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THE GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

BY STEVEN A. FINNESY

SATURDAY MAY 5, 2012

Introduction We receive the Holy Spirit as an indwelling presence in our lives the moment we accept Jesus Christ as our Savior. One of the primary reasons the Holy Spirit indwells our lives is so that we can perform the ministry that God has called us to do.1 God works through our lives to accomplish his purposes on this earth. In order to accomplish this work God imparts spiritual gifts to believers that we might have the ability to accomplish his purpose for us. There are two basic positions on spiritual gifts today. One holds that all gifts are for today and the other holds that some gifts were temporary and some gifts were permanent. This paper supports the view that some gifts were temporary and upholds this statement by Robert L. Thomas. The gift of apostleship lasted only as long as witnesses of Christs incarnation and resurrection remained alive. Then it ceased along with other revelatory gifts and sign gifts, whose purpose it was to confirm revelation through the revelatory gifts. The remainder of the gifts continue and contribute immeasurably to growth in the body of Christ.2 Robert Lightner points out that the biblical doctrine of the gifts of the Holy Spirit suffers from three extremes today: abuse, neglect and distortion.3 The primary goal of all gifts is to build up the body of Christ. Every Christian has at least some spiritual gifts which are divinely given capacities to perform useful functions for God. Just as the human body has members with different functions the body of Christ which is made up of individual believers has members with different functions.4 The human body does not have any member without a function just as the
1 2

Stanley, Charles F., Living in the Power of the Holy Spirit, (Nashville, TN: Nelson Books, 2005), 31. Thomas, Robert L., The Hermeneutics of Noncessationism, The Masters Seminary Journal, (Fall 2003), 14, no. 2, 288. 3 Stitzinger, James F., Spiritual Gifts: Definitions and Kinds, The Masters Seminary Journal, (Fall 2003), 14, no. 1, 144. 4 Walvoord, John F., The Holy Spirit and spiritual gifts. Bibliotheca Sacra 143, no. 570 (April 1, 1986): 121. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCO host (accessed March 28, 2012), 1.

3 body of Christ does not have any member without a function. Each persons gift can only work effectively in cooperation with the gifts of all the other people in the church. The doctrine of spiritual gifts is almost exclusively found in Pauls teachings with the only other reference found in Scripture in 1 Peter 4:10. Paul explains in Ephesians 4:11-13 that spiritual gifts were given for the building up of the body of Christ. Paul describes the gifts in Romans chapter 12, 1 Corinthians chapter 12 and Ephesians chapter 4.5 In these passages Paul is not setting forth everything that might be called a gift of the spirit and the lists are not intended to be complete. Pauls point in these passages is to show that the Christian community has a need for diversity and thus there is a diversity of gifts.6 The various gifts of the Holy Spirit cannot always be clearly differentiated as they have some characteristics in common with each other. The Holy Spirits working through a gift he has given is not automatic in the believers life but is dependent on the spiritual maturity of the Christian. Definition of Gifts Wayne Grudem gives a broad definition of spiritual gifts as follows. A spiritual gift is any ability that is empowered by the Holy Spirit and used in any ministry of the church.7 William McRae gives this definition, It is a divine endowment of a special ability for service upon a member of the body of Christ.8 The power of the Holy Spirit is manifested in the believer through the fruits of the Spirit and in the gifts of the Spirit. The fruit of the Spirit: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self control are his character within us and are characteristic of a maturing Christian life. The gifts of the Spirit are given to

Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and expanded. (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2008), 112. 6 Fee, Gordon D., Paul, the Spirit, and the People of God, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academics, 2011), 164. 7 Grudem, Wayne, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 1016. 8 McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 18.

