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Digging Pen replaces spade His father and grandfather digging (potatoes important to Ireland) is parallel to his digging as a poet He has admiration for fathers digging, but he chose another path Personal choice as child spade vs. pen? i. Breaking legacy as writer Tight connection between digging and poetry both are digging into something i. Spade- digging into ground and nature ii. Pen digging into past and psyche Structure i. The stanzas getting longer represents digging deeper and deeper ii. Slant rhyme iii. First two stanzas are perfect rhyme (nostalgic - looking down from window during childhood) childish poetry almost simple iv. Dense stanzas have dense content hard work is dense 2. Death of a Naturalist Theres a special day... JUSTIN Transition from sheltered, childish ideas of reproduction to more mature and grotesque understanding of the details of sex Shift between pretty imagery to gross imagery (some foreshadowing and setup to gross imagery) i. In the first stanzas he sees the gross aspects, but they are overshadowed by the fun, childish aspects ii. Jam pots of jelly = sweet Death of a Naturalist- used to love nature, but then found out the truths i. Metaphorical death of his internal curiosity about sex 3. Bog Queen Look up historical context in packet Heaney creates the persona of the Queen to represent how no matter your position in the would, everyone and everything goes back to the earth becoming one with the earth i. Heaney likes to make connections to nature ii. Metaphor of Britain robbing Ireland iii. Metaphor for how people treat the earth Heaney talking in first person i. Creating persona of Bog Queen ii. Gives a very personal perspective iii. She seems alive you can hear her thoughts Imagery i. Disgusting, muddy, rotting ii. But with diction Heaney twists it into something beautiful

iii. A lot of motherly imagery Ireland 4. The Grauballe Man Look up historical context Beautiful or atrocious? i. Final answer of Heaney its disgusting shown in last stanza Heaneys reaction to seeing the Grauballe man for the first time i. Image stuck with him he cant shake it ii. Reminded him of Irish Troubles First stanza thrown right into imagery and poem i. Vague pronoun he ii. Gets reader to wonder right from the beginning First 7 stanzas comparing to non- human objects i. Inhuman ii. Depressing tone 9th stanza i. in a photograph, a head and shoulder out of the peat, bruised like a forceps baby ii. Strong birth imagery iii. Rough birth forceps iv. Sacrifice victim for rebirthing in spring to appease gods 5. Punishment Sees a hanged bog person she was hanged for adultery At end he is connecting her to women of Ireland who have been convicted of consorting with British soldiers Guilt is showing through i. He sees that it is wrong but he didnt do anything about it guilt is coming through Scapegoat = biblical allusion for Leviticus Whoever is unearthed... it will still be one of us the person who rises to the surface is one you recognize from your own life- everyone can make connections i. The situations of the past are replicated at the railings of Belfast ii. Embracing her as one of his someone he knew Numbering bones i. Biblical allusion for psalm 21 ii. Museums number bones on display 6. North VIKINGS North as the name i. Heaney is expecting northing/guiding lights but none are coming so he needs to continue his exploration First poem in the book North i. Showing his critics and readers that hes not going to rest

Heaney feels like he is an Irish raider i. He feels like he cant rest because he has to face critics and because his ancestors never rested (the Vikings) Kenning i. Two words together to make a poetic expression ii. Word-hoard Trip to bay to find calm and counseling to relieve tension i. Tensions not relieved. Instead he finds/remembers his history as Viking and his people. Struck with history of Ireland and everything they had to overcome just like how he has to overcome critics ii. He shouldnt rest just because he has critics 2nd to last stanza- advice to himself (especially) i. Use the darkness instead of the guiding light to find your way ii. The guiding light wont always be there and it wont be easy/clear 7. Blackberry Picking Title describes pulling fruit from vine its important that its picking but not eating Religious imagery wine, flesh, blood Childhood innocence spoils i. Coming to age Disillusion of childhood and innocence blackberries go bad eventually i. As you harvest products of life some things can go bad and they arent so sweet 8. Mid-Term Break Title- usually brings positive thoughts of vacation LARGE contrast with his break Heaneys emotions are explored and slightly understated considering his young four year old brother dies He also explores everyone elses emotions mothers, fathers, neighbors Life keeps going even if someone dies theres a young baby in poem 9. The Harvest-Bow 10.From the Frontier of Writing 11.Hercules & Antaeus Hercules is the son of Zeus and mortal First Stanza Hes of royal blood Antaeus is son of Gaia (the earth) gains strength from earth He would challenge those passing by to a wrestling match and then kill them Antaeus and Hercules fight Hercules couldnt figure out why every time he threw off Antaeus, Antaeus came back stronger

Like a baby and its mother, Antaeus feeds off the earth Hercules beats him by lifting him off of the ground (away from the earth; therefore away from his power source) Word Choice Pap for the dispossessed - semiliquid food given to babies (breast feeding).. for people robbed of land story is feeding people who were removed from land Stories of defeat nourished the Irish who were torn of land 12.St. Kevin & the Blackbird He was a saint.. his name was Kevin... and he had a blackbird Symbolizes God who inconveniences himself to love us i. holy man and his statues always have a blackbird ii. blackbird usually symbolizes death... this is weird ^ iii. describes him has kneeling with arms stretched out which makes him seem humble as if hes worshipping iv. arms stretched out is like crucifixion As a crossbeam is like a cross third stanza - feels warm eggs of blackbird i. having eggs is like having life ii. warmth is like life iii. contrast to blackbird (death) into the network of eternal life i. symbolizes heaven shift after 4th stanza i. since the whole thing is imagined anyhow 1. what whole thing? ii. is our god imagined? iii. do we really know about our faith? self forgetful or in agony all the time i. which? contrasting itself ii. self forgetful- past the point of pain 6th stanza - questioning how he feels i. does he notice the pain or is he so invested that it doesnt matter 7th stanza - loves deep river i. saying that he is doing this out of love ii. river is ever changing and eternal ... like love iii. to labor and not seek reward 1. doing it out of true love and not looking for anything out of it 8th stanza - a prayer his body makes entirely ii. hes fully devoted iii. for he has forgotten self 1. not thinking of himself - devoted to bird

iv. forgotten the rivers name 1. name isnt important because love isnt a name and does not need a label through suffering we reach our higher purpose the questions throughout make us think St. Kevin = JESUS 13.Exposure 14.The Singers House 1979 - written after hammond cancelled a recording session because of a terrorist bombing i. Heaney wanted to encourage Hammond that his voice counts and that its important that he inspire his fellow Irish countrymen/ women I think the name is the name of one of Hammonds albums Salt of the earth = is the culture of the Irish.. it is what makes them whole British took away salt mines.. exploited them... also taking away Irish culture 15. An Advancement of Learning RATS(: Young Heaney is overcoming fear of rats and fear of British i. Irish overcoming the Brits Lots of military diction i. bridgehead ii. advancement iii. trained iv. retreated Alliteration in 3rd stanza Rhyme Scheme i. Stanzas 1,3,6,8,9 abcb ii. stanzas 2,4 abac iii. stanza 7 abab and the climax of the action when he overcomes fear demystifies rat in stanza 7 i. raindrop eye ii. not so scary Memory landscape of Heaney overcoming fear rats are the enemy in the battle and he has to confront them i. wins by staring him out 16.Personal Helicon abab slant rhyme the well= self reflection mount helicon in Greece is said to be home to the muses i. Heaneys personal muse = childhood memories of wells that inspire him