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CHEMISTRY ASSIGNMENT Chemicals for Consumer


1. Soap and Detergent

a) Definition of soap and some examples of soap

Soap is water soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids which consist of 12 to 18 atoms per molecule. Soap Sodium oleat Sodium palmitate Sodium laurate Fatty acid Oleic acid Palmitic acid Lauric acid Raw materials Olive oil, corn oil Palm oil Coconut oil

b) History of soap manufacturing Soap production is a process that started since 7th centuary by boiling vegetables and animals oils with ashes of plants.

The first soap is made in Italy in the year 600 A.D. The ingredients used then were fats and potassium carbonate.

Soap made that are not efficient because the ingredients used are not pure and the techniques used are less satisfactory.

In the year 700 A.D., Spain prodeced a better quality soap using olive oil, and not animal fats .

Around year 1800, the Americans mixed fats and grease with coal to produce yellow soap.

In 1790, Nicholas Lablanc found a way to produce sodium hydroxide from cooking salt (sodium chloride). This enables the production of pure alkali which is an important ingredient .

In 1816, Michel Chevreul proposed his finding that facts are composed of fatty acids and glycerol. His finding enables scientists to understand the chemical reactions that happened.

c) Soap preparation process in laboratory by saponification

1. Soap is made by boiling a mixture of: (a) fats or vegetable oil (b) concentrated alkali (sodium hydroxide/potassium hydroxide) Fats + sodium hydroxide

soap + glycerol

Vegetable oil + sodium hydroxeide

soap + glycerol

2. The process of making soup is called saponification. 3. Saponification involves alkaline hydrolysis of fats or vegetable oil catalysed by concentrated alkali. 4. An example of the saponification process is shown below:

5. This reaction can also be written as below: ](s) + 3NaOH(aq) 3RCOONa(aq) +

palm oil sodiumhydroxide sodium palmitate glycerol


d) Definition of detergent and some examples of detergent

Detergent is a non-soap cleansing agent. It is divided into natural detergent (made from animal or vegetable oil) and synthetic detergent (made from petroleum). Detergent is the sodium salt of the organic acid known as sulphonic acid. Examples of detergent are lauryl sulphate, alkylbenzene sulphonate and alkyl sulphate.

e) Steps in the preparation of detergent

Altering the structure of the hydrocarbon chain Replacing the ionised detergent component with other functional groups

1. The detergent, sodium alkyl sulphate can be prepared from alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 18 carbon atoms in two steps. Steps 1: Reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid

Step 2: Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution.

2. An example of a long chain alcohol is didecan 1 ol, CH3(CH2)10CH2OH. The detergent prepared from dodecan -1 ol is called sodium dodecyl sulphate (IUPAC name) or sodium lauryl sulphate (common name). CH3(CH2)10CH2O-SO3-Na+ .

3. Sodikum alkylbenzene sulphinates, were first used in 1940s. It can be prepared in three steps. The starting materials for making this detergents in a long chain alkene, RCH = CH2 , obtained from the cracking of petroleum.

a) Step 1 : Alkylation

Alkylation is the introduction of the alkyl group to an organic molecule. b) Step 2 : Sulphonation

Alkylbenzene produced the react with concentrated sulphuric acid acid to form alkylbenzene sulphonic acid.

Sulphonation is the introduction of the sulphonic acid group, -SO3H to an organic molecule to form sulphonic acid.
c) Step 3 : Neutralisation

Alkylbenzene sulphonic acid produced reacted with sodium hydroxide to form sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate, the detergent

f) The cleansing action of soap and detergent

SOAP When soap dissolves in water, the soap is ionised to form cations and anions of soap. Example:
( COONa(s)
Palmitate ion (anions of soap)

Sodium ion (cation)

sodium palmitate (soap)

The cleansing action of soap is explained by the poperties of the structure of anions of soap. a. Anions of soap has a structure that consists of two components, which are the longchained hydrocarbon component which is hydrophobic and the ionised component which is hydrophilic. b. The hydrophobic component is covalent in nature and dissolves in grease or oil, but not in water. c. The hydrophilic component is ionic and dissolves in water, but not in grease or oil. d. Both of these properties of the anions of soap enable the soap to clean a surface efficiently. e. Structure of anions of soap can be classified as below:

DETERGENT When detergent dissolves in water, it is ionised to sodium cations and anions of detergent (alkylbenzene sulphonate and;

the alkyl sulphate ions)

The cleansing action of detergent can be explained by the structural properties of the anions of detergent. a. The anions of detergent consist of two components, which are the hydrophobic and hydrophilic components. b. The hydrophobic component dissolves i grease or oil, but not in water. c. The hydrophilic component dissolves in water, but not in grease or oil. In fact, the structural properties of the anions of detergent are similar to the anions of soap. Therefore, the cleansing action of detergent is almost the same as that of soap.

g) Compare and contrast the effectiveness of cleansing action of soap and detergent in hard water
Hard water contains a great amount of calcium and magnesium ions. These ions react with the soap to form an insoluble precipitate known as soap scum.