4 the believer not based on merit or because we deserve them but they are given because the world needs Gods power. Each believers ability is supplemented by everyone elses gifts. Every believer has at least one spiritual gift which is given by the sovereign choice of the Holy Spirit. Each spiritual gift is important not because of the receiver but because of the giver. For this reason no one should boast about their spiritual gift or compare their spiritual gift with that of another. We also must realize that our spiritual gifts will never lead us contrary to Gods Word.9 It is also important to point out that there is a difference between natural talents and spiritual gifts. A natural talent is something a person may have from birth whereas a spiritual gift is given by God at the moment of conversion. Paul Enns explains this well in a table which compares and contrasts natural talents and spiritual gifts. He explains that natural talents can come from God or parents, could have been in place since birth, have the purpose of benefiting man on the natural level, they must be recognized and developed and should be dedicated to God for his glory. In contrast Spiritual gifts are given by God independent of ones parents. We receive them at conversion to benefit humans on a spiritual level, we must recognize and develop them and use them to Gods glory.10 Description of the Gifts The gift of Apostle is found in 1 Corinthians 12:28 and Ephesians 4:11. The gift of Apostle is one that seems to have been limited to the early church. It was a foundational gift and in a technical sense it was limited to the twelve who held the office of apostle. John MacArthur gives a good biblical argument that the gift of Apostle is not for today. He first points out that the church was founded upon the apostles. Ephesians 2:20 states And are built upon the foundation
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Bere, Michael C., Bible Doctrines for Today, (Pensacola, FL: A Beka Book, 1987), 180-181. Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and expanded. (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2008), 281.
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5 of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. Revelation 21:14 says And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. That foundation having been already laid is now being built upon rather than the foundation being added to. One qualification of an apostle was that they were eyewitnesses to the resurrection and there is no evidence that Jesus has appeared to anyone since the close of the apostolic era.11 The gift of Prophecy is found in Romans 12:6, 1 Corinthians 12:10 and Ephesians 4:11. The prophet received revelation directly from God for the edification of the church prior to the completion of the canon of Scripture. The gift of prophecy was not restricted to males as Philip had four daughters which were prophetesses.12 The gift of prophecy was also a foundational gift and because the foundation of the church has already been laid and the canon of Scripture is complete it would follow that this gift is no longer needed in todays church and thus has ceased.13 The gift of miracles is found in 1 Corinthians 12:10, 28. Throughout Scripture the working of miracles did not happen as random acts but were given to authenticate a message. They are primarily found in three distinct eras: The days of Moses and Joshua, Elijah and Elisha and Christ and the apostles. There are records of miracles outside these eras but they are few. With the completion of the canon of Scripture the need for miracles as an authenticating sign no longer exist indicating that the gift of miracles is no longer needed.14 A distinction is necessary to point out that God does still perform miracles he just no longer uses humans with that gift to do so.

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MacArthur, John, Charismatic Chaos. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992), 123-125 McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 46. 13 Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and expanded. (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2008), 283. 14 Ibid. 283.

6 The gift of healing is also found in 1 Corinthians chapter 12. The hallmarks of New Testament healings that distinguished them as spiritual gifts are as follows. They were instantaneous, complete and permanent. The diseases were physical diseases such as leprosy and not psychological illnesses. They were done in unbelievers and not done as a means of relieving the person from suffering or sickness but were intended to confirm the apostles as messengers of God. They were always successful except in one case and that was due to the disciples lack of faith. Based on these earmarks of the gift of healing those who claim to have it today are quickly discredited.15 As with the gift of miracles a distinction needs to be drawn in that while God does not use people with the gift of healing today, God still does heal people today but does it directly. The gift of tongues is found in 1 Corinthian 12:28. This is probably the most controversial of all of the spiritual gifts and causes the most confusion today. Like the gift of miracles tongues were a sign gift to validate the authenticity of the apostles message. A good example of this is in Acts chapter 10 when Peter preaches in the house of Cornelius. The presence of the Holy Spirit was demonstrated by the physical evidence of tongues.16 There are many today that claim they have the ability to speak in tongues for example Marylee Mitcham a Mormon from Colorado tells in her article Speaking in Tongues: A Gift of the Holy Spirit that she was merely a God oriented person before she acquired the gift of speaking in tongues. For her it was a process of learning to speak in tongues and she comments that she is glad no other person could hear her as she was trying to learn tongues on her own.17 If her ability to speak in tongues were truly a gift of the spirit it seems she would not have to learn to speak in tongues and it also seems doubtful that the Holy Spirit would bestow his gifts on a non Christian. This is more
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McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 69-70. Lea, Thomas D. and Black, David Alan, The New Testament: its Background and Message, 2nd edition, (Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman, 2003), 297. 17 Mitcham, Marylee, Speaking in Tongues: A Gift of the Holy Spirit, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, (2005), 38(1), 104.

