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PRMG050: ProjectsFeasibilityStudies FEASIBILITYSTUDYOF120MWWINDPARK

PROJECTMEMBERS HASANIEN,AHMEDKAMAL HUSSEIN,MOHAMEDHAMDY MOHAMED,AHMEDSAMYYOUNIS OSMAN,YASSERAHMED SHARARA,KHALEDMAGDY


ID:700081207 ID:700081206 ID:700081205 ID:700081186 ID:700081345

Spring2009Section1
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TableofContents
1.Introduction........................................................................................................................................................3 1.1ReliabilityofRenewables..............................................................................................................................5 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.1.5. ElectricityGenerationCosts............................................................................................................5 LandAreaRequirements................................................................................................................5 Controllability.................................................................................................................................6 Availability......................................................................................................................................6 Security...........................................................................................................................................7

2.EnergyMarketStudyinEgypt ..........................................................................................................................8 . . 2.1WindEnergyMarketinEgypt.......................................................................................................................8 2.2Economic,SocialandEnvironmentalImpactasResultofWindEnergyProjectsinEgypt........................10 3.WindParkSite..................................................................................................................................................11 3.1GabalElZytSite............................................................................................................................................12 3.2ZafaranaSite...............................................................................................................................................14 4.TechnicalStudy ................................................................................................................................................16 . 4.1WindParkmanufacturingComponents.....................................................................................................16 4.2WindParkComponentsContributiontoCost............................................................................................19 . 4.3WindParkComponentsContributiontoCost............................................................................................20 . 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. 4.3.4. 4.3.5. WindTurbineParameters............................................................................................................20 TurbinesLoses..............................................................................................................................21 Turbulence...................................................................................................................................21 TechnicalSummary.......................................................................................................................22 Estimationofcosts........................................................................................................................22

5.EconomicEvaluation........................................................................................................................................24 6.Cocnlusions........................................................................................................................................................28 7.References........................................................................................................................................................29 8.Appendices.......................................................................................................................................................30

1. Introduction With the rapidly growing demand for electrical power in Egypt and the finite life of conventionalfossilfuels(oil,gasandcoal)coupledwiththeiradverseeffectsonpollutionof the environment and global warming, there is a critical need to increase the percentage of electricpowergenerationinEgyptfromrenewableenergy. Egyptselectricitydemandisprojectedtoreach120GWin2050.Duetothelimitedfossilfuel resources, it is expected that their price continues to rise dramatically in the future. On the otherhandclimatechangeobligeshumanitytoreactaccordingly. TheEgyptianelectricitygridispredominantlyfossilfuelfired.Renewableenergy,consistingof mostlylargescalehydro,isresponsibleforjustunder20%ofgeneration.Apartfromthehydro facilities, the existing Zafarana wind facilities comprise this category. The remainder, more than 80% of electricity including those purchased from independent power producers, is produced from conventional plants. Due to the abundance of natural gas in Egypt, approximately 90% of the fossil fuel used in the conventional plants is natural gas and the remaining10%fueloil. As is the case for most nonhydropowerdominated grids, hydro plants are considered low costandthereforenotmarginal.Thesamecanbesaidforwindpower.Itisofnotethatunlike many grids which utilize hydro facilities during peak demand to take advantage of their responsiveness to varying demand, Egypts hydro facilities provide mainly base capacity power,withamarginlefttorespondtopeakdemand.Thisisduetothefactthattheirrigation needsofagriculturalactivitiestakeprecedencewhendeterminingthewaterrelease,whichis controlled by the Ministry of Irrigation. In the context of the baseline determination, this circumstanceisinagreementwiththeapproachtoexcludehydropower,astheProjectwillin nowayaffectthepowergeneratedfromhydropowerfacilities. Theremainingfacilitiesintheoperatingmarginaregasturbine,steamturbineandcombined cycle conventional units fuelled by natural gas and fuel oil. This is a conservative representationoftheactualoperatingmargin,giventhatthemostlikelymarginalplantstobe displaced are low efficiency fuel oil and natural gas facilities, instead of the average of all thermal power plants. Improving energy efficiency and shifting to cleaner and noncarbon energysourcesareessentialtoimprovethecountrysenvironmentandhelptomitigateglobal climatechange. Withayearlyaveragegrowthofabout6%,Egyptisexpectingtoincreaseitsinstalledenergy from 17 GW in 2002 to 50 GW in 2020 and with a smaller increase rate to 120 GW in year 2050.Thisincreasewillexhaustthebudgetiftheadditionalelectricityisproducedfromfossil fuelsonly.Thereforethetargetof55%REshareisverymodestandshouldbeachievable.
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Table1EnergyProjectionsinEgyptandREFuturetrends

Year EgyptREshare EgypttotalElectricity EgypttotalREshare EgyptHydroshare EgyptWindshare EgyptSolarshare

2002 20.1 2020 20.5 16% 20% 30% 55% 17GW 27GW 50GW 120GW 2.7GW 5.4GW 15GW 66GW 15% 2.5GW 10% 2.7GW 6% 3.0GW 2% 3.0GW 1% 0.2GW 8% 2.2GW 12% 6.2GW 17% 20GW 0% 0GW 2% 0.5GW 12% 5.8GW 36% 43GW

