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Brian Hart has participated in 802.11 development and standards activities for many years

Development

11a/b/g/h DSP chipset architect

(2000-2004)

Wi-Fi RRM (2004-2006)

Wi-Fi location DSP architect

(2006-)

Other strategic initiatives (2011-)

Standards

IEEE 802.11 (2005-)

802.11n 20/40 vice-chair

802.11ac MU-MIMO co-chair

Awards for contributions to 11k, 11n, 11v, 11y, 11aa Also active in 11ac, 11ad

Wi-Fi Alliance (2008-)

Active in Wi-Fi Direct, VHT5G

WiGig Alliance (2010-)

Director

Other special interest groups and organizations

BRKEWN-2018

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2

Wireless Standards Update (mostly 802.11 and Wi-Fi)

Session ID: BRKSEWN-2018

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3

Why is Wi-Fi so Exciting?

Why is Wi-Fi so Exciting?

Wi-Fi is Touching Our Lives …

The Wi-Fi Alliance found

90% would rather go without their daily Starbucks than their Wi-Fi

rather go without their daily Starbucks than their Wi-Fi BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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Wi-Fi is Touching Our Lives …

The Wi-Fi Alliance found

70% would rather give up chocolate rather than give up Wi-Fi

70% would rather give up chocolate rather than give up Wi-Fi BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or

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Wi-Fi is Touching Our Lives …

The Wi-Fi Alliance found

more than 70% of 17- 29 year olds agreed it would impossible to maintain relationships without Wi-Fi

it would impossible to maintain relationships without Wi-Fi BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
it would impossible to maintain relationships without Wi-Fi BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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7

What is Today’s Agenda?

What is Today’s Agenda?

Today’s Presentation is Going to Focus on Various Aspects of Wi-Fi & Standards

Why is Wi-Fi so successful?

It flexibly meets the needs of all users

Who are key players in Wi-Fi standards?

IEEE 802.11 Working Group, Wi-Fi Alliance

with Cisco leadership!

What is coming down the standards pipeline?

A lot of exciting stuff, even after 20+ years of development!

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Today’s Presentation Comes with Some Caveats

Today’s talk WILL NOT

• Provide any information about Cisco’s specific wireless product plans

• Represent the views or plans of any SDO’s or ITA’s

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Why is Wi-Fi so Successful?

Why is Wi-Fi so Successful?

In 2012 We Now are Past One Billion Wi-Fi Devices Sold Every Year

Wi-Fi chipsets sold per annum

1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
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in Many Thousands of Wi-Fi Certified Devices (& Increasingly Diverse Devices)

Wi-Fi Alliance product certifications per annum (by category)

Alliance product certifications per annum (by category) BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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Generating as Much Wi-Fi Data Traffic as Wired Data Traffic (Forecast for 2015)

Monthly data traffic (by category)

(Forecast for 2015) Monthly data traffic (by category) BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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in a Myriad of (Un)imaginable Applications

Refrigerator
Refrigerator

Projector

Myriad of (Un)imaginable Applications Refrigerator Projector Internet Radi o/ Audio E-book LCD/Plasma TVs Network Music
Myriad of (Un)imaginable Applications Refrigerator Projector Internet Radi o/ Audio E-book LCD/Plasma TVs Network Music

Internet Radio/Audio

E-book
E-book
Refrigerator Projector Internet Radi o/ Audio E-book LCD/Plasma TVs Network Music Player/Server Blu-ray Player
LCD/Plasma TVs
LCD/Plasma TVs

Network Music Player/Server

o/ Audio E-book LCD/Plasma TVs Network Music Player/Server Blu-ray Player Media Viewer Reader Photo Frames Automobile

Blu-ray Player

Media

Viewer

TVs Network Music Player/Server Blu-ray Player Media Viewer Reader Photo Frames Automobile Network Web Camera

Reader

Music Player/Server Blu-ray Player Media Viewer Reader Photo Frames Automobile Network Web Camera BRKEWN-2018 ©

Photo

Music Player/Server Blu-ray Player Media Viewer Reader Photo Frames Automobile Network Web Camera BRKEWN-2018 © 2012

Frames

Blu-ray Player Media Viewer Reader Photo Frames Automobile Network Web Camera BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco

Automobile

Network Web Camera

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15

Wi-Fi’s Success is Based on a Bit of Luck & a Great Brand with Interoperability

Unlicensed spectrum become available at just the right time

Most cellular SPs are now realising Wi-Fi will get them through the licensed spectrum “crunch”

Wi-Fi Alliance certification ensures interoperability and is associated with a great brand

“Wi-Fi” is so much better than “WECA”!

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16

Wi-Fi’s Success is Based on “Good Enough” Simply Meeting User Needs

IEEE 802.11 standards focused on being just “good enough”, incrementally expanding with new needs

So anyone can set up a “rough and ready” Wi-Fi network anywhere and at any

time

cheaply

And serious users (i.e. enterprise) can build managed networks that meet their needs too

can build managed networks that meet their needs too BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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17

Who are Key Players in Wi-Fi Standards?

Who are Key Players in Wi-Fi Standards?

Wi-Fi’s Ecosystem is Mainly Based on Cooperation Between Three Stakeholders

Standards

Standards
Standards

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Certification Standards
Certification
Standards

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Vendors Standards
Vendors
Standards

My favourite vendor

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IEEE 802 is Probably the Most Famous Example of an IEEE Standards Activity

Sponsor

IEEE Computer Society

Formal goal

… develops Local Area Network standards and Metropolitan Area Network standards.

802.1 - architecture, internetworking, security, network management, & protocol layers above the MAC & LLC layers

802.16 - Broadband Wireless Access

802.18 - Radio Regulatory TAG

802.19 – Wireless Coexistence

Current

802.21 - Media Independent Handover Services

802.22 - Wireless RAN

activities

802.3 - Ethernet

802.11 - Wireless LAN

802.15 - Wireless PAN

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And for Fun … it Looks like 802.16 (aka WiMax) will Prove the Evil of Even Numbers

Successful

802 (30 years old)

802.1

802.3

802.11 (20 years old)

Hypothesis

An even numbered standard is a necessary but insufficient condition for long term success in IEEE 802

Unsuccessful

802.2

802.14

802.4

802.16

802.5

802.17

802.6

802.20

802.9

802.21

802.10

802.23

802.12

802.20 802.9 802.21 802.10 802.23 802.12 ? Unclear 802.19 802.15 802.22 BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco
802.20 802.9 802.21 802.10 802.23 802.12 ? Unclear 802.19 802.15 802.22 BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco
?
?
802.20 802.9 802.21 802.10 802.23 802.12 ? Unclear 802.19 802.15 802.22 BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco

Unclear

802.19

802.15

802.22

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21

The IEEE Standards Process has Worked Pretty Well for 802.11, but of Course, it is Not Perfect