7 likely what John R. Rice calls having an emotional experience and thinking it is the gift of tongues.18 With the completion of the canon of Scripture there is no longer any need for an authenticating sign which would indicate that tongues are no longer needed today.19 It is also key to point out that the biblical tongues were known languages which were unlearned by the speaker and were not angelic languages. The gift of interpretation of tongues found in 1 Corinthians 12:10 was the ability of someone in the assembly to interpret the foreign language into the language of those present. The gift of evangelism found in Ephesians 4:11 and is the proclamation of the Gospel so that people respond to Jesus and are converted and discipled. William McRae gives four characteristics of the evangelist. First he has a consuming passion for the unsaved, second he has a clear understanding of the Gospel, third he has the ability to present the Gospel clearly and finally he has great joy in seeing men and women come to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ.20 While not everyone has the gift of evangelism all believers are to do the work of evangelism. The gift of pastor-teacher also found in Ephesians 4:11 and Paul groups these two together here because these two gifts are so closely related. They are actually not two gifts but one gift with two distinct dimensions. The pastor being the shepherd has the responsibility to lead, feed and care for his flock. To feed his flock he must be able to teach them the truths found in the Word of God.21 A person can have the gift of teacher and not be a pastor but if one has the gift of pastor he will also have the gift of teacher.

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Rice, John R., Some Serious, Popular False Doctrines Answered From Scripture, Murfreesboro, TN: Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1994, 212. 19 Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and expanded. (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2008), 284. 20 McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 57. 21 Sanders, J. Oswald, The Holy Spirit and His Gifts. Revised and enlarged edition. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1970), 118.

8 The gift of teacher can be found in Romans 12:7 and 1 Corinthians 12:28. A person with this gift is one that has the ability to study the Word and then communicate it and apply it to the lives of people. They will have the ability to express Gods character and Word in simple, clear statements and examples. A person with a natural talent to teach may not necessarily also have the spiritual gift of teacher. This gift is vitally important in the church because it is needed in order to bring believers to maturity. Teaching as set forth in the New Testament consists of repeating and explaining the words of Scripture and applying them to the hearers.22 The gift of service found in Romans 12:7 and is closely related to the gift of helps found in 1 Corinthians 12:28 and is considered by some to be the same. This gift is essentially helping or serving those in need but should not be considered to be confined to helping those that are sick. All Christians at some time need help through the maze of life weather it is maneuvering through government red tape or a single mom moving her apartment. Service is really the gift of selflessness because it involves putting others needs before your own and is a very real form of love. The gift of faith is mentioned in 1 Corinthians 12:9 and is not referring to saving faith. Saving faith is the gift of God and is not a special gift of the Spirit. While faith is talked about throughout the Bible it is defined in Hebrews 11:1 Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. The gift of faith is the ability of a person to see something that looks impossible and to believe that God will do it through him. It is the faith which manifests itself in unusual deeds of trust.23 J. Oswald Sanders explains it as the faith that turns vision into fact.24 A good biblical example of this type of faith in action is that of Joshua and
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Grudem, Wayne, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 1062. 23 McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 66. 24 Sanders, J. Oswald, The Holy Spirit and His Gifts. Revised and enlarged edition. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1970), 119.

9 Caleb who were ready to invade Canaan against overwhelming odds, standing on the promises of God that he had given them the land. They had faith that he would be true to his word.25 The gift of exhortation is found in Romans 12:8 and means to be called alongside to help. It is closely related to the gifts of mercy and serving and is sometimes referred to as the gift of counseling.26 It can be someone that has the gift of urging someone along or it may be consoling and comforting someone in time of trial or tragedy. A person with the gift of exhortation will be able to stir people to action based on Gods truths. The gift of discerning spirits found in 1 Corinthians 12:10 was given for the early church before the canon of Scripture was complete. During that time God gave direct revelation to individuals to communicate to the church and God gave the gift of discerning spirits to others that they would be able to determine if the revelation was truly from God or was false. Because God no longer reveals himself in this way the gift of discerning spirits has ceased as well. The gift of showing mercy found in Romans 12:8 means to feel compassion, show mercy or pity. The gift of mercy is more than pity though; it is really the ability to put oneself in anothers situation. The one that possesses this gift will perform acts of mercy with cheerfulness and not out of a sense of obligation.27 Performing acts of mercy is what gives the person with this gift a sense of fulfillment in their Christian life. The gift of giving is in Romans 12:8 and is the unusual ability and willingness to share ones material possessions with others. This person will give out of compassion and not from ambition. The gift of giving is not the indiscriminate scattering of wealth and possessions but the person with the true gift of giving will see all his possessions as belonging to God and he is just the steward of them. He will practice good stewardship over those possessions and his
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McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 67. Grossman, Siegfried, There Are Other Gifts Than Tongues, (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishing, 1973), 30. 27 Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and expanded. (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2008), 288.

10 thoughts and intentions are the work of the Holy Spirit which directs him to the proper application of those possessions. The gift of giving is not limited to money. It can include such things as intellectual abilities, creative thinking and even time.28 2 Corinthians 9:7 tells us that the person with this gift will give without secret reluctance, Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver. The gift of administration is found in Romans 12:8 and is the God given ability to organize and administer with efficiency and spirituality such that projects are done harmoniously and with evident blessing. Biblical illustrations of people with the gift of administration are Joseph, Daniel and Nehemiah. Some believe that Titus is also one with the gift of administration as he was left in Crete to set in order what remains as Titus 1:5 points out.29 The gift of wisdom found in 1 Corinthians 12:8 deals with receiving direct revelation from God. This gift like the gift of apostle and the gift of prophesying is a foundational gift. Because this gift is related to receiving and transmitting direct revelation from God and God no longer communicates with us in that manner after the completion of the canon of Scripture this gift has ceased. The gift of knowledge found in 1 Corinthians 12:8 is closely related to the gift of wisdom and relates to the gifts of prophesying which involves Gods direct communication. This too is a foundational gift which was present in the early church when the doctrinal foundation was being laid by the early teachers. This gift was particularly important to the early church teachers as they did not have the written Word of God in its entirety. This gift also ceased with the completion of the Scriptures.30
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Grossman, Siegfried, There Are Other Gifts Than Tongues, (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishing, 1973), 42. McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 52. 30 McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 66.

11 Distinctions between the Gifts There is a distinction between the Gift of the Spirit and the gifts of the Spirit. The Gift of the Spirit was poured out on the Church in answer to the prayer of Jesus Christ and in fulfillment of the promise of the Father. The Gift of the Spirit is for every believer and is everlasting and will never cease. The gifts of the spirit can be broken down into distinct groups or classifications based upon their nature and function. Classified by nature the gifts are broken down into speaking gifts and serving gifts. More often than not speaking gifts draw more attention than serving gifts. We often hear of someone referred to as a gifted speaker. This tends to draw away from those with serving gifts and can make them feel inferior when in reality the Lord is the one that bestowed the gifts on us therefore all gifts are of equal value and needed. Classified by function the gifts can be thought of as repairing or preparing. The verb used in Ephesians 4:12 is used in Matthew 4:21 as a fishing term for mending and in Galatians 6:1 as a medical term for resetting a broken bone. So the ministry of the repairing gifts is to repair broken and dislocated Christians lives and restore them to active service again. The ministry of the equipping gifts is to prepare others so that they are able to effectively function in the service of the Lord according to their particular gift.31 Discovery and Development of your gifts Discovering your spiritual gift or gifts will give you direction in your Christian life. It will serve as a guide directing you in Gods will for your life and it will help you set priorities in your life. Like other abilities we have, our spiritual gifts need to be developed by training and exercise. While the Holy Spirit is the best instructor that the Christian has we still have to work with the Holy Spirit towards understanding and growth in the use of our spiritual gifts. The
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Ibid, 89.

12 Christian will never reach the point that he no longer needs to grow. A point that should be made plain to a new convert so that from the beginning of their new life they understand that they have not arrived at the destination but rather their new life has just begun. A. Stuart Arnold puts it this way He who stops growing stops being thrilled by the gospel news and he becomes ineffective in the work of the kingdom.32 For some the knowledge of their spiritual gift comes to them easily but others may need to search out what their spiritual giftedness is. There are some simple steps to take which will help you find your spiritual giftedness and it starts with prayer. This may sound obvious but it is so obvious that it is often overlooked. The second step is to discover what spiritual gifts are through the study of Gods Word. By making the spiritual gifts the subject of your Bible study you will be more equipped to respond to the Holy Spirits prompting in your own giftedness. As you become more exposed to the spiritual gifts the Lord will plant desires in your heart that will lead you to what your specific giftedness is and then it will be confirmed by ability. Once you recognize the area you are gifted in and you exercise that gift the Lord will confirm it by the ability you display.33 Once you discover your spiritual gift you must work to develop it. The first and foremost method of developing your gift is to exercise it. If you dont practice your gift it will never fully develop. Along with practice it is important to get evaluation of your results. Sometimes it is difficult to evaluate your own work so it is important that you submit to the discipleship of a mature Christian that can help you improve the quality of your Christian service. For this to work effectively you must be open to outside evaluation and have a spirit of humility which is difficult for some of us. And finally you must continue in your education of your spiritual gift.

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Arnold, A. Stuart, How Can I Grow As A Christian, (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1971), 11. McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 111-116.