Cleaning power Ease of rinsing Less powerful More powerful It is difficult to wash away all soap Rinse out well from clothes on clothes. The soap that remains leave and odour and spoils the fabrics Slightly alkaline Can be controlled to suit the cleaning task Determined by the fatty acids Can be modified to suit the found in the oil or fat used to cleaning task. For example, a produce soap detergent can be made specially for cleaning toilet bowls Form scum with hard water Does not form scum with hard water

pH Molecular structure

Formation of scum

h) Detergent consists of various additives. Purposes of adding detergent additives are

Bleach: sodium percarbonate and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) To remove coloured stains without bleachig the colour of the cloth.

To give clothes fragrance after washing

Fluorescent material:
To make white cotton sheets appear whiter and more radiant (also acts as whitening agent)


Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose:

To prevent dirt that has been removed from sticking back onto the cloth

Phosphate compounds: Tripolyphosphate

To eliminate mud contained in dirt and softening water.

Drying agents: Sodium sulphate and sodium silicate

To ensure detergent in the powder form is always dry. Sodium silicate also helps to reduce acidity of water.

i) Labels of different cleansing agents


a) The purposes of using food additives.

1. Food additives are chemicals that are added to food in small quantities for specific purposes such as protection against bacterial attack or restoring the colour of food destroyed during food processing. 2. Food additives used are: a) To retard food spoilage and to preserve food (longer shelf life). b) To make food taste better or smell better. c) To add colouring to food so that the food looks fresher, more interesting or more appealing.

b) The types of food additives with respective examples and functions.

stabilizer and thickener colouring agents




flavouring agents

According to the Food Act, 1985, only a few types of chemical substances are permitted to be used as preservatives in food. Sulphur dioxide Propanoic acid Benzoic acid Sodium nitrate ) or potassium nitrate Sodium benzoate Ascorbic acid II. Sodium nitrate Ethanoic acid or potassium nitrate

Table below shows the preservatives that are commonly used in food such as soft drinks, syrups, fruit juices, margarine, processed meat, fish paste and dried vegetables. Uses Uses in production of meat, especially frozen meat such as sausage and canned meat Functions/effects Causes the meat to appear fresh and can last longer. Acts as colouring agent which causes the meat to appear reddish on colour. Used as preservative to prevent the growth of yeast and bacteria. If used in excess will cause disturbance to the nerves, allergy and cancer.

Preservatives Sodium nitrate

Sodium benzoate

Normally added to a variety of fruit juices, soft drinks, sauces and margarine to enable the food or drink to last longer

I. Oils and fats as well as certain vitamins can undergo oxidation by air when exposed to air. Oxidation can decompose or break-up food into smaller molecules which are toxic and emit a foul smell. Therefore, chemicals such as ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid and isopropyl citrate are added into foods such as oils, fats, biscuits and deep-fried foods as antioxidants to prevent damage due to oxidation. The quantity of antioxidant used in food is controlled as not to jeopardise the health of consumers.



Flavouring agents
I. II. Artificial flavouring has to be added to give or enhance the taste or flavour foods. Examples:

Flavouring agents
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)

A type of salt of the amino acid called glutamic acid. Can enhance the taste of food even in quantities as small as 0.1%. Normally added into meat, fish, vegetables and soup. Nevertheless, the indiscriminate usage of MSG especially in junk food can cause detrimental long term effects to

Saccharin (artificial sweetener) Aspartame

the health (can affect the mental development of children). It can also cause Chinese Restaurant Syndrome whereby the victim of this syndrome will feel numbed or paralysed and will suffer from rapid increase in heart beat. Approximately 400 times sweeter than sugar. The use of saccharin is banned in most countries because it can cause cancer. Replace saccharin. Chemical substance produced from a type of amino acid known as aspartic acid. Approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar. Suitable to be added into the food of diabetics whose body cannot digest sugar. It is very low calorie, making it suitable for use by weight watchers. Nevertheless, it will lose its sweet taste when subjected to heat. Unsuitable for use in baking.

