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What the model argues for is a more Cottege readiness is a multi-faceted comprehensivelook at what it means to be concept comprising numslorJs-l/arjahle_that z., that emphasizes a inctude factors both (ffinal and extern] to -, / college-ready, perspective the sch o o [environme@ l"theinterco n n e c t e d n e s s o f a [ [ o f t h e f a c e t s in of a functional representation the key facets,^lirtltontained the modet.This is the key point v" of this definition, that atl facets of cotlege of cotlege readiness,the model presented readinessmust be identified and eventuatly betow Jrganizes the key areas necessary measuredif more students are to be made inio four concentric for cotteg-ereaclingss cottege-ready. of coltege readiness levels. these6ffiEE} m erge f rom a review of @dJRiiif-e the literatureand are those that can be most . k r - . i r i i . " i a i i l f '1 , J =' {i ; ; - , r 1 a : r , directlyinfluencedby schoots. The successof a welt-preparedcottege In practice,these various facets are not studentis built upon a foundationof key key t.)t'?0" mutua[ty exclusive or perfectty nested as cognitive strategiesthat enable studentsto portrayed in the modet. They interact with learn content from a range of disciptines. a For one anotherextensivety. exampte, lackof the development of key key Unfortunatety, cottegeknowtedgeoften affectsthe decisions cognitive strategiesin high school is often studentsmake regardingthe specificcontent overshadowedby an instructionalfocus on knowtedgethey chooseto study and master. content and facts necessary de-contextuatized is behaviors Or a [ackof attentionto academic or to pass exit examinations simpty to keep of one of the most frequentcauses probtems quiet. busyand classrooms students for first-yearstudents,whether they possess the necessarycontent knowledge and key For the most part, state high-stakes cognitivestrategies. standardized tests require students to fragmentedand isolated recallor recognize information. Those that do contain bits of Readiness of Figure t'. Facets Ca[tege timitedin the performance tasksare severety take and their breadthor time the taskscan depth. The tests rarety require studentsto apptytheir learningand almostneverrequire students to exhibit proficiencyin higher \ forms of cognition (Marzano,Pickering,& 1993). McTighe,

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facuttymembers studiesof cottege Several of of regardtess the selectivity the nationwide, a near-universaI g reement expressed university, for that most studentsarrive unprepared lhe intetlectuaI demands and expectations of (Contey, 2oo3a).For example, postsecondary one study found that faculty reported that students the primary areasin which first-year needed further development were criticaI (Lundel[, Higbee, solving thinkingand problem zoo4). Hipp,& Copeland,

12 RedefiningCollegeReadiness

is presented conctusion or that js reached, The term "key cognitive strategies" r| $ a{e but askswhy ttri+rgs so. was setected for this model to describe ttre [l for cotlegeJ-z-r intel[igent behaviors necessary readiriess and to emphasize that tf.r"-r"Y4lnalysis: The student identifies and evatuates for data, materiat,and sources quatity of over a perlod\7 behaviors need to be devetoped content,vatidity, credibitity, and retevance. suchthat they become waysof thinking, { of time
,-s of materiats. patterns intettefiual of 6ehavior that leadto - 7aa exptanations source strateqies h7 \ I J ihe devetooment coonitive bf and

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habits howintelteituat in activitiei pursuei. are ! ln other words, key cognitive strategies are

tJ::*,:::ff:=1*".:,:T:":::::T l:: findings generates and and summaries and

;;:-;:;;;^::--:::.*.ra The term key co{nitive a+^+aain. ..^,,ff strategiesinvokes a

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.r. r _ -r 1.._..-,._.-.-,_,.-_ . .-l WaV OI WOrKlnqtqwar0 mOre tnOugntTutan0 '. -. -'-' inte[ligent action (fosta & Kattick,2ooo). ^l.I;.';:;.,;'".;"^:i"'""" | !{

,,_- ,_,i_ 1 _ -, bpproachto -thinkinq . r_ . - than more disciptined ,i _,.. _ _uc n a s ,L.s p o s l n o n s " o r -rnl nK l ng _i . pl t-er m 's S - .. ". '.. - . r ' _a la_ :d ; n skitts."Th e term lindicatesintentio n practiced behaviofsthat become a habitual
9r qLt r LLu v Lr rqY rvt J tr rgt uLLvr I rg g I tq u r L u q t

