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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976

6 6553(Online) Volume 3,& TECHNOLOGY (IJEET) Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

ISSN 0976 6545(Print) ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October - December (2012), pp. 72-79 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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SOLAR HOUSE AND WEATHER FACTORS IN BEJAIA CITY, ALGERIA


M. Arkoub*, R. Alkama* *Laboratory of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of technologies, University of Bejaia (Algeria) arkoub_m@yahoo.fr

ABSTRACT In this paper, an autonomous solar house installation is presented. The power supply is exclusively in direct current (DC) which can respond to all needs and commodity of the house. The total cost of the sized system (panels, batteries and regulator) does not exceed 4500 $. The meteorological parameters effects are investigated. Measurement results show that illumination and solar panel efficiency increase with ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure and decrease with relative humidity and wind speed. These variations are explained. A global radiation model including meteorological factors is established. A comparison between calculated and measured values of radiation gives a mean relative deviation of 26.81 %. Key words: photovoltaic energy, solar house, weather factors, Bjaia 1. INTRODUCTION The growth of demand for energy by populations and the limited access to classic resources make that solar energy is expected to play an important role in energy demands, providing real economic and environmental solutions. It was estimated that more than two billion people in the world are not connected to a power grid. The reasons are poverty, remoteness, low population density or lack of need. For these people, autonomous solar systems represent the solutions for their needs (lighting, pumping, etc ....). Powering a house with solar energy would require the production and the storage of electricity for lighting, household appliances and water pumping. Heating is provided by a solar thermal collector that is beyond the scope of this study. The selection and sizing of the

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

different components of the solar system must take into account the needs and the economic aspect. The amount of light captured by solar panels depends inevitably on weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction) [1], [2]. It is interesting to calculate the correlation coefficients with radiation and to try to find a variation model. 2. HOUSE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS The chosen house to be powered with the photovoltaic system is of type F3 in Algerian Standard (2 rooms, a living room, kitchen, toilet and bathroom). Its surface is about 85 m. The used appliances correspond to a minimum of comfort like lighting, water supply, refrigeration and audio visual entertainment. The following table gives the appliances, their power and their operating times.
Load (all DC) 7 lamps Refrigerator 2 fans TV/HiFi Pump Total Power (W) 7*10=70 2*50=100 50 80 Operating time(hour) 04 04 06 04 Energy/day (Wh/day) 280 600 400 300 320 1.900

Table1: Energy requirements of an autonomous house. Seven economic lighting lamps of 10 Watt power each one are necessary. Refrigerators or freezers solar-type 12V or 24V with a volume close to 100 litres consume about 600 Wh / day. The audiovisual equipment (television, demodulator, Hi-Fi system) type 12 V consumes 50 W with an average use of 6 hours. The most used pumping system works with a flow which is proportional to the received light energy. The pumped water during the day is stored in a tank for its use in the night. With an average total lift of about 20 m in Bejaia province and a consumption of 4 m3 per day, the calculations give us a 80 W power pump. Two fans are included for the summer time. Taking into account the powers of the components supplied with direct current (DC) and the use time, we get a daily consumption of Ed=900 Wh / day. The area of the photovoltaic panels can be calculated using the formula (1) [3] = (1) = 12% is the PV panel efficiency = 0.85 is the batteries efficiency = 0.8 is the temperature correction factor H is the average solar radiation. In the Bejaia case (with latitude north 3645 and longitude east 0505) the NASA surface meteorology and solar energy tables give an average of 4.67 kWh/m/day. [4] The found area is = 4.986 That means that the required number of the panels available locally (TE1300, 125Wp, 17.9V, 150x68 cm) is 5. With a solar peak intensity of 1000 W/m, the generator peak power is:

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

= Panels number * panels area * peak intensity * = . . . = Six batteries (12, 110 Ah) are necessary for a three days autonomy. The total cost of panels, batteries and regulator does not exceed 4500 $. The use of an inverter for powering AC-components will increase highly this cost. For heating and hot water uses, a solar thermal collector of 50 litres is sufficient. 3. MEASUREMENTS NETWORK For the experiment we used a solar panel (TE1300, 125 Wp, 17.9 V) connected to a charge giving an optimum efficiency. The illumination is measured with a solar sensor of 30 cm2 surface fixed near the panel with the same inclination. Radiations, current ant voltage delivered by the solar panel are recorded using a data acquisition system connected to a personal computer. Using a weather station Oregon Scientific, we recorded the meteorological parameters (ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, wind speed and wind direction). The samples are done each 10 minutes during twelve months (January-December 2009). In figure 1 is illustrated the measurements network.

Solar panel

U I

Data acquisition

Solar sensor
Temperature T Relative Humidity Pression Wind speed Wind direction Rain

PC
Weather station OREGON SCIENTIFIC

Fig 1: Measurements network As shown in Figure 2, the sun can vary significantly between two successive days: April 29, a cloudy and very disturbed day and April 30 a beautiful day.

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

The current delivered by solar panels is proportional to the illumination. The calculated correlation factor is 0.956. The voltage varies less with the radiation. 956. In Figure 3 is represented the power generated by the solar panel versus the illumination. It is closely related to the illumination. The correlation factor obtained is 0.871.