Asthehydroenergycannotbeincreasedafter2020,theremainingREsharemustbecovered by wind and solar energy; however, wind alone cannot cover the demand because of its fluctuating character. The good wind areas are all aligned in wind main direction on the shoresoftheredseawhichmeansthatawindstillwillaffectthemalltogether. Leading countries in the use of RE, like Germany made the experience, that RE must be generatedfromdifferentsourcestoensureareliableenergysupply.Thereforethekeyforthe solution is a mix of different renewables, otherwise serious supply gaps may occur. At the moment,windenergygenerationisthemosteconomicREafterhydroenergy.However,solar thermal generation has the great advantage that it can desalinate sea water with the waste heat,givingmillionsofmofdesaltedwaterneededinthenearfutureforthedevelopmentof Egyptatreasonablecosts. Moreover,planningforthefuturemustalsoconsiderthecostreductionpotentialswhichsolar thermalgenerationstillhas;onecanexpectthatsolarthermalgenerationwillbeconsiderably cheaperthanbothwindenergyandenergyproductionfromfossilswhosepricesdonotclimb upastheoilpricedoes. This paper presents a feasibility study of potential wind energy developments in Egypt by studying the implementation of a wind park as an environmental friendly power generation solution comparing between the current viability of the alternatives of wind park sites betweenZafaranaandGabalElZytsettingthefactorstodeterminethemostfeasiblesite,also comparing between 2 of the wind turbines manufacturers Gamesa and Vestas selecting the mostfeasiblealternativeaswell.Howeverwelldiscussfirsttheobstaclespreventedusfrom pickingthesolaralternativebeforegoingthroughthemarketandtechnicalstudies.
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1.1ReliabilityofRenewables Egypt is the only place in the world where both solar and wind potentials are available at a highqualityandinthemeantimerelativelyneartothedemandofelectricity.Itistheoretically possibletoproducethewholeenergydemandofEgyptfromwindorfromthesun.Butwhich optionispreferableanswerthisquestion,onemustconsiderapackageofseveraltopics: Electricitygenerationcosts, Landarearequired, Controllability, Availability,and Securityofelectricitysupply. 1.1.1. ElectricityGenerationCosts Costsaregenerallythemostimportantfactortodecideaboutaninvestment.Inthisparticular case,namelydealingwithrelativelynewtechnologies,onemustconsiderbesidethecostsat thepresenttimealsodevelopmentofcostsinfuture,e.g.after20years. Startingwithpresentcostswewilltrytomakeacomparisonbetweenwindenergyandsolar energy considering the optimal benefits of each. Assuming a square kilometer of desert, equipped with the most modern and most efficient solar thermal system now available workinginhybridoperationwithasolarshareof35%itwillyieldperyear: 300GWhelectricityatacostof0.05$/kWhtotaling15.0million$ + 13millionmdesaltedseawaterat0.70$/mtotaling9.1million$ (Combinedgenerationusingwasteheat,noextraenergyneeded) To produce the same quantities (electricity + desalted water) from a good wind park with 45005000fullloadhoursperyear,followingcostswilloccur: 300GWhelectricityatacostof0.03$/kWhtotaling9.0million$ + 13millionmdesaltedseawaterat1.10$/mtotaling14.3million$ (ProducedbyReverseOsmosisusingelectricpower) Thetotalcostofbothproductstogethergives24.1and23.3million$/yearrespectively.Thus wind power is only 3% cheaper in the present time. However the solar power costs are expectedtoflattendownwithinthenext20years. 1.1.2. LandAreaRequirements Continuingwiththeexampleabove,1kmisneededtoproduce300GWh/ysolarelectricity and13millionmofdesaltedseawater.Weadd0.1kmforthedesalinationequipmentthus totalingto1.1km.Toproducethesameelectricityfromwindwith45005000fullloadhours
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we can calculate with a wind mill density of maximum 7.5 MW/km. A higher density will causereductionofproducedelectricityfromthefield.Thiswillgive8.4km.Toproducethe same water quantity with reverse osmosis (RO) we will need 8 kWh/m which calculates to 104 GWh. A supplemental area for producing this electricity will be needed which gives 2.9 kmthetotalareaneededis11.3kmwhichis10timesasmuchasforthesolarapplication. The desert area may be cheap, but looking at this disproportion we have to think about parameterslikecablelengthsneededandtimeconsumedbymaintenancepersonneltoreach allunitsinthefield. 1.1.3. Controllability Controllabilityisthecapabilitytofollowtheupsanddownsofthedemandduring24hours. SolarHybrid power stations, which are the present object of this comparison, are working exactlylikefossilfiredpowerstationswiththedifferencethatduringthedaylessfuelisburnt becauseitispartlysubstitutedbythesunheat.Futureoptionsaresolaronlypowerstations with thermal storage allowing continuous operation. In both cases the power station is controllableinthesamemannerlikeconventionallyfiredpowerstations,backupcapacityfor thefluctuatingsolarresourceisintegratedwithintheplant. Ontheotherhandwindisroughlypredictablebutnotcontrollableandstorageofwindpower is only possible in rechargeable batteries which are so expensive that they cannot be considered for large applications. For this reason wind parks are working within grids where thecontrolislefttothethermalbackuppowerstationsconnectedtothegrid. 1.1.4. Availability Availabilityisthecertaintytodeliverelectricitythroughtheyear.Forthereasonsmentioned under the third topic, availability is achieved with hybrid solar power stations without any problems.InEgyptitisevenadvantageousbecausetheelectricitydemandinsummerisabout 20%higherthaninwinter,whichisfullyconsistentwiththeseasonaltrendofthesolarenergy resource.Oncloudywinterdaysthehybridsolarpowerstationwillusefossilfuelorheatfrom thestoragewithoutrestrictionofavailability.TheuniquesolarenergyresourceofEgypt(upto 3000 kWh/m/year) and thermal energy storage allows for aroundtheclock operation throughthewholeyearlikeabaseloadfossilfuelplant. Wind,however,issubjecttoseasonalfluctuations.GoodwindsitesliketheGulfofSuezare highly affected as the site is lengthily extended in main wind direction. This negative effect may be partly compensated by connecting wind parks in different areas, e.g. Red Sea and NorthernCoast,takinginaccountthelessfavorablewindconditionsintheNorthCoast.Even thenavailabilityisnotguaranteed,soalwaysfreecapacitiesofthermalpowerstationsmust bekeptwithinthegridinthebackground(calledshadowpowerstations).Capitalcostsofsuch power station capacities must be taken in account when considering a large scale supply of windenergyinthegrid.
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1.1.5. Security Insummer2003severalblackoutsoccurredinUSAandEurope,mainlybecauseoffailuresof transmissionlineswhichleadtooverloadingandthustrippingofseveralpowerstations. Thiscanbeavoidedbyincreasingtheavailablethermalpowerstations(includingsolarthermal power stations) connected to the grid, but not by adding wind power. Wind power has in general a destabilizing effect on the grid, which has to be compensated by other resources, likehydropowerorthermal(solar)powerstations. Finally Controllability, availability and security of electricity supply are as important for a modern society as generation costs. Experience in Germany in summer 2003 with long periodsofwindstilldemonstratedtheimportanceofthesefactors.Forthisreasonexperts recommendthatthewindshareshallnotexceed20%inanelectricitygrid. Production of desalted seawater from waste heat and the future perspective for a considerable cost reduction of solar thermal power stations makes it essential that they get sufficientsupporttodevelopforthefuture,forthoughWindenergyisaverygoodchoicein thepresent,wheresolarthermalenergyisessentialforthefuture.

2. EnergyMarketStudyinEgypt The electricity sector is facing a number of challenges and constraints in securing the electricity demand for Egypt in the coming decade. The most pressing issues include the havingsufficientbaseandpeakloadcapacity,ensuringtheavailabilityofnaturalgasforpower production(atpricelevelsthatcanbeabsorbedbytheretailelectricitytariff),succeedingwith theambitiousrenewableenergy,aswellasotherenergyefficiencymeasuresandcontinuing thepathoftariffandsubsidyreform. 2.1. WindEnergyMarketinEgypt Egypt is working very hard to develop its renewable energy (RE) resources, including hydro, windandsolar.Hydroelectricpowercapacityhasbeenalmostfullyexploredwithaninstalled capacity of 2,780 MW and annual energy production of about 12,650 GWh. Wind and solar energyareintheearlystagesofexplorationandutilization.InApril2007,theSupremeCouncil for Energy adopted an ambitious plan which aims at having 20% of the country's installed capacityintheformofREby2020.Notably,over10%ofthisisexpectedtocomefromwind energy, which translates into about 7,200 mega watts (MW) of grid connected wind parks. Thedevelopmentofthisatsuchalargescaleisbeingdesignedbased,onaprivatesectorled strategy,ofwhichtheWorldBankisprovidingtechnicalassistance. TheNewandRenewableEnergyAuthority(NREA),establishedin1983,isthemainagencyfor promoting and operating RE technologies. At present, wind and solar energy projects are at thecoreofNREA'scurrentandfutureplans.AWindAtlasfortheentirecountrywasissuedin 2005indicatingabout20,000MWofwindpotentialintheGulfofSuezarea.Aseriesoflarge scalewindenergyprojectswereconstructedwithacurrentoperationalcapacityof225MW connectedtothenationalgrid.Egyptisalsoimplementingitsfirstsolarthermalpowerplantof 140MW(solarshareof20MW)southofCairo,plannedtobeoperationalby2010. Ministry of Electricity and Energy started by implementing several experimental wind park projects which concluded the setting up of ambitious program for the construction of large wind park power plants connected to the national grid with total installed capacity reaching 965MWin2011/2012. Itisnoteworthytomentionthat,in30/6/2008,theinstalledcapacityofthelargestwindpark intheMiddleEastregionandAfricaislocatedatElZafaranaonGulfofSuezreached305M.W andisconnectedtothenationalgrid. Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC) cooperates with the NREA, responsible of disseminatingtheuseofnewandrenewableenergyresourcesinEgypt,throughthefollowing: Generation planning taking into consideration the contribution of the renewable energy.

