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-Differences between Direct and Indirect Speech: * Direct: I have breakfast at seven oclock in the kitchen, my friend said. * Indirect: My friend said that he had breakfast at seven in the kitchen. * NP (Subject) + said // said + personal pronoun (subject) - Reporting verbs: SAY / TELL: * SAY: say (that) + Reported. E.g. My mother said that she went to the gym. *TELL: tell + OBJECT + (that) + Reported E.g. Your friend told me that your idea was wonderful. -Changes: 1) No inverted commas in the indirect speech. 2) Personal pronouns and possessive pronouns or determiners: E.g. My sister lives in Boston, she said. - She said that her sister lived in Boston. E.g.-I like travelling, my dad said. - My cousin said that he liked travelling. 3) Demonstrative Adjectives: E.g. -This is my house, said Anne. - Anne said that that was her house. 4) Place Adverbs: E.g. -We always meet here on Fridays, said Tim. - Tim said that they always met there on Fridays. 5) Time Expressions: Direct Speech Now Today Yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next week Last month Ten years ago Indirect Speech Then That day The day before/the previous day The next/following day Two days later The following week/the week after The previous month/ the month before Ten years before

-Struture: Subject + Reporting verb + (that) + Subject + Verb Most often, the verb in the reported sentence always goes one tense back to its nearest past. --------PAST PERFECT (continuous) PRESENT PERFECT (continuous)--------PAST (simple/ continuous)----------------PRESENT (simple/ continuous) -1) Modals: Direct Speech Will Can May Must Indirect Speech Would Could Might Had to

2) Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous: NO change. E.g. - I had already travelled to Japan with my boyfriend, she said. Indirect Speech: She said that she had already travelled to Japan with her boyfriend. 3) In the Present: a) the tense doesnt change in Reported Speech if the Reporting Verb is in the present: E.g. - I love pop music, says Vernica. Vernica says that she loves pop music. b) If we are using the present to state about a general truth: E.g. London is the capital of Great Britain, she pointed out. She pointed out that London is the capital of Great Britain.

-The same order as in statements. - No question marks or auxiliary verbs. - Two types: 1) Yes / No questions: If / whether E.g. -Do you live with your parents?, asked Susan - Susan asked me if I lived with my parents. 2) Wh- Questions: Wh- question word E.g. -What time did you get up yesterday?, asked my mother - My mother asked me what time I had got up the day before.


1) ORDERS/ REQUESTS: Affirmative: Subject + Reporting verb + indirect object + to + infinitive E.g. -Make your bed!, said my father. - My father ordered me to make my bed. Negative: Subject + Reporting verb + IO + Not to infinitive E.g. - Dont shout in class!, said the teacher. E.g. -The teacher ordered not to shout in class.

2) SUGGESTIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS: a) Subject + suggest + (not) + verb- ING: John suggested travelling abroad in summer b) Subject + suggest + (that) + subject + infinitive without to Lets have a drink! Julie suggested (that) we have/not have a drink. Why doesnt he work at the university? My sister suggested he work at the university. c) Subject + suggest + (that) + subject + should + infinitive without to: What about going to the gym? Lisa suggested that we should go to the gym. d) Subject + suggest + that clause (any verbal tense) Your friend suggested that we could travel to Holland.

Quite often, we use specific reporting verbs. They add clear information about the speakers intention or about the function of the message:
Structure Subject + reporting verb + not/to infinitive: agree, promise, offer, refuse, threaten. Subject + reporting verb + object + (not) to + infinitive ask, persuade, recommend, remind, tell, warn, advise, encourage, invite, order, beg. Subject + reporting verb + (not) + v ING: deny, recommend, suggest, apologize for, prefer, accuse (sb) of, admit, insist on. Subject + reporting verb + (that) + subject + verb: agree, deny, promise, suggest, add, admit, announce, claim, complain, declare, explain, insist, mention, predict, reply, reveal, say, state,agree. Subject + reporting verb + Object + (that) + Subject + verb: persuade, remind, tell, warn Subject + reporting verb + if/ whether /whword + subject + verb: Ask, enquire, question, wonder, want to know. Examples He promised to work in that project. She encouraged me to participate in the quiz.

The consumer organization recommended comparing prices before buying toys for Christmas The witch predicted that she would have two children

My father persuaded me that I had to work in a hospital. I wanted to know if you had been to the party.