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AssociationoftheChemicalEngineersAChE

www.ache.org.rs/CICEQ

ChemicalIndustry&ChemicalEngineeringQuarterly16(4)379386(2010) CI&CEQ

379

AOYIOCHIENG

1

MAURICES.ONYANGO

2

1

VaalUniversityofTechnology,

PrivateBagX021Vanderbijlpark,

1900,SouthAfrica

2

DepartmentofChemicalandMe-

tallurgicalEngineering,Tshwane

UniversityTechnology,Pretoria,

PrivateBagX680Pretoria,0001,

SouthAfrica

SCIENTIFICPAPER

UDC 66.06:532.51

DOI 10.2298/CICEQ100211040O

CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS

ANDMIXINGTIMEINASTIRREDTANK

Hydrodynamicsandmixingefficiencyinstirredtanksinfluencepowerdrawand

arethereforeimportantforthedesignofmanyindustrialprocesses.Inthepre-

sentstudy,bothexperimentalandsimulationmethodswereemployedtodeter-

mine the flow fields in different mixing tank configurations in a single phase

system. Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and computational fluid dynamics

(CFD) techniques were used to determine the flow fields in systems with and

withoutadrafttube.Therewasreasonableagreementbetweenthesimulation

andexperimentalresults.ItwasshownthattheuseofadrafttubewithaRush-

tonturbineandhydrofoilimpellerresultedinareductioninthehomogenization

energyby19.2and17.7%,respectively.Thisindicatesthatareductioninthe

operatingcostcanbeachievedwiththeuseofadrafttubeinastirredtankand

therewouldbeagreatercostreductioninasystemstirredbytheRushtontur-

binecomparedtothatstirredbyapropeller.

Keywords:Drafttube;CFD;solidsconcentration;stirredtank;simulation.

The performance of a stirred tank depends on

mixing,whichinfluencesmanychemicalreactionrates

as well as the product quality. For this reason, many

mixing studies have been conducted in different tank

configurationsstirredbyvarioustypesofimpellers.In

mostofthesestudies,conventionalimpellerssuchas

theRushtonturbine[1,2]pitchedbladeimpellershave

beenemployed[3,4].Relativelyfewstudieshavebeen

carried out using round or dished-bottomed tanks fit-

tedwithdrafttubes[5,6].

A draft tube is typically employed to enhance

axialmixinginstirredtanksandthispromoteshomo-

geneity.Inmultiphaseprocesses,itisimportanttoat-

tain bed homogeneity in order to promote interphase

heat and mass transfer. It has been reported [5] that

draft tubes improve mixing efficiency without causing

toomuchshearorturbulenceintensitythatcouldlead

toparticleattrition.Inthisregard,efficientmixingcan

be achieved by specifying optimum operating para-

meterssuchasimpellerspeedandphaseholdupas

wellasdesignparameters.Inparticular,thebulkfluid

flow is influenced by the liquid level above the draft

tube.Itwasearlierreported[7]thatthedrafttubebot-

tom clearance should be at least one draft tube dia-

Correspondening author: A. Ochieng, Vaal University of Tech-

nology,PrivateBagX021Vanderbijlpark,1900,SouthAfrica.

E-mail:aoyio@yahoo.com

Paperreceived:11February,2010

Paperrevised:10July,2010

Paperaccepted:13July,2010

meterandthatthehighestflowperpowercanbeob-

tainedbythisdevice,especiallyifusedinafullybaf-

fled tank. A small draft tube cross-sectional area re-

sultsinahighervelocityinthecorethantheannulus.

This leads to an increase in head loss, which is a

function of the square of the fluid velocity in the draft

tube [7]. Ochieng [8] reported that the bottom clear-

ance of the draft tube should be the same as that of

theimpeller,especiallyiftheimpellerisaradialpump-

ingone.

In recent studies, the revelation of many salient

mixingfeaturesofmultiphasesystemshasbeenpos-

sible due to the use of computational fluid dynamics

(CFD) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) techni-

ques [8,9]. The information obtained from the CFD

simulation of the flow field, mixing time and power is

necessary for the identification of the tank dead zo-

nes, which affect mixing efficiency in a stirred tank.

The mixing efficiency can be determined from homo-

genization energy, which is the product of the mixing

time and the corresponding power dissipated [10]. A

remarkable effort has been expended in simulating

mixing time and power in flat-bottom tanks stirred

using the Rushton turbine [1114]. Such efforts have

been constrained by the available computational po-

wer.Inparticular,simulationofmixingtimeiscompu-

tationally expensive and modelling curved surfaces

such as those of propeller and elliptically bottomed

tank just makes the modelling work more complex.

