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NERVE FIBRES

MYELINATED AND UNMYELINATED NERVE FIBRES:

MYELINATED NERVES UNMYELINATED NERVES


1. Multiple layers of myelin 1. No myelin covering present.
2. Faster conduction of nerve 2. Slower conduction of nerve
impulse, saltatory conduction impulse.
3. E.g. All preganglionic fibers of E.g. All post ganglionic fibers of
ANS. ANS.
Nerve fibers in somatic nervous Nerve fibers in somatic nervous
system > 1 microns in diameter. system < 1 microns in diameter..

PROPERTIES OF NERVE FIBRES:

1. EXCITABILITY.
2. ALL OR NONE LAW.
3. REFRACTORY PERIOD
4. ACCOMODATION
5. CONDUCTIVITY

1. EXCITABILITY:
It is the property of the cells to respond to stimuli from the external or
internal environment.

Depends upon the:

1 Strength and duration of the stimulus.


2 Extracellular CA+ ion concentrations.
• Decrease in ECF Ca + increases the excitability of nerve cells by
decreasing the amount depolarization required to initiate changes
that produce the action potential.
• Increase in external ca+ concentration increases the stability of the
membrane by decreasing its excitability.
2. ALL OR NONE LAW
If the stimulus is at or above the threshold intensity, the action potential
occurs with increasing amplitude and forms regardless of the strength of
stimulus. But the action potential will not develop if the stimulus is lower
than the threshold.

3. REFRACTORY PERIOD:
The length of time a muscle remains refractory to second stimulus applied
successively to a stimulus of more than threshold intensity.

4. ACCOMMODATION
If a nerve is submitted to passage of constant strength of current, the site of
nerve under stimulation shows decrease of excitability.
Thus accommodation is rise in the threshold of the tissue during stimulation.

Conductivity

Conductance of nerve impulse means, spread of wave of depolarization.


• Orthodromic conduction is transmission of impulses from synaptic
junctions or receptors along the axons to their ends.
• Antidromic conduction is conduction in opposite direction.
Seen in sensory nerves supplying the blood vessels.

Types and functions of nerve fibres

IMPORTANT POIINTS
• Greater diameter of a nerve fiber, greater is the speed of the
conduction.
• The speed of conduction in myelinated fiber is 6 – 120 metre / sec
• The speed of conduction in unmyelinated fiber is 1 metre / sec
• Larger axons play role in proprioception, touch and pressure
sensations and somatic motor functions.
• Smaller axons play role in pain, and temperature sensation and
autonomic functions.

CLASSIFICATION
Proposed by Erlanger and Gasser

FIBRE functions Fibre Conduction Spi Absolute


TYPE diameter velocity ke refractory
micrometer m/sec dura period(millisecon
tion d)
(mil
li
seco
nd)
Proprioception, 12-20 70-120
somatic motor

0.4- 1
0.4
Touch , 5-12 30-70 –
pressure and 0.5
motor functions

A gamma Motor to 3-6 15-30


muscle spindle

A delta Pain, 2-5 12-30


temperature
,touch

B Preganglionic <3 3-15 1.2 1.2


autonomic
fibres

C
Dorsal root Pain,touch, 0.4 – 1.2 0.5-2 2 2
temperature and
impulse
generated by
cutaneous
receptors
Sympathetic Postganglionc 0.3-1.3 0.7-2.3 2 2
sympathetic
nerve fibres
NOTE
1. B fibers are most susceptible to hypoxia.
2. Type A fibers are most susceptible to pressure.
3. Type C fibers are most susceptible to local anesthetic.

Properties of nerves

1. Subthreshold stimuli- the stimuli by which none of axon are


stimulated and no response occurs.
2. Threshold stimuli – the stimuli by which the axons with low
threshold fibers are stimulated and a small potential change recorded.
3. Maximal stimulus- the stimulus that is string enough to excite all the
axons in a nerve is called maximal stimulus
4. When an axon is stimulated and conducted impulse occurs, the series
of potential changes and is known as action potential.
5. In mixed nerve, multiple peaks occurs ion action potential. This multi
peaked action potential is called compound action potential.