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Information on Some of the Parts in PSpice Libraries

In this documentation, any reference to click is an instruction to click the left mouse button. If a right click is needed, it will be so stated. (a) Passive Parts (components) Passive elements are placed horizontally by PSpice in the Schematic window. Current enters the left terminal, which is marked as node-1 by PSpice. PSpice assumes that the voltage at node-1 is positive with respect to that at node-2. The default value of a passive part can be changed using the Display Properties box, which is opened by double clicking on the parts value (for instance, 1n (short for 1 nF) for the capacitor). The initial condition (IC) for the inductor or the capacitor can only be changed by using the Property Editor, which is opened by double clicking on the parts symbol. The Property Editor also allows us to change the parts value. Dont forget to click the Apply button when using the Property Editor. When entering the data, follow the passive sign convention for the current direction and the polarity of the voltage for each element. After the simulation is complete, PSpice invokes a post processor, called the Probe, for sketching various waveforms. It provides a list of Simulation Output Variables. In this list, one of the entry may be I(R1) for the current through R1. A plot of I(R1) shows a waveform of the current entering node-1 of R1. Likewise, I(L1) yields a plot of current entering node-1 of L1. By the same token, a plot of I(V1) will show a waveform for the current that enters the plus (+) terminal of the voltage source V1. Therefore, it is very important that you pay attention to the orientation of a component while placing it in the circuit. The list of Simulation Output Variables also includes information on power. Power is computed using passive sign convention. Power dissipated by R1 can be obtained by plotting W(R1). When a voltage source V1 supplies power to a load, the current exits its plus (+) terminal. Since PSpice assumes that the current enters the plus (+) terminal of a part, the graph of W(V1) will show negative power.

Part Resistor

PSpice Name (Library) R (ANALOG)

PSpice Symbol
R1 1k

Passive Sign Convention

Inductor

L (ANALOG)
1

L1 2 10uH

Capacitor C (ANALOG)

C1 1n

(b)

Independent dc Sources Independent dc sources are placed vertically by PSpice. Node-1at the top is positive with respect to node-2 at the bottom. The current enters the source at node-1 and exits at node-2. This is in accordance with the passive sign convention.

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The default value of the source can be changed by using either the Display Properties box or the Property Editor. Dont forget to click the Apply button when using the Property Editor. Part DC Voltage Source PSpice Name (Library) VDC (SOURCE) PSpice Symbol
V1 0Vdc

DC Current Source

IDC (SOURCE)

I1 0Adc

(c)

Independent ac Sources Independent ac sources are also placed vertically by PSpice with node-1 at the top. These sources are needed for Phasor Analysis, AC Sweep (sweeping from the lower to upper frequency with a specified frequency increment), Fourier-Series analysis, and Three-Phase Circuits. We advise that the default values should be changed using the Property Editor because it allows us to change the initial phase angle (ACPHASE) in addition to changing the dc value and the ac magnitude (ACMAG). Always click on the Apply button prior to exiting the Property Editor. For these sources, frequency is entered during simulation. Part AC Voltage Source AC Current Source PSpice Name (Library) VAC (SOURCE) IAC (SOURCE) PSpice Symbol
V2 1Vac 0Vdc I2 1Aac 0Adc

(d)

Independent Sinusoidal Sources Sinusoidal sources are also placed vertically by PSpice with node-1, at the top. These sources are needed for the transient analysis. While using these sources, make sure to specify the initial conditions (ICs) for the inductors and capacitors in the circuit. Use the Property Editor to enter the initial conditions and to change the default values of these parts. The default value of the phase angle is zero. You can change it to any value. A phase angle of 120 o will be entered as -120 in the PHASE column. Part Sinusoidal Voltage Source
VOFF: DC offset (V) VAMPL: Amplitude (V) FREQ: Frequency (Hz)

PSpice Name (Library) VSIN (SOURCE)

PSpice Symbol
V3 VOFF = VAMPL = FREQ =

Sinusoidal Current Source


IOFF: DC offset (A) IAMPL: Amplitude (A) FREQ: Frequency (Hz)

ISIN (SOURCE)

I3 IOFF = IAMPL = FREQ =

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(e)

Independent Pulsed Sources Pulsed sources are also placed vertically by PSpice with node-1 at the top. These sources are needed for the transient analysis. While using these sources, make sure to specify the initial conditions (ICs) for the inductors and capacitors in the circuit. Change the default values of the parts and enter the initial conditions using the Property Editor. Part Pulsed Voltage Source
V1: Initial Value (V) V2: Pulsed Value (V) TD: Delay time (s) TR: Rise time (s) TF: Fall time (s) PW: Pulse width PER: Period (s)

PSpice Name (Library) VPULSE (SOURCE)

PSpice Symbol
V1 = V2 = TD = TR = TF = PW = PER = V1

Pulsed Current Source


I1: Initial Value (A) I2: Pulsed Value (A) TD: Delay time (s) TR: Rise time (s) TF: Fall time (s) PW: Pulse width PER: Period (s)

IPULSE (SOURCE)

I1 = I2 = TD = TR = TF = PW = PER =

I1

(f)

Dependent Sources There are 4 types of dependent sources. The output quantity (voltage or current) is defined as GAIN times the input quantity (voltage or current). GAIN is entered using the Property Editor. Part Voltage Dependent Voltage Source PSpice Name (Library) E (ANALOG) PSpice Symbol

Current Dependent Current Source

F (ANALOG)

Voltage Dependent Current Source

G (ANALOG)

Current Dependent Voltage Source

H (ANALOG)

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(g)

Reference node (GND)

PSpice requires that every circuit should have at least one reference node (or a ground node). To place the reference node, click on Ground from Place menu to open Place Ground window. If the SOURCE library is not part of the libraries in the Place Ground window, add it by clicking on Add Library. In the new Browse File window, highlight PSpice and click Open. Now highlight source.olb and click Open again. The SOURCE library should now be a part of the libraries in Place Ground window. Now click on 0/SOURCE to place the ground symbol ( 0 ) in the Place Ground window. Now click OK to place the ground in the Schematic window. The Place Ground window can also be opened by clicking on , the 9th button from the top on the right-hand side bar menu. Since the ground node is labeled as zero by PSpice, no other node can be labeled as zero. This is an important realization when developing your own sub-circuits.
(h) Operational Amplifiers The PSpice libraries contain information on quite a few operational amplifiers such as LF411, LM111, LM324, uA741, etc. It also has an ideal operational amplifier, listed as OPAMP, with only three terminals as shown below. Part Operational Amplifier PSpice Name (Library) OPAMP (ANALOG) PSpice Symbol
U1 + OUT OPAMP

(i)

Switches We have used two switches from the PSpice libraries: one that opens at t = 0 and the other that closes at t = 0. The default value of t = 0 can, however, be changed using Display Properties box or Property Editor. Part Closed switch that opens at t = 0 Open switch that closes at t = 0 PSpice Name (Library) Sw_tOpen (EVAL) Sw_tClose (EVAL) PSpice Symbol
TOPEN = 0 1 U1 2

TCLOSE = 0 1 U1 2

(j)

Transfer Function The library ABM contains a part labeled as LAPLACE. It is nothing but a transfer function of the generic form given below. Part Transfer function PSpice Name (Library) LAPLACE (ABM) PSpice Symbol
1 1+s

To simulate a transfer function of the type

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10s + 5 , s + 5s + 200
2

double click on 1 in the numerator of the PSpice symbol to open the Display Properties box. Change the value to 10 * s + 5 and click OK. Now double click on the denominator 1 + s to open the Display Properties box again. Now change the value to s * s + 5 * s + 200 and click OK.

