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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power

1.

(a)

Comment on use of weighing Clear statement correctly identifying weight or mass (or their units) e.g. kg a unit of mass, not weight (1)

(b)

Calculation to check statement Use of equation of motion to show time or distance (1) Answer to 2 sig figs [120 m or 4.5 s] [no ue] (1) Example of calculation: s = ut + at2 s = 0 + 9.81 m s2 (5s)2 OR s = 123 m OR 100 = 0 + 9.81 m s2 t2 t = 4.5 s

(c)

Calculation of kinetic energy Either Use of equation(s) of motion which allow(s) v2 or v to be found (1) Recall of ke = mv2 (1) Answer [69 000 J] (1) OR Recall of Ep = mgh (1) Substitution (1) Answer [69 000 J] (1) Example of calculation: 2 = u2 + 2as 2 = 0 + 2 9.81 m s2 100 m 2 = 1962 m2 s2 ke = 1/2 mv2 = 69 000 J (68 670 J) OR gpe = mgh gpe lost = 70 kg 9.81 N kg1 100 m gpe lost = 69 000 J (68 670 J) [so ke = 69 000 J because ke gained = gpe lost]

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2.

(i)

Work done Use of work done = force distance (1) Answer given to at least 3 sig fig. [2396 J, 2393 J if 9.8 m s2 is used, (1) 2442 J if g = 10 m s2 is used. No ue.] Work done = 110 kg 9.81 m s2 2.22 m = 2395.6 J 2

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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power (ii) Power exerted Use of power = work done or power = F v (1) time Answer: [799 W. 800 W if 2400 J is used and 814 W if 2442 J is used. Ecf value from (i)] (1) Power =
2396 J 3s = 798.6 W

(iii)

Principle of Conservation of Energy Either Energy can neither be created nor destroyed (1) (1) OR Energy cannot be created/destroyed or total energy is not lost/gained (1) (merely) transformed from one form to another or in a closed/isolated system. (1) [Simple statement Energy is conserved gets no marks] [Information that is not contradictory ignore. Q = U + W, with terms defined acceptable for 1st mark]

(iv)

How principle applied to... Lifting the bar: Chemical energy (in the body of the weightlifter) or work done (lifting bar) = (gain in) g.p.e. (of bar) (1) [Reference to k.e. is acceptable] The bar falling: Transfer from g.p.e. to k.e. (1) (and that) g.p.e. lost = k.e. gained (1) [g.p.e. converted to k.e. would get one mark] [References to sound and thermal energy are OK, but gpe to sound or thermal energy on its own gets no marks]

(v)

Speed of bar on reaching the floor Setting mv2 = m g h or mv2 = work done or 2400 J (1) [ecf their value] [Shown as formulae without substitution or as numbers substituted into formulae] Correct values substituted (1) [allow this mark if the 110 kg omitted substitution gives v2 = (1) 43.55(6) m2 s2 or 44.4 m2 s2 if g = 10 m s2 is used] Answer: [6.6 m s1. 6.7 m s1 if g = 10 m s2 is used.]

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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power 110 kg v2 = 110 kg 9.81 m s2 2.22 m or = 2400 J / 2396 J v = 6.6 m s1 [6.66 m s1 if 10 m s2 used] (1) OR Selects v2 = u2 + 2as or selects 2 relevant equations (1) Correct substitution into equation (1) Answer [6.6 m s1] (1) v2 = 0. + 2 9.81 ms2 2.22m v = 6.6 m s1 3
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3.

(a)

(i)

Explain the shape of the graph in the part labelled AB Force proportional to extension / obeys Hookes law (1) 1

(ii)

Explain what is happening in the part of the graph labelled CD. Fully compressed / coils closed (accept cup/bug/toy touches base) (1) 1

(b)

Show that the stiffness of the spring is about 1000 N m1. State k = 1/gradient or use of values in k = F / x (1) Correct answer to at least 2 s.f. [1100 N m1] (1) (Values from graph must be within half a square) (Accept 1000 N m1 to only 1 s.f. if the answer given by the values used from the graph is 1.0 103 N m1 to 2 s.f.) Example of calculation k=F/x = 20 N / 0.019 m = 1050 N m1

(c)

(i)

Calculate the energy stored in the spring at this stage State area under graph or use of energy = 1/2 Fx or state energy = 1/2 kx2 (1) correct answer [0.17 J] (1) [ecf for k] (Values from graph must be within half a square) Example of calculation energy = 1/2 Fx = 1/2 19.2 N 0.018 m = 0.17 J

(ii)

Calculate the maximum height reached by the bug. Use of gpe = mgh (1) correct answer [2.4 m] (1) [ecf] Example of calculation 0.17 J = mgh h = 0.17 m / 7.3 103 kg x 9.81 N kg1 = 2.4 m

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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power (iii) State an assumption made in your calculation all elastic pe ke of bug gpe of bug (2 out of 3) / all stored energy (of the spring) transferred to the toy / no energy lost due to air resistance (1) (d) Explain the advantage of using the video camera improves accuracy/reliability/precision (1) eliminate reaction time in looking / can slow down and stop (to take reading) etc (1) (e) Comment on this data Has not included 0.36 / has not included the anomalous result / 0.36 is anomalous/outlier etc (1) 1
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4.