Network planning to ensure the capability of power transfer from the renewable projects. Purchase energy generated from the wind parks at reasonable price to encourage the use of renewableenergy. Prepare the power purchase agreements from the wind parkswithareasonableprice to encourage the use of renewableenergy.
Figure1WindEnergyImplementationTrendtill2011/2012inEgypt

The above figure shows the government plans till 2011/2012 for the wind parks implementations which shall reach to 956 MW installed and connected to the grid by an annualincrementof20%tothenationalgridbyusingwindenergy,howeverthegovernment longtermplanswhichsymbolizethecontributionofrenewableenergytoreach20%oftotal energy generated in 2020(8%hydro&12% wind) gives the wind energy the desired environmentrequiredbytheinvestortogothroughtheinvestmentsinwindenergyinEgypt.

Figure2Egypt's2020strategyforwindenergy

;SoinordertoachievetheEgyptian2020strategyofthewindenergyimplementationtherate ofwindparksinstallmentshavetobeaccordingly,about400600MWyearlyimplemented.
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2.2. Economic,SocialandEnvironmentalImpactasResultofWindEnergyProjectsin Egypt. TheCrudeoilexportsisoneofthenationalincomeofEgypt,thereforethefuelsaving canprovideanincreaseinthenationalincomebyprovidingtheforeigncurrencydueto oilexportation. Increasejobopportunitiesandhelpsolvingtheunemploymentproblemthatpositively affectsthegeneraleconomicsituationinEgypt. New community is going to be established in the vast desert area in Zafarana that enhance local migration of population from the Nile valley to the Gulf of Suez. This is stillaproblemofpopulationdistributioninEgypt. The Zafarana wind park has very effective and positive environmental impact, the operationofthe600MWwindparkswillproduce42,000millionkWhallovertheir20 years life time, that in turn will save 10 million tons oil equivalent and will abate the emissionofthefollowingquantitiesofgreenhousegases:588MiotonCox,2.1Mioton NOx,8.4MiotonSox. As a result for the above discussed points, we decided to study the feasibility of the implementationofthe120MWwindparkasanintendedfigurebythegovernmentasithas beenrecentlytakenastheannualdevelopmentstepinthewindenergycapacityinEgypt (shown in figure 1), and lies below the annual forecasted development step according to theambitionsoftheEgyptiangovernmentinachieving7200MWbytheyear2020which hasbeendistributedinfigure2togivethattheannualstepshallbe400MWtill2011/2012. Thesefiguresgiveustheconfidenceaboutthemarketgapinthewindenergyaccordingto thefutureplanoftheEgyptiangovernmentwhichtheinvestorrelyonasasolidplatform forthedecisiontoinvestinsuchsectorinEgypt,andgivesanindicationtotheviabilityof theinvestmentenvironmentespeciallywhentheopportunitiesarenotonlycreatedbythe demand,butalsofromtheambitionoftheEgyptiangovernmentwhichmayfacilitatemore obstaclestoensureflexibleandsustainablesupplyofwindenergy.

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3. W WindParkSite nd Coastal zones in Egypt enjoy high win ential. Th he Red Sea coast Energy pote ticularly at the Gulf of Suez is one of th t s he part high hest windy areas of the wo y o orld; so th he prop posed win park site are situ nd es uated in th he East ternsideo ofEgyptclo osetothe coastallin ne ofth heRedSea a. The coastbet tweenAbu uDaragandHurghad da condition in has the most favorable wind c pt verage win speeds between 7 nd Egyp with av 12 m/s. The lands is desert area, an e i nd ofthisare eaisbeing gdevelope ed althoughpart beatourist ticresort,l largeareas soflandar re tob avai ilable for wind projects at almost r negligiblecoast. ummary of the win climate o nd es An overall su asuredatf fourmains stationsisgiveninth he mea table below. The stations are listed from thtosouth h;AbuDar rag,Zafara anaandGu ulf nort of E ElZyt are situated alo the G of Sue ong Gulf ez, Hurghada in the north hernmost part of th he RedSea. dwinddist tributionsa atAbu The measured agandZaf farana,whicharesitu uateda Dara little emoretha an18kma apart,arev verysimilar Fig gure3Overviewmapfort theGulfofSu uezinEgypt andresultinginalmostidenticalm meanwind edandme eanenergy ydensities.Thewindclimateinthisareaissteady,w withrespe ecttoboth spee windspeedan nddirectio on.
Tabl le2Overalls summary199 9195ofwind dobservation ns24.5ma.g.l.atthefourmainstation ns:datarecov veryrate(R), , We eibullAandk kparameters s,meanwind dspeed(U),m meanenergydensity(E)anddirection(DU).Theoccurrenceof calm msatallfours stationsisles ssthan0.1%. .

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ThewindclimateattheGulfofElZytstation,whichissituatedattheentrancetotheGulfof Suezabout160kmtotheSouth,exhibitsthesamegeneralcharacteristicsasdescribedabove. Here,however,theWeibullAparameterissomewhathigher,leadingtoahighermeanwind speed and, in particular to a mean energy density which is about 40% higher than Zafarana area.LeavingtheGulfofSuezandenteringtheRedSea,thewindclimatechangessignificantly thecharacteroverthe60kmstretchbetweenGulfofElZyt.ThemeanwindspeedatHurghada is only about two thirds and the energy density only about one third of the mean values measuredatGulfofElZyt.Thewindsarestillsteady.