(k)

Print Options We have used two main print options to either sketch the waveforms or save the information on the phasor voltages and currents in the Output File. If you enter y in each of the three AC, MAG, and PHASE columns, the Ouput File will have information on magnitude and phase of each quantity. However, if y is also entered in REAL and IMAG columns, the real part and the imaginary part will also be part of the Output File. Part Ammeter (Current Printer) Voltmeter (Voltage Printer) PSpice Name (Library) IPRINT (SPECIAL) VPRINT2 (SPECAIL) PSpice Symbol
IPRINT

(l)

Magnetically-coupled coils (Transformer) The PSpice part for the coupled coils requires information on the inductance of each coil and the coefficient of coupling k between the two coils. We can also use this part for an ideal transformer by making the inductive impedance of each coil much larger than any other impedance in the circuit. The information on the turns ratio helps us decide the values of the two inductance in accordance with the following equation:

N1 =a= N2
Part Magneticallycoupled coils

L1 L2

or

L1 = a 2 L 2
PSpice Symbol
TX1

PSpice Name (Library) XFRM_LINEAR (ANALOG)

When the part is first placed, it appears as shown above. L1 is the inductance of the coil on the left and L 2 is the inductance of the coil on the right. Use Property Editor to enter the values of L1 , L 2 , and k. Unfortunately, PSpice does not display the values of L1 , L 2 , and k on the schematic. As a helpful aid, you can type these values yourself using the Text option from Place menu.
(m) Many More Parts

The parts we have listed above form a very small subset of all the parts that are available in the PSpice libraries. Scan the parts list, examine each part, and

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understand its properties prior to using it. The more you use the PSpice program, the more proficient you become in using the relevant parts. The simulation is a tool that must be used very carefully and wisely. You should be able to analyze the circuit theoretically and predict what sort of information you will be expecting from the simulation. If you cannot predict the outcome, the simulation is a waste of time because you will not know if you made any mistake while entering the data especially the initial conditions.
(n) F (f) femto 10-15 Suffixes used in PSpice P (p) pico 10-12 N (n) nano 10-9 U (u) micro 10-6 M (m) milli 10-3 K (k) kilo 103 MEG (meg) mega 106 G (g) giga 109 T (t) tera 1012

Suffixes are case insensitive. A capacitance 2F means a capacitance of 2 10 15 farads and not 1 farad. Likewise, a resistance of 10M is 10 milli-ohms and not 10 mega-ohms.

(o)

Bipolar Junction Parameters and their default values


Parameter BF CJE CJC VAR VAF BR NR NF Description Forward current gain ( ) Base-emitter depletion capacitance Base-collector depletion capacitance Reverse Early voltage Forward Early voltage Reverse beta Reverse emission coefficient Forward emission coefficient

(p)

MOSFET Parameters and their default values


Parameter VTO KP LEVEL CBD CBS TOX Description Threshold voltage Conductance parameter choose zero for ideal Drain-to-substrate capacitance Source-to-substrate capacitance Oxide-layer thickness

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(q)

Diode Parameters and their default values


Parameter IS CJO VJ BV IBV RS N Description Saturation Current Junction capacitance at VD = 0 Junction voltage Reverse-breakdown voltage Current at VD = BV Series Ohmic resistance Emission coefficient (ideality factor)

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(r)

Editing/Verifying Parameters in the PSpice Model It is important to know what values are being used by PSpice in modeling a component (part). For example, what is the reverse breakdown voltage of a diode, say D1N4002/EVAL (D is the PSpice designation for the diode. The actual diode part-number is 1N4002. Its parameters are stored in the EVAL library of PSplice). Likewise what is the value of used by the PSpice model for say an npn transistor (say Q2N3904/EVAL)? Q is the PSpice designation for all bipolar-junction transistors. 2N3904 is the npn transistor and its parameters are stored in the EVAL library of PSpice. To find out the values of the parameters used by PSpice, highlight the component by left-clicking on it. Once the component is highlighted, it will be surrounded in a dashed purple box. Right-click within the dashed box to open up a window with many options. Choose Edit PSpice Model by left clicking on it. PSpice Model Editor will show the default values. Make the necessary changes. For example, to change the forward current gain , check for the default value of BF in the list of parameters and change. Once you made the change, do not forget to save the change.

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Jan. 09/2006