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Introduction to Series-Parallel DC Circuits

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Series-parallel circuit

A network or circuit that contains components that are connected in both series and parallel.

Total resistance in a seriesparallel circuit

Step 1: Determine the equivalent resistance of all branch series-connected resistors. Step 2: Determine the equivalent resistance of all parallel-connected combinations. Step 3: Determine the equivalent resistance of the remaining series-connected resistors.
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

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Find RT.
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Voltage division in a seriesparallel circuit

Find: V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Find R 3-4 and R 5-6-7.

R3-4 = R3 + R4 = 2kohm

Find R2-3-4.

R2-3-4 = R2 R3-4/(R2 + R3-4) = 1k 2k/(1k + 2k) = 667ohm

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Find RT, V1, V2-3-4, V5-6-7.

RT = 1k +667ohm +333ohm = 2kohm V1 = R1/RT VT = 1k/2k 12V = 6V V2-3-4 = R2-3-4/RT 12V = 667/2k 12V = 4V V5-6-7 = R5-6-7/RT 12V = 333/2k 12V = 2V
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Voltage division in a seriesparallel circuit. Summary

Find: V1 = 6V V2 = 4V V3 = 2V V4 = 2V V5 = 2V V6 = 2V V7 = 2V
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Branch current in a seriesparallel circuit

Find: I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7
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Since RT = 2kohm, IT = VT/RT = 12V/2kohm = 6mA. I1 = 6mA.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

I2 = R2-3-4/R2 IT = 667ohm/1k 6mA = 4 mA I3 = I4 = R2-3-4/R3-4 IT = 667ohm/2kohm 6mA = 2mA

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Find I5, I6, I7

I5 = R5-6-7/R5 IT = 330ohm/1kohm 6mA = 2mA I6 = R5-6-7/R6 IT = 330ohm/1kohm 6mA = 2mA I7 = R5-6-7/R7 IT = 330ohm/1kohm 6mA = 2mA
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Branch current in a seriesparallel circuit: Summary

Find: I1 = 6mA I2 = 4mA I3 = 2mA I4 = 2mA I5 = 2mA I6 = 2mA I7 = 2mA
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Power in a series-parallel circuit

PT = P1 + P2 + P3 +

Five-step procedure for seriesparallel circuit analysis

Step 1: Determine the total resistance. Step 2: Determine the total current. Step 3: Determine the voltage across each series resistor and each parallel combination of resistors. Step 4: Determine the value of current through each parallel resistor in every parallel combination. Step 5: Determine the total and individual power dissipated by the circuit.
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Unbalanced Wheatstone bridge

When the voltmeter in a bridge circuit does not read zero, the bridge is unbalanced.

Determining an unknown resistor using a bridge circuit

Using a bridge circuit with a variable resistor, force the voltmeter to read zero. This will balance the bridge and the value of the variable resistor will equal the value of the unknown resistor.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

R-2R A network or circuit composed of a sequence of L networks connected in tandem. This R-2R circuit is used in digital-to-analog converters.

Troubleshooting series-parallel circuits

An open in a series component An open in a parallel component A short in a series component A short in a parallel component
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Voltage and current sources

Voltage Source The circuit or device that supplies voltage to a load circuit. Current Source The circuit or device that supplies current to a load circuit.
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Superposition Theorem
In a network or circuit containing two or more voltage sources, the current at any point is equal to the algebraic sum of the individual source currents produced by each source acting separately.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Thevenins Theorem
Any network of voltage sources and resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent voltage source (VTH) in series with a single equivalent resistance (RTH).

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

To Thevenize a circuit
Identify the circuit to be Thevenized. Measure the voltage at the output. This is the VTH. Remove the sources and replace them with a short; measure the resistance at the output. This is the RTH.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Find VTH.

VTH = 1.33V
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Find RTH.

RTH = 2kohm
Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Nortons Theorem

Any network of voltage sources and resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent current source, IN, in parallel with a single equivalent resistance, RN.

To find the equivalent Norton circuit

Identify the circuit for a Norton equivalent circuit. Measure the the short circuit amperes. This is IN. Replace the sources with shorts and measure the resistance at the output. This is RN.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Find IN.

IN = -2.333mA
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Find RN.

RN = 2.0kohm
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End of
Introduction to Series-Parallel DC Circuits