The previous authors studied the effect of draft tube

A.OCHIENG,M.S.ONYANGO:CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS CI&CEQ16(4)379386(2010)

380

onflowfieldinasystemstirredusingeithertheRush-

ton turbine or a propeller. Most of the studies were

doneusingflatbottomedtanksand,tothebestonour

knowledge, no comparison was made between flow

field in such systems and in elliptical bottomed tanks

withregardstoimpelleranddrafttubeinfluence.Asa

result, a lot of work still needs to be done in simu-

latingsuchsystemsinordertogetaninsightintothe

mixingfeaturestherein.

More recently, Ochieng et al. [14] reported that

at a low impeller clearance and a draft tube can im-

provemixinginatankstirredbyaRushtonturbinein

a flat bottomed tank. It is of interest, therefore, to

compare the performance of this impeller with the

axial one in the same configuration and in elliptical

bottomtank.Theaimofthepresentstudiesistoem-

ploy both CFD and LDV techniques to study mixing

time and power draw in flat and in an elliptically bot-

tomedtankstirredbyaxialandradialimpellers.

MODELLING

The hydrodynamics of a stirred tank are gover-

nedbytheinteractionbetweenthebulkphase(liquid)

flowandthetankgeometry,bothofwhichaffectmix-

ing time andenergy draw. The flow fieldis represen-

ted by the mass and momentum balance governing

equations. In the present work, the governing equa-

tionsaregiveninatime(Reynolds)averagedformof

the Navier-Stokes equations, for which the conser-

vationofmassis:

( ) 0 U = (1)

whereandUarethedensityandthemeanvelocity

vector, respectively. The momentum conservation

equationisgivenby:

B

( )

[ ( ) ]

T

U

U U p

t

U U F

+ = +

+ + +

(2)

where p is the pressure, is the dynamic molecular

viscosity,F

B

representsbodyforcesincludingCoriolis

andcentrifugalforces.Mixingtimewascalculatedfrom

the transport equation in which the transport quantity

()wasthetracermeanvolumefraction:

( )

T

T

i

U

t

( | |

+ = +

( |

\ .

(3)

where and

T

are the molecular and turbulent dif-

fusivities, respectively,

T

is the turbulent Schmidt

number. The value of

T

is lies between 0.5 and 1,

dependingontheflow.Inthiscase,afterafewtrials,

thevalueof

T

wastakenas0.7.

Power(P)exertedonthebaffleswascalculated

as:

2 P MN = (4)

where M is the torque and the mean kinetic energy

dissipationrateisgivenby:

T

P

V

= (5)

where V

T

is the fluid volume. The homogenization

energy () was calculated as a product of the kinetic

energydissipationrateandmixingtime:

90

= (6)

where

90

is the time required to achieve 90% homo-

genization. The mixing time required to achieve 90%

homogenization(

90

),forexample,isthetimeittakes

for the fluctuation of the response signal to be below

10%oftheconcentrationachievedatperfectmixing.

METHODOLOGY

Hydrodynamicsandmixingstudieswerecarried

outinanellipticallybottomedtankwithandwithouta

draft tube, using CFD and LDV techniques in single

phase system. Detailed configuration of the mixing

tankisshowninFigure1.Thefluidwaswateratroom

temperature and simulations were run using CFX-

-ANSYS codes [15,16]. Figure 2 shows the setup of

the tank stirred by the standard Rushton turbine and

the hydrofoil propeller previously employed by Ochi-

eng [8]. The impeller diameter (D) was the same

(0.33T)forboththeturbineandthepropeller,andthe

Figure1.Reactorconfiguration.

A.OCHIENG,M.S.ONYANGO:CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS CI&CEQ16(4)379386(2010)

381

impeller speed (N) was 5 rps, which corresponds to

an impeller Reynolds number (Re) of 7.81x10

4

. The

tank diameter (T) was 0.38 m and the fluid level (H)

was 1.3T. The top and bottom clearance was 0.15T,

and the bottom clearance was the same for both im-

pellers. The bottom clearance was taken as the dis-

tance from the centre of the hub (or the level of the

disc,fortheRushtonturbine)tothetankbottom.

