Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

W

Activity 2: Qualitative Analysis Identifying inorganics in water


Fig 1.1

As mentioned in the introduction to this unit, the amount of water available, its distribution, and its quality are critical issues that continue to affect all life. An increasing awareness of the need to monitor the quality of water and to locate the sources of pollution is becoming more prevalent in todays global world. There are two main types of water pollution, point specific pollution and nonpoint pollution. Point specific pollution is contamination that comes from a specific location. An example of point pollution is a factory that has a chemical discharge pipe that leads direction into a water source. This type of pollution can be pinpointed and limited more readily than the second class of pollutants, nonpoint sources. Nonpoint water pollution does not come from a specific location. Some examples are runoff of water from city areas (impervious cover effects), agricultural land (an issue for our water source here in Culver), or from poor forestry practices. This type of pollution occurs when runoff water such as snowmelt or rainfall travels over an area of land. As this water moves over the ground, it picks up waste and carries it to a body of water. This water enters rivers and will seep down through the soil and eventually enter the groundwater supply. As polluted water enters the groundwater supply or any other water source, the concentration of certain ions may alter the waters purity. If the concentration of an ion reaches a certain level, the water could become hazardous. The purpose of this activity is to first determine what inorganic ions are present in a water supply through qualitative analysis (Fig 1.1 shows a tool sometimes used in qualitative analysis, the centrifuge). In the following activity, you will explore some methods for determining the concentrations of various ions to determine if the water is safe for drinking (and determine the priority ions to remove). The ions you will test for are carbonate, chloride, chromate, iron(II) & (III), lead(II), phosphate, sulfate, ammonium, and calcium.

P R E P A R I N G WHAT DO YOU THINK? LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Answer the following questions in the preparing section of your laboratory notebook. 1. Based on the vocabulary, what do you think qualitative analysis entails? 2. Think back to our work with chemical equations. Name the different types of chemical reactions and give a basic example of each. You may need to look back through your notes or notebook. As always, state the objective of this activity. What will you be able to do once this activity is completed?

Part A: Background on Ions in Water Supplies


Using valid Internet sources, such as the EPA or Extoxnet websites, research the ions named in the introduction. For each, state the chemical formula and charge, MCL or Secondary Standard in ppm, list potential sources, and state possible health effects. The table provided may help you organize your information.

Part B: Qualitative Analysis


In qualitative analysis, you determine the presence of an ion based on the quality of a chemical change. In this lab, we will use color changes, formation of a precipitate, odor, and formation of a gas as signs a chemical change has taken place. You will first determine what each change looks like with known sources of each ion to be tested and the reagent that tests for each ion. Then, you will test an unknown sample with the same reagents to determine which ions are present in the unknown sample. Divide your notebook into procedure and observations. In the procedure portion, you will keep track of the ion you are testing for and the procedure to do it. In the observations portion, you will note what you observe when the ion is present, and when you perform the test on the same amount of distilled water. Record your observations for each of the three test tubes in each of the tests below in the data table provided.

1. Test for carbonate Ion


Place twenty drops of the carbonate source into a test tube. Place twenty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place twenty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. To each test tube, add ten drops of 6.0 M HCl solution. Observe.

2. Test for chloride


Place twenty drops of the chloride source into a test tube. Place twenty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place twenty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. To each test tube, add ten drops of 0.10 M AgNO3 solution. Centrifuge (optional) and observe. To verify that it is chloride and not another ion causing the change, add a few drops of 6.0 NH 4OH, swirl and wait thirty seconds, then add a few drops of 6.0 M H2SO4. It is chloride if the same change occurs a second time after adding the H2SO4.

3. Test for Chromate


Place eight drops of 3.0 M HNO3 solution into three separate test tubes. Add eight drops of the chromate source into one of the test tubes. Add eight drops of distilled water into the second test tube. Add eight drops of your unknown water sample into the third test tube. To each of the three test tubes, add fourteen drops of distilled water and stir. Add eight drops of 3.0% H2O2 to each test tube. Centrifuge (optional) and observe.