Stabiliser and thickener

I. Stabiliser is a type of chemical substance added to food such as cream, salad sauce, powdered milk, ice cream and creamed soup to help the oil and water mix together more effectively and be maintained in the form of emulsion permanently to prevent the food from separating into layers as well as settling. This is to enable the food such as ice cream and biscuits be swallowed without having to be chewed for a long time. Examples gelatine, acacia gum and lecithin. Thickener is a type of chemical substance added to food to alter the original consistency of the food into a fine and smooth texture as well as to thicken gravy by absorbing water so that the food will form a jelly-like consistency known as gel. Examples starch (eg: corn-flour), agar-agar, gelatine, pectin.




Colouring agents
I. Processing can cause different foods to lose their original colours. For example, green peas will become dull and its colour will fade when processed. Therefore, to restore the original colour of food, colouring is added. Colouring consists of organic compounds which are very complex and can be divided into two categories: a) Azo compounds b) Triphenyl compounds These chemical substances are obtained from petroleum. For example, tartazine is a type of azo compound normally added to soft drinks (orange juice).




Another example brilliant blue FCF (a type of triphenyl compound gives a blue colour to food).

c) 12 labels from different food showing the list of ingredients found. The additives used in each food are identified and the function of each of them is found.

d) The disadvantages of using food additives with their effects on health and the environment.
Sugar Salt Sodium nitrite Nitrates, sorbic acids Sulphur dioxide, sodium benzoate Tartrazine (azo dye)

Obesity and diabetes. Sweeteners with no energy content may be alternative for people who like sweet foods. Sodium in salty foods has been liked to high blood pressure. Can react with proteins in the stomach or during cooking (especially in frying) to form carcinogenic N-nitro samines. Develop various allergic. Can cause wheeziness and tight chest in asthmatics. Others develop sore, scratchy throatso or skin rashes and hives. May cause reactions in some people especially asthmatics, hyperactivity and rashes in children. This causes chidren hyperactive and lack of sleep. Itching without a rash, hives, respiratory allergies, headaches, dizziness, nausea, numbness, muscle spasms, weight gain, depression, fatigue, breathing difficulties, memory loss, heart palpitations,, angioedema (swelling of the eyelids, lips, hands, or feet) and anxiety attacks. Typical symptoms include headache, a burning sensation along the back of the neck, chest tightness or pain, nausea, sweating and a sensation of facial pressure. In 1937, the yellow dye of butter (dimethylazobenzene) was found to cause cancer in rats.



Azo dyes

3. Medicine

a) Medicine can be classified into traditional medicines and modern medicines. Examples of traditional medicines, their sources and uses are stated.
Plants/Herbs Part of the plant used Uses



Refresh body and enhance body strength

Aloe vera


The juice is applied on skin to treat itchiness and wounds or burn.



Increase body temperature to induce sweating.



Acts as anaesthetics.



Has antibiotic properties and reduces the stickiness of platelets.



Diluted lime juice without sugar can cleanse body system and treat skin problem if drank often. Lime juice with water can be drunk every morning to increase digestive juices and to cleanse the liver. Boiled with water and drank as tonic for



longifolia Roots skin

post-natal women. Boiled with water and drank like tea to reduce body temperature for patients with fever. Used together with garlic to treat flatulence in the body. Used during winter to warm the body and to prevent the common cold. To treat malaria and muscle cramps.




Bark of the cinchona tree

b) There are many types of modern medicines. These include analgesics, antibiotics and psychotherapeutic medicines. Types of modern medicines with their respective examples and functions are stated.

1. Analgesics are medicines that can relieve pain by acting on receptors on the nerve cells of the spinal cord or brain. 2. Examples aspirin, paracetamol and codein. 3. Aspirin and paracetamol are mild painkillers whereas codeine is powerful painkillers. 4. Aspirin : pain relief and anti-inflammatory action
a) The IUPAC name of aspirin is acetyl aslicylec acid. Aspirin contains two functional groups, a carboxylic acid group and the ester group. Thus, aspirin is aicidc in nature. b) Uses of aspirin Aspirin reduces fever and inflammable as well as relives pain. Aspirin is used to : (i) Reduce fever (ii) Relieve headaches, muscle aches and joint aches (iii) Treat arthritis, a disease caused by inflammation of the joints (iv) Act as an anticoagulant. It prevents the clotting of blood and reduce the risk of the heart attack and strokes.