Figure4WindRosesshowthewindflowdirectionsatGabalElZytandZafaranaSites

Egypt's Red Sea Coast region has two natural resources,landandstrongwindinenormoussupply. The 2 sites which shall lie under our study concern areZafarana,andGabalElZytsites. 3.1. GabalElZytSite ThisareaislocatedtotheWestoftheHurghadaSuez roadandextendingabout70kmfromNorthtoSouth and about 9 to 10 km to the inland. The area starts about60kmintheNorthofHurghada. It is a desert area. Only at very limited spots some very scattered desert vegetation is observed. The southern part of about 55 km (reaching to about 5 km to the north of the Wadi Dara road) is almost completelyconsistingofdesertplainsformedbythe extraordinarywind.Thisareaiscrossedbytwomain Wadis,theWadi DibbandtheWadi Dara.However, due to the high wind speeds and the large sand
12 Figure5SatellitemapofGabalElZytarea

transport/ sedimentation potential, the wadi beds are not pronounced at most of the wadi courses. The northern part of the area shows both, undulated land and gravel desert plains. The westernsideofthisnorthernareashowshillsupto250mheight. Thegroundsurfaceinmostoftheareaiscoveredwithcompactangulargravelsandpebbles formingwhatcanbecalleddesertarmor.Thelevelofthewholeprojectareaabovesealevel ranges from 9 m below sea level in the north eastern side to hills and slightly elevated mountainsrisingtolevelsof250minthewest.Ingeneral,thesmallermountainousareasin theNorthwestwouldbekeptfreefromwindpowerdevelopmentbecauseofdifficultaccess conditions. Inadditiontherearesomeoftheareacharacteristicswhichshallbealsotakenintoaccount especiallyastheymayhaveanimpactonthecostoftheimplementationoftheprojectand might affect the project capital cost by a percent of raise according to such characteristics shownasfollows: Infrastructure:Theprojectareahasnoinfrastructureexceptafewdeserttracks,gravel roadsandthecrossingasphaltroadtotheWadiDarasettlement.Thenextsettlementis atminimumdistancesofabout800mfromtheborderofthearea. Connection to the Grid: Electricity transmission denotes bottlenecks for a first stage wind power development at this area, as the double circuit 230 kV transmission line HurghadatoZafaranamustbeavailabletoallowanadditionalfeedfromthegenerated electricityfromGabalElZyt. Hub Height: According to the geographical characteristics of this area the height of the turbine hub must be 100m to function the windspeedofthisarea. The above stated characteristics of the Gabal ElZyt site would definitely affect the investment cost of the wind park; that is because of the Site preparation and construction measures which exclusively have to be performedforthissiteas: ExtraExcavation,backfillingandcompactionworksforroadsand platformconstructionaswellasforfoundationsandtrenchesto overcometheareageographicalcharacteristics. Reinforcement of the Zafarana transmission lines which shall be donebytheconstructionofanadditionallinesfromZafaranato thecentralpowergridalongthewaytoHurghada. Perform a modification to the tower engineering (Material, Fabrication, and Erection Management) according to the extra Figure6HubHeight heightofthehubwhichwillleadtoatowerheightof100m. These counter measures for site preparation and construction would affect the investment costby25%ofraisethantheregularinvestmentcostofthewindparkdueto10%increasein thetowerengineering,10%forthe reinforcementofthetransmissionlines,andan increase 5%duetotheextracivilworks.
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3.2. ZafaranaSite

Figure7LocationofZafaranasite

The site is located in Egypt on the western shore of the Bay of Suez approximately 200 km southeastofCairo,ontheinlandsideofahighwayalongtheSuezGulfcoastline.Thesiteis located in a desert area with favorable wind conditions. There is no human activity in the vicinity of the site, with the nearest commercial activity being several resort hotels approximately10kmfromthesite.Thenearestcommunityissome30kmaway. Due to the established former phases of the wind parks at Zafarana site; this site shows readinesstothefurtherimplementationsofmorewindparksastheexpertspredictstobethe largestwindparkintheworld.ThesiteleadsGabalElZytinthematterofinstantreadinessto have further expansions of the capacity of the site from the power production as the infrastructureofthesitehasbeenestablishedandalwayssubjectedtomodificationstocope withtheplansofthesitedevelopments. WearentshowingsupremacyofZafaranasitetoGabalElZyt,butitamatterofreadinessfor theprivateinvestorZafaranasitedenotesabusinessopportunitymorethanGabalElZytshows howeverthepotentialliesintheinvestmentatGabalElZytisveryenormouswheretheenergy experts, The Egyptian Government, and the world global funding and environmental assure thatthewindenergyfutureinEgyptshallbedrawnatGabalElZyt.Forthoughallthefeasibility studiesconsiderGabalElZytasafeasiblesiteforthelargescaleimplementationofwindparks about10002000MW;thatswhentheextra25%forthesitepreparationandtheconstruction
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measures vanishes in front of the hugeness of the project scale and the total revenue expectedorbythegovernmentindecreasingsuchfactormayariseasaninvestmentrisk. As a matter of fact the government contribution by the infrastructure and the transmission linesofelectricitytransferbeenimplementedisthekeytoGabalElZytSupremacywhichshall benotonlycompetingwithZafaranabutalsobeatingitfromtheeconomicalfeasibilitypoint ofview. But for the current time being, Zafarana site shows more profitable opportunity more than Gabal ElZyt shows for the analysis conducted above and resulted in the difference in 25% increase in the total investment cost of the wind park construction at Gabal ElZyt. For the analysisresultsandfortheclearobviousreasonswhichreflectsthecurrentsituationZafarana siteshowsmorefeasibilityfor120MWwindparkconstruction.

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4. TechnicalStudy 4.1. WindParkComponentsManufacturing Frame Assembly Once the yaw system is assembled with its yaw motors, column and hydraulicgroupandtherotationaltestispassed,thisassemblyisconnectedtotherearframe. Next, the rail beams and the service crane are installed, and cables are run to the control cabinet. Gearbox Assembly The nacelle assembly is placed within the lower housing, and the power transformerandthemainshaft/gearboxsubsetareassembled.GearboxsubsetFrontframe

Figure8FrameandGearboxAssemblies

Generator Assembly The process continues with the generator assembly and alignment and the electrical connection of all the components in the control cabinet. Once connected, the nacelleisgivenacomprehensivefinalverificationcheck,simulatingitswindparkoperation. Upper housing Assembly Once the nacelle verification test is passed the upper housing is assembledandthenacelleisreadytobesenttoitscorrespondingwindpark.

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Figure9GeneratorandUpperhousingAssemblies

Gearbox Consists of three combined stages: 1 planetary stage and two helical stages. The multiplicationratiois1:100.5for50Hzmachinesand1:120.5for60Hzmachines. Generator Rated power electric generator. Highly efficient, it has 4 poles and is doublyfed withawoundrotorandsliprings.Therotationalspeedrangeisfrom900to1900rpm,witha ratedspeedof1680rpm.Theoutputvoltageis690VAC.

Figure10GearboxandGenerator

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SteelTowerManufacturingFirstlyReceptionandQualityControlofSteelPlatesthecylinders formingthewindturbinetoweraremadefromplatedsheetsthatareflamecutandprimed. Then the sheets are inserted in a machine with three large rollers that shape the rings. Afterwards the rings are submerged arcwelded, forming sections of different lengths. The structureisplacedinsidethepaintinganddryingtunnel.Oncethetowerplatingisfinished,it isthengivenasurfacetreatment,consistingofadoublesteelshotpeeningandthreecoatsof paint.ThisprovidesaC5levelprotection.Oncethetowerisdry,alltheserviceelements(such asplatformsandladders)aremountedonit.DependingontheModelandtherequiredheight (between14and29meters),eachsectionmaybemadeupofbetween4and12rings.

Figure11WindTowermanufacturingStages

BladesManufacturing BeamManufacturingUsingglassandcarbonfibermaterialsthathavebeenimpregnatedwith epoxy resin as a base, several cloth lengths are cut and placed in a mould. They are then subjected to a curing process. After applying a coat of paint which will act as a protective coating on the blade, glass fiber is used to manufacture the shells, following the same manufacturingprocessasforthebeam. AssemblyOncethetwoshellsarefinished,weproceedwiththeirassemblyandgluethebeam betweenthetwoshells. CuringTheassemblyispassedthroughthekilnoncemore,formingacompactunit.

