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  • 11 ANIMALS : T H E INV ERT EBRAT ES

, 1/ ellll' II' il1 l' :I I ,i lll IJcI

III 1\

l l); U SI o f 199.1, il b o ld

900 milli o n yeilfs a ft

er t he

 

We h ove vcry fe \·" cl u es 10 w h n t th OSl' fi n>! nn t ll l,lit l

nnH .ani m il Is a PPCIl

rcd

0 11 Ea r l"h, f\ l la de le in e m a d e lIer

rc wo nt to do , h e r gra n

dmo th ers (m el

looked li

ke , b llt

o

ne

thin g is clCM

. Uy th

i.' dnw n 0

I t h l '

l'n t mn c c . As t hey il

 

<l mbl'i il n , th ey

h nd

g

iv e n

ri s c to nlll1l il jo l' group Hoj

II ll n t s

lll Cl cl e il

q uick cou nt o n

t he s ly-

a rm

s, le g s, C:l f S,

in vc l'l l!b rnle S- a n im 01 ts w ith o ut b ll c kbon es eve" h \

lind

eyes, t

wo of eac h ; f ull y fo rm ed mo uth <lnd nose-

Madd c in c's b ,lCkboncd b ut lim b less n n ·c:-: tOI'5.

jll S ! to be s

u re th ese

w e r e presen t <tnc! (l

cc o unt ed

fn r.

And w h <'l t s t or ies t ho se C;un

br in l) n nh n

.l ls td J ! ()Ih'

 

One g r a n dmot h er, h eWi n g b ee n

too lo n g

in

th e

b Ull c h n o u r is h ed 530 milli o n ycn rs I'Ip,O, i n n liubnltll'H~'d

co mpa ny

o f bi o log is ts, expe ri e nced a n ('piph a n y <I S

b<l s in

that h ad

for m ed bl!I

\ovec n 1'1

reef n n d

ti ll' c oa , t I\ f

sh l.' w it ne

sse d tvl

dcJe in c's b irth . In Ih

e se n se

d a n ces t ra l connec ti o

n! p r o f o un d

n n cOlr ly

o nlin

e nl.

P ro te c

ted f ro m OCL' n n

u rrc

llt sl

lil l'

ill s t il n l s h

n s e m e r gi n g

se dim cn ts h Old p i le d up ngc1 in s llh e s tc c p ree L

Ab , lu l

( rom

t he di s t an t Pil SI a n d

thr o u

g

h h e

r, int o

th e

f u tu re .

5 00 fe e t be low

th e Sl lrf (I CC, t

h c

wn tc r WOl S oxyg('n~ tt'd

tVbd c l e in e's

body p l tl n di d n

o

t e m er ge o ut of th i n

,m d c1e;, r. 5 1111111, we ll - dev c lo

p ed a nim n ls

li ved

in ,

( 111 ,

il' . T h ir l y- f ivc t holl Silnd yea r s a go, peo

pl e ju s

t li ke li S

lei ne. A nd

n nd nbov

:!

th

e di ml y lil , mu d

d

y s ed i men ts ( Pi gurL'"

2 () . 1).

\'Vl' r e h

av in g chil dr en jll s t li ke M a d e

if we <Ire

Li

ke ca s tl

e s buill

fro m

we t

s n n el n lo n g n s c.l s h o

n"

in tl'rp r e tin g

th e fo ss i l reco

rd co rr e c tl y,

th en fi ve m illi on

t h e i r li v in p, q u n rl e rs

were

u n s lnb le

. Pn rt

o f th e bnnk

 

yenr s ago

th e o ffs pr in g o f in d iv idu a ls

o n t h e

rond

to

ilbove th e co mm un it y s lumpe d ilb r up tl y tlnel ubli tt:! I't ll (' d

mo d e r n hum a ns re se m bl ed

h er in so

me r espe c ts but no t

it. Th t:.' se di m e nt s fro m th a I' und e

r wn tcr nvn bn c hc

kep i

o th e

rs.