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p ro o T s o e x p t a rnp n e n o me n ao r I s s u e s ; t :-;. uTlnzes recognlzeo rormsoI reasonlng to _^,{ _ c o n ,,,,+ ah -r^r,^.^^+ a ,r^+ ^^r a p o i n t -^^.+s t ru ca n a rg u me n t n d d e t e n d ^^; ^+ t : ; . , ^ . -_ _ r: -, . , _ : - accepts . -: _. . - - of -^ _critiques- r of. view or conctusion; :":1"-":^^:-.::::^-: orcnattengestoasserilons;anoaooresses
__ir critiques and chatlenges by providing _ , a roglcar exptanailon or reTutatlon, or

"Un d e r s t nding and, 6;;tfr.n!'.key csntentknowledge IS achiev d throughthb exbrcise broader of eognitive

strategies." sktlts e bcdiedwithin the ft"y ccgniti:se




by acknowtedging the accuracy of the The specific key cognitive strategies S critique or chattenge' pup"t referenced t in 'to "tL those showri to -..\t be ctosety re cottege ,r.."ri i't'.|"i totion: The student anatyzes "-;mpeting includethe ing as the most importantft$nrerpre \/ and conflicting descriptions of manifestations his way of thinking: sr oi .n event orissue to determine the ctuat openn ;T h e stu d e n tp o5ses5ess@in.eachdescr iption a thirst for deeper i j,ana-=my--tUmmonatities among. .or curiosity an d.istinctionsbetween them; synthesizes y( questions the views of understand the results. a,n anatysisof competing of others when se views are not togicatty I


or issueor phenomenoninto a coherent and changes sonalviews if warranted \ q" exptanation; states by the evi t. Such openmindedness . >ucn oPenmrrrqesness is most [ikely.correct.orismost reasonable, hetps understand the ways in based on the available evidence;and broidens which is constructed, presentsoratly or in writing an extended personaI p6ctives and helps students description, summary,and evatuation of often dealwith the noveltyand ambiguity varied perspectives conflictingpoints and encountered the study of ne-wslblects n ' of view on a topic or issue. and new iats. /\-,__ ' n ond accurocy: The student knows @lyquisitiveness: student engagesin active \9".Oio what type of is appropriate to \--l inquiryand ogue aboufsrinlectmatter_ ,precision the task and the subjectarea,is abteto and research uesiions and.tgKf-6 i-cel precision increase and accuracy through to defend or?Gfrtionili successiveapproximations generated lines of The:tsdent-does-not' froma task process is repeated, or given any assertfonthat that
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RedefiningCoLlege Readiness13

and devetops and ilem solving; lhe student deverops sotvine; student lhe --f]/\ryobkm to app.lies app.ties muttiptf strategies solve routine F\-/ problems, gen$rate gen{ratestrategies solvenonto l, f probtQms, routine. probt{ms, and appties methods \ of problem sofvi1gto complex probtems R problem sotving. metl"iod-based requiring methJod-based S \ These key cognitive strategiesare broadly This overview begins with two academic representative{fthefoundationatetements beenidentified ski[[areasthat haverepeatedty underliev{rious "waysof knowing." that

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preci$ion and uses to appropriatety reach of conctu$ions the context the in correct area hand. ;;;k;;suUject area at hand. taskor subject

in A more complete exposition contained is produced University Success, Understanding ior for through . tht;;j;;; a three-year by Standards Successihrough by standards Success
facutty and study in which more than 4oo tffl'y"tlfi staff members from 20 research universities :H#tJ:rt:[^r#ff"t.t1il"i,"& participatedin extensivemeetingsand reviews in mustdo to succeed io to identifywhat students (Contey, courses their institutions at entry-tevet zooia]. Thesefindingshavebeen confirmedin " subiequentstudies.

