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BLUETOOTH

TECHNOLOGY

AUTHORS

V.JYOTHIRMAYI K.Y.L.RAMASITA
vegesnajyothi@yahoo.co.in ylramasita_k@yahoo.com

YEAR & BRANCH - II IT

Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women


Bhimavaram

ABSTRACT:

Blue tooth is a standard developed by a group of electronics manufacturers that allows


any sort of electronic equipment – from computers to cell phones and keyboards to
headphones – to make its own connections without wires, cables or any direct action from the
user. The technology encompasses a simple low-cost, low-power, global radio system for
integration into mobile devices. Such devices can form a quick ad-hoc secure “piconet” and
communicate among the connected devices. This technology creates many useful mobile
usage models because the connections can occur while mobile devices are being carried in
packets and briefcases (therefore, there are no line-of-sight restrictions). This paper provides
a brief introduction of Bluetooth technology and its working. It also gives some insights of
applications, features and benefits. Finally, the implementation issues of Bluetooth
technology are observed.

Bluetooth has to receive an overwhelming support of all the digital and computerized
manufacturers to become a basic unit in a production process. Acceptance by those
companies outside the SIG will hold back the implementation of Bluetooth in all devices in
the future.

Bluetooth is a radio system designed for connecting a variety of mobile devices in a


secure ad-hoc fashion. The Bluetooth specification is definitely real and is being widely
adopted by industry leaders. The possibilities for new applications are very exciting with this
versatile technology.

.
INTRODUCTION

Today wireless communication is one of the fastest growing technologies. One of the
promising technologies for WLAN’s (Wireless Local Area Network) is BLUETOOTH. LAN
(Local Area Network) is a computer network designed for connecting devices in a limited
geographic area such as a building or a campus where as WLAN is a LAN, which uses
unguided media (Without using cables or any connections). It is used for connecting roaming
devices & provides a high-speed backbone network to enable security. Bluetooth technology
was born in 1994.First version was released in July 1999.

WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?

Bluetooth is a name given to the novel technology that uses short range, radio link,
intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed communicating devices. Such
as mobile phones, desktops, notebook computers, cameras, printers, coffee makers,
telephones etc.

OR
Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low cost, low power,
short range, radio technologies for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data any
where in the world.

THE NAME BLUETOOTH COMES FROM…

Bluetooth is named for Harald Blatand, the king of Denmark who united Denmark
and Norway. Blatand translates into Bluetooth in English. The Ericsson Company originally
started Bluetooth as a project.

Similarly, in the beginning of the Bluetooth technology era, Bluetooth was aimed at
unifying the telecom and computing industries.
THE REASON WE CAME TO BLUETOOTH…

Let us take an example of telephones for cables where as mobiles are wireless.
Because of the problem of interference over cabling we came to Bluetooth technology.

This Bluetooth is also a cable replacement technology i.e. wireless.

BLUETOOTH IS WIRELESS…

Blue tooth uses omni-directional radio waves which even operate in the unlicensed
ISM band at 2.4GHZ that can be transmitted through walls and non-metal barriers. Bluetooth
uses 1600 times/sec frequency hopping to avoid interference.

BLUETOOTH CONTROLLER…

 The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG)


 This group worked together to define and promote an open, royalty-free specification.
 This group also defines a certification program for Bluetooth products to ensure
product compatibility across manufacturers.
 The Bluetooth SIG includes promoter companies 3Com, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Lucent,
Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia and Toshiba, and more than 2000 Adopter/Associate member
companies.

FEATURES

 Universal short-range (up to 100 mts) radio communication standard.


 Runs at 2.4GHz band, which is near microwave frequency.
 Performs fast frequency hopping between 79 points to avoid interference i.e., 1600
times/sec.
 It is full-duplex.
 Low power, 32-100mA during sustained data transmissions between devices. Devices
automatically switch to power saving mode.
 Transfers data at 721 Kbps (Kilo Bits Per Second), which is 3 – 8 times the average
speed of parallel and serial ports respectively.
 Bandwidth is wide enough to carry voice and data signals.
 300 – 400 Kbps real data rate.

NETWORKS

Bluetooth defines two types of networks.


♦ Piconet
♦ Scatternet

PICONET

It is a small subset of Bluetooth devices that share the same physical channel in an ad-
hoc fashion.

Piconet comprises of eight stations in which only one serves as master & the rest as
slaves.

All the slave stations synchronize their clocks & hopping sequence with the master.
An indefinite number of parked devices remains synchronized with the Piconet but is not
active. A slave in the parked state is synchronized with the master but cannot take place in
communication until it moves from parked state to active state.

Activating a station from parked state means that an active station should be moved to
parked state.

The communication between master & slaves can be of


• One-to-one (or) single point-to-point
• One-to-many (or) multipoint
M – Master S - Slave

M M

S S
S S

SCATTERNET

A group of two or more partially overlapping Piconet connected through gateways.


(Or)
A Scatternet is a group of Piconet linked via a slave device in one Piconet, which plays
master role in other Piconet.

The connection between master and slaves is same as in Piconet. In Scatternet the slave of
one Piconet can be a master to another Piconet.

M
M – Master
S
S – Slave
S M/S S

S S
S
BLUETOOTH LAYERS

Applications

Profiles

l
tro
n
Data

Co
L2CAP
Audio
Link Manager HCI
Baseband

RL

RADIO LAYER:

The radio layer coordinates the functions required to transmit bit stream over a
medium.
It deals with Band, FHSS & Modulation. This layer uses 2.4GHz ISM band divided
into 79 channels of 1MHz each .In this layer a method called Frequency hopping spread
spectrum is used in order to avoid interference from other devices or other networks. To
transform bits to a signal a sophisticated version of FSK called GFSK (FSK with Gaussian
Band Width Filtering) is used.