… too slow

Many standards take 6+ years to develop

The process is often rule bound

The process relies on standardization by:

research

travel to interesting places

… too political • Not very good at dealing with conflict • The conflicts are
… too political
• Not very good at dealing
with conflict
• The conflicts are based on
combinations of:
− Technology
− Business
− Religion

… too compromising

Contention is often resolved by compromise

This can lead to very long & complex standards with many options

The quality often suffers to point where additional documents are required for interpretation

where additional documents are required for interpretation BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights
where additional documents are required for interpretation BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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but 802.11 has Done Well by Focusing on Users Developing Needs 11ai 11ah 11af 11ac
but 802.11 has Done Well by Focusing on
Users Developing Needs
11ai
11ah
11af
11ac
11ad
The next generation?
11ae
11aa
11s
11z
11u
Demanding managed,
reliable & secure
connections anywhere
with high performance
for any application
11v
In development
11p
Ratified
11n
11w
11y
11r
11k
11e
11j
Delighted to be
securely connected
11i
11h
11g
11d
11b
Delighted to be connected
11a
11-1997
11-1999
11-2003
11-2007
11-2012
91-93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
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23

The Wi-Fi Alliance is a Trade Association for 802.11 Based Products

Alliance is a Trade Association for 802.11 Based Products  Certifies the interoperability of 802.11 based
 Certifies the interoperability of 802.11 based products  The goal is to help ensure
 Certifies the interoperability of 802.11 based
products
 The goal is to help ensure
multi vendor interoperability
‒ 16 test labs in 8 countries
‒ 12,700+ products since March 2000
 Facilitates collaboration within the ecosystem
 Most testing utilises a test-
bed of “golden products”
and “low bar” performance
testing
 Acts as a thought leader on all issues related to
Wi-Fi products and technology
 This is a pragmatic solution
well suited to the WLAN
industry
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The Wi-Fi Alliance Has Almost 500 Members Across the Value Chain in Different Segments

Sponsor members
Sponsor members
Selection of regular members
Selection of regular members

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… Who have a Shared Vision of Seamless Connectivity

Seamless connectivity… using Wi-Fi
Seamless
connectivity…
using Wi-Fi
Seamless Connectivity Seamless connectivity… using Wi-Fi BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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connectivity… using Wi-Fi BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
connectivity… using Wi-Fi BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26

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26

Cisco is a Champion of Wireless Standards

By developing certified products

Cisco policy is to implement useful 802.11 standards as soon as practical

Cisco policy is to prove interoperability by Wi-Fi certifying equipment

By investing in open WLAN standards

Cisco provides officers & contributions to IEEE 802.11 Working Group

Cisco is Sponsor of Wi-Fi Alliance & provides major contributions

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Cisco Innovates, and Then Contributes its Innovations into the Standards Process

Cisco feeds tested features back into standards

* Standards Industry Cisco group association
*
Standards
Industry
Cisco
group
association

Defines complex, feature- rich technical standards for PHY & MAC

Technical

Technical

Specifies subsets of IEEE standards

Undertakes limited compatibility testing

Marketing

Supports industry-wide branding and communications

Technical

Adds differentiating features based on standards, but often before standards

features based on standards, but often before standards Marketing Sales • Markets Cisco’s wireless products •
features based on standards, but often before standards Marketing Sales • Markets Cisco’s wireless products •

Marketing

based on standards, but often before standards Marketing Sales • Markets Cisco’s wireless products • Sells

Sales

Markets Cisco’s wireless products

Sells & supports Cisco’s wireless products

• Sells & supports Cisco’s wireless products “Feature bloat” BRKEWN-2018 “Minimal features” ©

“Feature bloat”

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“Minimal features”

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“Differentiated features”

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Yes, Cisco Cannot “Go it Alone” When Defining Standards

Cisco could use its market influence to define a “standard” based on proprietary protocols

But experience with CCX indicates that even Cisco cannot “go it alone” in the long run

The challenge for Cisco is not to decide to stay out of standards when to move proprietary features into standards

but to decide

Cisco wants to be the “prettiest and biggest ship on the largest possible ocean”

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29

Cisco Supports the Development of the 802.11 Standard with Officers & Participation

Task group

Officer

Participate

Done

Comment

802.11e

 

➼➼

2005

QoS

802.11g

 

2003

54Mb/s at 2.4GHz

802.11h

➼➼➼

2003

DFS and TPC

802.11i

➼➼➼

2004

Security

802.11j

➼➼➼

2004

Regulatory domain support

802.11k

 

➼➼➼

2008

Radio Resource Measurement

802.11ma

➼➼➼

2007

Maintenance of standard

802.11mb

 

➼➼

2012

Maintenance of standard

802.11n

 

➼➼

2009

>100 Mb/s at 2.4GHz and 5GHz

802.11p

 

2010

Vehicular

802.11r

 

➼➼➼

2008

Fast roaming

802.11s

 

2011

Mesh

802.11u

➼➼➼

2011

Internetworking with external networks

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Cisco Supports the Development of the 802.11 Standard with Officers & Participation

Task group

Officer

Participate

Done

Comment

802.11v

➼➼➼

2011

Radio Resource Management

802.11w

➼➼➼

2009

Management Frame Protection

802.11y

➼➼➼

2008

3.6GHz operation

802.11z

 

2010

Direct link – a consumer issue

802.11aa

 

➼➼

2012

Video

802.11ac

➼➼➼

 

>1Gb/s @ 5GHz

802.11ad

 

➼➼➼

 

>1Gb/s @ 60GHz

802.11ae

 

➼➼➼

2012

QoS for management frames

802.11af

➼➼➼

 

TV White Space

802.11ah

 

 

<1GHz PHY

802.11ai

 

 

Fast Initial Link Setup

JTC1 ad hoc

➼➼➼

-

JTC1 liaison

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Cisco Supports Many Wi-Fi Alliance Activities as Sponsor and in Task Groups

Near term program

Cisco

Long term program

Cisco

PMF



VHT in 5G



TDLS

 

60 GHz

 *

IBSS

 

Hotspot 2.0

 *

WMM-AC

 *

WNM - NPS



Voice Enterprise



WNM – O&T



Display

 

TV White Spaces



Hotspot 2.0



Power Conservation

WMM Refresh

NAN

Starting

Smart Grid



Wi-Fi Serial Bus

Starting

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Other activities

Cisco

Board of Directors



Spectrum



RF Health



Enterprise



Healthcare



Operator



“*” = officer  level of participation Note: Cisco provided Board Chair from 2006-2011

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There are Many Examples Where Cisco has Driven an 802.11 TG with CCX & Other Material