S .\ R ,\ N \ \ \ 5 $ ]t o --.\ d \ A \ ''1

They ur]riversity. are necessary ende.avor the urfiversity. eavorof of contentfrom narrativedescriptionsof narrative descriptions contentfrom a number \ \ \( ; to discerntruth aird meaning as we[[ as to Jiscern areas. of coreacademic *\ Thef th6 ;ue \ \\ S pursue them. Thejr are at the heart of how SS members think, and how facrltty tsecondary ') { t Academic Skitts iheythinkaboutthEiisubjectareas.Withoutthe,.qlOverarchiilg Ithinkabouttheiisubjectareas.Withoutthe,4lOverarching \ \) .rrrrhilif., i ways,the enteringi t\)d/rirfng; rArri+ina i. +hn means by whichl the abitityfn fhink hn these to think lintheie ways, enterinof RVifing; capability thinkjn thpip wavs the entering(C\rr-r*r^^. the whichl Writing Writing is the means h,, .^,F,irh;.' : \ ;.,- N \ untit\Vft mightity untit\\ft" studenteilherstrugglesmightity ..'.- \_/ either college.:-:.,-:,",- ..- - .::r r ,- - struggles:J' .- .- t ,_ -..*y: ege student "' arJ evaluated at teast Lv )v rrrs otE oL r c o) ( some stridents arJ Ev or uor s u >tur ,r c l tL) stridents evaluated teastio some \ \ .'N .t \S .A- .\ .N S i i \outon --S developor misses thesehabitsbeginpto ;e degree in nearly every postsecondary )\ ) $ :

inteuectuar rhese attheheart the are. he.art_or a1e. tfre or interrectuar trtffit"'"T|ity"l[iT;iltt?"iirtf:;;;Tt] ilfiilt"'"7:'"1'::ln:T;il"rt?"ilr'53;;;T'T $ S

portioniof has whatcottege to offer, the largest world. the is which howto thlnkabout \

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to that is foundational the (fusearcn:cottegecoursesincreasinglyrequire \- a* The t?:",f9i disciptines' 't:ltt-1loln \l of academic and to to \ to to studentsbeabte identirv utitize ,\ -\^ students beabte identify uiitir" i r s i';: ,ffi.,.]ffH'.i'ilT,','J"";";":";i:;,':: 1l]: V "nu appropriatestrategiesandmeihodologies, *,int ing',ti'ri! evetoping min answer probtemsand to S"$q[$ exptoreand
has beeri ;;;; and key cognitivestrategies in and witt not be repeated depth elsewhere ho,o lDrrncfnr; Elrnrrrn e, Cocking, cr,rltinn 2oooi. ,.r.lni (Bransford, Brown,& here to \t*\'t"\ on conductresearch a rangeof questions'Ir' *..NN do 5o' sruoents tlrust ue dute tu lo qo so, studgnts must be abtg to {'\ 'rt\ :: of the appropriateness a variety evaluate of source material and then synthesize iN the materialintoa paper and incorporate or report' They must also be able to accessa variety of types of-information from a range of [ocations,formats, and sourceenvironments-

important types of writing in coltege. //._S \\ :c:=:, . *. C '. - \ s ; I i Sfrrrlentsareexnectedfowritealotin {- S- \ -N e snorl \ \ i ticottege an0 to oo so In relauvety of time. Studentsneed to ,know \ Successfut academic preparation for f'periods 'two ') h o w t o p re -writ e ,h o w t o e d it , a nd . h o w ( impo rt a n t'^cotte g e is grounded in 5 / to re-writea piecebeforeit is submitted \ \ stiategies dimensions-lkuy cognitive and, often, after it has been submitted \ and content knowted-ge. Understand'ing once and feedback has been provided. and mastering key conient knowtedge ii \ o students Cottege writing requires students. to achievedthrouoh the exerciseof broader | throigh | -,ci\ \t present arguments clearty,substantiate / -qi rrri ftri n ft ro tzav oresent arouments cl eartv. substa nt iat e ^ cognitive . L i i l . embodied within the key - ^^^i+ i. , ^ skitts ^ * h ^ d i n ' { I ,r\ \ parh r r r :r l iL :- - ^ r - + :^ ^ - L :^:^ noi nt end ufi l i ze fhe hasi rs of a / - - :^ each point, and utilize the basicsof a / in With this retationship co[nitive strategies. "* ,*\. a style manualwhen constructing paper. / it mi-nd, is entirJly proper and worthwhiteto .S N wrlung Is targety rree or writing is largety free of Lotteqe-tevet Co[tege-leve[ considersome of ti.," oeneralareasin which N g. the general N t "," and usageerrors. grammatical, spelling, in studentsneed strong-grounding content o._ \ R:' \ \-

