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Introduction to Series-Parallel DC Circuits

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Series-parallel circuit

A network or circuit that contains components that are connected in both series and parallel.

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Series-parallel resistive circuits

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Tracking current through a series-parallel circuit

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Total resistance in a seriesparallel circuit


Step 1: Determine the equivalent resistance of all branch series-connected resistors. Step 2: Determine the equivalent resistance of all parallel-connected combinations. Step 3: Determine the equivalent resistance of the remaining series-connected resistors.
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Calculating total resistance

Find the equivalent resistance for R5 and R6.

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Find the equivalent resistance for R4 and R5-6.

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Find the equivalent resistance for R2, R3, and R4-5-6.

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Find RT.
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Voltage division in a seriesparallel circuit


Find: V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7
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Find R 3-4 and R 5-6-7.

R3-4 = R3 + R4 = 2kohm

R5-6-7 = 1kohm/3 = 333 ohm

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Find R2-3-4.

R2-3-4 = R2 R3-4/(R2 + R3-4) = 1k 2k/(1k + 2k) = 667ohm


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Find RT, V1, V2-3-4, V5-6-7.

RT = 1k +667ohm +333ohm = 2kohm V1 = R1/RT VT = 1k/2k 12V = 6V V2-3-4 = R2-3-4/RT 12V = 667/2k 12V = 4V V5-6-7 = R5-6-7/RT 12V = 333/2k 12V = 2V
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Voltage division in a seriesparallel circuit. Summary


Find: V1 = 6V V2 = 4V V3 = 2V V4 = 2V V5 = 2V V6 = 2V V7 = 2V
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Branch current in a seriesparallel circuit


Find: I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7
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Find total current

Since RT = 2kohm, IT = VT/RT = 12V/2kohm = 6mA. I1 = 6mA.


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Find I2, I3, I4

I2 = R2-3-4/R2 IT = 667ohm/1k 6mA = 4 mA I3 = I4 = R2-3-4/R3-4 IT = 667ohm/2kohm 6mA = 2mA


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Find I5, I6, I7

I5 = R5-6-7/R5 IT = 330ohm/1kohm 6mA = 2mA I6 = R5-6-7/R6 IT = 330ohm/1kohm 6mA = 2mA I7 = R5-6-7/R7 IT = 330ohm/1kohm 6mA = 2mA
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Branch current in a seriesparallel circuit: Summary


Find: I1 = 6mA I2 = 4mA I3 = 2mA I4 = 2mA I5 = 2mA I6 = 2mA I7 = 2mA
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Power in a series-parallel circuit


PT = P1 + P2 + P3 +

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Five-step procedure for seriesparallel circuit analysis


Step 1: Determine the total resistance. Step 2: Determine the total current. Step 3: Determine the voltage across each series resistor and each parallel combination of resistors. Step 4: Determine the value of current through each parallel resistor in every parallel combination. Step 5: Determine the total and individual power dissipated by the circuit.
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Loading of voltage-divider circuits


Loading The adding of a load to a source

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The Wheatstone bridge

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Balanced Wheatstone bridge

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Unbalanced Wheatstone bridge

When the voltmeter in a bridge circuit does not read zero, the bridge is unbalanced.

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Determining an unknown resistor using a bridge circuit


Using a bridge circuit with a variable resistor, force the voltmeter to read zero. This will balance the bridge and the value of the variable resistor will equal the value of the unknown resistor.

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R-2R ladder circuits


R-2R A network or circuit composed of a sequence of L networks connected in tandem. This R-2R circuit is used in digital-to-analog converters.

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Simplification of R2R ladder circuit

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Troubleshooting series-parallel circuits


An open in a series component An open in a parallel component A short in a series component A short in a parallel component
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No current flow Current Current Current

Theorems for DC circuits

Superposition Theorem Thevenins Theorem Nortons Theorem

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Voltage and current sources


Voltage Source The circuit or device that supplies voltage to a load circuit. Current Source The circuit or device that supplies current to a load circuit.
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Superposition Theorem
In a network or circuit containing two or more voltage sources, the current at any point is equal to the algebraic sum of the individual source currents produced by each source acting separately.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

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Thevenins Theorem
Any network of voltage sources and resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent voltage source (VTH) in series with a single equivalent resistance (RTH).

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To Thevenize a circuit
Identify the circuit to be Thevenized. Measure the voltage at the output. This is the VTH. Remove the sources and replace them with a short; measure the resistance at the output. This is the RTH.

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Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for:

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Thevenin equivalent circuit

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Find VTH.

VTH = 1.33V
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Find RTH.

RTH = 2kohm
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Nortons Theorem

Any network of voltage sources and resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent current source, IN, in parallel with a single equivalent resistance, RN.

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To find the equivalent Norton circuit


Identify the circuit for a Norton equivalent circuit. Measure the the short circuit amperes. This is IN. Replace the sources with shorts and measure the resistance at the output. This is RN.

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Find the Norton equivalent circuit for:

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Norton equivalent circuit

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Find IN.

IN = -2.333mA
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Find RN.

RN = 2.0kohm
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End of
Introduction to Series-Parallel DC Circuits

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen