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ECO Study Guide

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infinite loading -Calculation of the capacity required at work centers in the time periods required regardless of the capacity available to perform this work. Syn: infinite scheduling. With infinite loading, the load on the plant is determined by the
customer due date, scheduled backward without regard to standard capacity available to perform the work. Capacity is then reviewed for potential improvements through overtime, subcontracting, etc

purchasing lead time - The total lead time required to obtain a purchased item. Included here are order preparation and release time; supplier lead time; transportation time; and receiving, inspection, and put-away time. See: lead time, supplier lead time, time-to-product. Routing - 1) Information detailing the method of manufacture of a particular item. It includes the operations to be performed, their sequence, the various work centers involved, and the standards for setup and run. In some companies, the routing also includes information on tooling, operator skill levels, inspection operations and testing requirements, and so on. Syn: bill of operations, instruction sheet, manufacturing data sheet, operation chart, operation list, operation sheet, route sheet, routing sheet. See: bill of labor, bill of resources. 2) In information systems, the process of defining the path a message will take from one computer to another computer. -- Routings include Operations to be performed and their sequence and Work centers involved in manufacturing as well as setup and run time. They often include inspection operations, testing, and tooling information. Queue - A waiting line. In manufacturing, the jobs at a given work center waiting to be processed. As queues increase, so do average queue time and work-in-process inventory -- Queue time is the time a job waits at a work center before work on
setups are performed on the job. By reducing queue time, manufacturing lead time can be shortened. This is quite often the longest portion of the lead time in a factory. -- The priority of the job is the most important factor affecting the queue time at a work center. The queue time will be eliminated if the priority of the job is high enough to bypass all the other jobs waiting for the work center. (e.g. President says to make the job next.)-- Queue size and lead time are interconnected since an increase in queue size will increase lead time. However, if a job is a high priority by management, the queue size won't matter.

Download 0 operation. Syn: backward scheduling. Ant: forward scheduling. RetourCommentaire Lien Forward scheduling - A scheduling technique where the scheduler proceeds from
a known start date and computes the completion date for an order, usually
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Backward scheduling - A technique for calculating operation start dates and due dates. The schedule is computed starting with the due date for the order and working backward to determine the required start date and/or due dates for each

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a known start date and computes the completion date for an order, usually proceeding from the first operation to the last. Dates generated by this technique

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are generally the earliest start dates for operations. See: forward pass. Ant: back scheduling.

cycle time - 1) In industrial engineering, the time between completion of two discrete units of production. For example, the cycle time of motors assembled at a
rate of 120 per hour would be 30 seconds. 2) In materials management, it refers to the length of time from when material enters a production facility until it exits. Syn: throughput time.

gapped schedule - A schedule in which every piece in a lot is finished at one work center before any piece in the lot can be processed at the succeeding work center; the movement of material in complete lots, causing time gaps between the end of one operation and the beginning of the next. It is a result of using a batched schedule at each operation (work center), where process batch and transfer batch are assumed to be the same or equal. Syn: gap phasing, straight-line schedule. Ant: overlapped schedule.

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Capacity requirements planning (CRP)- The function of establishing, measuring, Rechercher and adjusting limits or levels of capacity. The term Historique requirements planning capacity de in this context refers to the process of determining recherche the amount of labor and in detail : machine resources required to accomplish the tasks of production. Open shop Recherche en cours... orders and planned orders in the MRP system are input to CRP, which through the Rsultat00de00 use of parts routings and time standards translates00rsultats pourrsultathours of work these orders into pour by work center by time period. Even though rough-cut capacity planning may indicate that sufficient capacity exists to execute the MPS, CRP may show that
capacity is insufficient during specific time periods. See: capacity planning. -Capacity requirements planning or infinite loading is based on the customer due date. Operations scheduling plans each operation to arrive at a completion date based on a finite capacity.

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lead time - 1) A span of time required to perform a process (or series of operations). 2) In a logistics context, the time between recognition of the need for an order and the receipt of goods. Individual components of lead time can include order preparation time, queue time, processing time, move or transportation time, and receiving and inspection time. Syn: total lead time. See: manufacturing lead time, purchasing lead time. -- The more work held on the production floor, the longer the lead time will be. This happens because jobs begin to get moved to meet
customer demands. The result is that parts get moved and shuffled, reducing capacity.