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.o.lrre. Expository, descriptive, ani /f persuasive writing are particutarly l\

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In order to ittustrate the academic for knowtedgeand skitts necessary coltege discussionof the(eystructur6s, success,iUrief .on.*pir, and knowtedge of core academic is be[ow.This presentation subjects presented listing is not a substitutefor a comprehensive of essentialacademicknowledge and skills.
t4 Redefining Coltege Readiness

Kn*r.sledge and eare AeademicSubjeets


English: The knowledgeand skillsdevetopedin English courses enablestudents entry-[eveI to engage texts criticatty and create well written, organized,and supported work productsin both oral and written formats. o includereading Thefoundations Engtish of comprehension and literature, writing and editing, information gathering, and To analysis, critiquesand connections. be students readyto succeed suchcourses, in and needto build vocabulary word analysis skitls, including roots and derivafions. Theseare the building blocksof advanced literacy.Simitarly,students need to utilize techniquessuch as strategicreading that a witl hetpthem readand understand wide range of non-fiction and technica[texts. Knowinghow to slow down to understand and a key points,when to re-read passage, how to undertinekey terms and concepts so strategicatly that onlythe mostimportant points are hightighted are examples of strategiesthat aid comprehensionand retention of key content. in Math: Most important for success coltege of understanding the , I math is a thorough principtes, techniques and | . basicconcepts, , of atgebra.This is different than simply to havingbeenexposed theseideas.Much they wi[[ of the subsequentmathematics encounter draw upon or utitize these principtes.In addition, having [earned thinking these elementsof mathernaticat at a deep levet, they understand what it means to understand mathematicat concepts deeptyand are more [ikelyto do areasof mathematical in subsequent so study. Co[[ege-readystudents possess more than a formutaic understanding They have the abitity to of mathematics. in understandings order apptyconceptuaI to extract a probtem from a context, use mathematicsto sotve the probtem, and then interpret the sotutionback into the context. They know when and how to estimateto determinethe reasonableness of answers and can use a calculator appropriatelyas a toot, not a crutch. Science:Cottege science courses emphasize scientific thinking in all their facets. ln

addition to utilizing atl the steps in the scientificmethod, students learn what it This meansto think [ikea scientist. includes conventionsfottowed by the communication the scientists, way that empiricaIevidence and is usedto draw conclusions, how such subjecttochaltengeand conclusionsarethen interpretation. Students cometo apprec'iate that scientificknowtedgeis both constant and changingat any given moment, and knowledge that the evotutionof scientific does not mean that previousknowledge "wrong." Studentsgrasp was necessarily think in termsof modelsand that scientists systemsas ways to comprehendcomplex phenomena. This helpsthem makesense they the flow of ideasand concepts out of in entry-tevelcotlege courses encounter and the overatlstructureof the scientific disciptine they are studying. In their science courses, students master core principles, [aws,and vocabutary concepts, of the scientificdisciplinebeing studied. Laboratorysettingsare the environments where content knowtedge and scientific key cognitive strategiesconvergeto hetp and integrate studentsthink scientificalty learnedcontentknowtedge. Sociol Studfes;The social sciences entail a range of subjectareas,each with its own and content base and analytictechniques conventions.The courses an entry{evet cottegestudentmost typicatlytakesare in geography, political science,economics, psychotogy, sociotogy, history, and the humanities.The scientific methods that are common across the social studies sources, of skitls interpreting emphasizethe ctaims, evidence and competing evatuating themesand the overatl and understanding flow of eventswithin larger frameworksor Hetpingstudentsto organizingstructures. of consist that the socia[sciences be aware and concepts) "big ideas"(theories certain that are usedto order and structurealt of the detail that often overwhelms them that lead can help build mentat scaffotds scientist. toward thinking [ike a sociat The WorldLanguages: goal of secondlanguage study is to communicate effectivetywith