Six t y

m ill io n ye ar s ag o , p r im a te a nces t o rs o f

sc nvc n g crs fro m !'enc h in g a n d

re

m

ov ing 0111 Iri'l CCS ur til l'

th o s

e in d i v id uill s were givi n g birth

p reca ri o u s ly,

u p

d

ene! . G

rndu <l l1 y t hr o

u g h tim e,

mu

ddy s ill

rn in -.d d

m ·v n

in th e tr ees. Two h u n dred il nd

fift y m i lli on yea rs ago,

o n th e t o mb . In c

re il se d

p r ess ur e n n el c h c m ic i'l l c h n n

gc s

In ltln ln a lian a n ces t o rs o f

th o se pri ma tes w e r e giv

in g

t rn n sfor m e d

th e se dim e n ts in to fi

n e ly s lr nt ifi 'd s

hn lc,

b i r th

so o n b il c k in

tim e t o

th e ve r y fi rs t an i m a ls,

a

nd

th e s or

t p ar t s o f

the f la tt ened "ni mn ls bc c n ll'l c

w h ic

- an d h h ad

n o

l im bs o r eyes o r nos e s at a ll.

s himm e rin t; , min e r il li zed f i lm s .

 

Figure 26 . 1

Reconstruction 01 a few Camb r ian anima l s kn own from

fo ssi ts 01 the Burgess Sha le.

Bri ti s h Col u mbia.

S ixty-f i ve mi ll io n YCilrs ngn , p<lrt of th e s eartoor wa s p lm v i ll g und er t h e No rth Amer ic n n p l 'llt',

and wes t e rn C il n ildil 's

ranges were s low ly ri

m o u n t a in s in g. By

1909, th e fo ss i ls h nel t rnvcled

hig h int o

t h e e a s te rn

nlo u n ta i n s

of Brit is h Co lu m bi Cl. I n

n foss il hunt er trip pe d

Ih nt yen r ove r n

s ha le, w h ic h sp lit ap nr t

c hunk o f

laye rs -

nnd so th e

int o t hin, Burges s S

fin e h a le

s t o r y camc to lig hl.

 

In

t h is c h ap ter and

th e next.

yo u w ill b e co m par

in g bod)' p lil n s

of d i ffe r e nt gro u ps o f anim als.

S u c

h co mp a ri so n s g iv e

in s ig ht

int o evo l u ti o n a ry

re la t ed n ess a nd

he lp

u s t o co

n s trll c t fam ily t ree s,

n e in

Fig ur e 26.2.

sllc h

as th e o

D on't ass um e th at s t r u c

tu rally

si mpl e a n ima ls o f th e m o s t

a n c ie n t lin e a ges are s o m e h ow pr imi ti ve or evol ut io n a r i ly

s t u nted

. A s you \ovi

ll see,

th ey,

too, a re

ex qu isi te ly adapted to

th e i r e n vi r on m e nt .

 
172 Animals: Th e In v e rt eb rates Figure 26 . 2 Evo lut
172
Animals: Th e In v e rt eb rates
Figure 26 . 2
Evo lut io nary tree
diagram showing
the presumed
rela tionship among
major groups 0 1
anima l s. Take a
momen l \0 s lUdy
this fam ily tree .
We w i liu se
it
repea tedly as a
r oad map through
o ur di scussio n s
01
eac h g r o up
.
sta
rti ng wi t h ti le
inv e rl eb rales
and ending with
th e chorda tes ,
in c luding young
M adelei n e (above) .

S INGLE ·C ELLED, PROll s r AN · LlKE ANCESTORS

A s YOli poke thr oug h t h e br a n c h es of th e anima l family tre e, kee p th e greater ev olutionary sto r y in mi n d. At eac h b ranc h p oi nt. mi c roev olutionary pro cesses gave

r i se t o workab le c hang es in

un iq u e ly human trait s,

and

body plans. Made le i ne 's

y ours, e m erged through

modificati on of ce rt a in

tr a

it s that had evo l ved ea rli e r

in co untl ess ge n e r ations o f verte br a t es an d , before th e m , in ancie nt in vertebrate fo r ms.

KE Y

ON

' E I"I S

I.

A ll nl111111115 n r c mu l t icc ll c d , IH' rou k

h e

tc rot "o ph s

t hot

ing es t o r pnm !j iti zc o t he r (.Irg'lI\i~Ili~. N (·n

d y n il kind ·!

hlH't'

ti ss

u e!'>, OI'gn n s, nm l urg ill) !'>Y$ l c m s, And

Ill o s- I ar c m r>H ll'

durin); fi t lens l r"1' 1 of t h e i r li fc cy cle . A llin l.!! s re pro

h ll.\'

sex lIilll y n nd uflcn a scxl ln l1 )', li nd

their' e ll lbr Yl)S dCV 4 ' 1(11'

thn'lI~h n ser ies o f contin\lPll~ ~Iogcs.