BASE BAND LAYER:

Base band layer governs the operation of the access method.


It deals with access method TDMA & Physical links. This layer deals with access
method TDD-TDMA (Time Division Duplexing–Time Division Multiple Access). TDD is a
kind of half duplex communication. The communication for each direction uses different
hops.
TDMA:

In TDMA access method communication is of two types:

SINGLE SLAVE COMMUNICATION


If the Piconet has only one slave then the master uses even numbered slots and the
slave uses odd numbered slots to communicate with one another in half duplex method.

MULTIPLE SLAVE COMMUNICATION


If the Piconet consists more than one slave then the master uses the even numbered
slots, but a slave sends in the next odd numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was
addressed to it.

PHYSICAL LINKS:

The types of links between master and slave are


SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) link
ACL (Asynchronous Connection Less) link

SCO:
A synchronous connection oriented link is used when avoiding Latency (delay in data
delivery) is more important than integrity (Error-free delivery).
In SCO, a physical link is created between a master and slave by reserving specific slots at
regular intervals. In SCO, if a packet is damaged it is never retransmitted. So, SCO is used
for real- time audio. A slave can create up to three SCO links with the master

ACL:
An Asynchronous connectionless link is used when data integrity is more important
than avoiding latency. ACL can achieve a data rate up to 721 Kbps.
LMP (Link Manager Protocol)

This layer is responsible for setting up the link between two Bluetooth radios
(Security aspects and control issues on Baseband packet sizes). Link manager uses the
services of link controller to perform its services. It essentially consists of number of protocol
data units, which sends from one device to another. Furthermore, it controls the power modes
and duty cycles of Bluetooth radio services, and connection states of Bluetooth unit in a
Piconet.

HCI (Host Controller Interface)

It is provided to ease the partition of the Bluetooth Stack across to processors. Some
systems will implement the Baseband and link manager on the Bluetooth device and higher
levels on the host processor. The HCI is provided as command interface between these parts.
This HCI is functionally broken up into three parts.

HCI Firmware, HCI Driver & Host Controller Transport Layer


HCI Firmware & HCI Controllers are communicated through Host Controller Transport
Layer.

L2CAP LAYER:

L2CAP is the acronym for Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol. L2CAP adapts
upper layer protocols over the Baseband and resides in the data link layer. L2CAP permits
higher-level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to
64KB of length.

PROFILES
It provides interoperability between devices from different manufacturers for specific
services and use cases.
A profile defines a selection of messages and procedures and gives an unambiguous
description of communication between two devices.
BLUETOOTH DEVICES

Bluetooth devices are required where cable replacement needed and at data and voice
access points, ad-hoc networking and some like in medical or industrial organizations.

o Cable Replacement – PCs &peripherals, home networking, headsets

o Data and Voice Access Points – E-mail, web access, Cordless telephone, etc.

o Ad-hoc Networking – Business card exchange, multi-layer

Games, vending machines, white goods, etc.

o Medical – Monitoring devices

o Industrial – Inventory management systems

ADVANTAGES

 Allows transmission range of up to 100 meters

 Robustness: This is capable of operating in an environment strongly interfered by


other technologies using the same radio spectrum

 Low Complexity: This is suitable for devices with low memory and low cpu
capacity, so that it could be easily integrated in chipsets

 Low Power: This is suitable for small devices that are battery powered and energy
constrained

 Low Cost: Very large scale production can be implemented on a single chip

 Blue tooth devices are wireless

DISADVANTAGES

¤ Only applicable to short range (up to 100 mts)

¤ Bluetooth technology is of high cost when compared to other technologies.

¤ Relatively low transfer rate(721Kbps)


SECURITY MANAGEMENT
 There are three Security Modes
∗ Security Mode 1

− No security procedures and any Bluetooth device can initiate a

connection
∗ Security Mode 2

− Security is enforced after the connection has been established.


− Can allow greater flexibility to work with application requirements.
∗ Security Mode 3

− Security is enforced during set-up.


 Only a device is authenticated, not its user.
 Bluetooth security not intended to replace other software security methods.
 Network security still needed to control access to LANs.
 Bluetooth wireless technology not built for secure e-commerce transactions.

COMPETITOR

The other WLAN technology is


 IEEE 802.11b
– Office or campus LAN
– 11 Mbps
– Multiple clients per access point
– Up to 100 metres range
– Uses Wired Equivalent Privacy

APPLICATIONS

Headset – Hands free cell phone (road, office ,car)


3 in 1 Phone – Intercom (no charge),
Portable phone (fixed line charge),
Cellular in Office LAN
Internet Bridge – Network access point, for mobile internet browsing
Automatic Synchronizer – Background Syncs between PC & PDA, Phone, PC
Instant Postcard – Digital camera send to cell phone
Interactive Conference – Exchange Business Cards & Data in meetings
Wireless Workplace – Peripherals connect to your PC or LAN w/o wires

CONCLUSION
Bluetooth is a radio system designed for connecting a variety of mobile devices
in a secure ad-hoc fashion. The Bluetooth specification is definitely real and is
being widely adopted by industry leaders. The possibilities for new applications
are very exciting with this versatile technology.

REFERENCES

1. Bluetooth Specifications, Bluetooth SIG at http://www.bluetooth.com


2. Bluetooth Technical Overviews, Bluetooth SIG at http://www.bluetooth.org
3. Bluetooth Technology, http://www.gsmdata.com/artblue.com