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Ralf Weber/Matthias Albrecht Amann (Eds.

Aesthetics and Architectural Composition

Proceedings of the Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004

Dank | Acknowledgment Das Dresdner Internationale Architektursymposium 2004, das vom 16. bis 19.Juni in Dresden stattfand, wurde freundlich untersttzt durch die Katholische Akademie des Bistums Dresden-Meien im Kathedralforum Dresden sowie die Gesellschaft von Freunden und Frderern der TU Dresden e.V.. The Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004 took place from June, 16 to 19 in Dresden and was supported by the Katholische Akademie des Bistums Dresden-Meien im Kathedralforum Dresden and by the Gesellschaft von Freunden und Frderern der TU Dresden e.V.. We would like to thank both institutions for their help.

2005 Aesthetics and Architectural Composition. Proceedings of the Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004 erscheint im pro Literatur Verlag, D-82291 Mammendorf Herausgeber: Ralf Weber/Matthias Albrecht Amann/ Lehrstuhl Raumgestaltung, TU Dresden. ISBN 3-86611-022-7

Printed in Germany Cover Design: Matthias Albrecht Amann


Vorwort | Preface Chapter I | Keynotes

12 17 22

Ralf Weber, Dresden (D): Aesthetics and Architectural Composition!? Paulgerd Jesberg, Wiesbaden (D): Erinnerungen an Otto Schubert (1878-1968) Gerd de Bruyn, Stuttgart (D): Abwesende Schrift und Monstrse Stille - Architektur und Aisthesis

Chapter II | Principles of Proportion and Systems of Order in Architecture and Urbanism 32 41 45 50 59 Terrance Galvin, Halifax (Canada): The Concept of Proportionality and Principles of Good Fit in Architectural Theory Kenneth G. Masden, San Antonio (USA): Virtual Uncertainty Christian Junge, London (UK): The Entropic and the Formless - On the Present Relevance of Arnheim and Bataille Gernot Weckherlin, Berlin (D): Quelle est la rgle qui ordonne, qui lie toutes choses? Toms Garca-Salgado, Mxico City (Mxico): Form in Site and Perspective Iakovos Potamianos, Thrake (Greece): The Mathematics of the Ideal Dome Luisa Rossi Costa/Elena Marchetti, Milano (Italy): Mathematical and Historical Investigation on Domes and Vaults Klaus Hammer, Wien (sterreich): Harmonik - Objektive Architektur und knstlerisches Prinzip Marion Sauter, Frankfurt (D): St. Michael in Mnchen - Stdtebauliche und gestalterische Aspekte zum Planwechsel von 1582/83 Jiyun Park, Baltimore (USA) Labyrinth as Pramana or Divine Proportion Nils Meyer, Dresden (D): Betrachtungen zu Fnfeck und Pentagramm als Massfiguren im Stdtebau und der Architektur der frhen Neuzeit Thomas Jger, Braunschweig (D): Calculated Beauty: A Mathematical Key to the Ideal Plan of Valetta

66 73 81


96 100


Aesthetics and Architectural Composition

Chapter III | Digital Algorithms and Grammars of Form as Sources of Order and Harmony 116 Thorsten Lmker, Dresden (D): Formt CAAD die Architektur? Mglichkeiten der Einflussnahme von CAAD auf die Bauwerksgestalt Douglas Spencer, London (UK): Where is the Body in Digital Architecture? From Representation to Invention Robert J. Krawczyk, Chicago (USA): Exploring the Massing of Growth in Cellular Automata Monika Stumpp/Benamy Turkienicz, Porto Allegre (Brazil): Light and Shadow Symmetries Rosirene Mayer/Benamy Turkienicz, Porto Allegre (Brasil): Generative Process of Oskar Niemeyers Style