4. Test for Iron (II) and Iron (III)


Place twenty drops of the iron source into a test tube. Place twenty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place twenty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. Add three drops of 6.0 M H2SO4 solution to each test tube. Add ten drops of 3.0% H2O2 to each test tube. Add ten drops of 0.01 M KSCN solution to each test tube. Centrifuge (optional) and observe.

5. Test for Lead (II)


Place twenty drops of the lead source into a test tube. Place twenty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place twenty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. Add fifteen drops of 0.10 M K2CrO4 solution to each test tube. Centrifuge (optional) and observe.

6. Test for Phosphate


Place twenty drops of the phosphate ion source into a test tube. Place twenty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place twenty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. Add twelve drops of 0.10 M AgNO3 solution to each test tube. Centrifuge (optional) and observe.

7. Test for Sulfate


Place twenty drops of the sulfate ion source into a test tube. Place twenty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place twenty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. Add

twenty drops of 6.0 M HCl solution to each test tube. Add ten drops of 0.50 M BaCl2 solution to each test tube. Centrifuge (optional) and observe.

8. Test for Calcium


Place twenty drops of the calcium ion source into a test tube. Place twenty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place twenty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. Add ten drops of 0.10 M Na2C2O4 solution to each test tube. Centrifuge (optional) and observe.

9. Test for Ammonium


Place forty drops (2.0 mL) of the ammonium ion source into a test tube. Place forty drops of distilled water into another test tube. Place forty drops of your unknown water sample into a third test tube. Add ten drops of 6.0 M NaOH solution to each test tube. Moisten a piece of red litmus paper with water and hold it in the mouth of the test tube. Gently heat the solution with a Bunsen burner while swirling/agitating it. Do not boil. Note your observations (hint: this one should also have an odor do not sniff directly, though).

A N A L Y Z I N G READING QUESTIONS

Reading: Whats in the Water


Reading for this will vary by instructor. You may want to review reaction types (and net ionic equations) before doing the questions below.

Questions: Whats in the Water


1. We often find the numbers for pollutants in different units, depending on the source and country, so we must convert. Perform the following conversions to practice this skill. a. 0.50 M chromium ion to ppm b. 4.00 ppb lead ion to ppm c. 450.0 ppm calcium ion to M. 2. Your qualitative analysis tracked chemical changes by color, formation of a precipitate, odor, or formation of a gas. Using your observations and the reagent names, fill out the following chart. Overall Eq. Carbonate Net Ionic Eq. Type Chloride Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type (1) Double Replacement/Acid-Base (2)Decomposition NaCl(aq) + HNO3(aq) + K2CrO4(aq) +H2O2(aq) CrO5(aq) + H2O(l) +KNO3 (aq) Balance! Oxidation-Reduction FeCl3(aq) + Do not worry about acid or hydrogen peroxide! (1) Na2CO3(aq) + (2)

Chromate

Iron(II) & (III)

Lead(II)

Phosphate

Sulfate

Calcium

Ammonium

Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type Overall Eq. Net Ionic Eq. Type

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K3PO4(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) + Ca(NO3)2(aq) + NH4NO3(aq) +

CT

C R I T I C A L L Y

T H I N K I N G

MEAN? KNOW? BELIEVE? CARE?

What does the activity mean?


Chemistry explains the macroscopic phenomenon (what you observe) with an explanation of what happens at the nanoscopic level (atoms and molecules) using symbolic structures as a way to communicate. Explain the meaning of this activity by completing the MNS table. MACRO What are the signs of a chemical change? NANO Draw an illustration of a precipitation reaction and a reaction forming a gas at the nanoscale. SYMBOLIC How do we symbolically represent ionic solid & molecular gases in solution? How do we represent the measure of solute in solution?

How do I know?
Making specific reference to your data, observations, what is in your unknown water sample? Briefly justify. Be sure to include the letter of the unknown.

Why do I believe?
What big understanding(s) does this lab relate to? How does it relate?

Why do I care?
Look up common ionic solutes found in a region assigned to you by your instructor. Write what qualitative tests youd prioritize before developing your schema for your area of the world.