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PE424UCR/HWMD

Dr. Guru

Feb. 06, 2006

Half-wave Rectifier: DC Motor with freewheeling Diode


We have already examined the operation of a half-wave rectifier circuit feeding a dc motor (HWM). During that discussion we realized that the rectifying diode D is kept open by the current in the motor when the diode is revered biased. To ensure that the diode D remains off when it is reverse biased, we place a freewheeling diode across the motor as shown in the figure below. The effect of the freewheeling diode changes the operation of the rectifying circuit and that of the motor as explained in this section. The dc motor is assumed to be operating in its steady-state with an almost constant induced (back) emf. Motor's Data: R L Ea 4 . 10 .mH 50 .V

The given source voltage: v s ( t ) 170 .sin ( t ) .V f 60 .Hz

where and

Vm

170 .V 377 rad/s

The impedance of the motor, its magnitude, and the phase angle are z R j . .L Z z or Z = 5.497 = 43.304 deg

arg ( z )

= 0.756 rad

Diode D will turn on only when the input voltage is just above the back emf of the motor. The angle at which the diode will begin conduction is asin Ea Vm = 17.105 deg

When D is on, the differential equation is L. di ( t ) dt R .i ( t ) Ea Vm .sin ( t )

PE424UCR/HWMD

Dr. Guru

Feb. 06, 2006

Expected solution:

i( t)

Vm . Z .

sin ( t L R

Ea R

K1 .e

tan

where

tan

tan = 0.943 Ea = 12.5 A R

Vm = 30.928 A Z Apply the initial condition i ( ) 0 to obtain K1 as

K1

tan .

Ea R

Vm . sin ( Z

K1 = 35.902 A

Transition from D to Freewheeling diode (FWD) takes place at t . The current in D at t :

i( )

Vm . Z

sin (

Ea R

K1 .e tan

i ( ) = 9.994 A

The commutation from D to FWD takes place at t . Therefore, the extinction angle is = 3.142 rad or = 180 deg

When the freewheeling diode begins conduction, the differential equation is L. di ( t ) dt R .i ( t )


t

Ea 0

Ea = 12.5 A R

Expected solution:

i ( t ) K2 .e tan L R

Ea R tan = 0.943

where

tan

PE424UCR/HWMD

Dr. Guru

Feb. 06, 2006

Apply Initial condition at t :

K2

Ea R

i ( ) .e tan
t

K2 = 630.484 A

Current through the motor:

i o2 ( t )

K2 .e

tan

Ea R

The current is zero again when t :

tan .ln

K2 .R Ea 0 , 0.01 .. 2 .

= 211.726 deg

Let us now sketch the various waveforms: Input voltage: v s ( t ) Vm .sin ( t ) .V

Diode current:

i D ( t )

if t ,

Vm . Z

sin ( t

Ea R

K1 .e tan , 0

Output voltage: FWD current: DC motor Current:

v o ( t )

if t , v s ( t ) , if ( t , 0 , Ea ) if t , i o2 ( t ) , 0 i FWD ( t )

i FWD ( t ) i ( t )

i D ( t )

Input and Output Voltages


200 150 v o ( t ) 100 50 v s( t ) 0 50 100 150 200 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180200 220 240 260280 300 320 340 360 180 t .

PE424UCR/HWMD

Dr. Guru

Feb. 06, 2006

Current in Rectifying Diode D


25 20 i D( t ) 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 180 t .

Current in the FWD Motor and FWD


25 i ( t ) i FWD( t ) 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 180 t .

Theoretical Analysis:

= 17.105 deg = 0.299 rad

= 180 deg = 3.142 rad

= 211.726 deg = 3.695 rad

DC current through the dc motor: i D ( a) da i FWD ( a ) d a I odc = 6.471 A

I odc

1 . 2 .

DC Power supplied to the dc motor:

P odc

I odc .Ea

P odc = 323.565 W

PE424UCR/HWMD

Dr. Guru

Feb. 06, 2006

Rms current through the dc motor:

I orms

1 . 2 .

i D ( a) da
2

i FWD ( a ) d a PR P oT I orms2 .R PR P odc P R = 429.411 W P oT = 752.976 W


2

I orms = 10.361 A

Average power dissipated by R:

Total power supplied to the motor:

Note that the effective input current is not the same as the effective output current due to the freewheeling diode in the circuit. i D ( a)2 da

Effective input current:

I srms

1 . 2 .

I srms = 10.239 A Vm . 2 P oT S input

Apparent power input:

S input

I srms

S input = 1.231 kVA

Power factor:

pf

pf = 0.612

rad 1

W 1 VA 1

A 1

V 1

mH 0.001

kVA 1000