126 132 136

Chapter IV | The Notion of Order between the Poles of Ratio and Sentiment 146 Paolo Bonaiuto [with G.Bonaiuto, V.Biasi, M.DErcole, A.M.Giannini]; Rome (Italy): Cognitive and Emotional Elaboration of Architectural Visual Incongruities, and their Aesthetic Appreciation Holger Hge, Oldenburg (D): Not Only the Golden Section: Empirical Research on the Aesthetic Pleasingness of Proportions Mieczyslaw Kozaczko, Poznan (Poland): Inner Basis of Proportion Systems 167 Yannick Joye, Ghent (Belgium): Biomorphic Design: Perspectives on its Aesthetic, Restorative and Ecological Value Gerald Franz, Tbingen (D): Physical and Affective Correlates to Perceived Order in Open-Plan Architectural Space Katja Pahl, Dresden (D)/Thomas Jacobsen, Leipzig (D): Fassadendesign - Die Auswirkungen von Gruppierung und Raster auf die sthetische Beurteilung von Fassaden Eckhard Bendin, Dresden (D): Die Prgnanzdimensionen der Farbe und ihr Bezug zur Prgnanzhhe von Gestalten Axel Bther, Cottbus (D): Bruno Taut - Interaktion von Farbe und Form Claudio Greco/Sergio Lombardo/Carlo Santoro, Rome (Italy): Stochastic Architecture and Eventualist Theory Michael Chapman/Michael Ostwald, Callaghan (Australia): Douglas Dardens Composite Ideogram as a Technique of Architectural Composition Ilija Vukorep/Petra Brunnhofer/Wolfgang Schck, Kassel (D): Moikism Charles L. Harker, Kent (USA) The Third Skin Alexander Voloshinov, Saratov (Russia): Anthropomorphic Patterns as the Metalanguage of Architecture and Other Arts





188 197

202 209

217 222 229

Chapter V | Aesthetics of Urban Space and Landscape 236 241 Birgit Wolter, Dresden (D): Die Gestalt des ffentlichen Raumes Stefan Rau, Dresden (D): Criteria of Aesthetics and Use in Current Open Space Planning Examples from Chicago (USA) and Chengdu (China) Hisham Gabr, Cairo (Egypt): Learning From the Past: Perceptual Aesthetic Principles in Historic Old Cairo Martin Prominski, Hannover (D): Which Landscape? Which Aesthetic? Catherine Szanto, Budapest (Hungary): The Gardens of Versailles: Analysis of a Spatial Experience Gert J. van Tonder, Kyoto (Japan): Incomplete Infinity: Structure in a Japanese Garden


252 259 266

Chapter VI | Aesthetics and the Concept of Architectural Space 274 Kazu Blumfeld Hanada, Weimar (D): Towards the Model of Alienated Consciousness - The Body/The Space Actuality of House Esters/Lange (m.v.d.r.) Jan Frohburg, Weimar (D): Mies van der Rohe - Unscharfe Weite Markus Jatsch, Mnchen (D): sthetik der Unbestimmtheit Aleksandra Walter-Klonkowska, Wuppertal (D): The Lacking Dynamical Path Model of Architectural Space Rainer Schnhammer, Halle (D): Human Sense of Space - Moving Images and Architecture Matthias Albrecht Amann, Dresden (D): Die Ansichtigkeit des Schnitts: Baukomposition fr Schwache Heike Hanada, Weimar (D): Withdrawn Windows - ber die Gegenwart des Erzhlerischen bei Sir John Soane und Gordon Matta-Clark

280 287

294 299

304 313

Chapter VII | Architectural Composition as Problem of Education 322 Mine zkar, Cambridge (USA): Form Relations in Analyses by Denman Waldo Ross: An Early Modernist Approach in Architectural Education Ivan Reimann, Dresden (D): sthetische Theorie und Entwurfsarbeit Eva Oravcova/Pavol Nahalka, Bratislava (Slovak Republic): Perception of Connotation in the Creation of Architectural Space as a Methodological Basis of Introduction to Architectural Composition Education Erwin Herzberger, Stuttgart (D): Krper - Raum - Bewegung. Gestaltung als rumlicher Proze




Aesthetics and Architectural Composition

Chapter VIII | Aesthetics of a Politically/Economically/Functionally Determined Building Culture 342 362 367 Michael Mehaffy, London (UK): The Architecture of the New Modernity Niels-Christian Fritsche, Dresden (D): Beauty is a Moving Target - Aesthetics as an Episode in Guessing Human Perception Wojciech Kosinski, Cracow (Poland): Urban Aesthetics and Composition Today - a Nostalgia or the Need?