In the configurations studied, the Rushton tur-

bine(RT)orthehydrofoilimpeller(HI)wasemployed

with and without a draft tube. These configurations

arehereafterdenotedbyR15TfortheRushtonturbi-

ne stirred tank, in which the impeller clearance is

0.15T. Similarly, H15T represents the hydrofoil pro-

peller located at 0.15T from the bottom. The respec-

tive systems with a draft tube (DT) are denoted by

R15T-DTandH15T-DT.

EXPERIMENTAL

Figure 2 shows the LDV experimental setup for

which a detailed experimental procedure has been

described by Wu and Pullum [17]. The LDV probe

was mounted on a robotic arm as shown in Figure 2

and the measurements of the three velocity compo-

nentsweretakeninthemiddleoftwobaffles(=0

o

).

DetailsoftheflowfielddeterminedusingtheLDVand

mixing time determined using both decolourization

and conductivity methods for similar configurations

havebeenpresentedelsewhere[14,18].Theworking

vessel was encased in an outer transparent trough

with a square cross-section, and both filled with tap

water to a required depth. A conductivity meter [14]

wasemployedtomeasurethemixingtimesthatwere

used to validate the simulated ones. Consequently,

themixingtimespresentedinthisworkarethesimu-

latedones.

CFDSimulation

A quarter of the tank was simulated in the case

ofH15TwhileforthecaseofR15T,ahalfofthetank

was simulated. For both cases, three grid sizes cor-

respondingtohalftankwereused,withthetotalnum-

ber of cells being 216000, 436000 and 700000, for

the coarse, base and fine grids, respectively. The si-

mulationswererunontwoP4,2GBmemory,3GHz

PCs using CFX5.7 codes [15,16]. For all the simula-

tion work, the impeller shaft and the gravitational for-

ce were defined along the x-axis. The blades, disc

(fortheRushtonturbine)andbafflesweredefinedas

thin surfaces, and grids were refined in the wall and

impeller regions. A free surface boundary condition

was defined at the liquid surface, where the shear

stressesweresettozero.Onthewalls,ano-slipcon-

dition was specified for the liquid. The standard k-

modelwasemployedwithboththemultipleframesof

reference (MFR) and sliding grid (SG) approaches,

both of which were developed by Luo et al. [19,20].

The steady state MFR approach was employed only

togeneratetheinitialresultforthesubsequentusein

the unsteady state SG runs. The semi-implicit pres-

sure linked equation-consistent (SIMPLEC) algorithm

was used to couple the pressure and momentum

equations. Equation solvers such as the block Stone

and algebraic multi-grid [15] were employed with the

quadratictimedifferencingscheme.Theinterconnec-

tivitybetweentherotatingandstationarydomainwas

achievedbythegeneralgridinterface(GGI)algorithm

[15].

Figure 3 shows the simulation domain meshed

usingunstructuredgrid,whichisbetterthanthestruc-

tured grids for creating domains with high curvature.

Theinitialsimulationswereruntoevaluatetheperfor-

manceofthediscretizationschemessuchasupwind,

hybrid, higher upwind and quadratic upstream inter-

Figure2.LDVexperimentalset-up.

A.OCHIENG,M.S.ONYANGO:CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS CI&CEQ16(4)379386(2010)

382

polation for convective kinetics (QUICK). Full hydro-

dynamic equations were solved for the flow field and

mixingtime.Mixingtimewasobtainedfromthemean

value of themixing time obtained from five simulated

probes at different part of the domain. Grid indepen-

dence studies were carried out using coarse, base

and fine grids. For the value of the mixing time, the

difference between based and coarse grid was cal-

culatedandfoundtobelessthan3%.

RESULTSANDDISCUSSION

Grid independence analysis showed that there

was minimal difference between the base and fine

grid,consequently.Subsequently,thebasegridswere

used for the studies and a reasonable agreement

between the simulation and the experimental results

was obtained. The CFD simulation of the fluid flow

revealedthepresenceofcirculationloops.Theorien-

tation of the loops changed with the impeller clear-

ance, and the centres of the loops represented dead

zones,whichaffectedboththemixingtimeandpower

draw. The draft tube was shown to improve the flow

pattern and consequently, the mixing efficiency by

suppressingoreliminatingtheloops.Theseobserva-

tions are in agreement with the results reported by

Montanteetal.[21]andOchiengetal.[14].

