more about other countries, such as India or China? And let me ask you all that.

all of us are concerned about the international competitive environment. That's why governors -- I think Governor Vilsack and myself -are so intent on really drilling down into the education system and making sure that when those students graduate from our schools, they are fully prepared for higher education, and higher education prepares them to compete in the world, and to be innovators and creative thinkers. The real measure of our success as a country is going to be moving ourselves in the innovation age as a country as a whole.
Napolitano: Well, I think that

US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS KEY TO LEADERSHIP


Khalilzad, 1995 (The Washington Quarterly; Lexis) The United States is unlikely to preserve its military and technological dominance if the U.S. economy declines seriously. In such an environment, the domestic economic and political base for global leadership would diminish and the United States would probably incrementally withdraw from the world, become inward-looking, and abandon more and more of its external interests. As the United States weakened, others would try to fill the Vacuum. To sustain and improve its economic strength, the United States must maintain its technological lead in the economic realm. Its success will depend
on the choices it makes. In the past, developments such as the agricultural and industrial revolutions produced fundamental changes positively affecting the relative position of those who were able to take advantage of them and negatively affecting those who did not. Some argue that the world may be at the beginning of another such transformation, which will shift the sources of wealth and the relative position of classes and nations. If the United States fails to recognize the change and adapt its institutions, its relative position will necessarily worsen

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

1 AC (7/10)
THE DECLINE OF U.S. LEADERSHIP WOULD CREATE A DEVASTATING POWER VACUUM, ENSURING ANARCHY, TERRORISM, GLOBAL ECONOMIC COLLAPSE, AND MULTIPLE SCENARIOS FOR NUCLEAR WAR
Ferguson,2004Prof.HistoryNYU,2004
(Niall,FOREIGNPOLICY,July/August,p.)

The defining characteristic of our age is not a shift of power upward to supranational institutions, but downward. With the end of states' monopoly on the means of violence and the collapse of their control over channels of communication,

humanity has entered an era characterized

as much by disintegration as integration.

If free flows of information and of means of production empower multinational corporations and nongovernmental organizations (as well as evangelistic religious cults of all denominations), the free flow of destructive technology empowers both criminal organizations and terrorist cells. These groups can operate, it seems, wherever they choose, from Hamburg to Gaza. By contrast, the writ of the international community is not global at all. It is, in fact, increasingly confined to a few strategic cities such as Kabul and Pristina. In short, it is the

Waning empires. Religious revivals. Incipient anarchy. A coming retreat into fortified cities. These are the Dark Age experiences that a world without a hyperpower might quickly find itself reliving. The trouble is, of course, that this Dark Age would be an altogether more dangerous one than the Dark Age of the ninth century. For the world is much more populousroughly 20 times moreso friction between the world's disparate tribes is bound to be more
nonstate actors who truly wield global powerincluding both the monks and the Vikings of our time. So what is left? frequent. Technology has transformed production; now human societies depend not merely on freshwater and the harvest but also on supplies of fossil fuels that are known to be finite.

Technology has upgraded destruction, too, so it is now possible not just to sack a city but to obliterate it. For more than two decades, globalizationthe integration of world markets for commodities, labor, and capital has raised living standards throughout the world, except where countries have shut themselves off from the process through tyranny or civil war. The reversal of globalizationwhich a new Dark Age would producewould certainly lead to economic stagnation and even depression. As the United States sought to protect itself after a second September 11 devastates, say, Houston or Chicago, it would inevitably become a less open society, less hospitable for foreigners seeking to work, visit, or do business. Meanwhile, as Europe's Muslim enclaves grew, Islamist extremists' infiltration of the EU would become irreversible, increasing
trans-Atlantic tensions over the Middle East to the breaking point. An economic meltdown in China would plunge the Communist system into crisis, unleashing the centrifugal forces that undermined previous Chinese empires. Western investors would lose out and conclude that lower returns at home

The worst effects of the new Dark Age would be felt on the edges of the waning great powers. The wealthiest ports of the global economyfrom New York to Rotterdam to Shanghaiwould become the targets of plunderers and pirates. With ease, terrorists could disrupt the freedom of the seas, targeting oil tankers, aircraft carriers, and cruise liners, while Western nations frantically concentrated on making their airports secure. Meanwhile, limited nuclear wars could devastate numerous regions, beginning in the Korean peninsula and Kashmir, perhaps ending catastrophically in the Middle East. In Latin America, wretchedly poor citizens would seek solace in Evangelical Christianity imported by U.S. religious orders. In Africa, the great plagues of AIDS and malaria would continue their deadly work. The few remaining solvent airlines would simply suspend services to many cities in these continents; who would wish to leave their privately guarded safe havens to go there? For all these reasons, the prospect of an apolar world should frighten us today a great deal more than it frightened the heirs of Charlemagne. If the United States retreats from global hegemonyits fragile self-image dented by minor setbacks on the imperial frontierits critics at home and abroad must not pretend that they are ushering in a new era of multipolar harmony, or even a return to the good old balance of power. Be careful what you wish for. The alternative to unipolarity would not be multipolarity at all. It would be apolaritya global vacuum of power. And far more dangerous forces than rival great powers would benefit from such a not-so-new world disorder.
are preferable to the risks of default abroad.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

1AC (8/10)
Success by Ten remedies inequalities while children are young this solves the poverty, economic competitiveness, and the root cause of education problems.
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf

Success by Ten is a proposed program designed to help every child achieve success in school by age ten. It calls for a major expansion and intensication of Head Start and Early Head Start, so that every disadvantaged child has the opportunity to enroll in a high-quality program of education and care during the rst ve years of his or her life. Because the benets of this intensive intervention may be squandered if disadvantaged children go from this program to a low-quality elementary school, the second part of the proposal requires that schools devote their Title I spending to instructional programs that have proven effective in further improving the skills of children, especially their ability to read. The proposal is based on the principle that early intervention is particularly important because of the brains unusual plasticity during a childs early years. Children from different family backgrounds currently experience very different types of learning environments during the early years. The result is that large disparities in cognitive and noncognitive skills are found along race and class lines well before children start school, even before they can enroll in the federal Head Start preschool program at age three or four years. Most of Americas social policies try to play catch-up against these early disadvantagesand most disadvantaged children never catch up. Findings from a number of rigorously conducted studies of early childhood and elementary school programs suggest that intervening early, often, and effectively in the lives of disadvantaged children from birth to age ten may substantially improve their life chances for higher educational attainment and greater success in the labor market, thereby helping impoverished children avoid poverty in adulthood. Another consequence would be to greatly improve the skills of tomorrows workforce, thereby enhancing future economic performance. These benets for children would be accompanied by benets for their parents, many of whom work full time and need high-quality child care, such as the program would provide.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

1AC (9/10)
Quality child care is UNAVAILABLE for millions of working mothers.
MarkGreenberg,(Dir.,TaskForceonPoverty,CenterforAmericanProgress),THENEXT GENERATIONOFANTIPOVERTYPOLICIES,2007,79. The tax system provides a small entitlement to middle- and upper-income families, but no help to the poorest families. In theory, the CDCTC could provide up to $2,100 to a family with child care costs of or exceeding $6,000. In reality, the credit is small in relation to child care costs, wholly unavailable to poor families, and provides little help to other low-income families.

High quality child care for working mothers provides a basic human right. Failing to fulfill it is patriarchal.
ValeriePolakow,(Prof.,EducationalPsychology&EarlyChildhood,EasternMichiganU.), WHOCARESFOROURCHILDREN?THECHILDCARECRISISINTHEOTHER AMERICA,2007,21. It is clear that a social care infrastructure is a fundamental condition for achieving gender equality, and that women's economic independence in the labor market is also heavily dependent on the existence of "universally accessible child care as a public service." Furthermore, argues Mahon, because child care is a key social citizenship right for women, it is also a politically charged "gendered" issue.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

1AC (10/10)
Patriarchy causes violence and systematic repression towards women
This is the social currency with which we contend in the South, and for which Black families nudge and fight over either collectively or discursivelyhoping to gain acceptance, success and perhaps affirmation in a patriarchal masculine system. By virtue that

patriarchy incessantly dehumanizes us and teaches us to mimic the same patterns of dominance/ subordination, it is not our culture; it cannot be. Simply, it is not life affirming for women, people of color,
and anyone else whose very existence challenges its status of control, despite any amount of cultural currency we may gain in order to play and succeed at the game. Patriarchal masculinity is not just prejudice. Prejudices based on perceived racial or class differences, for example, inform everyday interactionsrepeating and therefore reinforce the patriarchal power-oriented paradigm of dominance to mediate relationships.

It extends beyond the ability that one

individual has to oppress another for example an adult slapping a child, an employer yelling at his/her employees, didactic teaching, or even lovers resolving conflict through deception, coercion or violence. Patriarchal masculinity informs each of these interactions, affirming individual power to oppress another through repeating the pattern of violence, intimidation, dominance/superiority and underlying subversion of intimacy in order to create and maintain (power) distance. Prejudice plus power, is the ability and reasoning of one group of people to determine the destiny of another group of people. We have a culture of endemic violence, intimidation coercion and entitlement, manifest as systematic discrimination and oppression. It is not safe. It deems that even basic communication between people becomes a power playa threat of humiliation, assertion of authority or
even violence, where one must win and one must loose. All are armed and shielded, inevitably at some point turning those defenses and that armament inwards. Patriarchal masculinity often reads this armor as cockiness on the part of women and people of color, bitchiness on Queer people, or even read as belligerence on Black men. Black women, of course, are simply wanton whores in that paradigm. This armor was, and still is necessary for any non-mainstream child growing up in America and especially in the so-called Commonwealth of Kentucky. This type of democracy presupposes majority/minority polarizationsomeone is always bound to get screwed.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Inherency Extension

Significant expansion of Early Head Start is warranted.


Thompson, Ph.D, Professor of Psychology, University of California-Davis, 2007 (Ross, February 28, 2007,
Improving Head Start for Americas Children, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education| Committee on Education and Labor| U.S. House of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress| First Session, 5-7, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi? dbname=110_house_hearings&docid=f:33396.pdf)

the most effective program to support early brain growth and psychological development should attend to intellectual, social and emotional development and support families and parenting beginning early in life as Head Start seeks to do. Secondly, the results of rigorous research document the benefits of Early Head Start for enhancing childrens progress in school readiness, support a parent-child relationship and improve family functioning as shown by a congressionally mandated, randomized, controlled trial of Early Head Start. Finally, in relation to the number of children at risk, the science of early childhood development suggests that significant expansion of Early Head Start is warranted. Developmentally
The first is that
appropriate early childhood education looks a lot different from developmentally appropriate education for older children, and Early Head Start is a developmentally appropriate program for young children. Thank you very much, and I would be happy to respond to questions or to provide further information.