c f


andreceive communication speakers from

of another [anguagein authenticcuttural

Redefning College Readrness ts

contexts through the skitts of listening, speaking,reading, and writing. Learning involves muchmorethan another[anguage rules. memorizinga system grammatica[ of It requiresthe learnerto understandthe culturesfrom which the language arises .r y' use the Language and in which it resides,

These are distinguishedfrom key cognitive strategjes the fact that they tend to be more by independent a particular of content completely are area,whereasthe key cognitivestrategies within the waysof knowing alwaysdevetoped a particutarcontent area. The key academic behaviors consist targety of setf-monitoring

and accurately, use the to communicate -- learner's first [anguage and cultureas a / with the language mode[for comparison / learned. second t"n6ru6u ;"J."[ture being { prrn.i"niv iin i*prou" learning in-othlr \ histo-ry art, and as'Engtish, ii*ipii".i zuch \ personat, ani ;"J;* professi6nat, \
I i + / { \ \

skitts. skilts study and \* al.s911.*9nt1gl]9t rormoTmetacognrnoR{ . (---:>" abouthow oneis thinking. thd*rit+qf+errhink skitls inctude: of Examptes metacognitive of awareness one'scurrentlevel of mastery t1clairy-,fgv of and under3talline ,",t.Ybl,"tt' and blind spots;the ability misunderstandings

,*i"a ;pportunities. Language learners to reflect on what worked and what needed to''understand the-stiucture and ;;;; task; r improvementin any particularacademic but .onu"ntionsof a language, notthrough with a when presented tendencyto persist or *oro-tor-*ord transtafion memorizati5n , the grammaticaI rutes. y/ novel,difficutt,orambiguoustask;thetendency Je-contextuatized v -langurju amongand setect to identifyand systematicatly "i nu"a io f"rt".a, students of a and emptoya rangeof learningstrategies; the waysand in more rr6tisti-c ;;;i;;;aning

in context'

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stu;""t' ;.;; i;R f ;;;;;;;' in thenerd. as instruments\, t\

*hq and of communication expression
demonstrate mastery of basic oral and understand themsetves

(Bransfordet a-[., on 2ooo). Research the The Arts: The arts refer to coltege subject \ 61nes areasinctuding art history,dance, music, 5 -$tlinking of effectivelearnershas shown that readyforr$ \these individuals tend to monitor actively, theateriand visualarts.Students an\ \\regutate, evatuate, and direct their own arts possess college{eve[work in the 2002). 2oo2). for of arrd understandinq and appreeiation thq .\thinking (Ritchhart, 5thinking novativei]: 7- co


-' i

KgV afAdgnifC
S L.---"'' behaviors L--.-' hghAVIOf

the rhey understand role of the arts

as an instrument of social and political through their personal difficuttquestions

physical expressionthrough sound, movement,and visual representations.

eOnSiSt [Afge[y Sglf-msgitgdni

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and rhey expression. formulate present

Theyare abteto justify visions. artistic


the ir a e stheticdecisionswhenc re a t in 9 o r# iz a . , n l performing a pieceof work and know how ^ O(){ ' - lproper \ 1.Y to make decisionsregarding the venue for performing or exhibiting any product' creative Anotherimportantareaofcoltegereadiness is studentmasteryof the studyskitlsnecessary premise is The for cotlegesuccess. underlying +r*.=:::ii-**F:='-'i*:'i:.




that reflect a range of behaviors student self-awareness,setf-monitoring, and of of and self-control a series processes for behaviorsnecessary academicsuccess.

encompasses readiness rhis orcorrese racet :'iHi";fii1iT::,J;'i;::::;l:i'"tff#i'et;ei'J greater

and tasks successfutty, andiompteteacademic of cottegelearningin particular the nature oi that signifiiantamounts time be requires outside ctass success of for devoted tearn-lng to