Discretizationschemes

Averygoodconvergenceofthemassresiduals

up to 1.0x10

6

obtained with the first order discreti-

zation scheme (upwind differencing scheme) was

lowerthanthatforhigherorderschemesforwhich10

-5

sultsobtainedusingtheupwindschemewereagross

over-prediction of the velocity field by as much as

120%. This is an indication that the upwind results

weremoreprecisebutthoseofhigherschemeswere

more accurate. As a result, the data obtained using

the upwind scheme was used to initialize the simula-

tions for further runs with higher order discretization

schemes.Theinfluenceoftheseschemesontheflow

field was investigated in the upper (x = 0.8T) and

lower (x = 0.21T) regions of the tank. In addition to

the convergence of mass residuals, at the end of a

simulation,thetotalmassofthetracedinthedomain

was computed and compared with the quantity that

was originally introduced into the domain, and it was

foundthatthetotalmassremainedthesame.Further,

it was ensured that the torque on the wall baffle was

constant and the mass imbalance in all sub-domains

waslessthan1%.

ItisshowninFigure4thattherewasamarginal

influenceofthediscretizationschemesonthepredic-

tion of the axial velocity profile. Figure 4a shows that

the hybrid scheme gave a reasonable prediction in

thelowerregionofthetankwhilstintheupperregion

(Figure 4b), predictions by all three schemes were

poor.However,thepredictionwiththehybridscheme

was, in general, better than the other two schemes.

Thebasisofcomparisonwastheexperimentalresults

oftheflowfieldandmixingtimeashasbeenshownin

apreviouswork[14].

ItisshowninFigure4thatthepredictionsinthe

impeller discharge region, in which the cell Peclet

number (Pe) is higher, are better than in the top re-

gion. Due to the high cell Peclet number (which is a

measureoftherelativestrengthsofdiffusionandcon-

vection) in the lower region, it is expected that the

hybrid scheme effectively becomes the upwind sche-

me in this region. However, it is known that this first-

-order scheme (upwind) is prone to numerical diffu-

sion,especiallyinhighReynoldsflowregionslikethe

impellerdischargeregion.Thefactthatbetterpredic-

(a) (b)

Figure3.Modeledsectionshowingmeshdistribution:a)topview;b)sideview.

A.OCHIENG,M.S.ONYANGO:CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS CI&CEQ16(4)379386(2010)

383

tions were obtained with this scheme in this region

suggeststhatthediscretizationschemeswerenotthe

major factors influencing the accuracy of the results.

The predictions by the higher upwind scheme were

betterintheimpellerregionthanintheuppertankre-

gion.

The QUICK scheme, which is third order accu-

rate, is the most computationally demanding and the

simulations in which it was used could not converge

easily.Evenwhentheresidualsfinallysettled,thele-

vel of convergence could not go below 4.5x10

-4

,

which was the worst convergence in comparison to

theothertwoschemes.Thiscouldbeattributedtothe

lower diagonal dominance [22], which leads to un-

boundednessofthesolution.Asolutionisunboundif

it is outside the prescribed boundary conditions. For

the maximum downward velocity, the higher upwind

scheme gave the highest over-estimation. The maxi-

mum upward and downward velocity values give an

indicationofthemagnitudeofthecirculationflow.An

over-predictionoftheseparametersisindicativeofan

over-prediction of the circulation flow. The over-pre-

diction of these parameters with the QUICK scheme

inFigure4isinagreementwiththeworkofBrucatoet

al.[23],inwhichitwasreportedthattheQUICKsche-

me over-predicts the circulation rate. The maximum

upwardvelocitywasover-predictedbyallschemes.In

general, Figure 4 shows that the best predictions

wereobtainedbythestandardk modelandthehyb-

rid scheme. Therefore, the standard k- model and

the hybrid discretization scheme were subsequently

employed.

Flowfield

Figure 5 shows that the secondary circulation

loop that is typically found below the impellers at the

standardclearance(0.33T)wassuppressed.Thiscan

beattributedtothelowimpellerbottomclearancethat

wasused.Thisobservationisinagreementwithpre-

vious findings [9,21]. The upward stream was confi-

ned to the region closer to the wall, and this can be

attributed to the effect of the wall jet, which covered

almosttheentireliquidheight.Thisisopposedtothe

double loop flow pattern that is characteristic on flat-

-bottomtanks.Theupwardvelocitywashighestinthe

regionwherer/R>0.8andthiscanbeattributedtothe

effect of the wall jet. In the region where r/R is less

than 0.8, the fluid was moving downwards. Further,

the axial velocity, which is dependent on the wall jet,

decreasedwiththetankheightduetotheattenuation

of the momentum generated by the wall jet. The uni-

formityoftheupwardanddownwardflowwasachiev-

edbyusingadrafttubeforwhichthecross-sectional

areaofthecorewasthesameasthatoftheannulus.