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critical ratio - A dispatching rule that calculates a priority index number by dividing the time to due date remaining by the expected elapsed time to finish the job. For example,
CR = (Date required - Current date)/(Days required to complete a job) A ratio less than 1.0 indicates the job isand a ratio of 1.0 indicates the job is on indicates the job is ahead of schedule, behind schedule, a ratio greater than 1.0 schedule.

Master Production Schedule (MPS) - The master production schedule is a line on the master schedule grid that reflects the anticipated build schedule for those items assigned to the master scheduler. The master scheduler maintains this schedule, and in turn, it becomes a set of planning numbers that drives material requirements planning. It represents what the company plans to produce expressed in specific configurations, quantities, and dates. The master production schedule is not a sales item forecast that represents a statement of demand. The master production schedule must take into account the forecast, the production plan, and other
important considerations such as backlog, availability of material, availability of capacity, and management policies and goals. See: master schedule. -- When the Master Production Schedule is overstated, due dates will become invalid and dates will be missed. Also, the quantities needed will not be valid as partial orders will be completed to partially satisfy customer demands.

primary operation - A manufacturing step normally performed as part of a manufacturing part's routing. Ant: alternate operation. released order - Syn: open order. - 1) A released manufacturing order or purchase order. Syn: released order. See: scheduled receipt. 2) An unfilled customer order. --- Prior to releasing an order to the shop floor, components must be available, the
required due datenot ready, then the order should not be released. Only jobs which requirements are should be known, and the tooling must be available. If these can be worked on should be released to the floor.

Overlapped schedule - A manufacturing schedule that "overlaps" successive operations. Overlapping occurs when the completed portion of an order at one work center is processed at one or more succeeding work centers before the pieces left behind are finished at the preceding work centers. Syn: lap phasing, operation overlapping, telescoping. See: send ahead. Ant: gapped schedule, overlapped production. -- The more repetitive the job is and the longer the order quantity must run, the more often this would occur. In selecting software to do this, one must be careful, as not all software can do this. Mixed-model scheduling - The process of developing one or more schedules to enable mixed-model production. The goal is to achieve a day's production each day. See: mixed-model production. --- Mixed-model scheduling allows the factory to

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ECO Study Guide

make every model every day so the mix mirrors the sales for the day. This is especially useful in flow manufacturing through an assembly line.

Line balancing - 1) The balancing of the assignment of the tasks to workstations in a manner that minimizes the number of workstations and minimizes the total amount of idle time at all stations for a given output level. In balancing these tasks, the specified time requirement per unit of product for each task and its sequential
relationship with the other tasks must be considered. 2) A technique for determining the product mix that can be run down an assembly line to provide a fairly consistent flow of work through that assembly line at the planned line rate. --Line balancing refers to the fact that the time taken to perform tasks at each work station is equal or very nearly so. This results in no bottlenecks between work stations and no buildup of work in process inventory.

Linearity - 1) Production at a constant quantity. 2) Use of resources at a level rate, typically measured daily or more frequently. --- Linearity is the use of resources at a level rate or maintaining a constant rate. The rate of the production in this kind of environment is controlled by the technology in place to maintain the flow of product, and the maintenance of the technology to avoid disruption. Capacity - is calculated based on the machine efficiency, operator efficiency, and number of shifts being worked. The number of orders released to the floor have no bearing on the availability of capacity to produce the orders. It would just mean the shop is overloaded. Production activity control (PAC) - The function of routing and dispatching the work to be accomplished through the production facility and of performing supplier control. PAC encompasses the principles, approaches, and techniques needed to schedule, control, measure, and evaluate the effectiveness of production operations. See: shop floor control. -- Production activity control is concerned with the execution of the material plans. It includes the shop floor scheduling as well as
the supplier follow-up to ensure material availability.

Repetitive manufacturing- The repeated production of the same discrete products or families of products. Repetitive methodology minimizes setups, inventory, and manufacturing lead times by using production lines, assembly lines, or cells. Work orders are no longer necessary; production scheduling and control are based on production rates. Products may be standard or assembled from modules. Repetitive is not a function of speed or volume. Syn: repetitive process, repetitive production. See: project manufacturing. --- is defined as "a form of manufacturing where various items with similar routings are made across the same process whenever production occurs." (APICS Dictionary) Schedules are used rather than job orders, work-in-process inventory is backflushed very often, and the number of
transactions is minimal. The whole process of tracking the production is easier than a job shop.

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