Standard

Activity

Cisco contribution

802.11h

Spectrum

Editor and main author, enabling 5GHz operation; part of base WFA certification

management

802.11i

Security

Significant contributor, based on 802.1X for LEAP & group key rotation, TKIP; certified as WPA/WPA2

 

Multiple

Editor and main author, enabling operation in multiple regulatory domains; no certification

802.11j

regulatory

domains

 

Wireless

Significant contributor of various features, many based on CCX features; elements likely to be certified soon by WFA as part of Voice Enterprise

802.11k

Network

Measurement

802.11r

Fast roaming

Significant contributor, with CCKM (Cisco) + WARP (Airespace) as basis; likely to be certified soon by WFA as part of Voice Enterprise

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There are Many Examples Where Cisco has Driven an 802.11 TG with CCX & Other Material

Standard

Activity

Cisco contribution

802.11u

WIEN

Reinvigorated group and incorporated into Hotspot 2.0 activity (in SIG, WFA, WBA and GSMA)

 

Wireless

Author and contributor of a variety of location, diagnostic and other features, some derived from CCX features; WFA currently considering multiple certifications

802.11v

Network

Management

 

Management

Editor and significant author, based on CCX feature; now certified by WFA

802.11w

Frame

Protection

802.11y

3.6GHz

Editor and main author, documenting new ways of opening up new spectrum; no certification likely

802.11aa

Video

Significant contributor of reliable multicast features, based on CCX feature

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There are Many Examples Where Cisco has Driven an 802.11 TG with CCX & Other Material

Standard

Activity

Cisco contribution

802.11ae

Management frame priority

Significant contributor of mechanisms to allow prioritisation of management frames

802.11ac

VHT <6GHz

Contributions to ensure useful for dense enterprise environment, especially better multi-channel operation & MU-MIMO; likely to be WFA certified

802.11ad

VHT 60GHz

Contributions to ensure useful for sea of desks enterprise environment and not just the consumer space; likely to be WFA certified

802.11af

TVWS

Editor and main driver, focused on developing mechanisms that can be used to open up new spectrum

802.11ai

Fast initial link setup

Redirected TG to a useful direction; they originally wanted to replace 802.11 security

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35

Actually the Standards World is Even More Complicated than Presented

the Standards World is Even More Complicated than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors
the Standards World is Even More Complicated than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors
the Standards World is Even More Complicated than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors

Partners

World is Even More Complicated than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors Industry

Regulations

Anti-trust laws

than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or

Cisco

than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its
than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its
than Presented Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its

Competitors

Partners Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

Industry

Regulations Anti-trust laws Cisco Competitors Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Special Interest Groups Cisco Public
Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Special Interest Groups Cisco Public
Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Special Interest Groups Cisco Public
Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Special Interest Groups Cisco Public
Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Special Interest Groups Cisco Public
Industry BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Special Interest Groups Cisco Public

Special

Interest

Groups

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36

What is Coming Down the Standards Pipeline?

What is Coming Down the Standards Pipeline?

The Remainder of the Presentation will Provide an Update of the “Alphabet Soup”

Topics • Connectivity • QoS • Spectrum • Management • Security • Verticals
Topics
• Connectivity
• QoS
• Spectrum
• Management
• Security
• Verticals

IEEE standards

The alphabet soup from 802.11a to

802.11ai

Wi-Fi certifications

Another set of indecipherable names

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38

Wi-Fi Connectivity

Wi-Fi Connectivity

Wi-Fi Connectivity is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards

802.11b
802.11b
is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards 802.11b The Past 802.11ac 802.11ah 802.11af 802.11ad

The Past

802.11ac

802.11ah

802.11af

802.11ad
802.11ad
802.11a 802.11n 802.11g
802.11a
802.11n
802.11g

The Future

802.11af 802.11ad 802.11a 802.11n 802.11g The Future BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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Wi-Fi Connectivity Today is Based on a the 802.11a/b/g/n PHY Standards

Band

2.4GHz

5GHz

a the 802.11a/b/g/n PHY Standards Band 2.4GHz 5GHz DSSS 802.11b-1999 Technology OFDM 802.11g-2003

DSSS

802.11b-1999

Technology

OFDM

802.11g-2003

802.11a-1999

802.11n-2009

(D2.0-2006)

PHY rate

PHY rate <11Mb/s <54Mb/s <600Mb/s

<11Mb/s

PHY rate <11Mb/s <54Mb/s <600Mb/s

<54Mb/s

PHY rate <11Mb/s <54Mb/s <600Mb/s

<600Mb/s

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with 802.11n Becoming Predominant in the Wi-Fi Market

with 802.11n Becoming Predominant in the Wi-Fi Market BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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Wi-Fi Connectivity is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards

802.11b
802.11b
is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards 802.11b The Past 802.11ac 802.11ah 802.11af 802.11ad

The Past

802.11ac

802.11ah

802.11af

802.11ad
802.11ad
802.11a 802.11n 802.11g
802.11a
802.11n
802.11g

The Future

802.11af 802.11ad 802.11a 802.11n 802.11g The Future BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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43

802.11ac, the Next Generation Wi-Fi, is “Just Around the Corner”

IEEE 802.11ac

Use cases

Technology

Functionality

Availability

• Similar to 802.11n

• Voice/video/data for consumer/enterprise

• Extension of 802.11n in 5GHz only

• Few cool, new features, eg MU-MIMO

• Similar range to 802.11n

• Faster than 802.11n – up to ~2.5Gb/s

• First usable draft standard in early 2012

• First wave of certification in early 2013

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802.11ac Mainly Just Extends 802.11n Technology … and Adds MU-MIMO

Feature

Comments

5 GHz only 80MHz channels

Features could be applied to 2.4 GHz Optional 160MHz and 80+80MHz 802.11n has lower modulations 1 SS mandatory, 2 SS for non-battery APs at WFA Single mechanism this time Cool new technology! MU = Multi-User Improvements for wider bandwidths Detects energy in secondary channel “Dark corners of 802.11n left to die”

256QAM

Up to 8 spatial streams Beamforming MU-MIMO RTS/CTS Better CCA Deletes stuff

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45

802.11ac Uses MU-MIMO to Provide “Switch” Rather than “hub” Technology

Single User MIMO in 802.11n sends one frame to one receiver

Multi-user MIMO in 802.11ac sends multiple frames to multiple receivers

MIMO in 802.11ac sends multiple frames to multiple receivers ‒ AP with 4 antennas can send

AP with 4 antennas can send 1 stream each to 3 smartphones, all at the same time

AP must beamform 1 space-time stream to the each receiver & simultaneously null-steer that space-time streams to the two other receivers

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Frequency

802.11ac Supports Extended RTS/CTS Mode for Dynamic Wider Bandwidth

Initiator transmits multiple RTS’s on free channels

Responder transmits CTS’s on channels it:

Received an RTS

Senses as free

Supports bandwidth-wise

Initiator transmits data only over free channels

 Initiator transmits data only over free channels RTS CTS Data frame RTS CTS Data frame

RTS

RTS CTS Data frame RTS CTS Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

CTSRTS Data frame RTS CTS Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

RTS CTS Data frame RTS CTS Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

Data frameRTS CTS RTS CTS Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

RTS

RTS CTS Data frame RTS CTS Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

CTSRTS CTS Data frame RTS Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

RTS CTS Data frame RTS CTS Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

Data frameRTS CTS Data frame RTS CTS RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver

RTS

RTS

Channels not clear at receiver

Data frame RTS RTS Channels not clear at receiver Time BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its

Time

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47

802.11ac Goes Faster with More Bits/Carrier, Bandwidth & Spatial Streams

Data Bits per Subcarrier

Bandwidth & Spatial Streams Data Bits per Subcarrier 802.11ac AP 256QAM@r5/6 802.11n AP 40 80 160

802.11ac AP

256QAM@r5/6

802.11n AP 40 80 160 4 8
802.11n AP
40
80
160
4
8

64QAM@r5/6

Spatial streams

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Channel

Bandwidth

(MHz)

48

802.11ac Can Plausibly Operate at up to ~3.5Gb/s (@PHY) or ~2.5Gb/s (@MAC)

80 MHz PHY rate

MCS (QAMr5/6)

Spatial

64

 

256

streams

1

290

1

 

330

1

430

2

650

2

870

3

980

1

1300

4

 

1700

8

 

3500

160 MHz PHY rate

Spatial

streams

1

2

3

4

8

MCS (QAMr5/6)

MCS (QAMr5/6)

64

64

650

1300

2000

160 MHz PHY rate Spatial streams 1 2 3 4 8 MCS (QAMr5/6) 64 650 1300
160 MHz PHY rate Spatial streams 1 2 3 4 8 MCS (QAMr5/6) 64 650 1300

256

256

870

1700

2600

3500

6900

1 Mandatory for battery devices, long GI 2 Mandatory for powered APs

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Easy

Plausible

Fantasy

49

802.11ac is at the End of a Progression to Higher Rates Over a 15 Year
802.11ac is at the End of a Progression to Higher
Rates Over a 15 Year Period
6900
3500
870
600
450?
290
300
65
54
(24)
11
2
HT
VHT
802.11
802.11b
802.11a/g
High
Thruput
802.11n
Very High
Thruput
802.11ac
Min
Typical
Product max
Max

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802.11 802.11b 802.11a/g 802.11n 802.11ac 1997 2013 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights
802.11
802.11b
802.11a/g
802.11n
802.11ac
1997
2013
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50

PHY rate*(1-PER) (Mbps)

802.11ac Represents only Some Improvement of rAte-at-range Compared to 802.11n

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

3x4/256QAMr5/6/160MHz 3x3/256QAMr5/6/160MHz 3x4/256QAMr5/6/80MHz 3x3/256QAMr5/6/80MHz 11ac 2x3/256QAMr5/6/80MHz
3x4/256QAMr5/6/160MHz
3x3/256QAMr5/6/160MHz
3x4/256QAMr5/6/80MHz
3x3/256QAMr5/6/80MHz
11ac
2x3/256QAMr5/6/80MHz
3x4/64QAMr5/6/40MHz
Wave 2
11ac
Wave 1
11n
3x3
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200

Distance (ft)

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51

Certified 802.11ac is Expected in Two Waves; Wave 1 in 2013 & Wave 2 in 2014

802.11ac D2.0 balloted 802.11ac Dx.0 ratified Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2
802.11ac D2.0
balloted
802.11ac Dx.0
ratified
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
2011
2012
2013
2014
80 MHz
Estimates
256QAM
only
Wave 1
certified
Wave 2
certified
1-3 SS
160 MHz
1-4 SS
MU-MIMO?

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The Enterprise Should Upgrade to 802.11ac During the Next Upgrade Cycle

Considerations

802.11ac definitely represents a useful refinement of 802.11n functionality

However, 802.11ac is not really compelling enough to justify an immediate upgrade

Certainly do not buy anything pre-certification

Instead, you should transition to 802.11ac as part of your regular AP and client upgrade cycle

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53

Wi-Fi Connectivity is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards

802.11b
802.11b
is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards 802.11b The Past 802.11ac 802.11ah 802.11af 802.11ad

The Past

802.11ac

802.11ah

802.11af

802.11ad
802.11ad
802.11a 802.11n 802.11g
802.11a
802.11n
802.11g

The Future

802.11af 802.11ad 802.11a 802.11n 802.11g The Future BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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Use of 60GHz by 802.11ad Means Very High Rate, Beamformed, “Room Area Networking”

Lots of spectrum

• About 7 GHz of 60 GHz spectrum available (varies by country)

• Can go very fast even

with only one RF chain

• Potential for lower cost and lower energy per bit

• Potential for lower cost and lower energy per bit  Rates >1Gb/s Small wavelength •

Rates >1Gb/s

Small wavelength

• 5mm wavelength, with range 20% less than 5GHz

• Multiple (<64) antennas

can beam form for more

range & less interference

“Same room”

• Device sync needed in dense environments

Propagates like light

• Easily blocked by humans, whiteboards, books, wall & concrete

• This means poor range in

typical environments

• But also less interference from neighbours

Nominal behavior is

1+ Gbps at 30 ft in cubicles/light walls

Nominal behavior is 1+ Gbps at 30 ft in cubicles/light walls   Beam forming Room

Beam forming

Gbps at 30 ft in cubicles/light walls   Beam forming Room area networking BRKEWN-2018 ©

Room area networking

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802.11ad Will Realistically be Able to Achieve PHY Rates of 4.6Gb/s @ ~10m

Modulation

MCS

PHY rate (Mbps)

Comment

SC

BPSK-r3/4

 

1200

Required

OFDM

QPSK-r3/4

 

2100

Plausible

SC

16QAM-r3/4

4600

 

Plausible

OFDM

64QAM-r13/16

 

6800

Mostly Plausible

Properties: bandwidth = 2520MHz, spatial streams = 1

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56

802.11ad has the “Potential” to Create New User Experiences

IEEE 802.11 WG standard

• 802.11ad

WiGig Alliance specifications

• Wireless A/V PAL

• Wireless PCIe PAL

• Wireless USB PAL

• etc

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Potential

applications

• Wireless docking

• Wireless peripherals

• Sync’n’go

• HDMI replacement

• WLAN applications

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Potential issues

• Not clear 802.11ad rates needed in WLAN

• SiBeam 60GHz HDMI replacement failed commercially ($600)

• 802.11ac may be “good enough”, particularly if video compression is “acceptable”!