Despite effectiveness, Early Head Start programs lack in quantity nationwide


St. Petersburg TimesFebruary21,2002(JimRoss,St.PetersburgTimesProgramofferskids
anearlierheadstart, http://www.sptimes.com/2002/02/21/Citrus/Program_offers_kids_a.shtml)

Griffith said Early Head Start has been a success in Marion, where it has operated the past three years. Early Head Start is just now graduating its first group to regular Head Start. Some students already have mastered many skills that they otherwise wouldn't have learned until later. "We have had a very successful transition of our first set of children," she said. "They are learning faster" than kids who entered Head Start without benefit of Early Head Start. Strangis of UF said that while Head Start has been helping children for 30 years, Early Head Start has been available only since 1995. As a result, the academic community hasn't yet generated definitive studies about the program's effectiveness. But early studies and
anecdotal evidence from people such as Griffith have shown parents are pleased with the program and are participating actively. Meanwhile, other research has clearly shown the value of investing in early childhood education, Strangis said. Childhood Development Services receives about $ 6-million a year to administer Head Start and Early Head Start in Citrus and Marion counties. That covers services for 639 students in Head Start and 64 (including the 24 in Citrus) in Early Head

There are thousands of Head Start programs nationwide, but only 800 to 1,000 Early Head Start programs, Strangis said.
Start. All the money comes from the federal government.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Inherency Extensions
The availability of early preschool narrows the broad education gap between wealthy and lower-class children. But state legislators often dont understand the importance of preschool
USAToday,2004.(Preschoolsmakeadifference,News,pg.11A,Thursday,August12, 2004,FINALEDITION)

Next month, 5-year-old Hamilton Bowers heads off for his Little Rock kindergarten brimming and ready -- capable, even, of citing a little Shakespeare. That happened because his mother, Monique, a widowed African-American school-cafeteria worker, spent a year fighting to win him a spot in a quality preschool. She knows something many state legislators haven't grasped: [that] A quality preschool can make the difference between success and failure. A study of the highly regarded Chicago Child-Parent Centers found that children from those schools were nearly 30% more likely to graduate from high school, about 40% less likely to repeat a grade and 32% less likely to be arrested as a juvenile. Few lowincome children, however, attend the kind of high-quality, state-sponsored preschool Bowers found. That's true even though improving preschool is widely seen by educators as having the greatest potential to narrow learning gaps among racial and income groups. Intervening later is more expensive because the student's problems have taken firmer root. Yet many states are deaf to the opportunity. While state-funded preschools serve 700,000 children nationally, only 432 children in Nevada attend one, for instance. In Texas, the number is 147,000. Last month, a Tennessee commission revealed that the state was able to find room for only half of the 38,000 children in need of preschool. Georgia and Oklahoma are the only states that guarantee preschool for all. Quality varies as much as availability. Before Monique Bowers found a high-quality, state-sponsored preschool for her son, she was stuck with $85-a-week day-care centers that house children all day but offer little to help them succeed in school.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Inherency Extensions
Congress has empirically been inactive and inefficient in the field of child care, despite public pressure.
Zylan,2000.(HaswrittenaboutgenderandAmericansocialpolicyforSignsandthe AmericanJournalofSociology.Thisarticlewasdevelopedwhileshewasanassistant professorofsociologyattheUniversityofArizona.Theauthor'srecentwork continuestofocusonpoliticalsociologyanddiscourseanalysis.Shealsoispursuing adoctorofjurisprudence,doctoroflaw(JD).October2000.MaternalismRedefined: Gender,theState,andthePoliticsofDayCare,19451962Source:Genderand Society,Vol.14,No.5(Oct.,2000),pp.608629.Publishedby:SagePublications,Inc. URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/190452)

As the 105th Congress of the United States wrapped up its legislative activities in 1998, it failed once again to produce any significant improvement in the nation's system of child care provision. Despite persistent, strong demands from organizations representing children and working women, and despite a highly publicized and historically rare public initiative announced by President Bill Clinton in January of that year, child care policy was largely ignored by the Congress. A small increase in funding for day care subsidies for public assistance recipients was approved but lawmakers did not pass-or even propose-a national system of provision for children in need of custodial care. Advocates of statesponsored child care are likely to attribute the failure of Congress to act to any number of contingent political factors: Lawmakers were distracted by impeachment proceedings, for example, and partisan differences prevented cooperation between the legislative and executive branches. But the inaction of the 105th Congress was merely the continuation of U.S. policy on child care. The United States consistently ranks among the poorest providers of day care for children among comparable Western industrial capitalist democracies (Gornick, Meyers, and Ross 1998). It has held this laggard status at least since the end of World War II, when many Western European nations implemented fairly extensive family policies, including publicly supported child care programs. Most did so by expanding on programs established during the war, but the United States declined to extend its own wartime child care program. Instead, in 1962, the Congress passed a set of Public Welfare Amendments that codified American day care policy as an adjunct to public assistance policy. In so doing, lawmakers ensured that the program would be small, poorly funded, and beyond the reach of most American parents. It has remained so ever since.

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Inherency Extensions
Not Having the Plan Violates the CDWA
Darvich-Kodjouri, 2009, Communications Director,(http://www.cedpa.org/section/news, p.1, 04/27/2009) In a pledge to improve the human rights of women and girls, more than 185 nations have ratified the Treaty for the Rights of Women, formally known as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The CEDAW Treaty encourages governments to address areas of discrimination against women and ensure that women and girls have equal access to health, education, employment and legal systemsgiving women the tools to move out of poverty. To strengthen worldwide commitments to womens human rights, CEDPA strengthens the advocacy skills of women leaders and works hand-in-hand with them to mobilize womens organizations and communities worldwide.

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Inherency Extension
Financial support needed
NancyPelosi(SpeakeroftheHouse)220,2008http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html? res=9B05EFDF143FF931A15751C0A96E9C8B63&scp=1&sq=child%20in%20poverty %20no%20excuse&st=cse

The despair that poverty brings to millions of American children compels us to take a serious and sustained national approach. Last year's bipartisan revamping of the Head Start program to focus on early intervention was huge progress; now we need to do the hard work of making sure this important initiative is financed. Other solutions can be found in our tax policy -- we can reward parents struggling to lift their families out of poverty. Democrats insisted that the recent economic stimulus package include rebate checks for 35 million families who work but earn too little to pay federal income tax, and we included additional benefits for families with children. The approach of these recovery rebates is similar to that of the Earned Income Tax Credit, which is widely recognized as one of America's most effective anti-poverty policies.

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Solvency- Head Start Solves Poverty


Earlier education for children living in poverty
Charles MacCormack 1 18, 2009

http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.samford.edu/us/lnacademic/results/docvi ew/docview.do? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T6883416445&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T6883415177&cisb=22_T6883416447&tre eMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8176&docNo=16 (As President-elect Barack Obama prepares to address the many daunting challenges ahead, one imperative has received little attention - putting children first. For the new administration and Congress, the following are five practical steps that can make a real difference in the lives of vulnerable children both at home and abroad.) Give children a Head Start in school and life. One-fifth of children living in poverty in the United States are unable to access robust early education, depriving them of the foundation for a richer and fuller school experience and adult life. Children benefit from literacy programs that begin much earlier than Head Start and kindergarten. One study found young children living in families headed by college-educated parents heard 11 million words in a year while children of parents with limited or poor educational experiences heard just 3 million. A new, high-quality preschool education program would not only benefit and enrich disadvantaged children, but, according to the Brookings Institution, also contribute to the U.S. economy, adding $2 trillion to the annual gross domestic product by 2080. (Greater investment in early childhood development abroad would provide a stronger foundation for the success and sustainability of U.S. health and education programs overseas. Such programs prepare children physically, intellectually, socially and emotionally for school and life. Children who participated in our early childhood development transitions-to-primary school initiatives in Nepal, for example, were seen by parents and teachers as avid learners who were highly motivated with stronger social skills and more regular school attendance.)

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Solvency Head Start Solves poverty


Funding Head Start and Early Head Start empower children to break the bonds of poverty
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf Our Success by T en proposal argues for a m a j o r expansion and intensication of Head Start a n d Early Head Start, so that every disadvantaged c h il d has the opportunity to enroll in an intensive, h i g h - quality program of education and care during t h e rst ve years of life . Our proposal is based on a growing sense among scientists that intervening early in the lives of disadvantaged children may be particularly important and productive. Research from a variety of sources (see 3.13.2) shows t h a t early education can make a dramatic difference f o r impoverished children, despite their d i s a d v a n t a g e d environmental surroundings. The benets of this intensive intervention may be squandered, how- ever, if disadvantaged children go from this pro- gram to a low-quality elementary school, and there is currently little reason to believe that comp ensatory federal T itle I spending does much to i mp r o v e these c h il d r e n s schooling experiences. As a r e s u l t , the second part of our proposal is to require t h a t schools devote their T itle I spending to i n s t r u c t i o n - al programs that are proven effective, which w ou l d further improve the skills of poor children a n d help guard against fade out of preschool g ai n s . In short, our Success by Ten proposal argues both for more resources and for using existing resources more effectively.

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Solvency - Head Start solves Poverty


Increased funding for Head Start solves for poverty
TheFutureofChildren1997.ProgramsThatMitigatetheEffectsofPovertyonChildren. http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubsinfo2825/pubsinfo_show.htm?doc_id=72141

In terms of the incomes of Head Start families, the program achieves its goal of targeting families below the poverty line; in 199495, 64% of participating families had annual incomes under $9,000, and 83% had yearly incomes of less than $12,000. 54 In terms of coverage, however, the limited budget of Head Start means that only 38% of eligible three- and four-year-olds are served.55
Additionally, in an era of increasing need for child care by parents who are either working or in job training programs, the largely part-day structure of Head Start programs makes it difficult for them to serve this share of the eligible population. Head Start's part-day structure is likely to become increasingly problematic with the work requirements imposed by the recent welfare reform legislation. Head Start's traditional emphasis on parent involvementboth in the educational program and in policymaking rolesmay also become more difficult to achieve as eligible parents cope with the increased demands of education and/or work requirements.

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Solvency- Head Start Solves Poverty


Children who fall behind in school and live in poverty suffer from conditions and stigma that hinders their education
Masten et al. 1997.[Ann, Arturo, Rekhet, Catherine, Donna, and Jacqueline; psychology students
at the University of Minnesota, Educational risks for children experiencing homelessness, Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 27-28, 1997]

The purpose of this study was to examine the educational risks associated with homelessness among elementary school-aged children in a Midwestern city, as part of an ongoing effort to identify and address the needs of mobile children. There is good reason to believe that [homeless] children would be at grave risk of becoming academic casualties. These children often have multiple risk factors long associated with academic and behavioral problems, including chronic poverty, single-parent families, unemployed parents dependent on welfare, poorly educated parents, poor health and health care, elevated lead levels, mobility with attendant school changes, and histories of high exposure to stressful life events, including family and neighborhood violence (Masten, 1992; McChesney, 1993; Rafferty & Shinn, 1991; Shinn & Weitzman, in press). Children who have been homeless share many of these risk factors with millions of other impoverished children in the United States. They also have had unique problems related to educational access, such as residency requirements, and the social stigma attached to living in a shelter.

Children who fall behind in school and live in poverty suffer from conditions and stigma that hinders their education
Mastenetal.1997.[Ann,Arturo,Rekhet,Catherine,Donna,andJacqueline;psychology studentsattheUniversityofMinnesota,Educationalrisksforchildrenexperiencing homelessness,JournalofSchoolPsychology,Vol.35,No.1,pp.2728,1997]

The purpose of this study was to examine the educational risks associated with homelessness among elementary school-aged children in a Midwestern city, as part of an ongoing effort to identify and address the needs of mobile children. There is good reason to believe that [homeless] children would be at grave risk of becoming academic casualties. These children often have multiple risk factors long associated with academic and behavioral problems, including chronic poverty, single-parent families, unemployed parents dependent on welfare, poorly educated parents, poor health and health care, elevated lead levels, mobility with attendant school changes, and histories of high exposure to stressful life events, including family and neighborhood violence (Masten, 1992; McChesney, 1993; Rafferty & Shinn, 1991; Shinn & Weitzman, in press). Children who have been homeless share many of these risk factors with millions of other impoverished children in the United States. They also have had unique problems related to educational access, such as residency requirements, and the social stigma attached to living in a shelter.

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Solvency- Head Start Solves Rich Poor Gap


Head Start Solves Social Poverty Gap
Miller 09(Hon.George,Chairman,HouseCommitteeonEducationandLabor;THE
IMPORTANCEOFEARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENT;HEARINGbeforethe COMMITTEEONEDUCATIONANDLABORU.S.HouseofRepresentatives MARCH17,2009http://www.gpoaccess.gov/congress/house/education/index.html

Research tells us that the achievement gap is measurable and apparent by 18 months. We know that verbal skills, language, are essential to success in school. But at age four, children in poverty know only a fraction of the words that middle class children know. And we know that the differences between these two groups remain unchanged. They are unchanged at age five, age 12 and beyond. Many poor children suffer from chaotic, stressful environments without the attention and stimulation that they need to develop. At 18 months, a child in a low-income family hears about 3 million words a year, while a child in a higher income family hears 11 million words. That difference translates to a gap of over 30 million words by age four. And it is not just the quantity of the words that matters, but the quality of the language and the interactions behind each word that define a child's ability to communicate when he or she enters school. Think about what it is you hear when you are at a grocery store as you watch a mother navigate the aisle with her toddler. It is a full-blown discussion about the quality of the cereal, whether Cheerios are healthy, or what it is they should eat or whether or not the child should be touching the cereal boxes. Middle class parents narrate their day. We need to make sure that all parents are able to do the same. This means that we need to bridge the opportunity gap well before a child ever enters preschool if we are serious about ever improving high school graduation rates. Poor children start Kindergarten without the social, emotional and academic preparation needed to take full advantage of what school has to offer. They are forced into a cruel game of catch-up that few will ever win.

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Solvency Head Start solves Competitiveness


Funding for Success by Ten solves competitiveness
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf

Another way to measure the possible benets of our Success by Ten proposal is in terms of its impact on productivity and economic growth in the United States. Technology has increased the demand for skilled labor in recent decades, as evidenced by a sharp increase in the earnings of more-educated workers relative to their less-edu - cated counterparts. In a knowledge-based econo- my, the productivity of the workforce depends not just on the amount invested in plants and equ ip- ment, but also on the skills and education that workers bring to their jobs. If Success by Ten is as successful as we hope, then eventually edu cational attainment will rise in the United States, which will translate into more growth and a higher stan- dard of living.

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Solvency- Head Start Solves Competitiveness


Early Child Care Makes Workers More Competitive
Miller09(Hon.George,Chairman,HouseCommitteeonEducationandLabor;THE IMPORTANCEOFEARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENT;HEARINGbeforethe COMMITTEEONEDUCATIONANDLABORU.S.HouseofRepresentatives MARCH17,2009http://www.gpoaccess.gov/congress/house/education/index.html)

Over the past decade, there has been groundbreaking research on brain and child development that underscores the importance of the first 5 years of a child's life. In combination with their genes, children's experiences in these critical early years influence brain chemistry, architecture and growth in ways that have lasting effects on their health, learning and behavior. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study overseen by the Department of Education, for example, found that twice as many 4-year-olds from upperincome family households were proficient in early math skills when compared to 4-yearolds from the lowest income households. High quality early education can improve children's reading, math, and language skills, strengthen parenting practices that help increase school readiness, and lead to better health and behavior. Studies also show all children benefit from high quality early education programs, with children from the lowincome families showing the largest benefits. Investing in early childhood education will help ensure that our next generation of workers is stronger, more innovative and more competitive. It is an investment that yields great returns. Every dollar spent on early childhood education can generate anywhere from $1.25 to $17 in return, but we have a long way to go to ensure that all children can get high quality early education foundation.

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Solvency- Education Solves Competitiveness


Improving the education system in the United States is key to scientific and engineering competitiveness
BoardonChemicalandScienceTechnologies2007.3KeyFactorsInfluencingU.S.Leadership inMechanicalEngineeringBasicResearch.http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=12055&page=39 Benchmarking the Competitiveness of the United States in Mechanical Engineering Basic Research (Figure 3-3); which has drifted down by about 6 percent over the most recent decade for which data are availablefrom 15,297 in 1994 to 14,368 in 2004.16 FIGURE 3-3 Mechanical engineering degrees awarded, by degree level: 19842004. SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. 2006. Science and Engineering Degrees: 19662004. January 2007. Arlington, VA. On a still longer time scale, the supply of scientists and engineers overall depends on the current state of the U.S. K-12 educational system . Here, there have been ongoing concerns about K-12 math and science education in the United States compared with other countries, based largely on the results of internationally administered tests. In 2004, the NSF summarized the situation: "U.S. students are performing at or below the levels attained by students in other countries in the developed world, and In international comparisons, U.S. student performances become increasingly weaker at higher grade levels.17 More recent results reported by NSF showed a more mixed picturewhere U.S. fourth and eighth grade students scored above average on the international tests, but U.S. 15-year-olds scored below average.18 Because of the difficulties in locating quantitative data on mechanical engineering human resources at the international level, the panel concentrated on the trends in the number of U.S.mechanical engineering graduate students and Ph.D.s. The data shown in the following figures demonstrate that the numbers of U.S. graduate students and Ph.D.s have remained fairly steady 16 National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, 2006, Science and Engineering Degrees: 1966-2004, Arlington, Virginia. 17 National Science Foundation, 2004, Science and Engineering Indicators 2004, Arlington, Virginia. 18 National Science Foundation, 2007 Science and Engineering Indicators 2006, Arlington, Virginia.

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Solvency- Education Solves Competitiveness


Improving education in the US is key to maintaining global competitiveness
Evers2007.(Joris,StaffWriterCNetNews.Experts:EducationkeytoU.S.competitiveness. http://news.cnet.com/ExpertsEducationkeytoU.S.competitiveness/21001022_3 6176967.html "What is going to keep us competitive and what is going to help us in-source jobs? That is the investment in human capital and that is the investment in innovation," Napolitano said. The focus from governors is needed as countries including China and India increase their roles in the global marketplace. "The world is shrinking and now we're really competing for people
all across the world," said Sean Walsh, special adviser to California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, a Republican. California has attracted smart people from across the globe, but that actually points to shortcomings in the U.S. education system, Walsh said. "We are attracting the best and the brightest from all around the world, but that's making up for the fact that we're not necessarily producing some of the best and the brightest because our education is not up to snuff," he said. Silicon Valley in particular is at a crossroads, said Dennis Cima, vice president of education and policy at the Silicon Valley Leadership Group, which is made up of businesses in the area. "The

crisis is really how America maintains its competitive edge and how Silicon Valley maintains its competitive edge...The availability of talent is a real huge issue," he said. One possible solution to the talent problem is promoting math and science among groups that typically don't pick those subjects, said John Thompson, chief executive at Symantec, which hosted the event. "Science, technology, engineering and math (education) is such an important issue for our company and our country, more should be done by every single organization to convince young women and minorities to participate and pursue careers in math and science," Thompson said. "It does represent an opportunity for us to expand the talent pool quite rapidly." .

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Solvency- Education Solves Poverty


Poverty Can Be Reduced Through Early Education
Tough2009.NewYorkTimesMagazineEditorandAuthor(Paul, http://www.wickedlocal.com/arlington/news/x1662372799/EducationreformExperts assessimpactof1993reformlawandlookahead,June29,2009)

The story of inner city poverty is a story about education. The issues are increasingly intertwined. The obstacles that children face are huge and seem insurmountable. The gaps that separate the lives of poor and middle class children are wide. Poor children move more frequently, have less access to health care, are more likely to be in foster care, less likely to own childrens books, less likely to have a parent who graduated from college. The differences lead to an achievement gap that opens very quickly. It starts with recognizing the letters of the alphabet. The gap often gets worse when school starts and extends into adulthood. The many obstacles that poor children face can absolutely be overcome. The easiest way to help is to start as early as possible, at birth. A University of Michigan researcher highlighted early Head Start, a language enrichment program. Students need many hours and operate on an extended day, the best teachers should be teaching challenged students, and you need to give constant attention to building the culture of your school. Students may achieve great results in middle school and struggle in high school. Even the best schools cannot overcome all the disadvantages children face. The best and some say the only way to escape poverty is through educational attainment. In the last two years, students who entered in kindergarten and are now in third grade, 94 percent scored on or above grade level in English and 100 percent in math. We have to remake schools and reach kids wherever and whenever they need that help. We need new tools, different strategies and more ambitious goals.

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Solvency- Education Solves Poverty


Educated people are more likely to climb out of poverty and up the economic ladder.
ErikECKHOLMnewyorktimesFebruary20,2008HigherEducationGapMaySlow EconomicMobility http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/20/us/20mobility.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=pew&st=nyt

Economic mobility, the chance that children of the poor or middle class will climb up the income ladder, has not changed significantly over the last three decades, a study being
released on Wednesday says. The authors of the study, by scholars at the Brookings Institution in Washington and sponsored by the Pew Charitable Trusts, warned that

widening gaps in higher education between rich and poor, whites and minorities, could soon lead to a downturn in opportunities for the poorest families.The researchers found that Hispanic and black
Americans were falling behind whites and Asians in earning college degrees, making it harder for them to enter the middle class or higher.A growing difference in education levels between income and racial groups, especially in college degrees, implies that mobility will be lower in the future than it is

The study highlights the powerful role that college can have in helping people change their station in life. Someone born into a family in the lowest fifth of earners who graduates from college has a 19 percent chance of joining the highest fifth of earners in adulthood and a 62 percent chance of joining the middle class or better.In recent years, 11 percent of children from the poorest families have earned college degrees, compared with 53 percent of children from the top fifth.The American dream of opportunity is alive, but frayed, said Isabel Sawhill, another author of the
today, said Ron Haskins, a former Republican official and welfare expert who wrote the education section of the report.There is some good news. report, Getting Ahead or Losing Ground: Mobility in America. The report is at economicmobility.orgIts still alive for immigrants but badly tattered for African-Americans, said Ms. Sawhill, an economist and a budget official in the Clinton administration. Its more alive for people in the middle class than for people at the very bottom.The report and planned studies constitute the most comprehensive effort to examine intergenerational mobility, said John E. Morton of the Pew Trusts, who is managing the project. It draws heavily on a federally supported survey by the University of Michigan that has followed thousands of families since the late 1960s.A chapter of the report released last fall found startling evidence that a majority of black children born to middle-class parents grew up to have lower incomes and that nearly half of middle-class black children fell into the bottom fifth in adulthood, compared with 16 percent of middle-class white children.The Pew-sponsored studies are continuing with the involvement of research organizations and scholars. Another report expected in the spring by the more conservative Heritage Foundation will focus on explanations for the trends described in the current

It does seem in America now that for people at very bottom its more difficult to move up than we might have thought or might have been true in the past.Mr. Butler said experts were likely to disagree
report.Stuart Butler, vice president for economic studies at the Heritage Foundation, said,

about the reasons and, hence, on policies to improve mobility. Conservative scholars are more apt to fault cultural norms and the breakdown of families while liberals put more emphasis on the changing structure of the economy and the need for government to provide safety nets and aid for poor

We may well have an economy that rewards certain traits that are typically passed on from parents to children, the importance of education,
families. optimism, a propensity to work hard, entrepreneurship and so on, he said.To the extent that the economy rewards those traits, he added, youd expect

.The small fraction of poor children who earn college degrees are likely to rise well above their parents status, the study showed.More than half the children born to upper-income parents, those in the top fifth, who finish college remain in that top group. Nearly one in four remains in the top fifth even without completing college.Evidence from model programs shows that early childhood education can have lasting benefits, Mr. Haskins said, although the Head Start program is too uneven to produce
the incomes of children to track more with that of their parents

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widespread gains.In addition, he said, studies show that many poor but bright children do not receive good advice about applying
for college and scholarships, or do not receive help after starting college.If we did more to help them complete college, Mr. Haskins said, theres no question it would improve mobility.

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Solvency- Education Solves Poverty


Education in directly linked to poverty
StopChildPoverty71,2009http://www.stopchildpoverty.org/learn/bigpicture/education/

Low attendance in schools and access to education is directly linked to poverty. The poorer a child, the less likely the child is to attend school. Because poor families often rely on their children to help supplement their income, children are either pulled out of school for seasonal work, or simply cannot attend at all. Child labor is one of the main reasons children drop out of school; 246 million children are child laborers

Education, a key to end extreme poverty


StopChildPoverty71,2009http://www.stopchildpoverty.org/learn/bigpicture/education/

What makes these statistics even more disheartening is that education is one of the main drivers for ending extreme poverty. Girls who are educated are able to better protect themselves against HIV/AIDS, marry later in life, have healthier children, and can have work opportunities beyond the home. Boys who are educated may be able to break a family cycle of hard labor and typically earn more than their non-educated counterparts.

Educated children are the future of the country


StopChildPoverty71,2009http://www.stopchildpoverty.org/learn/bigpicture/education/

Most importantly, however, children who are educated can help direct the future of their country. They can contribute to the country's social health and become direct contributors to ending extreme poverty by 2025.

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Solvency- Education Solves Poverty

Many people still without education


A Dollar A Day, 7/01/09(http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00282/edu_poverty.htm ,2006
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has the right to an education. Unfortunately, education is still a distant dream for many. Nearly 113 million children are not able to attend primary school. And 264 million children who might be attending secondary schools (the equivalent of high schools) do not. Around one billion adults lack one of the most basic skills taught in schools literacy.

Early Childhood Education Increases The Chances of Finding a Job


Bernstein, 7/01/09, senior economist (Jared, http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles? article=is_education_the_cure_for_poverty ,April 22, 2007 As Greg J. Duncan's companion piece (page A20) suggests, investment in early childhood has immense benefits. And at the other end of the schooling spectrum, college graduates' wage advantage over those with only a highschool diploma went up dramatically in the 1980s and early '90s. But the premium that high-school graduates enjoy over dropouts has been flat for decades. In 1973, high-school grads earned about 15.7 percent more per hour than dropouts, 15.9 percent in 1989, 16.1 percent in 2000, and 15.5 percent last year. And for adult workers, the historical record for job-training programs is pretty dismal, though more recent initiatives -- with their focus on more carefully ta rgeting training for local labor markets -- show much more promise.

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Solvency Head Start Solves Education

Head Start drastically improves education by boosting reading, writing, and IQ scores and improving graduation rates
Pelosi2007.ImprovingHeadStart.http://www.speaker.gov/legislation?id=0125

Head Start has been the premiere early childhood education program in the U.S. for more than 40 years. It has served more than 20 million children and their families in that time. The research shows that Head Start works. Research finds that children who attend Head Start enter school better prepared than low-income children who do not attend the program. The congressionally-mandated Impact Study found that after less than one school year, Head Start narrowed the achievement gap by 45 percent in prereading and by 28 percent in pre-writing. There is also research showing that Head Start students experience IQ gains and are less likely to need special education services, repeat a grade, or commit crimes in adolescence. They are also more likely to graduate from high school.

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Solvency Head Start Solves Education


Early education lowers drop out rates
Fightcrime.orgRenoLawEnforcement,AttorneyGeneral:DropoutRatesFueling ViolentCrimeIncreaseearlyeducationtoboostgraduationrates,cutcrime http://www.fightcrime.org/releases.php?id=400MattLambert,Communications Director

Nevada Attorney General Catherine Cortez Masto, Washoe County District Attorney Richard A. Gammick, Washoe County Sheriff Mike Haley held a special Back to School news conference today at Reno High School, releasing a new report showing the connection between Nevadas alarming dropout rates and violent crime and murder. Lyon County District Attorney Robert Auer and Washoe County Schools Superintendent Paul Dugan joined the group for the event. Currently, over half of Nevadas students fail to graduate on time, ranking the state as the lowest in the nation . High school dropouts are three and a half times more likely than graduates to be arrested and eight times more likely to be incarcerated. The new report entitled School or the Streets, shows that by increasing graduation rates by 10 percentage points, 45 murders and over 2,000 aggravated assaults could be prevented in Nevada every year. Our prisons are filled with people who didnt get a good start in life . Nearly 70 percent of our prisoners do not have a high school diploma, Haley said. The key to reducing crime and preventing dropouts is increasing the federal funding for high-quality early childhood programs, making Head Start and quality childcare available for all eligible kids. The report also shows that improving the quality and availability of prekindergarten programs will have the greatest impact on reducing the states high dropout rates. As it stands, Nevada ranks second to last in the number of young children covered by the state pre-k program and the federally-funded Head Start program less than 10 percent of eligible children. Masto, Gammick and Haley urged Nevadas Congressional delegation to expand federal support for high-quality early childhood education programs, such as Head Start, which are proven to improve school readiness and boost graduation rates in the long run. Research shows that children who receive quality early childhood education have a much better chance of finishing high school, Gammick said. We need the additional investments that can be made by our U.S. Congressmen and Senators to boost funding for early childhood programs to grow our graduation numbers in Reno and across the State. By earning a diploma, theyre more likely to find good jobs and contribute to our economy, instead of our prison population . The longterm benefits of early education include higher graduation rates, higher college enrollment, as well as significant reductions in crime. Most kids around the state are now back in classrooms, but we have to remember that some kids didnt show up. We are calling on Nevadas U.S. Senators and Representatives to intensify their efforts to increase support for Head Start, Early Head Start and the Child Care Development Block Grant, Masto said. Quality early care and education gets our at-risk kids on track for graduation, rather than incarceration.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency Head Start Solves the Economy


Participation in Head Start program is key to the economy.
American Economic ReviewSeptember2002(ElianaGarces,DuncanThomas,JanetCurrie,
AmericanEconomicReviewwritersLongerTermEffectsofHeadStartVolume9 Issue4,pages9991012)

Higher educational achievement is associated with many indicators of social and economic success in adulthood. In Panel C, we focus on one dimension of that success: annual earnings conditional on working.15 To smooth out year-to-year fluctuations (and fill in some missing values), we examine the logarithm of average earnings in each year the respondent reported working between the ages of 23 and 25. There is little evidence that Head Start is associated with higher earnings at this age except in the case of white children of high-school dropouts [see column (8)]. In this group, children who attended Head Start earn significantly more than their siblings who did not attend preschool and also more than those who attended other preschools (although this latter difference is not significant). It is reasonable to suppose that earnings benefits associated with Head Start may emerge more clearly as these people move through their working lives given the findings for schooling attainment above and the well-documented association between schooling and earnings. (We have also examined whether Head Start is associated with elevated rates of labor-force participation among young adults but we find no statistically significant effects.)

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency-Head Start Solves Crime

Early Education is the Best Way to Fight Incarceration


Fightcrime.orgRenoLawEnforcement,AttorneyGeneral:DropoutRatesFuelingViolent CrimeIncreaseearlyeducationtoboostgraduationrates,cutcrime http://www.fightcrime.org/releases.php?id=400MattLambert,CommunicationsDirector Nevada Attorney General Catherine Cortez Masto, Washoe County District Attorney Richard A. Gammick, Washoe County Sheriff Mike Haley held a special Back to School news conference today at Reno High School, releasing a new report showing the connection between Nevadas alarming dropout rates and violent crime and murder. Lyon County District Attorney Robert Auer and Washoe County Schools Superintendent Paul Dugan joined the group for the event. Currently, over half of Nevadas students fail to graduate on time, ranking the state as the lowest in the nation. High school dropouts are three and a half times more likely than graduates to be arrested and eight times more likely to be incarcerated. The new report entitled School or the Streets, shows that by increasing graduation rates by 10 percentage points, 45 murders and over 2,000 aggravated assaults could be prevented in Nevada every year. Our prisons are filled with people who didnt get a good start in life. Nearly 70 percent of our prisoners do not have a high school diploma, Haley said. The key to reducing crime and preventing dropouts is increasing the federal funding for high-quality early childhood programs, making Head Start and quality childcare available for all eligible kids. The report also shows that improving the quality and availability of pre-kindergarten programs will have the greatest impact on reducing the states high dropout rates. As it stands, Nevada ranks second to last in the number of young children covered by the state pre-k program and the federally-funded Head Start program less than 10 percent of eligible children. Masto, Gammick and Haley urged Nevadas Congressional delegation to expand federal support for high-quality early childhood education programs, such as Head Start, which are proven to improve school readiness and boost graduation rates in the long run. Research shows that children who receive quality early childhood education have a much better chance of finishing high school, Gammick said. We need the additional investments that can be made by our U.S. Congressmen and Senators to boost funding for early childhood programs to grow our graduation numbers in Reno and across the State. By earning a diploma, theyre more likely to find good jobs and contribute to our economy, instead of our prison population. The long-term benefits of early education include higher graduation rates, higher college enrollment, as well as significant reductions in crime. Most kids around the state are now back in classrooms, but we have to remember that some kids didnt show up. We are calling on Nevadas U.S. Senators and Representatives to intensify their efforts to increase support for Head Start, Early Head Start and the Child Care Development Block Grant, Masto said. Quality early care and education gets our at-risk kids on track for graduation, rather than incarceration.

38

Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency- Head Start Solves Crime


Early Education Creates Better Decision Makers- Preventing Crime
Marowitz 2000. [Leonard A., researcher for the office of the California Attorney General, Section IV,
Why Did the Crime Rate Decrease Through 1999?, December 2000, http://ag.ca.gov/cjsc/publications/misc/why/rpt.pdf] Finally, research studies consistently show that youth development programs that enhance decision making skills or parent-child relations, diversion interventions and family therapies, home visitation programs and quality pre-school education, quality after-school programs, and other primary prevention programs can divert youth from delinquent activity, [and] protect children and adults from violent crime, and provide positive returns on investment.10 In this regard, the State is encouraged by data unveiled in September 2007, by the U.S. Department of Education from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which showed that 4th grade readers in New Jersey are among the best readers in the nation. The NAEP scores also showed dramatic improvements in closing the achievement gap in New Jersey. For 4th grade reading, Black students scores increased by 12 points from 2003 to 2007, and the gap between Black and White students decreased by 10 points. This was one of the largest reductions in the achievement gap in the nation. For 4th grade math, the gap between Black and White students decreased by seven points over the same period, which was also one of the largest decreases in the nation. Black students scores increased 15 points, the largest such increase in the nation. There were also increases in test scores for Hispanic students in 4th grade reading.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency- Head Start Solves Laundry List


Head start prevents crime, saves money, and is good for the economy.
Bend Weekly News Sources, 2006 (BendWeeklyNewsSources,December8,2006,Oregon
LawEnforcementandBusinessLeadersCallonLawmakerstoIncreaseFederal FundingforHeadStart<www.bendweekly.com/LocalNews/1382.html>)
Attorney General Hardy Myers, Oregon law enforcement leaders and a representative of the business community released a report recently that shows Head Start not only prepares children to succeed in school, it

also prevents crime and savesOregon taxpayers money and is good for the economy. The report calls for increased investments to expand access to Head Start and improve the quality of programs. Providing Head Start with improved quality standards to all eligible Oregon children can generate tax savings of $200 for every Oregon household, according to the report. The savings will come from lower crime, special education and welfare costs plus increased tax revenue from higher earnings of adults who attended Head Start as kids. Both state and federal funds support Head Start in
Oregon. With an increase in state support already in Gov. Ted Kulongoskis proposed budget, the event focused on the need for increasing federal funding to serve all children from low-income families who are eligible under federal guidelines and to improve the quality of Head Start programs. The report, Investing in Oregon Head Start Saves Money, shows that 40 percent, or 6,400, eligible Oregon children are not served due to inadequate federal funding. The report was prepared by FIGHT CRIME: INVEST IN KIDS OREGON, a bipartisan, anti-crime organization of 137 police chiefs, sheriffs, district attorneys and violence survivors. Myers, Marion County District Attorney Walt Beglau, Keizer Chief of Police H. Marc Adams and John Baker, principle broker of Ned Baker Real Estate, Inc., released the report at a news conference at the Hawthorne Head Start Center. Martha Brooks, state director of FIGHT CRIME: INVEST IN KIDS OREGON, also participated in the news conference. A 2005 Zogby poll of

U.S. business leaders found that more than 80 percent agree investments in effective preschool programs -like Head Start-- would help the United States remain competitive with other countries and improve the quality of our workforce and our long-term economic outlook.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency- Head Start Solves Laundry List


Early Education Solves Rights, Freedom, Crime, ect..
BlumensonandNilsen2002.[EricandEvaS.,"HowtoConstructanUnderclass,OrTheWar onDrugsBecameaWaronEducation",May16,2002, http://www.dpfma.org/pdf/war_on_drugs_education.pdf] The bleak consequences of withdrawing educational access sweep well beyond those directly deprived. They extend to the entire society. A robust economy as well as our democratic survival requires a well-educated population. As the Supreme Court has stated, "Some degree of education is necessary to prepare citizens to participate effectively and intelligently in our open political system if we are to preserve freedom and independence."85 Another predictable outcome of educational deprivation is an increase in crime. There is a demonstrated correlation between the lack of secondary education and criminal behavior, a connection aggravated by expulsions that produce

unsupervised free time, bleak future prospects, and feelings of unjust treatment. One study concludes that "school personnel may simply be dumping problem students out
on the streets, only to find them later causing increased violence and disruption in the community . . . [W]e face serious questions about the longterm negative effects of one of the cornerstones of zero tolerance, school exclusion."89 As for prisoners, numerous studies show that prison education programs reduce recidivism rates,90 in some cases by a factor of four.91 A Rand study concluded that education is the most cost-effective crime prevention program available, and other studies confirm that investment in prisoner education more than pays for itself .92 The exploding incarceration rate and the termination of prison education programs were intended to "get tough" on criminals. But given the consequencesa multiplying recidivism rate93 at a time when an unprecedented 600,000 prisoners are returning to society per year94these policies are proving particularly tough on America.95

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency- Head Start Solves Womens Rights


Empirically, Child-Care Services have helped women remain in the work force through support in caring for their child.
JerryWolffe,2009,JournalRegisterNewsService.(Jerry,6/28/09.ChildCareGrantHelps WomanSaveHerJobTheDailyTribune. http://www.dailytribune.com/articles/2009/06/28/news/srv0000005710447.txt)

An Oakland County mother says a child-care grant from the Women's Caring Program put her life on a path toward success. Shynelle Reese, 34, of Royal Oak was the 2008 recipient of a grant from the nonprofit organization. An eligible family will receive 40 percent of the annual cost of child care and early education for one child per family, up to a maximum of $2,688, said Kelly Chesney, a member of the nonprofit's marketing committee. The grant is a one-time award for a period of 12 months. Eligibility requirements vary based on size of family and income. Maximum household income for a family of two can be $19,000 to be eligible for the grant to an income of $50,968 for a family.

Child Day Care Services solve best for working mothers who need assistance.
JerryWolffe,2009,JournalRegisterNewsService.(Jerry,6/28/09.ChildCareGrantHelps WomanSaveHerJobTheDailyTribune. http://www.dailytribune.com/articles/2009/06/28/news/srv0000005710447.txt)

"I wouldn't have been able to keep my job without the help with day care," said Reese, who works for Iron Mountain Inc. of Madison Heights. The company provides workers to businesses on a contractual basis. Reese is working in the medical records department at St. John's Health of Macomb in Warren. She said she was unable to find suitable and affordable day care for her daughter, LaSai, 6. "I just didn't want to leave my daughter with anyone willing to take her," she said. Her daughter is receiving day care at the Keller Elementary School in Royal Oak while her mother works from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. at the hospital.

42

Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency- Head Start Solves Womens Rights


Child-Care assistance does not cause dependency, and makes women more independent.
JerryWolffe,2009,JournalRegisterNewsService.(Jerry,6/28/09.ChildCareGrantHelps WomanSaveHerJobTheDailyTribune. http://www.dailytribune.com/articles/2009/06/28/news/srv0000005710447.txt)

Monthly day care costs are about $300, Reese said. But when she received the grant last fall, it cut her day care costs to about $180 a month. Reese said she has made other arrangements for day care when the 12-month day care grant expires in October. "When I received the grant, it was like a weight taken off of my shoulders," she said. "My family is supportive, but everyone has their own responsibility and no one could care for my daughter," she said. Reese said her life is better now, and she wouldn't accept a second grant from the nonprofit organization. "Even if they would give me another grant, I'd rather let it go to someone else who can use it," she said. "But without the grant (last year) I could have lost my job.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency- Womens Rights Key to Poverty Solvency


Poverty Caused by Violation of Rights
Includes commitments made at the Earth Summit in Rio, the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen, and the Habitat II conference in Istanbul, 1995, (http://www.pdhre.org/rights/women_and_poverty.html, p.1, March 6-12 1995) Poverty can also be caused by violations of human rights, particularly women's human right to nondiscrimination. When women are denied equal access to employment opportunities, are paid less than men for equal work, or are prevented by law or custom from owning or inheriting land, they are made vulnerable to poverty. When women are denied equal access to education, when they do not have the equal right to decide on the number and spacing of children, or when they have an unequal share of the responsibility for raising children, their ability to earn an income and to be protected from poverty is greatly compromised.

The "Feminization of Poverty" and Women's Human Rights


Moghadam, 2005, feminist scholar, activist, and author, whose work focuses on women in development, globalization, feminist networks, and female employment in the Middle East, (Valentine, http://portal.unesco.org/shs/en/ev.phpURL_ID=8282&URL_DO=DO_PRINTPAGE&URL_SECTION=201.html, p.1, July 2005) The paper finds cross-regional variation in the economic status of female-headed households, based partly on the social policy or political regime, and partly on womens access to employment and property. Intra-household inequalities are found to exacerbate the vulnerability of women and girls; the problem may be most severe in parts of South Asia, and may also vary by social class. The paper confirms that the poverty-inducing nature of neoliberal restructuring has been especially severe on women. Although the claim that the majority of the worlds poor are women cannot be substantiated, the disadvantaged position of women is incontestable. If poverty is to be seen as a denial of human rights, it should be recognized that the women among the poor suffer doubly from the denial of their human rights first on account of gender inequality, second on account of poverty. Therefore, programs to eliminate or alleviate poverty require attention to gender inequality and womens human rights.

Issue of Misinformation of Womens Rights


Shah, 2007, Master of Science in Environmental Engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA, (Anup, http://www.globalissues.org/article/166/womens-rights, p.1, February 15, 2007) Womens rights around the world are an important indicator of understanding global well-being. Many may think that womens rights are only an issue in countries where religion is law, such as many Muslim countries. Or even worse, some may think this is no longer an issue at all. But reading this report about the United Nations Womens Treaty and how an increasing number of countries are lodging reservations will show otherwise.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Solvency- Generic Poverty


The efforts that President Johnson put on to reduce poverty
Joseph A. Califano Jr. 5 31, 2008 http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy.samford.edu/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do ? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T6883416445&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=26 &resultsUrlKey=29_T6883415177&cisb=22_T6883416447&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi =8075&docNo=37

But his heart was in the War on Poverty. When Johnson took office, 22.2 percent of Americans lived in poverty. When he left, only 13 percent were living below the poverty line -- the greatest one-time poverty reduction in U.S. history. Johnson proposed and convinced Congress to enact Medicare, which today covers 43 million older Americans; Medicaid, which covers 63 million needy individuals; the loan, grant and work-study programs that more than 60 percent of college students use; aid to elementary and secondary education in poor areas; Head Start; food stamps, which help feed 27 million men, women and children; increases in the minimum Social Security benefit, which keep 10 million seniors out of poverty; and an array of programs designed to empower the poor at the grass roots.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extensions- Education key to Economy


Improving education in the US is key to solving the economy
PhysicsToday2009.Energy,education'key'torestartingUSeconomy,saysObama. http://blogs.physicstoday.org/politics/2009/02/energyeducationkeytorestar.html Right now, three-quarters of the fastest-growing occupations require more than a high school diploma. And yet, just over half of our citizens have that level of education. We have one of the highest high school dropout rates of any industrialized nation. And half of the students who begin college never finish. This is a prescription for economic decline, because we know the countries that out-teach us today will out-compete us tomorrow. That is why it will be the goal of this administration to ensure that every child has access to a complete and competitive education - from the day they are born to the day they begin a career.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extension- Leadership Solves Nuclear War


US leadership is essential to prevent global nuclear exchange.
Zalmay Khalilzad, RAND, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 1995 Under the third option, the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. On balance, this is the best long-term guiding principle and vision. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself, but because a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages. First, the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -- democracy, free markets, and the rule of law. Second, such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems, such as nuclear proliferation, threats of regional hegemony by renegade states, and low-level conflicts. Finally, U.S. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival, enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers, including a global nuclear exchange. U.S. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extension- Leadership Solves Global Econ Collapse


THE ONLY ALTERNATIVE TO U.S. HEGEMONY IS ANARCHY, EXTREMISM, AND GLOBAL ECONOMIC COLLAPSE
Ferguson,Prof.HistoryNYU,2004(Niall,FOREIGNPOLICY,July/August, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/files/story2579.php?)
But what if these esteemed theorists are all wrong? What if the world is actually heading for a period when there is no hegemon? What if, instead of a balance of power, there is an absence of power? Such a situation is not unknown in history. Although the chroniclers of the past have long been preoccupied with the achievements of great powers whether civilizations, empires, or nation-statesthey have not wholly overlooked eras when power receded. Unfortunately, the world's experience with power vacuums (eras of apolarity, if you will) is hardly encouraging. Anyone who dislikes U.S. hegemony should bear in mind that, rather than a multipolar world of competing great powers, a world with no hegemon at all may be the real alternative to U.S. primacy. Apolarity could turn out to mean an anarchic new Dark Age: an era of waning empires and religious fanaticism; of endemic plunder and pillage in the world's forgotten regions; of economic stagnation and civilization's retreat into a few fortified enclaves.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extension- Leadership solves genocide, poverty, and climate change


US leadership key to solve genocide, poverty, and climate change:
RomeshRatnesar,2/12/2007(Time;Lexis)

And Rice's decision to redouble her efforts in the Middle East means she will be less able to attend to other issues on which U.S. leadership could produce success--such as stopping genocide in Africa or fighting poverty in the developing world or tackling global climate change. Without sustained attention to those problems from America's top diplomat, the world won't make much progress toward finding solutions.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extensions Patriarchy=> Nuke War

PATRIARCHY RISKS NUCLEAR WAR


BettyReardon,Director,PeaceEducationProgram,Columbia,WOMENANDPEACE,1993, pp.301. A clearly visible element in the escalating tensions among militarized nations is the macho posturing and the patriarchal ideal of dominance, not parity, which motivates defense ministers and government leaders to strut their stuff as we watch with increasing horror. Most men in our patriarchal culture are still acting out old patterns that are radically inappropriate for the nuclear age. To prove dominance and control, to distance ones character from that of women, to survive the toughest violent initiation, to shed the sacred blood of the hero, to collaborate with death in order to hold it at bay all of these patriarchal pressures on men have traditionally reached resolution in ritual fashion on the battlefield. But there is no longer any battlefield. Does anyone seriously believe that if a nuclear power were losing a crucial, large-scale conventional war it would refrain from using its multiple-warhead nuclear missiles because of some diplomatic agreement? The military theater of a nuclear exchange today would extend, instantly or eventually, to all living things, all the air, all the soil, all the water. If we believe that war is a necessary evil, that patriarchal assumptions are simply human nature, then we are locked into a lie, paralyzed. The ultimate result of unchecked terminal patriarchy will be nuclear holocaust.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extensions- Poverty = Econ/ Envior


Poverty is the root of all impact including economy and enviroment
SOCIAL ISSUES .COM 06 Poverty Is the Root of All Evil
http://socialissues.wiseto.com/Articles/FO3020630249/ References: Fagan, Patrick F. "Single-Parent Families Are More Likely to Be Poor." Inner-City Poverty. Ed. Tamara L. Roleff. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003. Hollander, Jack M. "Poverty Causes Environmental Degradation." At Issue: Is Poverty a Serious Threat? Ed. Mercedes Munoz. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2006. Li, Quan and Drew Schaub. "Poverty Causes Terrorism." At Issue: Is Poverty a Serious Threat? Ed. Mercedes Munoz. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2006.

Poverty is the enemy. It attacks all ages, genders and can be found around the globe. Authorities on this subject have clear-cut ideas where to lay the blame. According to Patrick F. Fagan, who is the William H.G. FitzGerald Senior Fellow in family and cultural issues at the Heritage Foundation, believes that the likelihood of whether a child will live in poverty is greatly influenced by the marital status of the childs parents. Studies show that children of single parents are six times more likely to be impoverished than children whose parents are married Fagan asserts. Furthermore, divorce is closely linked to poverty: Almost half of all families that are broken by divorce become impoverished. Children born out of wedlock, especially to teenage mothers, also experience high rates of poverty, Fagan continues. This cycle often continues in the next generation, since children of single parents are more likely to get pregnant before marriage, which lessens the likelihood that they will complete their education and obtain a good-paying jobthus making it more likely that their children will also be raised in poverty. Jack M. Hollander, a professor of energy and resources at the University of California, Berkeley blames poverty for another problem: environmental degradation. The real enemy of the environment is povertythe tragedy of billions of the world's inhabitants who face hunger, disease, and ignorance each day of their lives. Poverty is the environmental villain; poor people are its victims. Impoverished people often do plunder their resources, pollute their environment, and overcrowd their habitats. They do these things not out of willful neglect but only out of the need to survive. Quan Li and Drew Schaub, professors of political science at Pennsylvania State University, extends the problems of privation ever further, alleging that the primary cause of terrorism is poverty. Because poverty causes feelings of military and economic inferiority, people affected by it choose violent means to express their discontent. Consistent with this argument, [President George W.] Bush claimed, in a widely cited speech, that the United States would fight against poverty because hope is an answer to terror.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extensions- Poverty = Dehum


Children Living in Poverty Conditions are Dehumanized
Thompson,Ph.D,ProfessorofPsychology,UniversityofCaliforniaDavis,2007(Ross,
February28,2007,ImprovingHeadStartforAmericasChildren,Hearingbeforethe SubcommitteeonEarlyChildhood,ElementaryandSecondaryEducation| CommitteeonEducationandLabor|U.S.HouseofRepresentativesOneHundred TenthCongress|FirstSession,57,http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hearings&docid=f:33396.pdf)

Much of the story of early experience and brain development has focused on encouraging parents to talk, read, and sing with their young children. This is worthwhile, and it further illustrates the integration of cognitive and noncognitive influences because of how parent-child interaction captures the childs attention, provokes preliteracy skills, and instills enthusiasm for learning. Over time, experiences of this kind at home and outside the home can strengthen brain areas related to early thinking and reasoning. But the influence of early experience is a double-edged sword because the experiences that shape brain architecture can be either positive or negative, nurturant or stressful. Each is incorporated into developing brain architecture. Unfortunately, for many young children in the United States, experiences of chronic stress, neglect, or deprivation are major architects of their brain development, and helps to account for some of the difficulties they face. This is because of how the brain responds neurobiologically to stress.17 Chronic experiences of severe stress, especially early in life, can alter the functioning of brain-based stress systemspotentially causing the person to become hyperresponsive even to mild stressorsand can have important effects on physical health, immunological capacity, and psychological well-being for this reason. Chronic stress can also influence cognitive functioning because, over time, the release of stress hormones can damage brain structures (such as the hippocampus) involved in learning and memory. These are some of the reasons that early deprivation and stress can have enduring, detrimental consequences for brain development, psychological growth, and physical health. Children in socioeconomic hardship are especially vulnerable to these stresses, and to the hazards they pose.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

Samford Debate Institute 2009 Novice Lab

Impact Extensions- Womens Rights


To overcome Us-Them stereotypes and thereby avoid genocide, it is necessary to allow cooperation among social groups, as men and women, particularly when they work together in that context.
Staub,1992.ErvinStaubPh.D.hasalsowrittenThePsychologyofGoodandEvil,and PositiveSocialBehaviorandMorality.Heisaprofessorofpsychologyatthe UniversityofMassachusettsatAmherst.(Ervin.July31,1992.TheRootsofEvil:The OriginsofGenocideandOtherGroupViolence.CambridgeUniversityPress.Pages 274275.http://books.google.com/books? hl=en&lr=&id=8V2jnSgfZccC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=causes+of+genocide+discrimi nation&ots=_gUiYU1eol&sig=gCT2_dEMSX0QhJS9gyDV0Ly_4bM)

As I have noted, human beings tend to create us them differentiations and stereotypes. Contrasting ourselves with others is a way to define the self. We see our values and way of life as natural and good and easily see others who diverge as bad. By preadolescence even trivial differences in clothing, musical preference, appearance, or behavior may cause substantial devaluation. Crosscutting relations (a term proposed by Morton Deutsch) among subgroups of society and between nations can overcome these tendencies. To evolve an appreciation of alikeness and a feeling of connectedness, members of subgroups of society must live together, work together, play together; their children must go to school together. Social psychologists found in the 1950s that given existing prejudice, it is not enough for blacks and whites simply to live near each other. To reduce prejudice requires positive contact. Later, as schools were integrated, minority children continued to do less well academically and had poor selfesteem. Cooperative learning procedures, which led to extensive interaction on an equal footing, increased the prosocial behavior or all children and the academic achievement and self-esteem of minority children. Real interaction in a framework of equality is essential for people to come to know and accept each other. Ideally, people will join in the pursuit of shared goals. Superordinate goals are goals that are shared by individuals or groups and that are higher in the hierarchy than other potentially conflicting goals. For example, in the civil rights movement in the United States, whites and blacks joined. In many other grassroots movements in the United States diverse groups of people work together. Economic well-being, protection of the environment, the creation of community, and working against nuclear destruction may become shared, superordinate goals.

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Head Start Aff Coulter Defoor Lewis

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Impact Extensions- Womens Rights

Charles Darwin argued that genocide ultimately leads to extinction.


