Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING & GRAPHICS CH (1+2)

Lecture 4: Elements of perspective drawing

Dr. Mohsin Siddique Asst. Prof. Dept. of Civil Engineering FAST-NU

ISOMETRIC AND PERSPECTIVE VIEWS BASICS

Isometric or perspective views are of great importance to architect, draftsman, town planners and engineers as these help them in conveying their perceived objects to the laymen and unskilled workers before construction of the project.

Types of three dimensional views

▫ (1). Isometric Projection

▫ (2). Axonometric Projection

▫ (3). Oblique Projection

(4). Perspective Projection

ISOMETRIC AND PERSPECTIVE VIEWS BASICS

Isometric views: It is drawn by imagining the objects principal three edges making equal angles with the plane of projection.

Axonometric view: It is drawn to show the upper part in more details. The objects principal edges are imagined to be making 60 o on one side and 30 o on other side with the horizontal plane.

Oblique view: When one side of object is to be shown clearly, this view is used. The front object is kept parallel to the plane of projections and one edge is inclined at 30 o -45 o to the horizontal.

Perspective view: It shows an object in its true shape as it appears to the eye.

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
BASICS
PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS

Perspective view or projection gives the appearance of an object as it appears to the human eye.

It is similar to photographic picture.

In a perspective projection all the projectors appear to meet at a point e.g., if an observed stand in the railway track, the railway lines appear to meet at a point.

If such a view is drawn with the help of drawing instrument on a plane, it is know as perspective projection.

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
TECHNICAL TERMS

Picture Plane: The imaginary vertical plane between the observer and the object on which the perspective is obtained is know as picture plane. It is abbreviated as PP

Ground Line: The line of intersection of ground plane and vertical or picture plane is called ground line and it is denoted by GL.

Center of vision: The point where the line of vision pierce the picture plane is centre of vision.

Horizon: Horizontal line drawn through center of vision on the picture plane.

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
TECHNICAL TERMS

Station Point: It is the point of sight where all projector converge

Vanishing Point: It is a point on the picture plane where all the parallel lines appear to converge.

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
TECHNICAL TERMS

Angle of vision: Draw the plan of the object. Join the station point with two extreme corners of the object. These two extreme corner lines enclose the Arc of Vision. The angle formed between these lines is known as angle of vision.

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
TECHNICAL TERMS

Measuring line: The intersection of the plan of the object with picture plane gives the true height at the point of intersection, when measured in elevation. So any side of the object which lies in picture plane shows the true height of the object.

Eye level: It is a line at the eye-level of the observer and is represented by straight line. Its true height is observed from ground line.

CLASSIFICATION OR PERSPECTIVE

Linear Perspective

▫ One-point perspective

▫ Two Point perspective

▫ Three point perspective

ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE

When all set of parallel lines appear to converge at a single point of convergence, the perspective is called one point perspective.

The set of horizontal and vertical lines of the object which are in the picture plane or parallel to it shows their true height and width in the front.

The depth lines converge towards a common vanishing point

ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE

Can you locate the Horizon Line?

How did you determine this? Can you find the vanishing point in this picture?

ONE POINONE POINT PERSPECTIVET

The red line is the Horizon Line.

ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE

Can you locate the vanishing point?

TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE

Face of the object is kept inclined to the picture plane while drawing it.

There are two vanishing points:

one on the left and other on the right side.

This perspective is used for buildings and other engineering assemblies.

It shows more than one face of building and thus makes this type of perspective more illustrative.

TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE

Locate Vanishing Point

TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE

Objects seen at an angle would be drawn with two-point perspective using two vanishing points.

THREE POINT PERSPECTIVE

In this perspective, all the three sets of parallel lines converge at three different vanishing points.

This is mainly used for drawing perspective of very tall building or towers, since the vertical set of parallel line also appear to converge at a vanishing point.

REFERENCES

A course in Civil Engineering Drawing

By V.B Sikka