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57

The Certification of 802.11ad has Slipped & it is Possible it will be Split

802.11ad D6.0 balloted 802.11ad ratified Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3
802.11ad D6.0
balloted
802.11ad
ratified
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
2011
2012
2013
2014
Delayed by a year!
?
Estimates
only
Peer to peer
functionality only
Wave 1
certified
Wave 2
certified
AP
functionality

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802.11ad is Unlikely to be of Interest to the Enterprise for Some Time

Considerations

Once 802.11ad is completed (or a draft is certified), there may be some early interest in the enterprise for docking and video applications

However, dense enterprise rollout is likely to be constrained by need for AP synchronisation

Cisco has inserted some hooks in the draft to enable synch

It also maybe constrained by plans to use non “enterprise class” WPS based security

Cisco has defined higher requirements for enterprise-class docks

Further out, 11ad may be useful for wireless networking, but as a follow-on to 11ac and if 11ad is adopted by device manufacturers

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59

Wi-Fi Connectivity is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards

802.11b
802.11b
is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards 802.11b The Past 802.11ac 802.11ah 802.11af 802.11ad

The Past

802.11ac

802.11ah

802.11af

802.11ad
802.11ad
802.11a 802.11n 802.11g
802.11a
802.11n
802.11g

The Future

802.11af 802.11ad 802.11a 802.11n 802.11g The Future BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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60

802.11ah is Focused on Wireless Applications Below 1 GHz

802.11 has been remarkably successful as a solution in 2.4GHz & 5GHz

Flexibly & cheaply meeting the needs of users

The obvious question is what about new applications in new bands?

Intelligent Transportation System @5.9GHz was first

802.11ah is focused on lower power/rate & longer range in licence exempt bands below 1 GHz

Excluding TV broadcast bands

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The 802.11ah Applications will Tend to be Lower Power/Rate & Longer Range

Proposed “niche” use cases Smartgrid

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802.11ah is Focusing on >100kb/s at <1km with a Traditional Wi-Fi “Feel”

What is 802.11ah specification?

Spectrum

Channel

width

PHY

Coexistence

• Europe: 868-868.6 MHz

• Japan: 950-958 MHz

• China: 314-316, 390-434, 470-510 & 779-787 MHz

• Kor: 917-923.5 MHz

• USA: 902-928 MHz

• 1,2,4,8,16 MHz (compared to 20/40 MHz in 802.11n) • Probably based on

802.11ac

• Especially 802.15.4g

• Probably based on 802.11ac • Especially 802.15.4g What will 802.11ah achieve? Rate Range Feel? •

What will 802.11ah achieve?

Rate

Range

Feel?

• > 100kb/s (less than traditional

802.11)

< 1km

• “the IEEE 802.11 WLAN user experience for fixed, outdoor, point to multi point applications” (source: PAR)

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802.11ah Should be Monitored Until Standards & Market Situation Clearer

Considerations

We don’t expect significant market success for 802.11ah in the near future

Need a standard – planned for 2014

Need a certification – none yet discussed

Need an ecosystem – chip vendors interested!

Need to compete – there is competition from 802.15.4g

Not a lot of common spectrum worldwide

Watch this space!

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Wi-Fi Connectivity is Based on a Series of 802.11 PHY Standards

802.11b
802.11b
802.11a 802.11n 802.11g
802.11a
802.11n
802.11g
802.11 PHY Standards 802.11b 802.11a 802.11n 802.11g The Past The Future 802.11ad 802.11ac 802.11ah 802.11af

The Past

The Future

802.11ad
802.11ad
802.11ac 802.11ah 802.11af
802.11ac
802.11ah
802.11af
The Past The Future 802.11ad 802.11ac 802.11ah 802.11af BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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802.11af will Define Operations in TV White Space Bands

The repacking of TV bands in many countries has resulted in opportunity for new unlicensed spectrum

This spectrum is often called TV White Space (TVWS)

New rules are being designed to protect existing users from interference from unlicensed devices

Especially protecting digital TV & wireless microphones

An amendment of 802.11, called 802.11af, is being defined to enable the use of this new spectrum

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802.11af is Focusing on Using a Database to Avoid Interfering With Primary Users

What is 802.11af specification?

Spectrum

Channel

width

PHY

Coexistence

• 470-698 MHz (UHF)

• VHF varies by country

• 6, 7, 8 MHz (vs 20/40 MHz in 802.11n)

• Probably based on

802.11ac

• Database enablement to avoid interfering with TV & licensed microphones

to avoid interfering with TV & licensed microphones What will 802.11af achieve? Rate Range • Less
What will 802.11af achieve?

What will 802.11af achieve?

Rate

Range

• Less than traditional 802.11 due to narrow channels

• More (3.5x) than traditional 802.11 due to superior propagation of TVWS

Geolocation data base will contain information about protected users; it will be able to authorise the use of a channel at a particular time, location & power for unlicensed operation

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67

Most of the Proposed Use Cases for TVWS Focus on its Improved Range

Use case Comment New client? Extended coverage - home One AP allowing TVWS access to
Use case
Comment
New client?
Extended coverage - home
One AP allowing TVWS access to client
Yes
Extended coverage - home
Connecting APs in a network using TVWS
No
Extended coverage - rural
Fixed TVWS allows 4W &range of >8km
Yes
Data offload - cellular
Using TVWS as just more spectrum
Yes
Peer to peer
Using TVWS as just more spectrum
Yes
Requiring a TVWS radio in all clients may slow take-up
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The Potential of TVWS (aka “Super Wi-Fi”) is Often Oversold

There was been a lot of publicity related to TVWS

The FCC even called it “Super Wi-Fi” in 2010

However, much of the TVWS publicity is hype

Regulations are not yet in place in most/all countries

There is often not much available TVWS where people live

Particularly in US metro areas (10% have 2 channels or less)

Likely some of today’s TVWS will be allocated to cellular

Standards & certification not ready until 2014

Not clear the case for yet another new radio is compelling given alternate solutions for most/all use cases

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The Real Value of 802.11af is the Database Approach to Protect Existing Users

Considerations

We don’t expect significant market success for 802.11af in TVWS in the near future

Too much hype, not enough reality until beyond 2014

Possible cellular offload & extended coverage interesting

The real value of TVWS is the database approach

Approach could be used to open up other bands by providing a mechanism to protect existing users

Trials of database sharing have already started in US & UK

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Spectrum

Spectrum

Wi-Fi’s Success has Resulting in a Growing Need for More Spectrum

802.11/Wi-Fi has been a wildly successful technology, and is now going into “everything”!

Wi-Fi requires more & more spectrum to support its rapidly growing use “everywhere”

Recall the forecasts of Wi-Fi use!