Fig 3: Power generated by the panel versus illumination 4. METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS The weather station Oregon Scientific that we used save six parameters (ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, wind speed and wind direction). Results are used to compare variations of each parameter and correlation with measured illumination. Figure 4 shows the average monthly variations of temperature and relative humidity over 1 12 months (January to December 2009 Ambient temperature T varies from 3 C to 46 C and January 2009). relative humidity (RH) varies from 8% to 8 %. They vary in opposite directions. umidity 89 hey

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

Fig. 4 : Ambient temperature and relative humidity variations from during2009. In figure 5 are represented the variation of atmospheric pressure P and the wind speed WS during the same period.

Fig. 5 : Atmospheric pressure variations during 2009 Atmospheric pressure varies from 998.8 to 1013.9 millibars. The regression analysis between the illumination and the various meteorological parameters gave the following correlation coefficients:
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

Illumination - temperature: R = +0.66 Illumination - Relative humidity R = -0.64 Illumination - pressure R = +0.79 Illumination - wind speed R = -0.34 Generally the ambient temperature increase is related to a good sunshine except some days when dust wind from the Sahara is present. This case and the deposit on panel will be studied in the near future. When the weather is sunny, the atmospheric pressure is strong. When there's a depression, there is arrival of clouds and the illumination decreases. The humidity is made up of water vapour which diffracts and reflects sunlight and reduces the sun [5]. So with increase of relative humidity we remark a decrease of illumination. Bejaia is a coastal city; the wind gets up each afternoon and evening. Its direction is North West with an angle of approximately 110 degrees from the reference direction of south. The correlation is negative because the wind brings the vehicle and industrial pollution of the city [4] and increases radiation diffracts and attenuation. Wind speed can be used to make an hybrid photovoltaic - wind system. It will be very effective [7] because the wind happens when the sun goes away. Illumination correlations with rain and wind direction are not presented because obtained data are not sufficient. 5. VARIATION MODEL The basic model of Angstrom [8] is given as (2): = + (2) where H is the monthly average global daily radiation on horizontal surface, H0 is the monthly average daily extraterrestrial radiation, S is the length of the day, S0 is the maximum possible sunshine duration; a and b are empirical coefficients. We have added the radiation variation with meteorological factors. Data used are that registered each 10 minutes from January to November 2009. The extraterrestrial solar radiation H0 is calculated from (3) [9] = + . + Where n is the number of the day, is the latitude, is the solar declination and is the sunrise hour angle. With the multiple regressions, the established model is given in (4) :

= .

+ .

+ .

This model is similar to that obtained by Abdullah [10]. In Figure6 are represented daily measured solar radiations from 1th to 29th December and the estimated radiation with the model (4). The mean relative deviation MRD between measured values in December and calculated with this model in (5): = = . % (5)
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

The deviation is more important in cloudy days and smaller in sunshine days.

6. CONCLUSION Solar house with all components power supplied in DC (12 V or 24 V) can be a real and economic solution for isolated construction in Bejaia province or everywhere. The installation of a photovoltaic system is more accessible and more reliable with a DC he power supply. Solar panel efficiency is considerably influenced by meteorological parameters. Solar radiation intercepted by the panel increases with ambient temperature and atmospheric temperature pressure and decrease with relative humidity and wind speed. From the measures recorded during twelve months and with a multiple linear regression a global radiation model is established. Comparison between measured and calculated values with the model shows a mean relative deviation of 28.1%. It will be performed and used to 28.1%. forecast photovoltaic energy in relation with meteorological parameters. In Bejaia the wind speed in the evening can be exploited to produce an efficient windwind photovoltaic hybrid system. Effects of marine pollution, Saharan dust and vehicle exhausts will be a future study. REFERENCES 1. Skeiker, K. Correlation of global solar radiation with common geographical and meteorological parameters for Damascus province, Syria, Energy Conversion and Syria, Management, Vol. 47 (4), pp. 331-345, 2006. 331 2. Maghrabi, A.H., Parametrisation of a simple model to estimate monthly global solar radiation based on meteorological variables, and evaluation of existingsolar radiation models for Tabouk, Saudi Arabia, Energy Conversion and Management (2009)doi bouk, 10.1016/jenconman.2009.06.024 3. Buresh, photovoltaic energy systems, Mac Graw-Hill, New York 1983. Graw Hill, 4. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse available on september 9th 2009

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), IAEME

5. Gwandu B.A.L. and Creasy D.J. Humidity : afactor in the appropriate positionning of a photovoltaic power station, Renewable Energy, Vol. 6 Issue 3, 1995, PP313316. 6. R. Alkama, F. Ait idir & Z. Slimani Estimation and measurement of the automobile pollution : application to Bejaia case , Global NEST Journal Volume 8 N3 Nov. 2006, pp 277-281. 7. A.N Celik, Optimisation and techno-economic analysis of autonomous photovoltaicwind hybrid energy system Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 43, pp. 24532468, 2002. 8. Angstrom A. Solar and terrestrial radiation. Quart J Roy Met Soc , Vol. 50, pp 121125, 1924 9. Tadros MTY. uses of sunshine duration to estimate the global solar radiation over eight meteorological stations in Egypt Renew Energy, vol.21,2000, pp.231-246 10. Abdalla YAG.New correlation of global solar radiation with meteorological parameters for Bahrain. Int J Sol Energy VOl. 16, 1994, pp. 111-120.

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