Show that average daily capacity provides about 2 1013 J Ep = mgh (1) = (28 106 m3 103 kg m3) 9.81 N kg1 64.5 m = 1.8 1013 J [no up] (1) 2

Calculation of efficiency over one year Efficiency = (useful energy output/total energy input) 100% 6.1 1015 J (1) 365 1.77 1013 J (1) 100% = 94.4 % [Accept fractional answers. Allow use of 2 1013 J, which gives 83.6%, or ecf, but check nos.] (1) Calculation of average power output over year P = W/t (1) = 6.1 1015 J 3.16 107 s = 1.9 108 W (1) Reason for difference from max power output Any sensible reason, e.g., river flow varies over the year / variations in rainfall [Accept answers related to demand] (1) 1
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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power 5. Calculate kinetic energy Ek = m 2 (1) Ek = 1800 kg (53 m s1)2 = 2.53 106 J (1) Show that max height would be about 140 m Ep = mgh (1) Initial Ek = final Ep/ m2 = mgh/2.53 106 J = mgh (1) h = 2.53 106 J/(1800 kg 9.81 N kg1) h = 143 m [no ue] (1) OR 2

2 = u2 + 2as
0 m2 s2 = (53 m s1)2 + 2 ( 9.81 m s2) s [subst] (1) s = (53 m s1)2 (2 9.81 m s2) [rearrangement] (1) s = 143 m [no ue] (1) Show that energy loss is about 3 105 J Ep = 1800 kg 9.81 N kg1 126 m = 2.22 106 J (1) Ek Ep = 2.53 106 J 2.22 106 J = 3.1 105 J [no ue] (1) OR For 143 m Ep = 1800 kg 9.81 N kg1 143 m = 2.53 106 J For 126 m Ep = 1800 kg 9.81 N kg1 126 m = 2.22 106 J (1) Energy lost =2.53 106 J 2.22 106 J = 3.1 105 J [no ue] (1) OR Energy lost = 1800 kg 9.81 N kg1 (143 m 126 m) (1) = 3.1 105 J [no ue] (1) Calculation of average resistive force Work = force distance (1) Force = work distance = 3.1 105 J 126 m = 2500 N (1) 2 2 3

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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power Calculation of time for climb s = (u + v) t (1) t = 2s (u + v) = 2 126 m 53 m s1 = 4.8 s (1) [Use of g = 9.81 m s2 in equations of motion to get a consistent value of t [ = u + at t = 5.4 s] 1 mark] Assumption: eg assume uniform acceleration/constant resistive force/ constant frictional force (1) 6. Show that expected speed is about 35 m s1 Ek = mv2 and Ep = mgh (1) mv2 = mgh (1) v= =
2 gh

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( 2 9.81 N kg 1 64 m) 3
1), evaluation (1)]

= 35.4 ms1 [No ue] (1) [For v2 = u2 + 2as mark u = 0 (1), rest of substitution Assumption No resistive force, all gpe ke, constant accn (1) [Do not accept g = 9.81 m s2] Reason for lower speed Work done against resistive force/frictional forces oppose motion/ (1) some g.p.e. heat/sound ... reduces maximum kinetic energy / acceleration is reduced/less than (1) 9.8 m s2 Calculate efficiency Efficiency = (actual max k.e. theoretical max k.e.) 100%
OR efficiency = (actual max k.e. initial p.e.) 100% (1)

= (mact2 mth2) 100%


(32.5 m s 1 ) 2 100% (35.4 m s 1 ) 2

OR = ( m act2) (mgh) 100%

(32.5 m s 1 ) 2 100% (1) 9.8 64 3

= 84.2% (1) Reason why speed greater than expected e.g. motor assisted / initial speed > 0 / run up before drop (1)

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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power 7.

(a)

Sketch a vector diagram Correct diagram closed polygon, accept a triangle using the resultant of lift and weight, but arrows must follow correctly. Must show sequence of tip-to-tail arrowed vectors.

(b)

Find the tension in the string. Use of trigonometrical function for the horizontal angle (allow mark for vertical angle if correct and shown on dia) Correct answer for horizontal angle (32.8) Use of Pythagoras or trigonometrical function for the tension Correct answer for tension magnitude (7.1 N)
Example of calculation weight lift = 3.86 N from horizontal, tan (angle) = 3.86 N/ 6.0 N angle = 32.8 T2 = Fh2 + Fv2 = (6.0 N)2 + (3.86 N)2 T = 7.1 N

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(c)

(i)

Calculate the work done by the girl. Use of W = Fs Correct answer (150 J)
Example of calculation W = Fs = 6.0 N 25 m = 150 J

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(ii)

Calculate rate at which work is done Finds time Correct rate (12 W)
Example of calculation t = s/v = 25 m / 2.0 m s1 = 12.5 s P = 150 J / 12.5 s = 12 W
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MARKSCHEMETutorial3Work,Energy&Power 8.

(a)

Explain this demonstration and the need for the precautions. QWC spelling of technical terms must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence Max 4 from this part It will not strike the students face / at most will just touch / returns to starting point (1) The total energy of the pendulum is constant / energy is conserved (1) It cannot move higher than its starting point (1) because that would require extra gpe (consequent on previous mark) (1) Mention specific energy transfer: gpe ke / ke gpe (1) Energy dissipated against air resistance (1) will stop it quite reaching its starting point (consequent on attempt at describing energy loss mechanism) (1) Max 4 from this part Pushing does work on the ball / pushing provides extra energy (1) If pushed, it can move higher (accept further) (1) will hit the student (1) If the face moves (forward) the ball may reach it (before it is at its maximum height) OR if the face moves (back) the ball wont reach it (1)

Max 6

(b)

(i)

Calculate the gravitational potential energy gained by the ball. Use of gpe = mgh Correct answer (100 J)
Example of calculation gpe = mgh = 7 kg 9.81 N kg1 1.5 m = 103 J

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(ii)

Calculate the speed of the ball at the bottom of its swing Use of ke = 1/2 mv2 Correct answer (5.4 m s1)
Example of calculation 103 J = 1/2 mv2 v = (2 103 J / 7 kg) = 5.4 m s1 (Use of 100 J 5.3 m s1)
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