This requirement has led to a series of efforts to:

Identify new Wi-Fi spectrum for niche & mainstream use

Define rules to allow sharing with existing users

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A Variety of New Wi-Fi Spectrum has been Identified over the Years

 

Spectrum in 2000

New spectrum since 2000

Planned new spectrum

MainstreamNiche

• 2.4 GHz

• 5250-5350 MHz (new rules)

• All of 5GHz!

• 5150-5350 MHz

Required to obtain full benefit from 802.11ac

• 5725-5850 MHz – 5GHz only sometimes used as a complement

• 5470-5725 MHz ()

 

DFS/TPC being used for sharing

 

• 5850-5925 MHz

• 60 GHz

 

Automotive applications

 

• 3600-3650 MHz – Experimental (US only)

egg room area networking

• <1GHz (various)

 
  – eg. smartgrid

eg. smartgrid

 

• TVWS (various) eg. rural broadband

Note: spectrum availability varies by country; this table is representative

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the New Wi-Fi Spectrum has been Supported by Various 802.11 Standards

1999

802.11a

2003

802.11h

2004

802.11j

2008

802.11y

2010

802.11p

2012

802.11ad

2013

802.11af

2014

802.11ah

Defined operation in 5GHz bands

Enabled sharing with radar/satellite in 5GHz bands

Originally to enable 4.9/5GHz operation in Japan; ultimately defined way of specifying regulatory classes Defined 3.6GHz operation in US; ultimately defined concept of enablement that is now used in other bands

Defined use of 5.9GHz in US for automotive applications

Defining operation in 60GHz bands

Mainstream

Mainstream

Mainstream

Niche

Niche

Niche?

Defining operation in TVWS bands

Niche

Defining operation in bands less than 1GHz

Niche

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The Key to Most New Wi-Fi Spectrum is Various Techniques for Sharing

Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)

• Typically used to avoid radar after detection

• Mostly successful technique, but some issues in relation to weather radar that are

being resolved

more to be done

with

• Cisco led development of this technique with regulators

Transmit Power Control (TPC)

• Typically used to avoid interfering with satellites by reducing power to the level actually needed – Also useful to avoid interfering with neighbours

needed – Also useful to avoid interfering with neighbours BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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Geolocation

Database

• Database records characteristics of primary users

• Users must consult database to determine if & how allowed to operate at a particular location & time

• Cisco led development of this technique with regulators

how allowed to operate at a particular location & time • Cisco led development of this

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75

It is Hoped that Sharing Techniques will Soon Enable Use of All of 5GHz by 802.11ac

802.11ac defines use of 20, 40, 80, 80+80 & 160MHz channels

The use of multiple 160MHz channels requires more contiguous spectrum

There are regulatory & legislative efforts in US & Europe to allow more sharing of 5GHz spectrum

5000-5150 MHz (sharing with ????)

5350-5470 MHz (sharing with radar)

5725-5850 MHz (sharing with ITS)

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With Increased Use of 5GHz Might Come Tougher Rules!

Cisco has been a leader in understanding radar detection technology & regulations for 5GHz

Unfortunately, some of our competitors have not been so “disciplined”

A number have been fined heavily in the US for breaking radar interference rules

This, along with better understanding, could result in regulators imposing tougher radar detection rules

Watch this space

because Cisco is!

detection rules  Watch this space because Cisco is! BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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Wi-Fi QoS

Wi-Fi QoS

Wi-Fi QoS is Mainly Based on a Wi-Fi Alliance Variant of 802.11e Called WMM

Original version of 802.11 had two forms of access

• Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)

– CSMA/CA access

– No QoS defined

– Wi-Fi Certified

• Point Coordination Function (PCF)

– Scheduled access using a super frame structure

– QoS defined

– Never Wi-Fi Certified

structure – QoS defined – Never Wi-Fi Certified 802.11e defined two new two forms of access

802.11e defined two new two forms of access

• Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)

– CSMA/CA access

– QoS defined based on eight statistical priority levels

• HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA)

– Scheduled access with access at any time

– QoS defined

Scheduled access with access at any time – QoS defined Wi-Fi Alliance certifies Wi-Fi QoS as

Wi-Fi Alliance certifies Wi-Fi QoS as WMM

• 802.11e took so long to finish that the Wi-Fi Alliance decided to certify a subset of a variant called WMM (Wireless Multimedia)

• This difference has caused ongoing synchronisation issues ever since

• There was also a non certified variant of HCCA called WMM-SA

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Wi-Fi QoS Features have been Progressively Certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance Since 2004

802.11e standard

2005

EDCA

2005

HCCA

2005

APSD

2005

Admission control

2005

Direct Link

Wi-Fi specification EDCA WMM Not progressed (Wireless Multimedia) Specification 2004 Admission control
Wi-Fi specification
EDCA
WMM
Not progressed (Wireless
Multimedia)
Specification
2004
Admission
control

Wi-Fi certification

WMM

No certification

WMM-Power Save

WMM-Admission

Control

Tunnelled Direct Link Setup

2004

2005

2012

2012

Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 2004 2005 2012 2012 2010 Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 802.11z standard
Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 2004 2005 2012 2012 2010 Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 802.11z standard
Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 2004 2005 2012 2012 2010 Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 802.11z standard
Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 2004 2005 2012 2012 2010 Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 802.11z standard
2010 Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 802.11z standard
2010 Tunnelled Direct
Link Setup
802.11z standard
2012 2010 Tunnelled Direct Link Setup 802.11z standard BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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WMM-AC will Enable Certified Admission Control for Voice from 2012

WMM defines four priorities but does not limit the use of any priority, and so can increase congestion

WMM-AC forces devices to request bandwidth before using higher priorities

AC mechanism likely to be used in enterprise first, especially for voice (but also video)

Cisco has a similar mechanism in CCXv4 and CCX Lite

Wi-Fi certification likely to occur in early 2012

Cisco AP likely to be in the test bed

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Wi-Fi Voice-Enterprise is a Solution, Rather than a Feature Certification

Most Wi-Fi certifications have been historically been “feature based”

In contrast, the Wi-Fi Voice-Enterprise certification focuses on certifying a “voice solution”

It is likely to be released in early 2012 – about now

Cisco is likely to be in the test bed!