Switek,2009.Heisasciencewriterwhofocusesonpaleontology,evolution,andthehistory ofscience.HealsowritesforSmithsonianmagazine.(Brian,6/1/09. http://scienceblogs.com/laelaps/2009/06/in_the_summer_of_1833.php) In the summer of 1833 Charles Darwin was exploring the South American landscape when he came across the army of the Argentine general Juan Manuel de Rosas. Though Darwin admired the commander's horsemanship and leadership, the general was engaged in the bloody extermination of native people from southern Argentina. As Darwin recounted in the Voyage of the Beagle, General Rosas's plan is to kill all stragglers, and having driven the remainder to a common point, in the summer, with the assistance of the Chilenos, to attack them in a body. This operation is to be repeated for three successive years. I imagine the summer is chosen as the time for the main attack, because the plains are then without water, and the Indians can only travel in particular directions. The escape of the Indians to the south of the Rio Negro, where in such a vast unknown country they would be safe, is prevented by a treaty with the Tehuelches to this effect;--that Rosas pays them so much to slaughter every Indian who passes to the south of the river, but if they fail in so doing, they themselves are to be exterminated. The war is waged chiefly against the Indians near the Cordillera; for many of the tribes on this eastern side are fighting with Rosas. The general, however, like Lord Chesterfield, thinking that his friends may in a future day become his enemies, always places them in the front ranks, so that their numbers may be thinned. This was genocide, a brutal campaign of extermination against native people, and this was far from an isolated event. From South America to Australia to Africa, it seemed that western powers were either trying to convert, enslave, or wipe out "savage" races of people. While he could understand the benefits the western powers were after (like arable land) Darwin was horrified by this trend. He was raised in a family with a strong abolitionist tradition and strongly believed that all races were members of just one species (not many, as some of his contemporaries affirmed). Still, there seemed little that could be done. While he certainly did not advocate such horrors the idea that some races or tribes might be driven to extinction by colonial powers seemed inevitable. Darwin's background and personal views on such atrocities are more fully detailed in Adrian Desmond and James Moore's recently-published tome Darwin's Sacred Cause, which I hauled along with me during my trip to Delaware. I have yet to finish it, so perhaps Desmond and Moore state what I am about to consider in the latter half of the book, but as I was reading it I could not help but wonder if Darwin's views of extinction were influenced by the attempts of western powers to wipe out or control native people in far off countries. When we discuss extinction today we often speak in terms of mass extinctions and catastrophic ecological events, like the aftermath of an asteroid striking

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the earth or rapid global climate change. Darwin, however, was writing at a time when such catastrophic events had been all but buried by uniformitarianism, or the gradual operation of more ordinary phenomena still observable today. (See S.J. Gould's Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle for more on this.) To suggest that massive floods or ice ages wiped out scores of organisms all at once required special pleading.

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Impact Extensions- Womens Rights


Womens Rights progress utilizes the ideology which ends other types of discrimination and brings different social groups together in a setting in which they work towards a common goal.
Buechler,1990,associateprofessorofsociologyatMankatoStateUniversityinMinnesota andtheauthorofTheTransformationoftheWomenSuffrageMovement:TheCase ofIllinois18501920..(StevenM,October1,1990,WomensMovementsinthe UnitedStates:WomenSuffrage,EqualRights,andBeyond.RutgersUniversity Press,Page85.http://books.google.com/books? hl=en&lr=&id=a9lFXY0kkEwC&oi=fnd&pg=PP11&dq=Women %27s+Rights+cause&ots=69fGMU93Oi&sig=fH3DpwwqHHIv1xHsMT9lb92Yk

Womens movements provide particularly good examples of the centrality of ideology in the generation of social movements. The structural dispersal of women throughout all classes, races, and other social groups constitutes a major barrier to the mobilization of womens movements. This barrier can sometimes be overcome by utilizing preexisting social networks as a nascent form of organization for movement mobilization, but many such networks exist without generating a womens movement. Ideology is a critical factor in politicizing such preexisting networks, generating collective identity, and motivating women to become involved in a womens movement. It is ideology that redefines traditional practices as instances of oppression, discrimination, or segregation, that frames particular issues as movement grievances and provides the required motivation for individuals to become active movement participants. The argument that grievances are a constant background factor fares particularly poorly in the case of womens movements. For most women throughout most history, sexist practices have been perceived as grievances that could be redressed through mobilization of a womens movement.

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Impact Extensions- Womens Rights


American women are in need of child care support, and lack of such support from the federal government can harm their ability to work and support families.
Zylan,2000.(HaswrittenaboutgenderandAmericansocialpolicyforSignsandthe AmericanJournalofSociology.Thisarticlewasdevelopedwhileshewasanassistant professorofsociologyattheUniversityofArizona.Theauthor'srecentwork continuestofocusonpoliticalsociologyanddiscourseanalysis.Shealsoispursuing adoctorofjurisprudence,doctoroflaw(JD).October2000.MaternalismRedefined: Gender,theState,andthePoliticsofDayCare,19451962Source:Genderand Society,Vol.14,No.5(Oct.,2000),pp.608629.Publishedby:SagePublications,Inc. URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/190452)

There is little question that the paucity of day care provision is becoming increasingly consequential for American women. According to data collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, by 1990, more than half of all mothers with a child younger than age three were employed outside of the home in either a full- or part-time capacity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1998, 98). In 1996, 55 percent of such mothers were employed; for mothers of children younger than age five, the number was 63 percent (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation 1998, 98). Because women continue to bear disproportionate responsibility for the care of children, the presence or absence of day care can have a significant effect on their ability to reconcile work and family demands.

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A2: How much does it cost


Full funding for the program would cost 40 billion dollars
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf

What would our proposal cost, and what would be the benets? Federal spending would be ap- proximately $6 billion higher than it is now during each of the first six years, enough to serve about ve hundred thousand children, which is almost the same as Head Start began with in 1965 (and more than half of what Head Start serves today). If all eligible children participated when the program was fully implemented, federal spending would be approximately $56 billion higher than it is under current law. Ultimately, the take-up rates would almost certainly fall somewhere below full par- ticipation. There is unavoidable uncertainty as to what that lower rate would be, but based on the experiences of other pre-K programs, it seems rea- sonable to make the rough guess that no more than 75 percent of eligible children would participate in the program. In that case, federal outlays would be no more than $40 billion higher than under cur- rent law, after taking into account the reallocation of current federal funds (as discussed below). The estimated benets to American society from these outlays would be on the order of about two times that amou nt.

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A2: Econ Disads


Substantive research shows that early childhood education programs pay for themselves
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf Other early education programs have also d e m onstrated encouraging evidence for long-term e f fects , such as the randomized experimental evaluation of Perry Preschool,
which revealed substantial long-term impacts on educational attainment and criminal behavior. Unfortunatel y, the experimental studies of Head Start and Early Head Start followed children for only one or two years after program participation, so ironclad evidence for the long-term effects on participants from these two large-scale programs is currently not available. Nevertheless , a

growing body of research p r o v i d e s at least suggestive evidence that even Head S t a r t may generate lasting impacts on children that y i e l d benets to society that are large enough to j u s t i f y program costs (Currie and Thomas 1995,
Currie 2001, Garces et al. 2002, Ludwig and Miller 2007, Ludwig and Phillips 2007). Hence, while Abecedarians benets were impressive compared with these other early education programs, it is also true t hat early education programs have generally d e m onstrated benets

exceeding their c o s t s .

The plan pays for itself


LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf

The important point is that while Head Start may have lost some effectiveness as part of the programs large scale compared with Perry as a model, Head Start is nonetheless an effective program. As men- tioned earlier, if the achievement impacts sum- marized in Table 2 persisted, they would be large enough to justify Head Starts costs (Krueger 2003, Ludwig and Phillips 2007). Although experimental data are not available on the long-term effects of Head Start on participants, fairly rigorous nonex- perimental studies yield encouraging evidence for Head Starts long-term effects on schooling, health, crime, and other outcomes, which together would be enough for the program to pass a benet-cost test (Currie and Thomas 1995, Garces et al. 2002, Ludwig and Miller 2007).

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Other examples of suc- cessful scaling-up in this area come from the variety of state pre-K programs that have been imple- mented and evaluated across the country (Gormley and Gayer 2005, Gormley et al. 2005, Barnett et al. 2005).

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States CP Thumper
Under the Success by Ten program mandates, federal funding would go directly to local providers this provides optimum in early education programs
LudwigandSawhill2007.(JensandIsabel.GeorgetownUniversity,NationalBureauof EconomicResearch,andTheBrookingsInstitution.InterveningEarly,Often,and EffectivelyintheEducationofYoung Children.TheHamiltonProject. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2007/02education_l

udwig/200702ludwig%20sawhill.pdf Funding would be jointly administered by t h e Department of Education and the Department o f Health and Human Services. As with the c u rr e n t Head Start system, the federal government w ou l d provide funding directly to the local providers, i n - stead of using state governments as i n t e r m e d ia r i e s , which is the practice with some current e du ca t i o n al and social programs . Competitive grants would be made based on the quality of the local plan; this quality would be evaluated based on, inter alia, a willingness to implement the key elements of Suc- cess by Ten, assurances that the two agencies (typi- cally Head Start and the local school) could work togethe r, a commitment by the school system to maintain electronic student-level data on children in their enrollment areas that would be made avail- able to program evaluators, and a willingness to allow the programs impacts and implementation to be independently evaluated. The key to our implementation strategy is to use lotteries to decide which of the communities sub- mitting acceptable proposals would receive Success by Ten funding during the early years of the phase- in. We expect that more communities would submit acceptable proposals than could be initially fund- ed.10 Using lotteries to determine which of these communities would receive funding not only would be fair, but also would support real-time program evaluation that would be as rigorous as a controlled, randomized experiment. Our proposal thus departs dramatically from the conventional practice of pay- ing lip service to the importance of evaluation but then implementing programs in ways that all but rule out the chance for truly rigorous study.

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Fed Key Warrants


The States Efforts In Pre-School Have Failed- Only the USFG Can Solve
Miller 09(Hon.George,Chairman,HouseCommitteeonEducationandLabor;THE
IMPORTANCEOFEARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENT;HEARINGbeforethe COMMITTEEONEDUCATIONANDLABORU.S.HouseofRepresentatives MARCH17,2009http://www.gpoaccess.gov/congress/house/education/index.html)

State efforts to promote family economic security are uneven. About half of the states raise the minimum wage and half exempt families from poverty from state income taxes. Most low income working parents are not eligible for public health insurance, and only six states provide paid family leave so mothers can stay home with their newborn and establish that strong nurturing relationship. If we expect parents to be their children's first and best teachers, then we have to provide the economic and parenting supports that allow them to do so. There are many choices that can help balance the three-legged stool of early childhood policy. My work focuses on state policies, but federal resource allocations and regulations shape many of these policies. My work shows the tremendous variation in the policy choices that states make, but federal policies can help level the playing field so children have access to quality supports and services regardless of where they are born. Today, we have a window of opportunity for federal leadership to stabilize and strengthen the three-legged stool as a result of the reauthorization of SCHIP, the additional funding in the Recovery Act, and the potential for early learning challenge grants. As you consider the federal role, please remember that learning begins at birth, that 1 year of pre-Kindergarten is not enough, and that vulnerable children have the most to gain from public policies that support their early development.