Index | Index

Rosirene Mayer/Benamy Turkienicz:

Generative Processes in Oscar Niemeyers Style

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to outline the structure of a possible grammar of Oscar Niemeyers architectural language, focusing on the so-called free forms. The idea is to assess the extent to which it is possible to shed some light on the discussion of architectural freedom as used by many authors when describing the work of the Brazilian architect. The investigation associates geometric relations present in Niemeyers buildings to the Shape Grammar model as proposed by Stiny & Gips (1975). The model made possible the depiction of consistencies in vocabulary, rules and operations deployed by Niemeyer. This eventually led to the description of an original architectural language present in Niemeyers buildings. INTRODUCTION Buildings designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer are often linked to physical or historical contexts in which they emerged. At the same time, descriptions based on compositional or morphological aspects usually lead to the idea of free forms, accentuating the random or the original aspects of Niemeyers architecture. Assuming that the so called free form is most acknowledged characteristic of his buildings, this research aims at the description of a possible generative structure for Niemeyers work, focusing on the so-called free forms. The description of this generative process constitutes an unexplored knowledge of Niemeyers architecture. FREE FORMS Between the forties and the sixties, Brazilian Modern Architecture was worldwide acknowledged for the development of an original architectural language characterized by a set of stylistic features. These features were usually related to inverted gable roofs, parabolic vaults, and sunshine devices such as the projection outward roof slabs, egg-crate sunshade and sunscreens. One of the most prominent features of this architecture is related to the use of curved lines: the so-called Free forms. The consistent use of these elements may well serve as an evidence for a virtual school of thought, led by Oscar Niemeyer. One might well say that he stood behind the formulation of one of the basic stylistic features of the Brazilian Modern Architecture, i.e. the use of non orthogonal shapes. The denomination free form is used in a generic way by different authors to designate non orthogonal shapes, recurrent in Niemeyers architecture, hardly starting from a catalog of known shapes or pure shapes. However, some important issues may arise from this simplification: the description based on the free form concept is not capable to depict the specific universe of Niemeyers free forms. Generalizing Niemeyers forms as free forms, the approach fails to identify what is singular in Niemeyers work. Second, it refers to the contradiction between the randomness and free expression associated to the term free form and an eventual formal identity present in buildings designed by Niemeyer. It is precisely this identity that leads to the characterization of a Niemeyers architectural language.In other words, to recognize a building designed by Niemeyer among a collection of buildings designed by other architects. The characterization of a style or architectural language will enable the clarification of (...) the underlying commonality of structure and appearance manifest for the buildings in the corpus (...) 1. This clarity is possible through the analysis of the grammatical structure of a language that allows the identification of patterns beyond visible similarities. The existence of an architectural language implies the presence of patterns and possible mechanisms of shape control not referred by the existing literature on Niemeyer. One of the paradigms of Niemeyers language - the almost limitless plastic freedom 2 is associated to the curve: I am in favor of an almost limitless plastic freedom (...) as the different ideas go

Fig. 1 Twenty Buildings of Oscar Niemeyer

emerging (...) in all, prevail the curves, this plastic freedom that I prefer. 3 . However the freedom (or the curve) should not be used freely: (...). Of course, that freedom cannot be used freely. 4. To Niemeyer, the conceptive freedom should take into consideration proportion rules: (...) we guarantee absolute freedom of conception, however within the proportion rules that Architecture has always required. 5 To describe Niemeyers style or his free form architectural language will require the description of possibly generated patterns within the limits as mentioned by Niemeyer. To put it short, this study will try to explain the relation between the conceptive freedom present in the shapes designed by Niemeyer and the control expressed by the implicit patterns that in turn are related to a particular grouping of shapes. SHAPE GRAMMARS AND CURVES Shape Grammars6 , constitutes a model for the elaboration of design grammars. In another words, Shape Grammars enables the description of architectural languages through grammars. The grammar of an architectural language describes its generative structure through a vocabulary of simple shapes and the corresponding syntax, structured by rules, which graphically specify possible combinations of the vocabulary of shapes to compose complex shapes. The language of designs is seen as a formal equivalent of the traditional notion of style7. In architecture, Shape Grammars have been used thoroughly in the description of architectural styles of Palladio8, Wright 9 and more recently of lvaro Siza10. However, the use of Shape Grammars, mainly in architecture, has been concentrated in the description of orthogonal shapes. This open up an interesting field of research as, according to Gips, almost all objects in life, even the artificial objects, have curves and curved surfaces 11. Ergonomic and economical aspects related to certain uses of materials lead to the use of curves. Nowadays, the architectural languages of free forms are not limited to the Brazilian Architecture, as the upsurge of computational tools for production, new materials and constructive techniques enlarged the freedom and spread the use of curved and complex shapes. The use of Shape Grammars to describe an architectural language based on curved three-dimensional volumes, adds to the existent grammar model, new generative elements such as generatrices and directrixes, rotation and translation axes and a new point of view of the relationships among elements for the generation of complex shapes. Another element added to the construction of the grammar of Niemeyer architectonic language refers to the analysis of the recursive relations of proportion and symmetry. Niemeyer refers to the proportion and scale relationships12 as one of the factors that distance of his architecture, the frequent use attempts, by other architects, of his plastic vocabulary.