Interestingly, Cisco has provided similar features in CCX for many years

Cisco is likely to recommend this certification at some point

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MeasurementManagement

RoamingPerformance

Voice Enterprise Brings Together Roaming, Performance, Measurement & Management

802.11k based measurement

• Clients measure the radio environment on behalf of AP & to troubleshoot performance

• AP summarises data for clients so they can choose BSS

• AP summarises data for clients so they can choose BSS 802.11v based management • APs

802.11v based management

• APs recommend BSS transitions to clients to move to another AP based on network load & network topology

Wi-Fi

CERTIFIED

based on network load & network topology Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Voice Enterprise BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or

Voice

Enterprise

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802.11r based transition

• Client is enabled to transition quickly to new AP within the same mobility domain, by re- use of 802.1X security keys

• Transition within 50ms

802.11e based performance

• Uses WMM-AC (based on 802.11e) to reduce congestion

• Clients required to satisfy limits on latency, jitter, packet loss & consecutive lost packets

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83

Work on QoS for Video Continues in 802.11aa but There are No Certification Plans

Feature

Description

Comment

Groupcast with retries (GCR) Interworking with

Defines reliable multicast using unsolicited retries or a block ACK scheme Supports 802.1Qat stream reservation requests for end to end reservations Assists AP to avoid overlap and share in an overlap situation Classifies MSDUs for transmission in a particular stream Adds extra EDCA queues for video & voice

Contributed by Cisco from CCX

802.1AVB

Overlapping BSS management Stream classification service Intra-access category prioritization

Heuristic attempting to provide guarantees

Unlikely to work

=> but not enough interest yet to start a Wi-Fi certification programme yet!

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Wi-Fi Management

Wi-Fi Management

Wi-Fi Certified Management will Expand Soon to Include 802.11k/v/ae/w

IEEE

802.11

standard

802.11k

Measurement

2008

802.11v

Management

2011

802.11ae

QoS

2012

802.11w

Security

2009

Wi-Fi Alliance certification

SoonSoonishLater

Voice

Enterprise

Network Power Save

Management

Frame

Protection

Operations & Troubleshooting

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StatusGoals

IEEE 802.11k, Based on CCX Features, is Focused on “Measurement”

• 802.11k was ratified in 2008 • Could be certified in Voice – Enterprise, and
• 802.11k was ratified in 2008 • Could be certified in Voice – Enterprise, and

• 802.11k was ratified in 2008

• Could be certified in Voice – Enterprise, and WNM O&T

• Simplify and/or automate WLAN radio configuration

• Better utilize radio resources

• Achieve better performance in dense deployments

• Alert administrator of problems

• Notify clients of radio status

• Measurement reports

– Beacon

– Frame

– Channel Load

– Noise Histogram

– STA Statistics

– Location

– Neighbor Report

– Link Measurement

– Transmit Stream

• Other features

– Measurement Pilot

Features

Cisco

Cisco contributed many CCX features to 802.11k amendment

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IEEE 802.11v (Aka “the Kitchen Sink”) is Focused on “Management”

The “kitchen sink” of features • 802.11v was ratified in 2011 • BSS transition management
The “kitchen sink” of features
• 802.11v was ratified in 2011
• BSS transition management
• Wi-Fi certifications could
include:
• Co-located interfer. reporting
• Diagnostic reporting
– Voice –Enterprise
• Event reporting
– Network Power Save
• Flexible Multicast Service
– Operations & Troubleshooting
• Multicast diagnostics reporting
• Multiple BSSID & SSID support
• An extension of the 802. 11k
work into “management” of:
• Proxy ARP
• Presence & location
STAs by APs
• TIM broadcast
WLANs by higher layers
• Traffic filtering service (TFS)
Cisco
Cisco contributed many CCX features to 802.11v amendment
StatusGoals

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IEEE 802.11ae is Focused on Appropriate QoS for Management Frames

Features • IEEE 802.11ae will be ratified in 2012 • 802.11ae could be certified as
Features
• IEEE 802.11ae will be ratified in
2012
• 802.11ae could be certified as
part of Wi-Fi WNM O&T
• Traditionally, management
frame were transmitted at the
highest priority
• Define mechanisms for
prioritizing IEEE 802.11
management frames using
existing mechanisms for
medium access
• However, this make less sense
as management frames are
used to transmit less time
sensitive (albeit still useful)
information
• 802.11ae has been defined to
allow management frames to be
sent at appropriate priorities
Cisco
Cisco contributed many of the core ideas used in 802.11ae
StatusGoals

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StatusGoals

Wi-Fi Network Power Save may be a Cert. of some 802.11v “Power Save” Features

• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certification is in progress

• It is likely to be available some time in

2012-2013

• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certifies features from 802.11v that focus on enhancing battery life
• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certifies features from 802.11v that focus on enhancing battery life

• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certifies features from 802.11v that focus on enhancing battery life of clients

• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certifies features from 802.11v that focus on enhancing battery life of
• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certifies features from 802.11v that focus on enhancing battery life of
• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certifies features from 802.11v that focus on enhancing battery life of
• Wi-Fi Network Power Save certifies features from 802.11v that focus on enhancing battery life of

BSS Max Idle Period - AP to indicate period in which it won’t disassociate STA

ARP Proxy - allows an AP to indicate that it can proxy ARP frames for its STAs

Wake on WLAN - allows devices to remain in a very low-power save state until they receive specified frames

Directed Multicast Service - avoids waking all STAs by transmitting group frames as individual frames

Flexible Multicast Service - allows STA to sleep longer using multicast delivery interval for longer than DTIM

Likely features

delivery interval for longer than DTIM Likely features BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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Wi-Fi O&T may be a Cert. of Various 802.11v “Enterprise” Focused Features

 

Certification plans not yet decided; maybe 2013, maybe not at all!

StatusGoals

Based on 802.11v, 802.11k and 802.11ae

 

– Enable management of enterprise networks

– Improve network & device performance

 

– Enable new location- based applications

– Help reduce IT support costs

• Net. connectivity diagnostic (11k/v)

 

• Net. inventory (11v)

• Net. health” monitoring (11k/v)

• Load balancing (11k/v)

Possible features

• E-911 location (11k/v)

• Asset recovery using location (11k/v)

• Location enabled troubleshooting

(11k/v)

• Efficient channel utilization (11v)

• Efficient power & channel management (11k/v/y)

 

• Prioritization of man. frames (11ae)

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IEEE 802.11w & Wi-Fi MFP are Focused on Securing Management Frames

 

802.11w was ratified in 2009

Wi-Fi certification was issued in Jan 2012, and will become mandatory later

StatusGoals

Provide data integrity, data origin authenticity, replay protection, & data confidentiality for selected man. frames

 
 

Maintain backward compatibility

Cisco

Cisco contributed the basis of 802.11w from CCX

• WPA2/802.11i was defined to provide security for data frames, and not management frames

• At the time this made sense because few management frames were sensitive to attack

• Since then 802.11k & 802.11v, in particular, have defined management frames that could be misused if not secured

• 802.11w has been defined to secure selected Wi-Fi management frames

The problem & solution

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Hotspot 2.0: Making Wi-Fi Easy

Hotspot 2.0: Making Wi-Fi Easy

There is a Massive Forecast Increase in Mobile Data over the Next Few Years

Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast, 2010–2015 75 times greater
Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global
Mobile Data Traffic Forecast, 2010–2015
75 times greater than all
global IP traffic (fixed and
mobile) in 2000
Forecast growth of 26x
between 2010-2015

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There is not Enough Licensed Spectrum to Satisfy Mobile Data Demand

It is a truism that operators need spectrum to operate their networks – the question is how much?