5. Paracetamol
a) Paracetamol have the following structural formula. Thus, unlike aspirin, paracetamol is neutral in nature. b) Paracetamol is similar to aspirin in its effects (that is, reduces fever and relieves pain) but it does not reduce inflammation.

c) Paracetamol also reduces or relieves flu symptoms such as fever, bone aches and runny nose.

6. Codeine
a) Codeine is an organic compound that contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. b) Codeine is an analgesics and is used to relive mirror to moderate pain. Codeine is more powerful than morphine. Codeine and morphine are narcotic drugs c) Codeine is also used in cough mixtures for suppressing coughs.

1. Antibiotics are chemicals that destroy or prevent the growth of infectious microorganism. 2. Two examples of antibiotics are penicillin and streptomycin. 3. Antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by bacteria. 4. Antibiotics are not effective against diseases caused by viral infections such as influenza, measles, or small pox. 5. Penicillin
a) Penicillin is derived from the mould genus Penicillium notatum. b) Penicillin is used to treat diseases, caused by bacteria, such as pneumonia, gonorrhoea, anthrax, meningitis and syphilis. c) Penicillin is only effective on certain bacteria. For example, it cannot be used to treat tuberculosis. 6. Streptomycin is the antibiotic that is effective in treating tuberculosis, pneumonia and dysentery.

Psychotherapeutic Drugs
1. Psychotherapeutic medicines are a group of drugs for treating mental or emotional illnesses (psychiatric patients) by altering the emotions as well as the behaviour and thoughts of the patient. 2. Psychotherapeutic drugs can be divided into a few groups as shown in table below : Types of psychotherapeutic drugs a) Stimulants b) Antidepressant c) Antipsychotic agents Example Caffeine, amphetamine Prozac Chloropromazin

3. Stimulants
a) Stimulants are naturally occurring or synthetic drugs that stimulate (excite) the activity of the brain and central nervous system. b) Adrenaline is a stimulant that the body produces when it needs to prepare for demanding or energetic activities. c) Stimulants make a person more alert, more energetic, less tired and more cheerful. d) Examples of stimulants are caffeine and amphetamines. Caffeine is a week, naturally occurring stimulant and is found on coffee, tea and Cola drinks. e) Amphetamines are strong synthetic stimulants and increase alertness and physical ability. f) Amphetamines increase the heart and respiration rates, as well as the blood pressure. As a result, it causes the body to postpone the need of sleep and can reverse, partially and temporarily, the symptoms of fatigue.

4. Antidepressants
a) Depression is a chronic illness. Most cases of depression are caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. b) People experiencing depression feel hopeless. They experience a loss of interest in everyday activities such as work or hobbies. c) There is a strong correlation between the amounts of special chemicals (called neurotransmitters) in the brain and a persons mood. If these chemicals get too low, the person may feel depressed. d) Antidepressants are medicines that increase the brains level of neurotransmitters, thus improving mood. e) Antidepressants make a person feel calm and sleepy.

5. Antipsychotic medicines
a) Psychosis is the serious mental illness in which people lose touch with reality. People with psychosis may, Hear voice and see things that are not really there (hallucinations) Have belief that are not based on reality (delusions) b) In psychiatry, there are a number of disorders that are classified under psuchosis, such as schizophrenias (madness), psychotic depression, mania and so on. c) Psychotic patients have extreme mood swings. Their mood changes rapidly from high spirit to deep depression. d) Antipsychotic medicines do not cure symptoms to help the person live a more normal life.

6. Hormones and Steroids

a) Hormones are chemicals produced by humans endocrine gland to control physiological processes and homeostasis in the human body. b) Hormones perform their functions in metabolism, reproduction and other physiology activities. c) Insulin is a type of peptide hormone secreted by pancreas to control the blood sugar level.

d) Steroids are natural lipid compounds used in medical field such anabolic steroid and the corticosteroid. I. Anabolic steroids are used as medicines to treat a few types of severe illnesses such as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and cancer where these medicines prevent the gradual loss of muscle tissues. Anabolic steroids are often misused by sports personalities to build and strengthen their muscle tissues as well as to treat injured muscles quicker than usual. II. Corticosteroids used as medicines are cortisone and prednisone. These medicines have anti-inflammatory properties and are used to treat asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.