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TrimmingandPolishingThebladeassemblyisremovedfromthemouldandistransferredto the finishing area, where the leading and trailing edges of the blades are finished and subjectedtoafinalrevision.

Figure12BladesManufacturingStages

4.2.

WindParkComponentsContributiontoCost

As stated above, in the manufacturing stagesofeachofthecomponents,eachof these components have their different sophisticated manufacturing technology which have an impact on the wind park cost. For though the given analysis made in figure 13, shows that the nacelle with its components which is mainly the Figure13SharesofWindParkComponentsbycost turbine has the highest contribution to the cost of the wind park. From this point, we have to study the alternatives of the turbines manufacturers as to go through the most feasiblesolutionthroughthisstudyweshouldpickthefactorwiththehighestcontributionto thecostandperformtheeconomicalanalysisonthealternativetoreachtothemostfeasible alternative.
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4.3. WindTurbinesAlternatives Thetwowindturbinetypesunderconsiderationallowtheimplementationofawindparkof theenvisagedinstalledcapacitywithintheforeseenarea.Similarsizeoftheturbinesanda rotordiameterinacloserange(from52m[VestasV52]to58m[GamesaG58])leadstoa similarbasicparkdesignwhichhasthenbeenoptimizedintermsofparkefficiencyandenergy production,accordingtotheirdatasheets(Appendices)thetechnicalanalysisshallbe performedasfollowsforthemostimportanttechnicalaspectsforanadequateevaluationfor eachalternativebeforetheeconomicaloneandtoassuretheirsuitabilityaswell.

Figure14GamesaG58andVestasV52theturbinesalternativeswhicharebeingconsidered

4.3.1. WindTurbineParameters 142xVESTAS:V52,HubHeight55m Nominalpower:0.850MW Controlsystem:Pitch Rotordiameter:52m 142xGAMESA:G58;HubHeight55m Nominalpower:0.850MW Controlsystem:Pitch Rotordiameter:58m ThePowercurveofawindturbineisanimportantparameter,describingtherelationbetween thewindspeedonsiteandtherespectiveelectricalenergyoutput.Powercurvesandctvalues (a parameter for the calculation of the wake effect) of the turbines under consideration are givenintheappendices
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4.3.2. TurbinesLoses Afterpassingtherotorofawindturbine,thewindhasadecreasedspeedduetothekinetic energytakenawaybytherotorandincreasedturbulencecausedbytherotatingrotorandthe difference in speed compared to the undisturbed flow. Until the speed difference to undisturbed flow is not equalized, the result is a lower energy yield for the wind turbines following in the direction of the flow. These losses are called array or wake losses. The calculation of the wake losses of the wind turbines causing the so called shadowing effect betweenthewindturbines,wheretheresultsofbothofouralternativeswereasfollows
Table3ArraylossesatZafaranawindpark

4.3.3. Turbulence Toensuretheclosespacingofthewindturbineswillnotaffect(decrease)thelifetimeofthe turbineanditscomponents,aturbulencecalculationisnecessarywhichhasbeencarriedout by LI. The turbulence of the wind flow is a factor which causes stress and fatigue to several components of a wind turbine including blades, bearing and gearbox. It consists of the so calledambientturbulenceappliedtothewindflowbythecoarsenessoftheearth(vegetation, buildings,rocksetc.)andtheturbulenceaddedbytheotherwindturbinesofawindpark.
Table4Turbulencesubclassesoftheselectedwindturbines

Thewindturbinescheckingtheturbulenceimpactisgenerallyrequired;fortheproposedwind parklayoutsforZafaranasitehowever,noproblemsintermsofturbulenceintensityaretobe expected.


21

4.3.4. TechnicalSummary ThehigherenergyyieldcalculatedfortheGamesaG58turbineismainlyrelatedtothelarger rotordiameteroftheseturbinescomparedtotheVestasV52turbine. Thefocusingtothegeneratedenergy yield however is not sufficient. Investment costs, indicated by the ratio specific investment costs ( per kWh)aremoresignificant,fordetails refer to the economical part of the Feasibility Study for the presented specificdatain$perkWh. 4.3.5. Estimationofcosts The estimation of costs has been performed according to the previous cases of implementations of wind parks at Zafarana where Vestas V52 was implemented in Egypt at the second phase of Zafarana Wind Park Figure15 EnergyYieldsofGamesaG58andVestasV52 and Gamesa G58 has been and is beingimplementedforthelastthreephasesandthecurrentlyconstructedone. The total investment costs are itemized and described in the table below according to the foreign material costs as well as local cost components in order to increase the use of local participationandlocalmaterialsinthisprojectwhichdirectlyappearinthecivilworkscostand theelectricalworksaswell.Alsothecontributionofthelocaltowermanufacturertothetotal priceoftheturbinesastheturbinespriceisencompassingthewhole142turbineswithitsfull components(nacelle,rotor,blades,andtowers)
Table5ItemizedCapitalCostsofZafaranaWindPark CapitalCosts Turbines WindFarmEPC CivilWorks Installations ElectricalWorks TotalInvestmentCost VestasV52 GamesaG58 $150,000,000 $147,000,000 $1,392,000 $1,392,000 $8,215,000 $8,215,000 $670,000 $670,000 $9,682,000 $9,682,000 $169,959,000 $166,959,000

USD

Whereaperiodof12monthswasassumedfortheconstructionoftheZafaranaWindPark,as previouslyhappenedforthelastfourwindparksbeenconstructedinEgypt.
22

For the Operation and Maintenance Costs, The estimates have been modeled based on the experience of the former phases which have been constructed in Zafarana but for Vestas alternative the prices where amended according to Vestas global current prices as we could havereliedontheitformercaseinEgyptasithasbeenyearswhichmayaffecttheaccuracyof theresultsofthestudy.AnnualO&Mcostsarecategorizedintothreemaincomponentsthe operationcostsofbothlaborandequipmentsandwindmonitoringsystems,themaintenance costsincludingthescheduledpreventivemaintenanceandUnscheduledRepairformboththe sparepartsandthemaintenanceteammanhour,aswellasthemanagementcostofthewind park which is a portion related only to the 120MW phase which is a part from the whole systemofmanagingthewindenergyatZafaranainEgypt. Table6ItemizedO&MCosts AnnualO&MCosts VestasV52 GamesaG58 AnnualOperationCosts $1,597,500 $1,562,750 AnnualMaintenanceCosts $3,622,300 $3,438,050 USD/yr AnnualWindFarmManagement $1,250,200 $1,250,200 TotalAnnualO&MCosts $6,470,000 $6,251,000

23

5. EconomicEvaluation The main purpose of an economic analysis is to help to design and select projects that contribute to the welfare of a country. Whereas the financial analysis evaluates the project from the point of view of the operating company or Independent Power Producer (IPP), the economicanalysisevaluatestheprojectfromthepointofviewofthewholeeconomyofthe country. Thepurposeoftheinvestigationistocomparefromamacroeconomicstandpointthebenefits of the project with the costs it incurs, as is customary in any costbenefit analysis. The standard of evaluation for costs and benefits is a monetary quantification. To the greatest possibleextent,theprojectimpactsareevaluatedintermsofeconomicmarketprices. Asinthetechnicalanalysis,twoScenarioshavebeenconsideredintheeconomicanalysisof theZafaranaWindPark: ScenarioI142VestasV52turbines ScenarioII142GamesaG58turbines Theeconomicanalysisisconductedintheformofequalizingthevalueofgettingwindparks introducedtothepowersystemtotheinducedsavingsinthepowersystem.Aneconomical model has been established used many of the evaluation methods to determine the project feasibilityacrossthe2alternatives. Thefollowingprofitabilitycriteriaarepostulatedforthepurposesofthisanalysisrespectively: NetPresentValue(NPV)Presentvalueisthefinancialmathematicalexpressionusedforthe sumofthediscountedvaluesofatimeseries.Thenetpresentvalueisthedifferencebetween thepresentvalueofthebenefitsandthepresentvalueofthecosts.Theprojectisprofitable,if thenetpresentvalueispositive. Assensitivityanalysisvariousvaluesoftheinterestratewhereconsideredat20%and25%in additiontothebasicinterestrate15%. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The internal interest is the social discount rate at which the presentvaluesofcostsandbenefitsareequal. Benefitscostratio(B/C)Thepresentvaluesofthebenefitsaredividedbythepresentvalues ofthecosts,andtheprojectisprofitableiftheresultantbenefitscostratioisgreaterthanone. Theeconomicbenefitsofthewindenergypowergenerationhavebeenconsideredasthecost ofsavedfueltogeneratethesameamountofenergyusingnaturalgas.AlsotheCO2emissions which is being mitigated by the implementation of the Wind Energy according to a taxation system of 3$/t CO2 emitted by the same amount of energy production from a natural gas powerplantinthetermsofmarginemissionsfactortCO2/kWh To be sustainable, one of the basic requirements for the wind energy project is its ability to compete against conventional electricity generation technologies. In fact, within a business
24

context electricity is a homogeneous commodity good and wind turbines are valued in the marketplacealmostexclusivelyasaproducerofelectricityand,aslongasmarketsforgreen powerandgreenhousegas emissionfreepowerdonotexist,canonlycompeteon price. Thus, unlike new technologies in other industries, wind turbines cannot command a higher pricebasedonqualityfeaturesandstillcaptureamarketshare. Concerning the environmental impact Wind energy is regarded as environmentally friendly. Environmental impacts associated with wind park installations, such as noise, visual impact, andlanduse,aremeaninglessinthecaseoftheZafaranaproject.Theprojectisintendedtobe located in a desert area with no human settles, sparse vegetation, and no activities, such as airportsortelecommunicationfacilities,thatcouldbeaffectedbythewindturbinesoperation. Contrasting to other situations (India, for example) where rising costs of land constitutes an importantbarrierforwindturbinesdeployment,theZafaranalocationpresentsnorestrictions onlanduse.Moreover,thewindparkoperationavoidsemissionsoflocalpollutantsassociated withconventionalthermalpowerplants,usuallylocatedintheproximityofurbancenters. TheEconomicalmodelbelowshowsallthecalculationsresults;todeterminethefeasibilityof the project across its two alternatives including all the market and technical studies parameterswerethemodelinputs. TheresultsshowthatselectingGamesaG58isthemostfeasiblealternativeeventhoughtat differentinterestratesbytakingintoconsiderationtheworstcasescenariowhereaninflation mayoccurat25%andaccordingtothebenefittocostratioitalsoturnedouttobefeasible thanVestasV52alternative. In determining the wind energy benefits, the avoided fuel costs are determined by the fuel prices and the fuel consumption to generate 120MW by natural gas was considered in additiontotheCO2emissionsreductioncomparedtosamepowergenerationbynaturalgas at3$/MWh.

25

Table7EconomicalandFinancialEvaluationModelfor120MWWindParkatZafaranaSite
WindFarmPerformance InstalledCapacity No.ofWindTurbines FullloadHours CapacityFactor TotalPowerProduction General EconomicLifetime ElectricityValue InterestRate CapitalCosts Turbines WindFarmEPC CivilWorks Installations ElectricalWorks TotalInvestmentCost AnnualO&MCosts AnnualOperationCosts AnnualMaintenanceCosts AnnualWindFarmManagement TotalAnnualO&MCosts EconomicalEvaluation NPV,i=15% NPV,i=20% NPV,i=25% IRR TotalCost EUAC EnvironmentalBenefits:CO2EmissionsReductioncomparedto120MW electricitygenerationbyNaturalGasat3$/MWh AnnualFuelSavingsComparedtoNaturalGasconsumptionto generate120MW EUAW BenefittoCostRatio Value 120 142 4570 57% 548.4 Unit MW hrs/yr GWh/yr

40 90 15% VestasV52 GamesaG58 $150,000,000 $147,000,000 $1,392,000 $1,392,000 $8,215,000 $8,215,000 $670,000 $670,000 $9,682,000 $9,682,000 $169,959,000 $166,959,000

years $/MWh

USD

VestasV52 GamesaG58 $1,597,500 $1,562,750 $3,622,300 $3,438,050 USD/yr $1,250,200 $1,250,200 $6,470,000 $6,251,000

$115,019,528 $44,349,422 $1,566,578 0.2523065% $435,229,000 $10,880,725

$119,474,788 $48,443,801 $5,442,665 0.2581560% $423,250,000 $10,581,250

USD

USD

$1,645,200 USD/yr $25,100,000 $26,745,200 2.458034736 2.527603071

26

Figure16VestasV52CashFlowDiagram

Figure17GamesaG58CashFlowDiagram 27

6. Conclusions Theresultsoftheeconomicanalysisarehighlypositive,showingthatthewindparkinallTwo Scenariosishighlyeconomicallyfeasible.ThehighestresultisproducedbytheScenariowith theGamesaG58. A scenario analysis has been carried out for the wind park scenario with the highest IRR, highestB/CRatioandhighestnetbenefits,i.e.,theScenarioII(142GamesaG58turbines). Changesin (i) Avoidedcapacitycosts, (ii) Fuelprices, (iii) CO2penaltiesand (iv) ElectricitygenerationandtheirimpactontheIRRhavebeenevaluated. The scenario analysis shows that the variable with the highest impact on the IRR is the investment cost of the wind park followed by the electricity generation estimates. The best results are obtained when decreasing investment costs by 15 %, whereas the impact on of increasingemissionpenaltiesisfromaneconomicpointofviewverylow. TheeconomicappraisaloftheZafaranaWindParkschemehasbeencarriedoutbycomparing the cash flow associated with construction and operation of the wind park. In theappraisal, the avoided costs of thermal generation are regarded as benefits attributable to Zafarana WindParkProject.ThedifferencebetweenthecostsoftheZafaranaprojectandthebenefits oftheavoidednaturalgaspowerandenergyhasbeendeterminedovera40yearoperational periodduringoneyearofconstruction. The comparison of the proposed Wind Power Project with an equivalent thermal plant has beenmadefor2differentScenarios(VestasV52andGamesaG58).Theresultsshowthatall scenarios are economically feasible, however the best Scenario the wind park with Gamesa G58windturbines.

28

7. References RenewableEnergyMixForEgypt Adapting and calibration of existing wake models to meet the conditions inside offshorewindfarmsCasestudy2:Zafarana Wind Power Projects In The CDM: Methodologies And Tools For Baselines, Carbon FinancingAndSustainabilityAnalysisZafaranapark WindEnergyinEgypt FeasibilityStudyForALargeWindFarmAtGulfOfElZyt FeasibilityStudyofWindFarmConstruction WindpowerandtheCDM FinancingLargeScaleWindFarmsinDevelopingCountriesZafaranaWindFarm ZafaranaWindPowerPlantProjectDesignDocument WindAtlasforEgypt

29

8. Appendices VestasV52DataSheet GamesaG58DataSheet

30

V52-850 kW
The turbine that goes anywhere

Versatile, efficient, dependable and popular


The highly efficient operation and flexible configuration of the V52 make this turbine an excellent choice for all kinds of wind conditions. In addition, thanks to its modest dimensions, the V52 is simple and cost-effective to transport and install. If you add in robust construction, thoroughly tested components and an enviable track record, it is easy to see why Vestas has erected more V52s than any other turbine in its portfolio approximately 1500 turbines, all over the world. One of the factors that contribute to the success of the V52 is OptiTip, its pitch regulation system. This system features microprocessors which control the pitching of the blades, thus ensuring continuous adjustment to maintain optimal blade angles in relation to the prevailing wind. At the same time, OptiTip makes it possible to keep sound levels within the limits stipulated by local regulations.

Finally, OptiSpeed helps the V52 deliver better quality power to the grid, with rapid synchronisation, reduced harmonic distortion and less flicker. Quite simply, OptiSpeed means more output, better quality power and less mechanical strain and sound.

Proven Performance
Wind power plants require substantial investments, and the process can be very complex. To assist in the evaluation and purchasing process, Vestas has identified four factors that are critical to wind turbine quality: energy production, operational availability, power quality and sound level. We spend months testing and documenting these performance areas for all Vestas turbines. When we are finally satisfied, we ask an independent testing organisation to verify the results a practice we call Proven Performance. At Vestas we do not just talk about quality. We prove it.

The optimal solution


Another innovative feature of the V52 is the OptiSpeed* generator. This is a significant advance in wind turbine technology and makes a major contribution to the efficiency of the V52. In practice, it allows the turbine rotor speed to vary between 14 and 31 rpm depending on the conditions at any given time. While the technology involved may be advanced, its purpose is simple: to maximise output. It does this by tapping the higher efficiency of slow and variable rotation, storing excess energy in rotational form and exploiting the full force of transient gusts. All told, OptiSpeed boosts annual energy production. As an added benefit, OptiSpeed also reduces wear and tear on the gearbox, blades and tower on account of lower peak loading. Moreover, as turbine sound is a function of wind speed, the lower rotation speeds made possible by OptiSpeed naturally reduce sound levels.

* Vestas OptiSpeed is not available in the USA and Canada.

Technical specifications

1 9 10 11

6 7

8 13

5 19 3 4

14 17 15 16 18 12

Ultrasonic wind sensor Service crane VMP-Top controller with converter OptiSpeed generator Pitch cylinder

Oil and water coolers Gearbox Main shaft Pitch system Blade hub

11

Blade bearing Blade Rotor lock system Hydraulic unit Torque arm

16

Machine foundation Mechanical disc brake Yaw gear Composite disc coupling

12

17

13

18

14

19

10

15

Power curve V52-850 kW


1,000 900 800 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
Sound (dB(A))

Wind/sound
104 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Speed of revolution (rpm)

700
Power (kW)

3 0 5 10 15 20 25
Wind speed (m/s) 100.0 dB(A) 103.0 dB(A) 101.0 dB(A) 104.2 dB(A) 102.0 dB(A)

10

11

12

13

Wind speed (m/s) Sound 100.0 dB(A) Speed of revolution (rpm)

The figure above illustrates the power curves at different sound levels for the V52-850 kW turbine, which is equipped with OptiSpeed.

The sound output level can be adjusted by varying the revolution speed of the turbine as illustrated in the figure above. It clearly shows the sound level advantages of lower speeds of revolution because the sound level is approximately 7 dB(A) lower at 4 m/s than at 8 m/s. For other sound levels, the benefit can be as much as 10 dB(A). Please note that a decrease of 3 dB(A) represents a halving of the sound level.

Wind
30

Rotor
Diameter: Area swept: Nominal revolutions: Operational interval: Number of blades: Power regulation: Air brake: 52 m 2,124 m2 26 rpm 14.0-31.4 rpm 3 Pitch/OptiSpeed Full blade pitch

Speed (m/s)

25 20 15 10

Time

Tower
Pitch
30

Hub height:

40 m, 44 m, 49 m, 55 m, 60 m, 65 m, 74 m, 86 m

Angle (degrees)

25 20 15 10 5 0

Operational data
Cut-in wind speed: Nominal wind speed: Cut-out wind speed: 4 m/s 16 m/s 25 m/s

Time

Generator
Type: Nominal output: Operational data: Asynchronous with OptiSpeed 850 kW 50 Hz/60 Hz 690 V

50 Hz 1,900 1,700 1,500 1,300 1,100 900

Generator

60 Hz 2,050 1,850 1,650 1,450 1,250 1,050

Speed (rpm)

Gearbox
Type: 1 planet step/2-step parallel axle gears

Time

Control
Type: Microprocessor-based monitoring of all turbine functions as well as OptiSpeed output regulation and OptiTip pitch regulation of the blades.

Output
1,000 800

Power (kW)

600 400 200 0

Weight
Time

Nacelle: Rotor: Towers: Hub height: 40 m 44 m 49 m 55 m 60 m 65 m 74 m 86 m

22 t 10 t IEC IA 40 t 45 t 50 t 55 t 70 t 75 t IEC IIA 50 t 70 t 75 t DIBt II 95 t 110 t DIBt III 70 t 75 t

OptiSpeed allows the rotor speed to vary within a range of approximately 60 per cent in relation to nominal rpm. Thus with OptiSpeed, the rotor speed can vary by as much as 30 per cent above and below synchronous speed. This minimises both unwanted fluctuations in the output to the grid supply and the loads on the vital parts of the construction.

t = metric tonnes DIBt towers are only approved for Germany. All specifications subject to change without notice.

The turbine that goes anywhere

If you have a viable wind power site, chances are that the V52 will do well there. That is because at Vestas, we have devoted the last 25 years to expanding the range of conditions under which wind can be profitably harnessed and because the V52 represents Vestas at its most versatile. An all-round performer, this 850 kW wind turbine is our most adaptable turbine, well suited for a broad spectrum of medium and high winds. This is why we have installed approximately 1500 V52s all over the world. Several factors contribute to the flexibility of this wind turbine. Not only is the V52 available with eight different tower heights, but its modest size and remarkable sound

profile also make it the perfect choice for both populated and remote locations. As a finishing touch, its compact dimensions make overland transport simple. The V52 is also the only kW-class turbine to be fitted with OptiSpeed, a technology that allows the rotor speed to vary within a range of approximately 60 per cent in relation to nominal rpm. This means that with OptiSpeed, the rotor speed can vary by as much as 30 per cent above and below synchronous speed. OptiSpeed thereby maximises the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in response to changing wind conditions and provides yet another instance of how Vestas versatility enhances the delivery of dependable power.