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Fed Key Warrants


The Federal Government Has Responsibility to Solve Head StartStates Fail
Bully-Cummings et al, Gorcyca, Wriggelsworth, Schweinhart, and Pelleran 2005. [Ella M., Chief
of Police in the Detroit Police Department; David G, Oakland Country Prosecutor; Gene L., Ingham County Sheriff; Lawrence J., Ph.D., President of High/Scope Educational Research Foundation; Kathy G., State Director of Fight Crime: Invest in Kids Michigan; "High-Quality Preschool: The Key to Crime Prevention and School Success in Michigan", 2005, http://fightcrime.org/reports/MIprek.pdf]

The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is a principal source of federal funding for early childhood care assistance, and is often the source of funds that help working families pay for wrap-around child care services. States are required to provide matching funds and can use these resources to help low-income families pay for early education and after-school services while the parent(s) is employed, attending educational or training programs,or looking for work. Though the system was designed to help all eligible children by providing subsidies, inadequate funding allows only a minority of children to be served. Nationally, only one in seven eligible children receive CCDBG subsidies. Federal CCDBG funds to Michigan totaled almost $143.1 million in 2004 and the state provided 40.8 million in matching funds. This total funding helps only approximately 50,100 Michigan children, of which approximately 6,500 are 3-yearolds and 6,500 are 4-year-olds. In the last few years, the state has narrowed its eligibility criteria, taking away wrap-around services for an estimated 3,000 families. The eligibility criteria will likely tighten even more in the next fiscal year, shutting out more children from high-quality preschool programs because their parents do not have wrap-around care.

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*****Case Neg***** Solvency Fronline


Standardized testing is critical to improve education.
JosephKennedy2008,(FormerChiefEconomist,U.S.Dept.ofCommerce),ENDING POVERTY:CHANGINGBEHAVIOR,GUARANTEEINGINCOME,AND REFORMINGGOVERNMENT,2008,91. The first is that teachers will only teach to the test. But if the test adequately reflects the general knowledge a child is expected to have in a certain class, it is hard to see the objection. The alterative surely cannot be to give the teacher total freedom without any check on whether knowledge is being conveyed. The object of the classroom is neither to have fun nor to fulfill the teacher's desire for professional fulfillment. The object is for students to learn, and that object cannot be made subject to any others.

High school graduation rates are increasing in the United states.


KatherineNewman2007,(Prof.Sociology,PrincetonU.),ENDINGPOVERTYINAMERICA: HOWTORESTORETHEAMERICANDREAM,2007,104. On average, high earnings go to those who complete college, and poverty awaits highschool dropouts. That message has clearly gotten through to most people in the United States, which is why we have seen the rates of high-school graduation climb higher and higher, even among poor minorities.

States are providing educational reform and school vouchers now.


GeneWhilhoit2007,(Dir.,CouncilofChiefStateSchoolOfficers),FEDERALFUNDING FORTHENOCHILDLEFTBEHINDACT,Hrg.,SenateAppropriationsComm.,Mar. 14,2007,73. For more than a decade, States have aggressively pursued the path of standards-based reform putting in place the core foundations of more rigorous standards, robust assessment systems, accountability for schools and districts, and comprehensive data collection and reporting.

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Solvency Frontline
Educational reform cannot solve for after-school activities which are the root of the problem.
SusanNeuman2009,(Prof.,EducationalStudies,U.Michigan),CHANGINGTHEODDS FORCHILDRENATRISK:SEVENESSENTIALPRINCIPLESOFEDUCATIONAL PROGRAMSTHATBREAKTHECYCLEOFPOVERTY,2009,155. But what if the supposed failure of schools to close the achievement gap is altogether misleading? Children spend only 20% of their waking hours in school, leaving many hours free each day, including 185 fully free days. What if the large proportion of out-of-school time accounts for the gap in achievement? This is the great insight exploited by Doris Entwisle and Karl Alexander in their 1997 book Children, Schools and Equality. Back-mapping high school achievement scores for over 900 Baltimore students into their developmental precursors at the time of school entry, they found to their astonishment that poor and middle-income children make comparable achievement gains during the school year. It was the out-of-school time that made a difference. Although the middle-class children continued to make gains during after-school hours and in the summer, poor or disadvantaged children lost ground academically.

Education is slowly getting better in the united states. it would be irresponsible to change policies at this stage.
HenryLevin2007,(Prof.,Economics&Education,ColumbiaU.),NORTHCAROLINALAW REVIEW,June2007,1417. Are we making progress in providing the types of educational experiences that will bring students from low-income families into the academic mainstream? My own impression is that we are making slow progress. Litigation and political pressures are creating greater equity in educational spending and teacher allocations among schools. States and school districts are considering or adopting policies to improve the working conditions and salary incentives that will make teaching in schools with low-income students more attractive for highly qualified teachers. School practices are also changing in the right direction.

Abandoning the educational groundwork weve laid risks backsliding


GeneWhilhoit2007,(Dir.,CouncilofChiefStateSchoolOfficers),FEDERALFUNDING FORTHENOCHILDLEFTBEHINDACT,Hrg.,SenateAppropriationsComm.,Mar. 14,2007,73.

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To date, we have not seen the kind of dramatic returns in student achievement that we must see. Why is that? I believe that it is because we have yet to complete the theory of standards-based reform, at least on a national scale. It would be a grave mistake to abandon the solid groundwork that is just now beginning to show results.

States CP Solvency
STATES OFFER PRE-KINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS.
WendyBarnard2007,(Evaluation&ResearchSpecialist,U.ofPittsburghOfficeofChild Development),EVIDENCEBASEDPRACTICESANDPROGRAMSFOREARLY CHILDHOODCAREANDEDUCATION,2007,82. More states are now funding or supplementing federal funding for prekindergarten programs. Because of the consistent evidence that early childhood education increases children's ability to do well in kindergarten and beyond, many states are taking the initiative to provide prekindergarten to children. While only two states fund universal enrollment, 36 states are providing preschool programs to children living in poverty.

STATE-BASED PRE-KINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS ARE CHEAPER AND MORE EFFECTIVE THAN HEAD START.
WendyBarnard2007,(Evaluation&ResearchSpecialist,U.ofPittsburghOfficeofChild Development),EVIDENCEBASEDPRACTICESANDPROGRAMSFOREARLY CHILDHOODCAREANDEDUCATION,2007,75. In addition, the most recent evaluation found that children who were in the Georgia prekindergarten program "caught up" with children attending private prekindergarten programs in the state on kindergarten readiness skills (premath, letter-word recognition, vocabulary, story/print comprehension, and basic skills mastery). Moreover, children in the state prekindergarten program outperformed children in Georgia's Head Start program on letter-word recognition, vocabulary, and story/print recognition.

Head Start is 50% more expensive than state education programs and is less effective
DouglasBesharov2008,(Prof.,PublicPolicy,U.Maryland),FROMTHEGREATSOCIETY TOCONTINUOUSIMPROVEMENTGOVERNMENTTHEHOPESOFAN IMPATIENTINCREMENTALIST,Nov.7,2008,3.

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So, more money would undoubtedly help, assuming it was spent wisely. A giant assumption, though. Head Start already costs about 50 percent more than high quality, state-run pre-K programs with much poorer results.

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Head Start Bad

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BENEFITS OF HEAD START FADE OUT AFTER JUST A FEW YEARS.


DouglasBesharov2008,(Prof.,PublicPolicy,U.Maryland),HANDBOOKOFFAMILIES& POVERTY,2008,351. Most careful evaluations of actual Head Start programs are much less rosy. They have repeatedly shown either small effects or effects that, like those in the 1969 Westinghouse Study, fade out within a few years. No scientifically rigorous study has ever found that Head Start itself has a meaningful and lasting impact on disadvantaged young people. Upon reflection, this should not come as any surprise, given the large cognitive and social deficits that Head Start children evidence even after being in the program for 2 years (unless one thinks these children would be much worse off without Head Start).

LONG-TERM STUDIES OF HEAD START DEMONSTRATE THAT IT HAS MINIMAL BENEFITS.


DouglasBesharov2008,(Prof.,PublicPolicy,U.Maryland),HANDBOOKOFFAMILIES& POVERTY,2008,351352. Responding to the GAO report, in 1998, Congress required the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to conduct another national evaluation of Head Start. To its credit, the Clinton administration took this mandate seriously and initiated a 383-site, randomized experiment (the gold-standard of evaluation) involving about 4,600 children. (In fact, throughout his presidency, President Bill Clinton and his appointees were strongly supportive of efforts to improve Head Start, even to the point of defunding especially mismanaged local programs.) Sadly, the first-year findings from this Head Start Impact Study, released in June 2005, showed little meaningful impact on disadvantaged children.

HEAD START PROGRAMS HAVE NUMEROUS ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS.


E.JaneIrons2007,(Prof.,EducationalLeadership,LamarU.),THECHALLENGESOFNO CHILDLEFTBEHIND,2007,65. Based on the GAO report, some congressmen expressed concern about management of Head Start and called for increased monitoring of grantees by Health and Human Services. The study by the GAO followed headline stories about some Head Start directors receiving six-figure salaries and spending money on travel and cars. Last year nearly 1,700 Head Start programs received $6.8 billion in federal funding.

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Head Start Bad


HEAD START PROGRAMS ARE NOT COST EFFECTIVE.
JensLudwig2007,(Prof.,GeorgetownU.PublicPolicyInstitute),THEBENEFITSAND COSTSOFHEADSTART,2007,5. One benchmark that has been used to gauge the size of Head Start's impacts is relative to the scale of the social problem that is being addressed. For example Besharov reviews the Westat report and argues "these small gains will not do much to close the achievement gap between poor children (particularly minority children) and the general population. We should expect more of a program that serves almost 900,000 children at a cost of $9 billion a year."

Head Start is extremely inefficient and is not cost effective


RonHaskins,(Sr.Fellow,BrookingsInstitution),INVESTINGINEARLYEDUCATION: PATHSTOIMPROVINGCHILDREN'SSUCCESS,Hrg.,HouseCommitteeon Education&Labor,Jan.23,2008,49. Even after more than four decades or operation, we are now spending 57 billion on a program that produces only modest impacts on students, as measured both in a national survey of several thousand Head Start students and in a nationallyrepresentative random-assignment study.

FUNDING INCREASES FOR HEAD START WILL NOT TRANSLATE TO ACHIEVEMENT INCREASES.
JensLudwig2007,(Prof.,GeorgetownU.PublicPolicyInstitute),THEBENEFITSAND COSTSOFHEADSTART,2007,15. Ludwig and Miller find that a 50-100% increase in Head Start funding does not lead to statistically significant increases in student achievement test scores in 8th grade in either math or reading, although they cannot rule out impacts smaller than around . 2 standard deviations. Nor do they have adequate sample sizes to examine impacts on test scores separately for blacks and whites. Unfortunately not much is currently known about Head Start's causal effects on short-term non-cognitive outcomes for earlier cohorts of program participants.

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