2.

Anima l s

or i gi nnt ed in t

he I nle I'r ec ilmbri nn . rvl orc

Ihun

2

m illio n ex

is tin g ,1I11m" I s

p ' l:iL's hnve h ee n i( il-ntifi ecl . Of

th es l' , m o re Ih ,m

1,950,000 fi r e invc r te lJI'n il' s (nnima l s with

n o l)nc kbo n c) . Fewe r th n ll 50,00 0 s pecie s nrl' vl.'r tcb r r1 Il'S

(nn im.ll s w ilh:1 ba c kbone) .

3 .

Cll mpnri s on s o f th e bo d y " In ll s o

f

e xis t ing Ililimn l s,

in co njull c t ion

w i th

Ih l.! (oss i l r eco rd

, rl.!ve .llth

n t Ih er

were sev er ,d t rend s

in th l! evo luti o n of ee rl ni n lineng

--'S.

Th e m ns l revea li

it s type of sy mm

ng nspec ts uf n il nni m n l's b n cly p ln n et r y, g ut. n ne!

dr '

c:lv i t y (if on y) between I hc

gu t n nd

b o d y wn ll ; vv h e

th c r i t h as n di s t i n c t h en d en d ;

nnd w h eth

er it

i s div id

e d inl o n

sc ri l.!s

o f s egmen ts.

4 .

Th e p lnc o z onns ;)nd s pollge s

nrc s l r ll c tllrnll y s impl e

nnim<1l s wit h

n o bo dy sy mll"l e t r y. Dnt h <HI.! n l th e c ell u In ..

l eve l o f body c onstru c ti o n . C n idn l'i an s nm l co mb jd li L' s

s h ow

mdia l sy mm e t r y, a n d Ih ey il rc a t th e ti!:.:,u~ leve l

of bod y c on s t ru c t io n .

  • S. Flatwo rm s, roundworm s, r o lif c rs, ilnd nen d y a ll o th e r

a n i mal s Ih nt ,H~ m ore co mpl ex

thnn the c ni da r inn s s ho w

bi l(ltcra l sy mm e t ry. They co n s is t of t iss ll es, o rgn n s, n nc!

o rgn n sys tem s.

6 .

No t lo n g af te r th

e f1 (1 twonns evo l ve d, di ve rg e n ces gnve

ri s e to t wo m a jo r l inea ges. O n e

evo lu tionnr y brnn c hin

g

gave rise to th e

mollu s ks, a nn e l id s, nnd art h rop o d s. T h e

o ther gave ri s e to t he ech inoderm s nnd c h o rdat es.

  • 7 . By bi o logi c a l mea su res, includi n g di ve rs it y, s heer

number s, and di s tribut io n , th e ar th ropo d s -

especia ll y

in sec ts- h ave b ee n th e m os t s lI cc e ss ful nnimrtl gro up .

Anlm ol s: T h o In v 1'1· b Ilio n 1 73 OVERVIEW OF
Anlm ol s: T h o In v
1'1· b
Ilio
n
1 73
OVERVIEW OF THE ANIMAL KIN
I
OM
Ge l/ c ra ! C !,a l'n c /:e ri s ti cs of A ni ma !s
Tall
io 26.1
A, n lmn t P hyl A
oncrlbod In Thh l
PU
Whil e CXClc ll y, .1rc
a nim als ?
We
cn n
on l y ddint'
th em
C illO
I xil lhflH
by
fl
li s t of c h arac te ri s t i cs,
n o t wit h
Cl
se
nt e n ce ~)I' tw o.
Phylum
n Opl ooontollvos
OPUr.i0:l
i'irst, an i mill s are mu l ti cc ll ecl.
In
Il "lo s l'
Cil S CS
th e ir body
ce ll
s
fo rm
ti ss u es that be c ome arranged ilS urgnn s <Inc!
I'I,A
COZO A
at oollnU I; IIkc A
lin y
lwg rlll syste m s. Th e body
ce ll s of nCClrly ,, 11 s p ec ies hnv
c
Slmp l
p l otO. I)
ut wllh l ayo r s 0 1 Wl
lh1
il
diplo i d c hromo so m e n u mb er. Seco nd , al l ilninHll s ilr c
( I ri C/l op/ax)
l 'Olt i PEltA
Sponn 0 9
11,000
(pori I
h e tcrotroph
th e r organ
s
tha t
ge t carbon
Clnd
e n e r gy
by
ing es tin g
nJIl S )
o
is m s
o r by
ab s orbi n g nutri e nt s from
th e m ,
CN 1I)/\ It 1/\
( c nid nnans)
Ily(lr 070 0n s, JollytlshO~l,
COlOl s. so o anornOrlOS
I t ,OOO
T/,;rd, anim<l l s rc<]uirc
oxygen
for ae r ob i c r csp irlilion
.
rourtli, anill1(ll s r ep rodu ce sexua ll y and, in IHClIl Y c
scs ,
r' I. ATY rl 1;I Ml
(It fll worms)
N'lllI l S
TlIr\Jolloriorl s . !lu kas,
111.000
Il1p ()wornl ~
" se x u ally.
Fiftlt, mo
s t an i ma l s ar e motile-
t
C' I ENOI'HOlt ,\
(co m t) l ol hes )
Vc n tl S's olr(ll o
Ion
part of th e life cycle. Si xth, th e lif e cycl e include s s ti"l ges
o f e mbr yon ic d evelopme nt . I:k iefly, mitoti c ce ll divi s ion s
PIOI)OSCIS OQUl lll>od
flOO
I ril n s (o r m
the a nim
al
zyg ot e into il
ll1 u lli c ellcd e mbr yo.
N I:I\.·II:U I'~A
W() II II!I
(ribb On worm s )
c lo se ly ro lu l otil u Ila l w o rnHl
Th e
e m
bryo n ic ce lt
s
g i ve
ri se
to
prim"r y ti ss u e
la ye r s,
ec toder m , endode r m , and
u sua
ll
y
m esode rm . The s e
N I·I\.I/\·I ODI'I
(fOt l n<lw o rrrl s)
:>0 ,00 0
r l llwo rnl S. I)ookworrn~;
lilye r s in
turn give r ise
t o
a ll
tis s
u es and orgilil s
of
th e
Sec tion s 33.6 <t n d
44.2 .
ItOTI I·I.H/\
(rotif e l s )
Tiny bat ty wit h cro wn o f c lltn ,
g rOft l in l o rn o l co mpl ex i I y
? OOO
ildult, <t S de sc ri bed in
SII \1115. Ril ro
Di ve l's i ty i ll. Body
P i a li S
MOU.U SCA
(mollu sk s )
s . c lorn s,
1 10 ,0 00
s quid s. oC l op uses
ANNeLlD/\
Leecho s.
ear th worm s.
15.000
Ma mm a ls, bird s, re ptil es, amphibian s, <lnd
ri s h cs
(Ire
poiy c ha o l o s
(seg~lCnlecl worm s )
the m os t fa miliar an
i m a ls.
A ll are verteb ra t es,
th
e only
/\ If l'l I HOI'OD ,\
1,0 00
.000 ·,·
a n i m als
w ith
a "bac kbon e . "
And ye t. o f probably
mor c
(artl1ropods)
C ru s tacea ns, spi ders .
insoc l s
than 2 mill ion spec ies o f animals, fewer th fln 50,000 <Ire
ECII I NOIJ I! Iti\'I A'I'A
(e c hin ode rm s )
Sea Sl ar s, sea urc t1ins
0
,000
ve rt ebrates! What we ca ll th e invertebr.lh~s are an imal s
lVith
p le n ty
of dive rse feat ur es, but' no t ,1 bil c kb o n c.
C llo nO .\T/\
Inve rt ebr ate c ho rd ates:
We group t
h e ' lIlimal s
into
m o r e
than
Ihirty p h y la.
(c h ordfl l cs)
Tun i cn l Cs. l a n ce l e ts
?
Tab le
26 .1 li sts
th e groups de sc ribed
in
t h is book. The
Vert o brat es:
Fis hes
IOO
? I .OOO
characte ri stics they s h a re w ith one ano th
er nro se en
rl y
Amphibians
4 .900
in time, before;' divergen ces f r om a com mon ance s
tor
Rep
til es
7, 0 00
gilve ri se to sep arate l in eages. Lfll e r, as morpholo g icfll
differences accumu lat e d among t he m , th e lin e<lgcs took
off in amClz in gly diver se dire c ti ons. How mi g ht we ge t
ilCo n cep tll a l h Cl nd le on th ei r modern - dCl Y d escc nd (,\I1t s -
Bi rd s
Mammal s
8 . 600
1\ ,500
F i g u re 26 .3
Examp l es 01 body
On a nim a ls as
spid e r s, to ads,
d i fferent
human s,
as f1<1tw o rm s, humm i n g bird s,
and g iraffe s? VVe c<ln c ompare
their s imilariti es a nd difference s with resp ec t to five
basic fe a t ures. Th ese are body sym m et r y, ce ph alization,
type o f g ut. typ e o f body c avit y, and segmen tation .
symme try . ( a ) A hydr a, which is
radially sy mmetri ca l. and ( b ) a
bi l aterally sy mm etr i ca l c r ay f i sh .
BODY
SYMMETRY AND CE l'HA ll ZATION With ve r y few
excep tion s, an ima ls are radial or bi lateral. Those wit h
radia l sy mm etry ha ve body pnrts arran ged r eg ularly
aro und a cen tral
axis,
lik e spo ke s of a
bi ke whee l. Thu s
~Cllt down
th e ce nt e r o f a
h yd ra
(Figu r e 26.3n) di v ide
s
I~ into equal
h a lves; anot h er c ut
a t right ang les
to
th e
~Irst di v id es
it int o eq ua l quarters.
Radin l
an im a ls
li ve
In Wa ter.
fOOd that
The ir
body
p lCln
is
ada pted
to i n te rcept i n g
is com in g
t owa rd
them from a n y dir ec t ion .
Animal s wi th bi la t era l sy m metry hav e
and le ft ha l f that are
m irror
im ages o f each
a right half
o th e r. Mo s t
b