Xg Redefining College Readiness

to be achieved ctass. in Studyski[ts encompass cross-section academicians peers. of and These a range of activelearningstrategies that go skittsinctudetheabititytoco[laborateandworkin far beyond reading the text and answering a team;understand normsof the "academic" the the homework questions. Typicat studycuttureand how one interacts with professors skitl behaviors inctude time management, and others in that environment; interactwith preparing for and taking examinations,_ peoplefrom different backgrounds cultures; and using information resources, taking ctass ^ )communicate informatty; and demonstrate J ' notes,and communicating with teachersand ( 1 leadership skitts a varieiy settings. in of \ advisors(Robbins,Lauver,Le, Davis,Lanqley, / \ \ Another important area of contextuat & Carlstrom, 2aa4l. An additionat crlticit J ' ,\\ " awarenessisknownas'tottegeknowledge."This set of study skittsis the abitity to participate \ is information,formal and informal,statedand successfutly a studygroup and recognize in the \ unstated, necessary both gainingadmission for \ criticatimportance ituay groupsto success "f to and navigatingwithin the postsecondary in specificsubjects. Exampte!of specific time \ system. Col[ege knowtedge includes an managementiechniques and habits include: _ o',\ understanding of the following processes: accuritetyestimatinghow much time it takes -# cottegeadmissionsinctudingcurricutar,testing, to compiete alt outitanding and anticipated -*} requirements; cotlegeoptions tasksanda[locatingsufficien-ttimetocomptete and apptication a; and choices,inctuding the tiered nature of p the tasks; using iatendars and creating "to postsecondary education; tuition costsand the do"-[i{s to orginize studyinginto prodrictive : financialaid system;placement requirements, 0 tim6; tocatingind utitizingsettings \ testing,and standards; culture of cotlege; the -c+untt$f to proper study; and pr-ioritizirig conducive S / and the chattenge[eve[ of coltege courses, studv time in relationto comoetinqdemandi N / including increasingexpectationsof higher rr.h work and sociatizing.'6.6|i^hf0all -|t '?uod: (Lundett at.,2oo4). "s education et \-


t+i.t:*ec.*i =r':i= ii*!1 iiiL.#;ief 5E.=;ii-".

The importanceof this broad categoryhas S students often do not know or understand onty recenttybeen highlightedas an ever-wider \ tfre importance of either untit it is too late. range of students apptyto coltege. Contextuat\ Specificinstitutions have additional speciat factors encompass primarity the priviteged requirements and exceptions that are not -\ information necessaryto understand how ;r- immediatety evident.Financial optionsare aid cottege operates a system cutture. is this \ targelyunknownorsubstantiattymisunderstood as and lt lackof understanding the contextof coltege \ of mostin needof suchsupport. by manystudents that causes to manystudents becomeatienated,\ The economicatty wetl-off are more tikety frustrated,and even humiliated during the i\ to have this knowtedge than working-ctas! yearand decide is freshman that cottege not the n) familiesor famitieswhosechildrenare the first q'[keycontext place forthem.Exampte; skilts andT',' generation to attend co[tege (Contey,2oo5; aw ar e n e ssinc[udea.@$.ilobbinset a [ . , z o o 4 ; V e n e z ia -e t a [ . , 2 o 6 4 ). the postsecondary educational system combined 5v The next section providesan operationat withspecificknowtedgeofthenorrr,vatues,and ) { definition of college readiness that the conventionsofinteractionsinthel"filo".""t"-i and the humanrelations ski[ts necessJry cope \ conceptual model helps to detineate. The to section seeks to inctude specific statements within this system evenif it is verydiffeientfrom . '\-"{. across att of the dimensions of cottege the communlty studenthasjust left. tf'e need to disown their cultural backgrounds, heritage,and traditions,only that they need ^ /. to understandthe retationshipbetween their\// cuttural assumptions and those operatingin cotlege. Success co[tege is enhanced for in

t ," $H'i,ilT,'J""x1l!,,.T"liri;,.ilf;.iis:,'J

. :"?ilil"1lJT,iil:"ffiffiH *:TJ,.Ej rhis not mean does necessariry studentsn that il: l?