Aesthetics and Architectural Composition


Fig. 2 Rotation or Translation axis position Fig. 3 Rotation or Translation inclination of directrix axis

The association between Shape Grammars and the geometric relations present in Niemeyers buildings made possible the detection of consistencies in specific vocabulary of shapes, rules and operations. However, this study did not aim at the establishment of a complete grammar of Oscar Niemeyer architectural language. Our grammar is therefore limited and minimally detailed following the main purpose of this study: the description of patterns related to a set of Niemeyers buildings, demystifying the notion of randomness usually related to the Niemeyers free forms. Section 2 describes the study corpus. The analysis of Niemeyers generative process is reported in section 3 and conclusions are retrieved in section 4 as well as some tentative unfolding steps for the present research.

SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE The model was applied on the description of the volumetry of twenty buildings designed by Niemeyer during 60 years between 1940 and 2003.These buildings have as a common feature the curve shape (mainly conic curves, specially the parabola), normally linked to the concept of free form. (Fig 1) Besides the curved volumetry, the selection of buildings was driven according to the availability of sources: during his career Niemeyer designed a broad variety of curved profiles but not all were available for the purpose of the analysis. The sample choices didnt establish restrictions as for the geographical location and chronology didnt have direct influence upon the selection. The preliminary analysis demonstrated that the curve was present in most different typologies designed by Niemeyer, irrespective of functional aspects. Considering this characteristic and the focus of this study in the so-called free forms, the grammar only describes the volumetric features of buildings disregarding eventual architectural details. All of the buildings were analyzed based on, at least, a plan and the respective elevation or section. Orthogonal projections were drawn of all of the buildings based on the availability of graphic material in the existing literature on Niemeyer. The graphic reproduction of the works used in the analysis, in spite of accurate sources didnt intend to be exact in the dimensions, taking into account the datas imprecise origin, but in the relationship among the dimensions. The relationships among the dimensions are the base for the analysis of dimensional control mechanisms. Schematic profiles of plans and elevations resulted from the simplification of the drawings. These schematic profiles supplied the base for the correlation between the curve and its three-dimensional development. The analysis of the two orthogonal projections allowed describing the correlation among the forms of each building as well as among the set of buildings.

THE GENERATIVE PROCESSES As the developed Grammar constitutes a Parametric Shape Grammar, parametric variation in the shapes and elements that constitute the rules is admitted. These variations, however, were only graphically represented.