The answer is that they clearly do not have enough for future needs!

Operators are keenly lobbying for more licensed spectrum in most countries

Operators did not embrace Wi-Fi; now they can’t get enough of it as they recognise it can be used for data offload

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Unlicensed Spectrum Using Wi-Fi Hotspots will Provide a Partial Offload Solution

There will also be many “residential “ hotspots too!
There will also be many
“residential “ hotspots too!

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Wi-Fi = 3.9Mb/s

Super Bowl XLVI Provides an Example how well Offload Can Work

The Super Bowl is the USA’s most prestigious sporting event

most prestigious s p o r t i n g e v e n t Half
Half time speed test
Half time speed test
s p o r t i n g e v e n t Half time speed

Cellular = 1.2Mb/s

g e v e n t Half time speed test Cellular = 1.2Mb/s  Cisco’s Wi-Fi

Cisco’s Wi-Fi solution was used at Super Bowl

XLVI

Unique: 13k (19%) Simultaneous: 8k (12%) Aggreg. traffic – 369.9 GB Max rate: 75/42 Mb/s

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But the Traditional Wi-Fi hotspot Experience is often Frustrating Compared to Cellular

Today’s cellular experience

Today’s cellular experience • Operator has a cellular network and cellular roaming agreements worldwide • Customer

• Operator has a cellular network and cellular roaming agreements worldwide

• Customer turns on phone and gets automatic and secure cellular connectivity anywhere in the world - more “voice” bars in more places

Today’s Wi-Fi hotspot experience

? ? ? ? ?
?
?
?
?
?

• Operator has home Wi-Fi network & some Wi- Fi roaming agreements

• However, customer does not get automatic and secure Wi-Fi connectivity (except maybe at home) and needs to intervene

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Connecting to a Hotspot is Way too Hard Today for the Average Person

to a Hotspot is Way too Hard Today for the Average Person Decide you want Wi-Fi

Decide you want Wi-Fi connection

for the Average Person Decide you want Wi-Fi connection • How do you know to even

• How do you know to even think their might be Wi-Fi available at a particular location?

Launch

connection

manager

Launch connection manager

• Most people don’t even know a connection manager exists on their device

even know a connection manager exists on their device Scan & select for correct SSID •

Scan & select for correct SSID

Scan & select for correct SSID

• But what is the “correct” SSID and on what basis is it selected?

is the “correct” SSID and on what basis is it selected? Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes
Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen
Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen
Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen

Authenticate with hotspot

Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen
• Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen

• Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen

Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen
Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen
Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen
Authenticate with hotspot • Sometimes requires password in connection manager, sometimes a “splash” screen

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The Goal of Hotspot 2.0 is to Make Wi-Fi as Easy to Use and Secure as Cellular

Today’s cellular experience

Today’s cellular experience • Operator has a cellular network and cellular roaming agreements worldwide • Customer

• Operator has a cellular network and cellular roaming agreements worldwide

• Customer turns on phone and gets automatic and secure cellular connectivity anywhere in the world - more “voice” bars in more places

Hotspot 2.0 experience

• Operator has home Wi-Fi network & many Wi- Fi roaming agreements worldwide

• Operator has home Wi-Fi network & many Wi- Fi roaming agreements worldwide

• Customer turns on phone & gets automatic secure Wi-Fi connectivity anywhere in the world – more “data” bars in more places

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Hotspot 2.0 Consists of Three Basic Technologies

Network Discovery & Selection

• Provides discovery mechanisms (based on 802.11u) to assist automatic selection of most appropriate hotspot

– Either home or partner SP

– Based on a range of parameters available before association

• Provides secure connectivity (based on

WPA2-Enterprise)

– Using well known EAP authentication methods & common credentials

– Credentials include SIM & passwords

Online Signup

• Allows an SP to securely signup a new customer via the HS2.0 hotspot

– Expands existing cellular capability

– Enables enhanced local services

Operator Policy

• Provides mechanism for the home SP to specify connection policies & preferences

– SP policies may be over ridden by the user

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The Work being Undertaken by the Wi-Fi Alliance is Only Part of the Story

Undertaken by the Wi-Fi Alliance is Only Part of the Story Developed 802,11u Cisco led this
Undertaken by the Wi-Fi Alliance is Only Part of the Story Developed 802,11u Cisco led this

Developed

802,11u

Wi-Fi Alliance is Only Part of the Story Developed 802,11u Cisco led this group technically Extended

Cisco led this group technically

Extended 11u concept to HS2.0 Cisco led an activity
Extended 11u
concept to
HS2.0
Cisco led an
activity
Extended 11u concept to HS2.0 Cisco led an activity Refined and certified HS2.0 spec Cisco leads
Extended 11u concept to HS2.0 Cisco led an activity Refined and certified HS2.0 spec Cisco leads

Refined and certified HS2.0 spec

Cisco led an activity Refined and certified HS2.0 spec Cisco leads this activity in HS2.0 TGs

Cisco leads this activity in HS2.0 TGs

certified HS2.0 spec Cisco leads this activity in HS2.0 TGs Defines inter operator roaming Cisco was
certified HS2.0 spec Cisco leads this activity in HS2.0 TGs Defines inter operator roaming Cisco was

Defines inter operator roaming

this activity in HS2.0 TGs Defines inter operator roaming Cisco was first vendor to join WBA

Cisco was first vendor to join WBA Board

operator roaming Cisco was first vendor to join WBA Board Working with WBA Cisco participates in
operator roaming Cisco was first vendor to join WBA Board Working with WBA Cisco participates in

Working with WBA

Cisco was first vendor to join WBA Board Working with WBA Cisco participates in this activity

Cisco participates in this activity

Board Working with WBA Cisco participates in this activity BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.
Board Working with WBA Cisco participates in this activity BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.
Board Working with WBA Cisco participates in this activity BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.
Board Working with WBA Cisco participates in this activity BRKEWN-2018 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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HS2.0 is the Basis for a Whole New User Experience

Now suppose we have easy Wi-Fi connectivity

and we add Cisco powered indoor location

We can then define location based services anywhere location based “app store”

Now we have a solution that will truly support the explosive growth of Wi-Fi that has been forecast for so long

a bit like a

of Wi-Fi that has been forecast for so long a bit like a BRKEWN-2018 © 2012

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HS2.0 is the Basis for a Whole New User Experience

6
6
3G 3G voice voice Note: Heidi did not visit garden dept 5 3G 3G voice
3G
3G
voice
voice
Note: Heidi did not visit
garden dept
5
3G
3G
voice
Stores smiley face
appears; clicks on it
and gets coupons
voice
3
3G