1

74

Animal s: Th e I nverl e br a tes

\ . \ \\ no body cav ity : regi o n be tween gut and
\ .
\
\\
no body cav ity : regi o n be tween gut
and body wall packed
wi th o rgan s
n N o coelom (acoe/oma ra anima l s ) op i derrms --- .' J'
n N o coelom (acoe/oma ra anima l s )
op i derrms ---
.'
J'
.--
.
.
.

b Pseudo coel (pseudocoefomale anima l s)

pe r itoneum lined body cavi t y (coe l om): l i n in g
pe r itoneum
lined body cavi t y (coe l om): l i n in g
also holds int e rnal organ s in
place

Figure 26 . 4

  • c Coelo m (coelomate animals)

Type of body cav ity (if any) in animals .

la ve an anterior e nd ( h ead) a nd an opposit e, po sterior

·nd . They h ave a

dor sal s urfa ce (a back) and a n oppo si te ,

'e lli ra l s urfa ce (Figure 26 .3b).

As fossils s how, thi s body

da n evo l ved a m o n g th e first forward-creeping species.

'h e ir forward e nd would ther s timuli fi r s t, so th e re

ha ve encoun t e re d food and must h ave been se lec tion fo r

:!:phalization . With t hi s evo luti ona r y pro cess, senso ry

:-. ln H lll l'l'S , j ill! r''I('I'VC n 'll

'

;

b"'~·,IIlll' ~\lr\u.·nt!'.ltl·d .n Iht

h e,ld . Thl

..

·

jOint

I

..

'vu

l utioll

of hil. l kl',d

hod

I

111\\1

(c ph,lli Ld li on l't's lIlt l' d

i

n p.lin;

of

nlll l'llll ':; Ilnd

pn li

t! 01

~cn:-;O!'y :;tructllr('~, n e rv

es, n nd

IH ,lln rcgion s.

TYPE OF C UT Th c g ut i s <l tuhul .lr or ~il(.'nkl· rcg i U I' 11\

th c

bo

dy ill w hi c h food

i s di ge SlL'd , lil (' 1) I\b~ol'hc I

Ill to

th e

jnt c l'I1

 

1 t! l1 viro n m

nl. Sl1dik t,.' g u ts h, \\Il' on e ()p(' 111"R

(tl mouth)

ro r

ttl ki n A

in

(ood

,1nd l'xpc llin g

O

th e r gu ts

tlrc

pa r t o( a

tu be

li

ke ,

"c omp l ete "

di gc,SlIvc

sys tem

wit h ,111 o p ening ;'It

tw

o

t.'nd~ (Ill(l lith

fi nd

n n ul'l).

D i (re rent part s o ( thl' sys te rn h ,l vl' ~pl"inli?cd (l II1 Cti l ) II'I,

s ll ch

<IS p r c p<lrin g,

di ges ti ng , ,m d

s tnring

n'Hlll' rio l . 1\'6

m orl' e ffi cie nt diges ti ve system ~ evo l ved , Ihi s hcl ,wd

pave th e

W.IY (o r in c r enscs i n bnd y ~il'l' .mel lw t ivity .

 

II ODY

CA V I T I l:S

 

I n be lw ee n thr gu t tlnei

t h e bod y wnll

of m ost biltl tc r n l an im als is;'l body c;wi ty ( Fi g ur c 26 A) .

One t y p e o ( cn

v

il y, tI coe l om , h as tI

unique ti ss ue li n in n

c" lI ed

<I

pe rit o n c l llll . Thi 5 linin g

:ll so cl\do~cs

the coe l o m <md

h e lp s h o ld

t h e m

in pl'l

c , For

o r g:l n s in cXil mpl c,

yo ur body h<l s il coe l om, ;'Ind a s h ec tlik ('

mu scle c<l ll ed

a diilphl'<1 g m

d i v id es it

int o

t wo s mnll ' I'

cn vil i cs.

You r

and

lung s ilrc po

s it iMl ed

in

th c

upp e r

(thora c i c)

h e(l rt cavi t y,

<l nd

yo ur s to lll <l

c

h ,

i nt es ti n es,

<lnd o th er o r g an s

occ up y th e lower (abdo mintl l) cilv it y.

 

Somc in ve rt ebra t es don ' t

h ,we

il body cavi t y; ti ss u es

fill

th e reg i o n b e t ween

th ei r gut li nd

body \"',l l i. O th e r s

h

tlve

(l pse ud ocoe l (" fa l se coc l on,, " ) , .1 body c, l v it y

wi th

p eri

to ne um . Th e coelo m

""n s

..

h'y

innovClt i o n by

n o w h ic

h

l <lI"ge

r

ilnd

m o re co mp l ex anilllfl\ s evo l ved

rrom

nncest r a l (o rm s. It favo r ed incr e"ses in si ze and Cl c ti v

it y

by c u shi

on in g <lnd pro tec tin g int er n ,, 1 orgnns.

SEG ME N TATI ON

Segmen

ted

<l nimn\ s

h ave n I'cp c Clti

n g

se ri es of body

unit s th at I11ClY o r

m ClY not b e s imil Cl r

to

o n e Cl n ot h er . T h e m any seg m ent s or s imil ar ou t wn rd appearnnc e. In sec t

e ilrthworm s have a

seg ments a r e fu sed diff e r

int o th ree units ( h ead, thorax , and abdomen) and

g r ea tly fr om one ano th er. Especia lly a m o n g th e ins ec ts,

div e r se hea d pa rt s, l egs, wing s, and

o th er ap pe n dages

evo l ved from l ess specia li ze d seg m e nt s.

Animal s are m ultic e ll ed, and most have ti ss u es, orga n s, and organ sys te ms . Mos t hav e a diploid chromosome numb e r .

Animals are aerobically respiring h e te rotrophs that ing es t o th er organisms or absorb nutri en ts from th e m .

Animals reproduce sexually a nd , in many cases, asexually.

They go through a period of

embryonic dev e lopment , and

m os t ar e motil e during at l eas t part of th e lif e cycle.

Body plans of anima l s diff e r with respect

to five fe a ture s:

body symme try, ce phalization , type of gut, typ e of body cav ity, a nd segmentation .

A nlm

Is: Th o In vorl obra l o

1

A n lm I s: T h o In v o r l obra l o

PU ZZ LE S ABOU T ORI G IN S

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Jll d,.!;illg fr om rece nt genetic ('v ide n ce a n d r"diome tr ic

dd l ing

uf

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t

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b urr ow s,

il n d

m icroscopic

S po n gcR

(I ' p ri

fl'r ' d ) ,\1'1'

d ll i m, ll s YL'I

11 :-1.

Sy l11ll\el l' )', 1i~:-l\H'~, (11' 0 1')1,11

,

,, lt l l

lin

I

I\ \' Y 11I' i'

l' lll h c yos, ~nim<lls o ri g

in

a

ted be t ween '1.2 billi on il

llL! 670

o n e o f nn ItH'I

bee n

..."S

~ucccs~ :-Ho

l'i \' S. T h \ I y

11IlvI '

IlIi l li o n

yea rs

a~o, lhlrin

g

th e P rccil rn b ri

a n .

Wil

en: did

nbl lll (l ,l n t in

t he

~C,lS \ '\1(' 1' s i Ih I '

l i lt'

1111',11 CIIIIII' fro lll ? T hey pr obilb l y evo l ve d

f

ro m

pr o ti s