c) Side effects of using modern and traditional medicines by including specific examples.
Type of modern drug Aspirin Side effects Can cause bleeding in the stomach because aspirin is vey acidic. Can cause allergic reactions, skin rashes and asthmatic attacks People who abuse amphetamines are excitable and talkative. Psychologically additive and can cause heart attack. Can cause anxiety, sleeplessness, aggressive behaviour and decrease appetite. Can cause enlarged pupils, heavy perspiration and trembling hands. Can cause addiction. Can cause allergic reactions. Can cause death for people who are allergic to it. Can cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, rashes and fever. Can cause loss of hearing following long-term use.


Codeine Penicillin Streptomycin Stimulants Antidepressants Antipsychotic drugs

Can cause addiction. Can cause addiction. Can cause headaches, grogginess and loss of appetite. Can cause dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation. Can cause tremor and restlessness. Sedation (make people calmer, or to make people sleepy)

d) The correct usage of modern and traditional medicines.

In taking any medicine, we should know why the medicine is prescribed, how the medicine should be used, what special precautions should be followed, what special diet should be followed, what are the side effects and what storage conditions are needed. In addition, we should note the following points :

1. Self-medication Do not prescribe medicines for yourself (self-medication) or for other people. Discuss with your doctor and listen to him concerning the medicine to be taken. 2. Follow the instructions given Follow the instructions given by your doctor or pharmacist concerning the dosage and method of taking the medicine. 3. Medicines for adult and children Medicines for adult should not be given to children and vice versa. 4. Side effects Visit the doctor immediately if there are symptoms of allergy or other effects of the drugs. 5. Expiry date Like foods, medicines also have expiry date. Do not take medicines after their expiry dates.

e) Taking drugs excessively and without a doctors prescription is called drug abuse. i) Drugs that are normally abused.


Crack Cocaine





Psilocybin Mushrooms


ii) Reasons why teenagers take drugs.

1. They want to have fun, friends and the status of being the risk-taker. 2. Stress relief. 3. To forget or escape from the problems. 4. Being a rebel and a risk-taker. 5. Relief of boredom. 6. Escaping difficult decisions. 7. A feeling of being special. 8. Being part of a significant group of people. 9. Being addicted. 10. Curiosity.

iii) The side effects of these drugs on health.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Death. Physical debilitation. Heart conditions. Cancer. Dizziness. Nausea.

iv) The impacts of drug abuse on our society.

1. Economies are held back 2. Families are made less happy 3. Occasionally even torn asunder by serious injury, death or deeply negative consequences of drug abuse 4. Liver disease is a particularly common problem 5. Affecting the economy 6. Fairly negligible Conclusions

A common thread runs through all drug abuse: the precedence that it takes over everything else in the abuser's life. This makes spouses and children feel as if they are coming in second in a race with a chemical. The same goes for career aspirations, financial decisions and other important things that should be first and foremost in any adult's mind.

v) Ways to prevent the drug abuse.

a. Effectively deal with peer pressure. The biggest reason teens using drugs is because their friends utilize their peer pressure. No one likes to be left out and teens find themselves doing things they normally wouldnt do, just to fit in. In these cases, you need to either find a better group of friends that wont pressure you doing harmful things, or you need to find a good way to say no. Teens should prepare a good excuse or plan ahead of time, to keep from giving into tempting situations. b. Deal with life pressure. People today are overworked and overwhelmed, and often feel like a good break or a reward is deserved. But in the end, drugs only make life more stressful and many of us all too often fail to recognize this in the moment. To prevent using drugs as a reward, find other ways to prevent stress and unwind. Take up exercising, read a good book, volunteer with the need, create something. Anything positive and relaxing helps take the mind off using drugs to relieve stress. c. Seek help for mental illness. Mental illness and substance abuse often go hand-in-hand. Those with mental illness may turn to drugs as a way to ease the pain. Those suffering from some on mental illness, such as anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder should seek the help of a trained professional for treatment before it leads to substance abuse. d. Examine the risk factor. If youre aware of the biological, environmental and physical risk factors you pass, youre more likely to overcome them. A history of substance abuse in the family, living in the social setting that glorifies drug abuse and/or family life that models drug abuse can be risk factors. e. Keep a well-balanced life. People take up drugs when something in their life is not working, or when they are unhappy about their lives or where their lives are going. Look at lifes big picture, and have priorities in order.