Exploration of Niemeyers generative principles initiates with the analysis of the relation among curves, volumetry and three-dimensional unfolding. Three-dimensional unfolding is guided according to elements such as: axes, directrixes and generatrices that end up by determining the buildings final shape according to the established relation with the curve. As first step, the generation process of the elementary volumetry of the building - or of parts of the building - (without specific volume assignment) is described. The goal of the analysis was to describe the volumetry according to the shape grammar model using the least number of rules and operations. In the next item, each one of the stages of construction of the grammar is described. VOCABULARY OF SHAPES Decomposition of a design or a complex shape help to specify primitive shapes which, combined, generate the complex shape. As shapes can be decomposed in several ways, the chosen way for adaptation is related to the object of the analysis13. The curve and straight line shapes were defined as initial shapes of Niemeyers vocabulary. To explore parametric shapes14 an AutoCAD script using Visual Basic was developed. The software has helped to generate parabolas preliminarily identified as the predominant curves in the study corpus. The parabolas generator allowed a parametric description of Niemeyers curves through the specification of the parameters p (distance of the focus to the directrix d) and the height (coordinated y), with the vertex in (0,0). Other curves (composite and sinuous) were decomposed in parameterized segments as for instance, the straight line segment and the circumference arch. RULES The definition of the rules was a starting point to determine the existing relationships between curves and straight lines. Different unfolding in the plan xz (plan) was identified starting from a parametric shape F, located in the plan xy (section or elevation). For each generative rule there will be a graphic representation of the operation. The transformation resulting from the application of this operation will be represented through schematic orthogonal projections of the plans xy and xz. Each one of the rules is represented and classified according to spatial and topological relations set among the primitive shapes such as position, inclination or direction. In the first step of generation it is defined of the origin coordinates in order to characterize the setting of the volume base above or belowground. The rotation and translation operations were classified according to the similarities of characteristics of three components of the operation: Rotation or translation axis (e): segment of straight line centralized in relation to the directrix that guides the movement. Generatrix of the volume (g): curved or straight line segment, polygonal open or closed whose motion generate the surface of the volume. Rotation or translation directrix (d): a fixed curve with which a generatrix maintains a given relationship in generating the volume. In the generative process the vocabulary elements have a set spatial relation between the generatrix and the directrix, in other words, the directrix will serve as path for the generatrix. The directrix or the generatrix can be any of the elements of the vocabulary: the curved line or the straight line segment. Each component of the operation - axis, generatrix or directrix has a graphic description of its possible configurations: The rotation or translation axis is classified with respect to the position (Fig 2) (external, internal or going by the axis of the directrix (h)) (Fig 3) and to the inclination (oblique, horizontal and perpendicular to the base) in relation to the plan xz. Niemeyer has deployed, for example, the same operation with the same curve but positioned the axis (and its inclination angle of rotation) in different ways. Generatrix of the volume: classified according to its inclination, that can be parallel or oblique, in relation to the axis e. The rotation of the generatrix, around the axis (e) parallel, according to a curved or parabolic directrix, it generates a curved or parabolic cylindrical surface. The rotation, around the axis (e), second a circular directrix, generates a cylinder. The rotation of the oblique generatrix, around the axis (e), as a curved or parabolic directrix, it generates a surface curved or parabolic surface. The rotation of the oblique generatrix, around the axis (e), under a circular directrix generates a cone. If the axis (e) coincides with the axis (h) of the generatrix, the rotation,

Fig. 4 Addition operation Fig. 5 Subtraction operation

Aesthetics and Architectural Composition


Fig. 6 Proportion analysis

around a circular directrix, generates a paraboloid, a cupola or according with the shape of the generatrix, any curved surface. Rotation or translation directrix: classified according to the inclination of its axis (h) and as for its shape and number. The axis of the directrix d can be oblique, vertical (perpendicular to the base), horizontal or parallel or coincident with the plan xz or xy. As for the shape of the directrix d, the volume can be generated second two directrixes same or different in size and shape (for instance: a curve and a straight line or two curves same or different). Niemeyer uses to explore possibilities of generated initial volumes with complementary operations. The generative process, after the above initial steps, goes on with a series of complementary operations such as reflection, translation, scaling, intersection addition and subtraction. These operations are described bellow. The translation operation has an additional classification in relation to the rotation operation respect to the direction of the translation movement. The translation direction can be parallel or perpendicular to the axis e. The parallel translation is used to produce sequences of elements as in the project to the Swimming Pool of the National Stadium in Rio de Janeiro or to generate surfaces. The perpendicular translation is used by Niemeyer to reproduce volumes as for instance in the Chapel of San Francisco in Pampulha. The reflection operation is classified according to the reflection axis (R) that can be external or internal to the curve (that can be the generatrix or the directrix). The scale operation transforms either the scale of the volume or the primitive form of the vocabulary. The intersection operation uses the superposition of figures for the composition of new volumes. The intersection was classified according to the superposition of the figures that can be total or partial. Total Intersection determines the shape of the faces adjacent to the generatrices. The main characteristic of this shape is the non-parallelism. It is for modeling of volumes through the section of parts of the initial volume as for instance in the Auditorium of the Employment Office of Bobigny (Fr). Partial Intersection produces complex shapes through the partial superposition and of the recursive initial volumes. It is used in the composition of volumes. The addition operation admits the union between volumes or the addition of elements to the generated volume. Addition allowed Niemeyer to aggregate elements like platforms, canopies or ramps to the building volume. It has made possible the union of volumes as in the San Francisco Chapel in Pampulha or in the New Museum of Curitiba. (Fig 4) The subtraction operation allowed Niemeyer to subtract elements, volumes or surfaces. In Niemeyers language, subtraction is used generally to perforate the volume in order to generate windows (Fig 5). Niemeyers buildings were parameterized through the retrieval of lines based on proportional relations. Proportion relationships were preliminarily tested with the use of a proportional divider based on the golden section. The presence of proportional relationships was verified in more than one work. The consistence of the presence of proportion relationships was then verified in all of the works through the drawing of regulative lines (Fig 6). Niemeyer explore besides bilateral symmetries, other symmetry operations such as translation in Montreal Building, for example.(Fig 7) Niemeyers buildings were described in twenty tables with the graphic description of all rules for the generation of the volumetry.(Fig 8) The graphic descriptions of each one of the presented rules were classified in a descriptive table and they were summarized through the indexation of each one of the parts. In other words, for each rule there is a numeric correspondent (index) that summarizes up to five classification stages. Each index corresponds to one stage of the operation. The table distributes the sample according to the incidence of each rule. A comparative table of the analysis was elaborated relating the works to the generative principals. For each rule, represented by the index originated in the previous table a letter was assigned. Each letter summarizes an associated rule to a generative characteristic. This correspondence has allowed synthesizing the set of generative operations for each building. This way, a constituted generation code of letters resulted for each work. For instance: the rule c summarizes the following rule: rotation or translation with axis e external. The rule cg corresponds to the rotation or translation with axis e external and horizontal. Each additional characteristic increases a corresponding letter. The generation was divided in two stages: the first stage corresponds to the generation of