13 There are many resources available today from trusted sources to help you develop and mature in your spiritual gift. William McRae sums it up like this, The development of ones own gift centers around these three words: practice, listen, study.34 Conclusion The reality that the Holy Spirit indwells the believers life is a wonderful thing. In some people he dwells way back in their hidden consciousness and is not allowed to take possession as he desires therefore his presence is not felt by them but he is there nonetheless.35 He provides us with the ability to serve God and helps us to mature as Christians. J.H. Thayer said it like this. Spiritual gifts are extraordinary powers, distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating in their souls by the Holy Spirit.36 For too long the Christian community has neglected the gifts of the Spirit and failed to recognize their importance to the body of Christ. The Charismatic movement has focused a spotlight on the gifts of the Spirit. In both instances there seems to be a misunderstanding of the proper place for the spiritual gifts. The spiritual gifts are not essential to the Gospel message. The fundamental truth of the Gospel message is the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ. If we place too much prominence on the spiritual gifts we take the spotlight off of Jesus. We must remember however that the spiritual gifts are manifestations of the power and presence of the Holy Spirit in our lives. Gifts deal with our service and actions.37 Vern Poythress gives good

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McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 126-127. Torrey, R.A., The Person & Work Of The Holy Spirit, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1974), 94. 36 Bere, Michael C., Bible Doctrines for Today, (Pensacola, FL: A Beka Book, 1987), 180. 37 Vines, Jerry, Spirit Works: Charismatic Practices And The Bible (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999), 53.

14 guidance by saying We are to exercise discernment. Modern manifestations are always fallible. Everything is to be evaluated on the basis of Scripture, to which nothing is to be added.38 The world today is in need of spiritual revival and Christians stand strangely silent in the midst of the vast problems that face our world today. Billy Graham points out that the spiritual revival that needs to take place will bring with it increased evidence of the gifts of the Spirit. He states it this way Believers will learn what it means to minister to one another and build each other up through the gifts the Holy Spirit has given. They will be given a new measure of love for each other and for a lost and dying world. No longer will our lives seem ordinary and indistinguishable from the rest of the world. Our lives will be marked by the gifts only the Holy Spirit can give.39

BIBLIOGRAPHY Arnold, A. Stuart, How Can I Grow As A Christian. Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1971. Bere, Michael C., Bible Doctrines for Today. Pensacola, FL: A Beka Book, 1987.
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Poythress, Vern S., Modern Spiritual Gifts As Analogous to Apostolic Gifts: Affirming Extraordinary Works of the Spirit Within Cessationist Theology. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, (March 1996), 39, no. 1, 92. 39 Graham, Billy, The Holy Spirit: Activating Gods Power In Your Life, (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1988), 291.

15 Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and expanded. Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2008. Fee, Gordon D., Paul, the Spirit, and the People of God, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academics, 2011. Graham, Billy, The Holy Spirit: Activating Gods Power In Your Life, Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1988. Grossman, Siegfried, There Are Other Gifts Than Tongues, Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishing, 1973. Grudem, Wayne, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994. Lea, Thomas D. And Black, David Alan, The New Testament: its Background and Message, 2nd edition, Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman, 2003. MacArthur, John, Charismatic Chaos, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992. McRae, William, Dynamics of Spiritual Gifts, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976. Mitcham, Marylee, Speaking in Tongues: A Gift of the Holy Spirit. Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, (2005), 38(1), 98-106. (accessed March 28, 2012), from ProQuest Religion. (Document ID: 2517195821). Poythress, Vern S., Modern Spiritual Gifts As Analogous to Apostolic Gifts: Affirming Extraordinary Works of the Spirit Within Cessationist Theology. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, (March 1996), 39, no. 1, 71-101. Rice, John R., Some Serious, Popular False Doctrines Answered From Scripture, Murfreesboro, TN: Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1994. Sanders, J. Oswald, The Holy Spirit and His Gifts. Revised and expanded edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1970. Stanley, Charles F., Living in the Power of the Holy Spirit, Nashville, TN: Nelson Books, 2005. Stitzinger, James F. Spiritual Gifts: Definitions and Kinds. The Masters Seminary Journal, (Fall 2003), 14, no. 1, 143-176. Thomas, Robert L., The Hermeneutics of Noncessationism, The Masters Seminary Journal, (Fall 2003), 14, no. 2, 287-310. Torrey, R.A., The Person & Work Of The Holy Spirit. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1974

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Vines, Jerry, Spirit Works: Charismatic Practices And The Bible (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999. Walvoord, John F. The Holy Spirit and spiritual gifts. Bibliotheca Sacra143, no. 570 (April 1, 1986): 121. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed March 28, 2012).