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# ee101b: Op-amps

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## Lecture 22 ee101b: Op-amps

EE101B Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University Prof. M. Hershenson Prof. K.V. Shenoy

motivation ideal op-amp circuits the golden rules the inverting amplier the non-inverting amplier a unity-gain buer real op-amp circuits the inverting amplier the non-inverting amplier nal remarks

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Reading Sedra & Smith. Sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 Sedra & Smith. Section 2.7

Practice problems Sedra & Smith. Example 2.1 Sedra & Smith. Example 2.2 Sedra & Smith. Example 2.3 Sedra & Smith. Example 2.8

Optional (advanced) reading Sedra & Smith. Section 8.4 (ideal case) Sedra & Smith. Section 8.6 (shunt-shunt)

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Motivation

Why do we care about op-amps? They are a fundamental block of analog circuits. Op-amps are widely used in electronics. They are used to build ampliers, lters, rectiers, data-acquisition systems, oscillators, . . . Also an important block of mixed-mode ICs (switched capacitor lters, comparators . . . ) There are many types of op-amps: instrumentation, high-speed, high-voltage, power . . .

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## The ideal op-amp

v+ v
+

vout Av (v+ v )

(a)

vout
+ -

vid
-

Av vid

(b)

They are very high gain DC-coupled dierential ampliers vout = Av (v+ v ) Innite dierential voltage gain (Av = ) Zero common-mode voltage gain (Acm = 0) Innite input resistance (Rin = ) Zero output resistance (Rout = 0) Innite output current capability (can sink or source innite current) Innite output voltage range (output voltage vout ) Innite open-loop bandwidth (the op-amp works up to frequency)

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## Negative feedback around op-amps

We assume that there is some sort of negative feedback applied to the op-amp. By negative feedback we mean that the output signal is fed-back to the input in such a way that it cancels some of the input signal. Typically this will mean that there is some connection from the output node to the negative input. This connection cannot involve any inversions and must work at DC.

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Golden rules

Since the voltage gain is very high (can consider innite)and assuming the op-amp has some sort of negative feedback around it, GR 1: Both input terminals are at the same potential (v+ = v )

Since the input resistance is innite, GR 2:Input currents are zero (i+ = i = 0)

Some comments You only need these two golden rules plus Kirchos laws to analyze any ideal op-amp circuit. In this lecture we will analyze two op-amp circuits (although there are many more!). We will nd the voltage gain (Av ), the input resistance (Rin ) and the output resistance (Rout ).

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## The inverting amplier: gain

i2 i1 R 1 i vin Voltage Gain GR 1: v+ = v . v+ = 0 v = 0. We say that v is at virtual ground because it is at zero potential. But v is not really connected to ground since there is no direct DC path from v to ground. GR 2: i+ = i = 0. KCL at v , i 1 = i 2 + i i1 = i 2 Ohms law across R1 i1 = Ohms law across R2 vout = i2 R2 = so the voltage gain Av =
vout vin
+

R2 vout

vin R1 vin R2 R1

is R2 R1

Av =

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## The inverting amplier: Rout

i2 i1 R 1 i
+

R2 vout itest

Output resistance GR 1: v+ = v . v+ = 0 v = 0. Ohms law across R1 v = i1 R1 = 0 i1 = 0 GR 2: i+ = i = 0. KCL at v , i1 = i 2 + i i2 = 0 Ohms law across R2 vout = i2 R2 = 0 so the output resistance Rout =
vout itest

is

Rout = 0

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## The inverting amplier: Rin

i2 i1 vin R 1 i
+

R2

vout

Input resistance The input resistance is the resistance seen by the voltage source vin , Rin = vin = R1 i1

Summary inverting amplier Gain is Av = R2 . Gain is negative (that is why it R1 is called inverting amplier). Rin = R1 . In general, it is much smaller than the input resistance of a real op-amp. Rout = 0.

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## The inverting amplier

(Real) design problem: Choosing resistor values to build an inverting amplier with gain Av = 10. 1. One option is to choose R1 = 1M and R2 = 10M i2 10M i1 1Mi vin
+

vout

This choice of resistors would provide a gain of -10. However, the resistors are very large. We generally try to stay away from using very large resistors: they are noisy (noise proportional to R), in an IC environment they occupy a lot of area (area means money) and they limit the circuit frequency response (we will see this later). 2. Another option is to choose R1 = 10 and R2 = 100 i2 100 i1 10 i vin
+

vout

This translates into an input resistance of 10. What this means is that this amplier will be sinking a lot of current from its input.

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Conclusion: You want resistors that are large enough (so not a lot of current is consumed, so impedance levels are high enough) but you dont want them too large (noisy).