skfltsthat enablethem to interact with a dfyerse

students who possess interpersonal soaal and

gauged.The net result woutd be a profite of cottege readinessthat woutd help students know the degree to which they were cotlegeready,and could eventuatly hetp high schoots particular to know how well their prOgrams in

preparing of.studyare students be'fealyfOf tO

Redefining CollegeReodiness17

It is possibleto compilevery lengthy and detailedlistsof the contentknowledge students must know and the key cognitive strateqies they must possess to be iottege-rea;y: il / U faci a variety of such compilationsha;'bJ; produced tatety (Achieve, The Educati"" rrrti, & Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, z0o4; zoo3,2oo3a, zoo4).In addition,others Contey, have identified the academicbehaviorsand need. contextknowtedgestudents .

understanding how experts the subject of in area think. wlth a rangeof keyintellectual and | -j.ttitlty ski[ts and capabitities that can be ::!:lti"" generatized the abitityto think' broadly as and writing skittsand strategies s. Reading sufficient process t5 th;futt rangeof tex[ual materialscommonlyencountered]nentry-level coltege courses, to respond and successfu[[y to

listsin detail,it may be more usefulto considert.S *(t)\orW skitls,*N.1,i"6. Mastery of key concepts and ways of a highly representative of knowtedge, list and attributesa studentshould possess be " t' thinking found in one or more scientific to -f disciptinessufficient to succeed at least in readyto succeed entry-tevel in coltegecourses ' one.introductory-[eve[ coltege course that across rangeof subjects a and djsciplinqs. Suc! could conceivabtytead toward a major that a list attenipts to iapture @Irrrq'lTffif[f .-.'------'Jrequires additional scientific knowtedge ones that can onty be demofitiSGtifC set of ani expertise.*f"ai"=.,t"j subordinate and prerequisite skillsarein place'Thelistis not intendedt*::lt: 7. Comfortwith a rangeof numericconcepts a inctusive, to suggest the informedreader but to and principtessufficieritto take at least one ) the types of indicatorsthat would be necessary intioluaoiy tevel coltege course that coutd ' notion of to gauge the more comprehensive conceivabty toward-amajorthat require, 5i lead presented this paper. cotlege readiness in in additionatproficiencymathematics. S i.-.i-:=-G;,E*:g-:=iii= ijl-r=+l=-rg students who possesssufficient mastery of key cognitive strategies, key content knowtedge, academic behaviors, and contextual knowtedge would be defined as being cotlege-ready the degree to which to they coutd demonstratethe fotlowing: r. Consistent intetlectua[ growth and developmentover four years of high school resutting from the study of increasingly challenging,engaging, lghelenl academic content. , lDeeJrundersta^Crngotandtacrtityapptyrng n lDeepnaersanain{of andfacitityapptying 4. f from key-::-, foundational ideas and conceptsfrom the foundationalideasand concepts / " core academicsubjects. academicsubjects.

previous $U ll?#ilt:."liTtn"ments Rather each these of thanrepeat

commontv required

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critica[ feedback including -!-{ * s I' Abitityto accept critiques of written work submitted or an .S i. presented class' in argument )- -..= g. Abitity to assess objectivety one's [eve[ of : : in Zompetence a subjeit and io deviseplans |i i in to comptete courserequirements a timety '\ \ .\r :, of fashion and with a high degree quality.

and with a Ji E: s ro. Abitity to study independently assignment requiring / studygroupon a complex preparation extensive out-of-ctass that extends , long overa reasonabty periodof time.
with fi. Abitity to interactsuccessfutly a wide inctuding rangeof faculty,staff,and students, them many who come from different among and backgrounds hotd pointsof view different
from the student's.