the initial volume and the second stage corresponds to the modification of the initial volume. In the generation code the stages are separated by a hyphen. For example, the code adgiln-suwxz corresponds to the generation of the Chapel of San Francisco in Pampulha and the code adgjkm-vz refers to the monument Rui Barbosa. When comparing the codes, it is possible to verify where they resemble each other and where differences are located in the generative process. It is noticed that, in the first one, there was a great modification of the initial volume in the complementary stage while in the second the modification happened through few rules. The number of applied rules doesnt necessarily correspond to alterations in the volume, at the same time that it is possible to obtain significant changes with the application of just one rule such as the operation of total intersection. RESULTS The description and classification of Niemeyers buildings based on the generative principles, clarified different aspects regarding the language or architectural style of the analysis corpus: (1) The analysis of the vocabulary allowed the depiction of the recursive use of parametric conical curves: among the twenty analyzed works, the parabola is used 11 times. (2) Among the twenty analyzed works it was possible to generate the volumetry of eighteen works, throughout the operation of rotation, and of two buildings throughout a translational operation. (3) The analysis has shown the predominance of the following generation rules: (a) Origin of the volume above the level 0; (b) External rotation axis; (c) Axis of vertical rotation, perpendicular to the base; (d) Parallel Generatrix to the axis e; (e) Parallel directrix or coincident to the plan xz. And of the complementary operations to the generation: (a) Total Intersection (b) Addition As for the incidence of rules and vocabulary, Niemeyer applies new differentiation rules starting from the same rotation operation according to the period when the building was built. Few new elements are added to the vocabulary, such as the sinuous line as the generatrix appearing, for the first time, in the 70s. (4) The analysis doesnt show correspondences among rules, vocabulary and place: the recursiveness of rules and vocabulary is independent of the places where buildings were built. Regarding the program, it was not possible to determine, from the analysis of the volumetry of the twenty buildings, any relation among the rules, the vocabulary and the program. (5) The buildings share similar generative principal (rules). (6) The similarity of these principals does not depend on the apparent similarity of the buildings - buildings seemingly different can be described as belonging to the same style. (7) The buildings belong to the same style - or architectural language - in the sense that they share the same set of rules; vocabulary and geometric consistencies that characterize the language (8) The buildings were produced according to similar control mechanism regulating lines based in the golden section. (9) It was clarified why and which peculiarities are inherited among Niemeyers buildings - the characteristics that we could call genotypic that correspond to the vocabulary and the rules, are inherited in different levels: different stages of the generation correspond to different levels of differentiation in the shape. The differentiation levels depend on rules that are added to the process in the different stages. The characteristics that are inherited in the first stage of the process are shared by all of the buildings. Each differentiation stage adds a new characteristic to a building or group of buildings. This process produces the degree of differentiation for the volumetric variety that characterizes Niemeyers style. (10) The difference in the generation code is reflected directly in the appearance of the volume, as to configure what could be called a phenotypical characteristic of the volume. (11) The rules are much simpler than the drawings that they produce. Two basic principals, the rotation and the translation govern, in fact, the generation of the analyzed volumetries.

Fig. 7 Examples of symmetry in Niemeyers Buildings

Aesthetics and Architectural Composition


Fig. 6 Example of the analysis - Catedral, Brasilia

CONCLUSION The study revealed some of the basic principles behind Niemeyers generative process. The considerable economy of the operations was observed along with the significant differentiation among the twenty volumes. These differences seem to be more related to Niemeyers choices of vocabulary and to the second generative phase. One might well state that if Niemeyers forms are not absolutely free, he deploys a shape generation strategy that gives him an almost unlimited possibility with respect to original shapes, hence, to an almost unexpected solution. The success in the description of the free forms architecture through the use of the Shape Grammars model consequently leads to the exploration of the computability of this grammar type, through the construction of a computational model for the generation of buildings according to Oscar Niemeyers architectural language. This implementation could be extended to the development of a more generic tool for the production of free forms languages. The exam of Niemeyers language and its generative stages suggests that other elements related, for example, to the context and its relationship with the definition of the rules, or with the generation stages are important in the description of the language. The method leaves open, cognitive aspects related to the decision-making during the creative process. The identification of patterns in these relationships could constitute a new important element in the description of design languages. The existing studies on Shape Grammars still dont establish the connection between cognitive aspects and the design decision-making in the form of rules. The knowledge of these relationships could mean significant progress in the study of the architectural languages and especially of Niemeyers language.

MAYER, Rosirene | SIMMLAB Modeling and Simulation in Architecture | Faculty of Architecture | University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil | TURKIENICZ, Benamy | SIMMLAB Modeling and Simulation in Architecture | Faculty of Architecture | University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil |

Erratum p.138

Fig. 3 Rotation or Translation inclination of directrix axis

REFERENCES: 1. Stiny, G; Mitchell,W.J. (1978). The Palladian Grammar. Environment and Planning B 8: p.17. 2. Pereira, M. A. (1997) Arquitetura, texto e contexto: o discurso de Oscar Niemeyer. Braslia: Editora Universidade de Braslia. 3,4. Niemeyer, O. (1993).Conversa de arquiteto. Rio de Janeiro: Revan, p.11. 5. Niemeyer, O In Corona, E.(2001). Oscar Niemeyer: uma lio de arquitetura. Apontamentos de uma aula que perdura h sessenta anos. So Paulo: FUPAM,p.83. 6. Stiny, G. (1975). Pictorial and formal aspects of shape grammars: on computer generation of aesthetics objects. Basel: Birkhuser. Gips (1975). Shape grammars and their uses artificial perception, shape generation, and computer aesthetics. Basel: Birkhuser. 7. Knight, T. (1994) Transformations in design: a formal approach to stylistic change and innovation in the visual arts. London: Cambridge University Press. 8. Stiny, G; Mitchell,W.J. (1978). The Palladian Grammar. Environment and Planning B 8. 9.Koning, H. & Eizenberg, J. (1981). The language of the prairie: Frank Lloyd Wrights prairie houses,Environment and Planning B 8: p. 295-323. 10.Duarte, J. P. (2001) Malagueira Grammar: towards a tool for customizing Alvaro Sizas mass houses at Malagueira. Disponvel em: acesso em 23/11/2003 11.Gips, J. (1999). Computer implementation of Shape grammars. Invited paper. Workshop on shape computation. Cambridge: MIT. 12 Niemeyer, O In Corona, E.(2001). Oscar Niemeyer: uma lio de arquitetura. Apontamentos de uma aula que perdura h sessenta anos. So Paulo: FUPAM. 13 Stiny (1976). Two exercises in formal composition. Environment and Planning B 3: p.187-210. 14 Celani,G. (2003). CAD criativo. So Paulo: Campus.

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