Vestas Wind Systems A/S


Alsvej 21 8900 Randers Denmark Tel. +45 97 30 00 00 Fax +45 97 30 00 01 vestas@vestas.com www.vestas.com
12/05 UK

To see a complete list of our sales and service units, visit www.vestas.com

GAMESA G58-850 KW

BENEFITS
Optimum performance for low winds
- Class IIIB/WZII. - Pitch and variable speed technology to maximize energy production. - Production of lighter blades using fiberglass and prepreg method. - Compliance with the main international Grid Codes. - Aerodynamic design and Gamesa NRSTM control system to minimize noise emissions. - Gamesa SGIPE: Remote monitoring and control system with Web access. - Over 4,600 Gamesa G5X-850 kW wind turbines installed.

Rotor
Diameter Swept area Rotational speed Rotational direction Weight (incl. Hub) Top head mass 58 m 2,642 m2 Variable 14.6 - 30.8 rpm, towers 55 and 65m Variable 16.2 - 30.8 rpm, torre 44m Clock Wise (front view) Approx. 12 T Approx. 35 T

Mechanical design
Drive train with main shaft supported by two spherical bearings that transmit the side loads directly to the frame by means of the bearing housing. This prevents the gearbox from receiving additional loads, reducing malfunctions and facilitating its service.

Brake
Aerodynamic primary brake by means of full-feathering blades. In addition, a hydraulically-activated mechanical disc brake for emergencies is mounted on the gearbox high speed shaft.

Blades
Number of blades Length Airfoils Material Total blade weight 3 28.3 m NACA 63.XXX + FFA-W3 Epoxy reinforced glass fibre 2,400 kg

Lightning protection
The Gamesa G58-850 kW wind turbine generator uses the total lightning protection system, in accordance with standard IEC 61024-1. This system conducts the lightning from both sides of the blade tip down to the root joint and from there across the nacelle and tower structure to the grounding system located in the foundations. Weight 45 T 62 T 72 T 79 T 86 T As a result, the blade and sensitive electrical components are protected from damage.

Tubular Tower
Modular type 2 sections 3 sections 3 sections 3 sections 3 sections Height 44 m 55 m 60 m 65 m 71 m

Control System
- The Generator is a doubly fed machine (DFM), whose speed and power is controlled through IGBT converters and PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) electronic control. - Benefits: Active and reactive power control. Low harmonic content and minimal losses. Increased efficiency and production. Prolonged working life of the turbine.

Gearbox
Type Ratio Cooling Oil heater 1 planetary stage / 2 helical stages 50 Hz 1:61.74 Oil pump with oil cooler 1.5 kW

Gamesa SGIPE
Gamesa SGIPE and its new generation Gamesa WindNet (wind farm control systems), developed by Gamesa, that allow realtime operation and remote control of wind turbines, meteorological mast and electrical substation via satellite-terrestrial network. Modular design with control tools for active and reactive energy, noise, shadows and wake effects. TCP/IP architecture with a Web interface.

Generator 850 kW
Type Rated power Voltage Frequency Protecction class Number of poles Rotational speed Rated Stator Current Power factor (standard) Power factor (optional) Doubly-fed machine 850 kW 690 V ac 50 Hz IP 54 4 900:1,900 rpm (rated 1,620 rpm) 670 A @ 690 V 0.95 CAP - 0.95 IND at partial loads and 1 at nominal power.* 0.95 CAP - 0.95 IND throughout the power range.*

SMP Predictive Maintenance System


Predictive Maintenance System for the early detection of potential deterioration or malfunctions in the wind turbines main components. - Benefits: Reduction in major corrective measures. Increase in the machines availability and working life. Preferential terms in negotiations with insurance companies. Integration within the control system.

* Power factor at generator output terminals, at low voltage side before transformer input terminals.

Noise control
Aerodynamic blade tip and mechanical component design minimize noise emissions. In addition, Gamesa has developed the Gamesa NRSTM noise control system, which permits programming the noise emissions according to criteria such as date, time or wind direction. This achieves the goals of local regulation compliance as well as maximum production.

Grid connection
Gamesas doubly-fed wind turbines and Active Crowbar and over sized converter technologies ensure the compliance with the most demanding grid connection requirements. Low voltage ride-through capability and dynamic regulation of active and reactive power.

10

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Service crane Generator Cooling system Top control unit Gearbox

6. 7. 8. 9.

Main shaft with two bearing housings Rotor lock system Blade Blade Hub

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Hub cover Blade bearing Bed frame Hydraulic unit Shock absorbers

15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Yaw ring Brake Tower Yaw gears Transmission. High speed shaft

Power Curve Gamesa G58-850 kW (for an air density of 1,225kg/m3)


900 800 700

Power curve calculation based on NACA 63.XXX and FFA-W3 airfoils. Calculation parameters: 50 Hz grid frequency; tip angle pitch regulated, 10% turbulence intensity and a variable rotor speed ranging from 14.6 - 30.8 rpm. Speed (m/s)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17-21

Power (kW)
9.7 31.2 78.4 148.2 242.7 368.8 525.3 695.0 796.6 835.9 846.8 849.3 849.9 850.0 850.0

Power kW

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17-21

Cut-in speed: Cut-out speed:

3 m/s 21 m/s

Wind speed m/s

Polgono Industrial Agustinos, C/A s/n 31013 Pamplona, Spain Tel: +34 948 309010 Fax: +34 948 309009 info@eolica.gamesa.es www.gamesa.es

Gamesa Wind GmbH Wailandtstrasse 7 63741 Aschaffenburg Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6021 15 09 0 Fax: +49 (0) 6021 15 09 199 E-mail: info@wind.gamesa.de Gamesa Wind Engineering Vejlsvej 51 8600 Silkeborg Denmark Tel: +45 87 229205 / 9204 Fax: +45 87 229201 France Parc Mail 6 Alle Joliot Curie, btiment B 69791 Saint Priest Tel: +33 (0) 472 79 47 09 Fax: +33 (0) 478 90 05 41 Greece 3, Pampouki Street 154 51 Neo Psichiko Athens Tel: +30 21 06753300 Fax: +30 21 06753305 Gamesa Eolica Italia Via Pio Emanuelli,1 Corpo B, 2 piano 00143 Rome Tel: +39 0651531036 Fax: +39 0651530911

Portugal Edificio D. Joo II PARQUE DAS NAOES Av. D. Joo II, lote 1.06.2.37 B 1990-090 Lisbon Tel: +351 21 898 92 00 Fax: +351 21 898 92 99 United Kingdom Rowan House Hazell Drive NEWPORT South Wales NP10 8FY Tel: +44 1633 654 140 Fax: +44 1633 654 147 Gamesa Wind US 1 Ben Fairless Drive - Ste. 2 Fairless Hills, PA 19030 Tel: +1 215 736 8165 Fax: +1 215 736 3985 Gamesa Wind Tianjin Room 1103, Tower 1 Bright China Changan Building 7 Jianguomennei Av. Beijing 100005 China Tel.: +86 10 65186158 Fax: +86 10 65171337

The specifications listed in this brochure may be subject to revision without prior notice. The specifications listed are not contractually binding.
Printed: February 2007