This geometry results in an equal fluid velocity being

attainedintheannulusanddrafttubewherer/R=0.7.

The flow field for the configuration with a draft tube

hasbeenreportedelsewhere[14].

A comparison was made between the flow ge-

nerated in the flat and elliptically bottomed tanks by

the Rushton turbine at a clearance of 0.15T. Simu-

lationresultsinFigure6showthattherewasahigher

(by16%)axialvelocityintheellipticallybottomedtank

than the flat-bottomed one. This can be attributed to

theeliminationoftheminorcirculationloopatthebot-

tomedgeofthetank.Theseminorloopsactassinks

for the momentum convective transport. In an ellipti-

cally bottomed tank, the downward impeller jet is

smoothly deflected upwards rather than being parti-

allydampedasisthecaseintheflat-bottomedtank.

Mixingtimeandenergydissipation

Mixing efficiency was evaluated by calculating

the homogenization energy from the dimensionless

meankineticenergydissipationrate,. Thetorqueon

thewallbaffleswasusedtocalculatepowerfromEq.

(3), and this was in turn used to compute from

Eq. (4) and the power numbers (N

p

) in Table 1. The

powernumberpredictionsobtainedusingthismethod

were much closer to the experimental results than

thoseobtainedfromthelocalsimulationvaluesofthe

turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. The power

number for R15T was found to be 3.4, which is in

reasonable agreement (12% difference) with the ex-

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

r/R

U

/

V

t

i

p

(a) x=0.21T

-0.08

-0.04

0.00

0.04

0.08

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

r/R

U

/

V

t

i

p

(b) x=0.80T

Figure4.Effectofdiscretizationschemeontheaxialvelocityprofile:experiments(),higherupwind(),hybrid()andQUICK().

A.OCHIENG,M.S.ONYANGO:CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS CI&CEQ16(4)379386(2010)

384

perimental value of 3.8 [1]. The under-prediction of

thepowernumbercanbeattributedtotheunder-pre-

diction of the torque, which is calculated from the

azimuthal momentum component. An accurate com-

putationofthismomentumdependsonthetangential

velocity component, which has been shown to be

poorly predicted by the k model [8,20]. In addition,

the accuracy of the simulations based on Reynolds

averagedNervierStokeshasbeenpointedoutinmany

studies.

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

r/R

U

/

V

t

i

p

x=0.3T

Figure6.Comparisonoftheaxialvelocityprofilesinflatand

ellipticallybottomedtanks,H15T:elliptical();flat().

It is apparent that for R15T was higher than

that for H15T, and this is due to the higher power

numberobtainedintheR15Tconfiguration.However,

mostofthisenergywasdissipatedinthelowerregion

of the tank. The power numbers for the system with

the draft tube were lower than those without. This is

due to the fact that the draft tube enhances the fluid

circulation,leadingtoareductionintheazimuthalmo-

mentum, which is responsible for the torque on the

baffles.Theuseofthedrafttuberesultedinareduc-

tioninthehomogenizationenergyby19.2and17.7%

for R15T and H15T, respectively (Table 1). In a flow

generated by H15T, there are relatively less circula-

tionloops(Figure5)tobesuppressedbyadrafttube

ascomparedtoaflowgeneratedbyH15T.Thiscould

explain the slightly higher reduction of the homoge-

nization energy in the flow generated by R15T com-

paredtothatforH15T.TheRushtonturbinegenerally

generates double loop flow pattern which is charac-

terized by chaotic fluid flow, and this results in high

energy dissipation. In contrast, the propeller (H15T)

generallycreatesasmoothflowcharacterizedbyone

majorloop.Asaresult,theintroductionofadrafttube

theR15Tsystemdoesnotchangetheflowpatternas

muchasitdoesforH15T.

Table1.Mixingtimeandhomogenizationenergysimulation

( =

90

) with fromEq.(4); N=5rps

Configuration

90

/s N

p

/m

2

s

-3

/m

2

s

-2

/%

R15T 6.47 3.40 0.09 0.59

R15T-DT 5.94 2.75 0.08 0.48 19.17

H15T 6.04 1.11 0.06 0.35

H15T-DT 5.65 0.92 0.05 0.29 17.74

CONCLUSION

Hydrodynamicsandmixinginastirredtankwas

investigatedusingcomputationalfluiddynamics(CFD)

(a) (b)

Figure5.AxialvelocityprofileintheH15Tconfiguration:a)fringe;b)vectorplotsbetweentheblades.