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in base 3. A stronggrounding the knowtedge the key concepts the core of that underties academic as by disciptines evidenced the abitity to usethe knowtedge solvenovelprobtems to within a subjectarea,and to demonstrate an
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12. Understanding the valuesand norms , , of t/ of cotleges,and within them, disciptinary subjects as the organizing structures for intetlectua[ communities that pursue common understandings and fundamental

Coliege Readiness



exptanations naturalphenomena and key of aspects the humancondition. of tx= r:"r =i* F*rf*r t'r:a i ia'*=5

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c\ organizeand summarizethe resultsfrom

the search,and synthesize the findingsin a coherentfashion retevantto the larger question beinginvestigated.

F . lnterpret two conflicting explanations The generalcharacteristics listedaboveare \ of the same event or phenomenon, taking '-'1 suggestive descriptive tasksthat students \ into accounteach author'sperspective, or of the / witl have to be abte to completein cottege S culturaIcontextof eachsource, quatityof the / \ courses.The following examples,white far its vatuepositions, \ o- the argument, undertying t from al[-inctusive, i[[ustrate what a studentwho and any potential conflict of interest an ") generalareas { authormight havein presenting particutar hassufficient competence the in a listed abovewould be able to do in a college ,. point of view. \ course. Any studentwho can do the foltowing in language, using \ \ . Communicate a second with proficiencywit[ tiketybe readyfor a range in appropriate fashion _*'the language a cultura[ly of postsecondary learningexperiences. -(\ ] for common daity tasks and interactions, r____-.l - ------. Write a B- to s-paq$ paperthat is q \ without resortingto literal translationexcept research words. structuredatound a cogent,coherentline of qv5 for certainspecific t reasoning, incorporate references from severaI \ . Punctuattyr s r r u q studygroupoutsideof ql r ur r r r uq.r y attenda ) r uuy 9r v ul > \\ credibleand appropriate is citations; relatively \t.' i \\ ctasswith students wltn sluoenls who represent continuum / wno represent a COntlnUUm a free from spe[ting,grammaticat, and usage \ ! ctass "i .r 't\ \ errors;and is clearand easilyunderstood by the of ] i o'l incorporating strengths groupmembers the reader. \ *^ r* .\ to comptete*x^ assignmentnr nrniar+ the racinnman+ or project at -^-^t^*,i .* i tJ preparesuccessfultv the exam or successfulty for . Read with understanding range of Y \ hand or Drepare a - presentation question. in \ non-fiction pubtications and technical i materiats, utitizing appropriate decoding71 \J lJN . Comptete successfutly a problem or and comprehension strategies identify key | , to {"( assignmentthat requiresabout two weeks of points; note areasof question or{rrpfrrsip\L// {+ independent work and extensive research, remember key terminology,and [ utitizing periodic feedbackfrom teachersand \ \\ reached and points of the basicconclusions other pertinent resourcesalong the way to N Nl', viewexpressed. U. product.

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reviseand improve the final

. Emptoy fundamentals atgebra sotve of to multi-step probtems, inctuding probtems without one obvioussotutionand problems math beyondatgebra; do requiring additional precision so with a high degreeof accuracy, and attention detail,and be abteto explain to pursued the for and the rationale the strategies methods utitized.

. Create and maintain a personal schedute that includes a to-do tist with prioritized tasks and appointments.

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. Utitize key technotogical tools inctuding appropriatecomputersoftwareto comptete research, taskssuch as conducting academic preparing data sets,writing papers, anatyzing presentations, recording data. and

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on scientfficmethod; an inquisitiveperspective interpretation dataor observations of the process; possibteor in retationto an initiat hypothesis; plausibleexplanationof unanticipated resutts; audience to and presentation findings a critical of models, including of usingthe language science, systems, theories. and . Conduct research a topic and be able on a to identify successfully series of source materiats and appropriate that areimportant to explain the questionbeing researched;

. Locate informationon websitesthat contain iat cotteges, t aid, and navigatesuch websitessuccessfulty, comparingthe programsand requirements cotleges and assessing financial the of several andfeasibitity attending of each. requirements . Present an accuratesetf-assessment of readiness collegeby anatyzing for and citing fromctassroom andassignments, work evidence grades, nationaI state courses taken, and exams assessment maturity of taken,and a personal and setf-disciptine.
Reriefining ColLege Reodiness 19