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## The non-inverting amplier: gain

i+ vin
+

vout R2 i2 i1 R1

Voltage Gain GR 1: v+ = v . v+ = vin v = vin . GR 2: i+ = i = 0. KCL at v , i 2 = i 1 + i i1 = i 2 vin R1 KVL from output node to ground vin R2 + vin vout = i2 R2 + v = R1 so the voltage gain Av = vvout is in i1 = Av = 1 + R2 R1 Ohms law across R1

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## The non-inverting amplier: Rin and Rout

Input resistance The resistance seen by the voltage source vi n, Rin = Output resistance i+
+

vin vin = = i+ 0

vout R2 i2 i1 R1 itest

GR 1 v+ = v = 0. Ohms law across R1 , i1 = GR 2 i+ = i = 0. KCL at v , i2 = i1 + i = 0 KVL from output node to ground, vout = i2 R2 + v = 0 so the the output resistance Rout = Rout = 0
vout itest v R1

=0

is

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## The non-inverting amplier

Summary Gain is Av = 1 + R2 . Gain is positive (that is why it R1 is called non-inverting amplier). Rin = . (as large as the input resistance of an ideal op-amp). Rout = 0. Note that the non-inverting amplier has a much higher input resistance than the inverting amplier.

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## Voltage follower (unity-gain buer)

(A special case of the non-inverting amplier with R1 = and R2 = 0)

vin

vout

The voltage gain can be directly found from the rst golden rule v = v+ vout = vin Av = 1

Why is a circuit with unity gain useful? This op-amp circuit has Av = 1, Rin = and Rout = 0. Therefore it maintains the signal level (i.e., the input and output signal are at the same value) and it serves as an impedance transformation circuit.

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## Voltage follower (unity-gain buer)

10k vin vout 1k

Assume we have a voltage source with source resistance Rs = 10k and we want to drive a load of value RL = 1k. The output signal will be vout = RL vin = 0.09vin Rs + RL

This means we will loose most of the signal at the source resistance. Lets now use a buer and see what happens 10k vin
+

vout 1k

Since i+ = 0, we have v+ = vin Since v+ = v= , we have v = vout = vin Note that all the signal is delivered to the load. (In practice, because of the nonidealities of the op-amp some signal is lost)

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## A more real operational amplier

We now consider the op-amp that has a nite dierential gain that is also frequency dependent. The transfer function is given by A= Av vout = s v+ v 1 + 3dB

(this is a good model, most compensated op-amps look like one pole systems for frequencies bellow unity-gain bandwidth) it is a DC-coupled amplier dierential gain at midband is Av high 3dB frequency is H = Av 3dB unity gain bandwidth is Av 3dB In this lecture we will analyze the op-amp in a feedback conguration. We still assume a zero common-mode gain, an innite op-amp input impedance and zero output impedance. Due to the lack of time, we do not consider frequency dependency of the gain

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Non-inverting amplier

Now consider the same amplier with some negative feedback around it connected in the non-inverting amplier conguration that we studied in the previous slides. vin ve
+

vout R2 vf R1

## The error signal ve = vin vf =

vout Av

(1)

If we assume that the input resistance is innite, we have R1 (2) vf = vout R1 + R2 substituting (2) in (1), we have G= vout Av = vin 1 + Av R1R1 2 +R

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R1 R1 +R2

## where T , the loop gain is T = af = Av

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Inverting amplier

i2 i1 R 1 i vin

R2 vout

## For an ideal amplier, the gain is given by Gideal = R2 R1

A rst idea, could be to represent the inverting amplier with the following block diagram, vin A vout

R2 R1

This block diagram is wrong. To show why we compute the actual closed-loop gain from the nodal equations.

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R2 R1 vin We have ve vf
+

vout

vout = Av vf

(1)

If we assume that the input resistance is innite, we have vin vf vf vout = (2) R1 R2 substituting (1) in (2), we have Av vin + vout vout (1 + Av ) = R1 R2 which can be written as vout R2 R2 T Av G= = = vin R1 + R2 1 + Av R R1 R1 1 + T 1 +R2 where tT , the loop gain is given by T = Av R1 R1 + R2

Note that the loop-gain has the same expression as for the non-inverting amplier

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vin

A R1R2 2 +R

R1 R2

vout

R1 R2

## Another possible block diagram is also

vin

1 R1

R A R12 R12 +R

vout

1 R2

Note that even though many possible block diagrams are possible, obtaining a correct block diagram is not trivial. Even the most intuitive choices can be wrong. One thing is important, the loop gain of whatever representation we choose must be correct.

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Summary

## Open-loop Av 3dB Av 3dB

Non-inverting
R1 +R2 R1 Av R1R1 2 +R R1 Av R1 +R2

1+

3dB

Av 3dB

## 1 + Av R1R1 2 3dB +R Av 3dB

Inverting R2 R1 Av R1R1 2 +R

The loop gain T is a very important measure of the feedback circuit, Closed-loop gain is reduced by a factor of 1 + T 3dB closed-loop bandwidth is extended by a factor of 1 + T By analyzing T we can determine (in most cases) whether the op-amp will be stable

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Final remarks

there is lots more to know about op-amps many interesting circuits can be build using op-amps, e.g., precision dierential ampliers, lters, buers (Sedra & Smith has many examples) real op-amps have many issues we have not discussed (e.g., oset, nite swing, nite input resistance, . . . ) but we can assume they are ideal for rst order calculations what is inside an op-amp? many of the circuits we have studied, e.g., dierential ampliers, common-source stages, source follower stages, . . .