A.OCHIENG,M.S.ONYANGO:CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS CI&CEQ16(4)379386(2010)

385

simulation and laser Doppler velocimetry techniques.

The influence of a draft tube on mixing time and po-

werdrawwasstudiedinflatandinanellipticallybot-

tomedtankstirredbyaxialandradialimpellers.Inthe

CFD application, the effect of discretization schemes

(first and higher order schemes) on the simulation

results was investigated. The results obtained using

thehybriddiscretizationscheme,comparedtoexperi-

mental data,were as good as or better than those of

thethird-orderaccurateupwindscheme(QUICK).This

shows that a higher-order scheme does not neces-

sarily give better predictions for the systems investi-

gated.Theuseofadrafttuberesultedinhigher(19.2%)

homogenization energy reduction in the Rushton tur-

binestirredtankthanthat(17.7%),inthehydrofoilim-

peller stirred tank. This is an indication that a reduc-

tion in the operating cost can be achieved with the

useofadrafttube.

Acknowledgement

Contributions by Prof. Alison E. Lewis and Dr

PaulMusongearegratefullyacknowledged.

Symbols

CFD Computationalfluiddynamics

D Impellerdiameter,m

F

c

Centrifugalforce,N

F

ce

Coriolisforce,N

H Fluiddepth,m

k Dimensionlessturbulentkineticenergy

LDV LaserDopplervelocimetry

M Torque,Nm

MFR Multipleframeofreference

N Impellerspeed,s

-1

P Power,W

p Pressure,kPa

Pe u/(/x)

R Ratioofthediameterofthedrafttubetothat

ofthecolumn

r Tankradius,m

SG Slidinggrid

t time,s

T Tankdiameter,m

U axialvelocity,m/s

V

tip

Impellerbladetipvelocity,m/s

x

i

Cartesiancoordinates

x Dimensionlesscellwidth

Greeksymbols

Meanspecifickineticenergydissipationrate,

m

2

s

-3

Homogenizationenergy,m

2

s

-2

Molecularviscosity,kgm

-1

s

-1

Viscosity,m

2

s

-1

Density,kgm

-3

Diffusioncoefficient,kgm

-1

s

-1

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2004

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989-997

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18531860

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A.OCHIENG,M.S.ONYANGO:CFDSIMULATIONOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICS CI&CEQ16(4)379386(2010)

386

AOYIOCHIENG

1

MAURICES.ONYANGO

2

1

VaalUniversityofTechnology,

PrivateBagX021Vanderbijlpark,

1900,SouthAfrica

2

DepartmentofChemicalandMe-

tallurgicalEngineering,Tshwane

UniversityTechnology,Pretoria,

PrivateBagX680Pretoria,0001,

SouthAfrica

NAUNIRAD

SIMULACIJAHIDRODINAMIKEIVREMENAMEANJAU

SUDUSAMEANJEMPOMOURAUNARSKE

TEHNIKESTRUJANJAFLUIDA

Hidrodinamika i efikasnost meanja u sudovima sa meanjem utiu na snagu meanja,

pa su zbog togaznaajni za projektovanje mnogih industrijskih procesa. Da bi se odre-

dila strujna polja u sudovima razliite konfiguracije, u ovom radu su koriene i ekspe-

rimentalne i simulacione metode. Tehnika merenja brzine laserskim Doplerom (LDV) i

raunarskatehnikesimulaijestrujanjafluida(CFD)suprimenjeneradiodreivanjastruj-

nih polja u sistemima sa i bez centralne cevi. Utvreno je prihvatljivo slaganje izmeu

simulacija ieksperimentalnihrezultata.UpotrebomcentralneceviukombinacijisaRa-

tonovom turbinskom mealicom ili propelerskom mealicom tipa Hydrofoil smanjuje se

potrebnaenergijezahomogenizovanjeza19,2i17,7%,respektivno.Ovoukazujedase

smanjenje u operativnim trokovima moe postii upotrebom centralne cevi u sudu sa

meanjem, kao i da e se trokovi vie smanjiti u sistemu sa Ratonovom turbinskom

mealicomnegousistemusapropelerskommealicom.

Kljune rei: centralna cev; CFD; koncentracija vrste faze; sud sa meanjem;

simuacija.

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