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General Objective

: To understand the concept of the work ng of a screw. i

Specific Objectives : At the end of thi s u n ityou should be able to : state the term that are importan t for the study of screw. s match the prin c ip le screw working to that of fr ictio n o n an in c lin eplane. of d use these s u table concepts to solve pro blem in v ove. i l calculate the answer u s in g these concepts correctly.





INTRODUCTION The screws, bolt, studs, nuts etc. are widely used in variousm ch in e s structures for a and fas te nngs. These fastenin have screw threads, w hichare made by cutti n ga co ninuous i gs t helical groove o n cylin d rcal surface. If the threads are cut on the outer surface of a soli d i rod, these are know n as external threads. But if the threads are cut o n the in ternal surface of a hollow rod, these are know n as i nternal threads.

We use The principle of the inclined plane i n the screw thread concept/applications.


THE SQUARE-THREADED SCREW (a) A Single-Start Thread Let W be the axial force agai n s twhich the screw is turned, Fig. 5.1, and P the tangen ital force at the mean thread radius necessary to turn the nut. The develop men t of a thread ia an in c lin epdlane, Fig. 5.2, and tu rn in the nut agai n s t g the load i s equivalent to mo v in g isload up the plane by the horizontol th force P applied at the m an radius of the thread. e



Fig. 5.1 The angle , Tan = p D

Fig. 5.2


A Two-Start Thread For a two-start thread the distance mov es axia ly by the screw i n its nut i n one revoluti o nis the lead , which i s twice the pitch . D 2p D

Tan = Tan =


THE VEE-THREADED SCREW For a V-thread, the normal force between the nut and the screw i s increased s ince the axi a lcomponent of this force m ust equal W. Thus, i f the semi-angle of the thread i s , Fig. 5.3., then norm force = W sec . al The fr ictio n force i s therefore in ceased i n the ratio sec : 1, so that the V-thread i s r equival nt to a square thread hav ng a coeff icie n tof fr ictio n v sec e i

Fig. 5.3


Turn i n g screw i s equival nt to moving a m the e ass of weight W along the inclined plane by a horizontalforce P.


RAISING LOAD When the load i s raised by the force P the motion i s up the plane.(Fig.5.4).
Motion R P W R + P

Fig. 5.4 From the triangle of forces: Tan ( + ) = P w

P = W tan ( + )

Torque The torque T required to rotate the screw agai n s tthe load i s : T = P( 1 D) 2

1 T = PD 2 T = 1 WD tan ( + ) 2

1 D 2

Fig. 5.5: Cross-sectio n of Screw

Efficiency The efficie n of the screw i s equal to: cy Forward effi c ency : i 1 forward = force P req uired w ithoutfr ictio n ( = 0) force P requir d w ithfric tio n e 1 = w tan w tan( + )

tan 1 = tan( + ) or, 1 = work done on load W i n 1 revolution work done by P i n 1 revoluti o n 1 = we P(D)

w x 1 = e P D

But, w 1 = P tan( + ) an d tan = D

tan 1 = tan( + )

Maximum Efficiency 1 sin 1 + sin

1 mk a

Example 5.1 The helix angle of a screw tread is 100. If the coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the mean diameter of the square thread i s 72.5 mm, calculate: (a) the pitchof the tread, (b) the effi ciency when rai sin g a load of 1 kN, (c) the torque req u red. i

Solution 5.1 G iv : en = 100 (a) tan = = 0.3 Dmean = 72.5 m m p D p = tan 100 (3.14)(72.5) = 40.1 m m


= tan = tan 0.3 = 16.70 Eff icie n for raise load, cy = 1 tan tan( + ) tan10 0 0 0 tan(10 + 16.7 )

1 =

1 = 0.1763 0.5027 1 = 0.35 x 100% 1 = 35% 1 WD tan ( + ) 2


Torque, T =

T = 1 (1000)(72.5) tan (100 + 16.70) 2 1 T = (1000)(72.5)(0.5027) 2 T = 18.22 x 10 kN m m T = 18.22 N m



LOAD BEING LOWERED (i) When > P i s applied to res ist the downward mov emen t of the load. Under this cond iti o nthe load would just about to move downwards. If P were not appliedi n this directio n the load would overhaul, that i s move do wn o n its own weight.

P P Motion R - W

Fig. 5.6 From the tri angle of forces: Tan ( - ) = P w

P = W tan ( - ) Efficiency Downward efficie n : cy 1 downward = work done by P i n 1 revoluti o n work done on load W i n 1 revoluti o n

1 = P( D) w 1 = tan( ) tan



Example 5.2 Calculate the pitchof a single-start square threaded screw of a jack w hi h w illjust c allow the load to fall u n ifomly under its o w n weight. The m an diameter of the r e threads is 8 cm and = 0.08. If the p itch i s 15 mm, what is the torque required to lower a load of 3 kN? Solution 5.2 If the load i s to fall u nformly under its o w n weight, = i G iv : en = 0.08 p D p (3.14)(8) = tan = 4.57

Tan =

then, =

Tan 4.57 =

p = 20 m m If the p itc his 15 m, m Tan = Tan = p D 15 (3.14)(8)

Tan = 5.97 = 80.49 Torque, 1 WD tan ( - ) 2 T = 1 (3000)(8)tan (80.49- 4.57) 2 T = T = 1 (3000)(8)(tan 75 92) 2 T = 2.4 N m


When > If the angle of fr ictio n i s greater than the angle of the plane, then i t can be seen from the tri angle of force, that force P m ust be applied to help lower the load.
Motion c P R c W R

Fig. 5.7 From the tri angle of forces: Tan ( c ) = P w

P = W tan ( c )

Efficiency 1 terbalik = tan( ) tan

Example 5.3 The m an diameter of a squarecthreaded screw jack i s 5 cm The e . p itch of the thread i s 1 cm The coeff icie n tof fric tio in 0.15. What force . s m ust be applied at the end of a 70 cm long lever, which i s perpendicul r to the long itu d in a axi s of the screw to lower a load of 2 a l tonnes? Solution 5.3 G iv en: Mean diameter, d = 5 cm Pitch, p = 1 cm Then , 4 = 8.32

Coefficient of friction, = 0.15 = tan 4 Length of lever, L = 70 cm Force required to lower the load, P = W tan (4 ) = 2000 tan (8. 32c3.39) = 2000 tan 4. 53 = 2000 x 0.0854 = 170.8 kg

Load W = 2 t = 2000 kg

Activity 5A

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT! 5.1 A nut on a s in glecstart square thread bolt i s locked tight by a torque of 6 Nm The . thread p itch i s 5 m m and the mean diameter 6 cm Calculate : . (a) the axia lload o n the screw i n k ilogrammes (b) the torque required to loosen the nut. = 0.1. The total mass of the table of a p la n ng mach in eand its attached work p iece i s 350 ni kg. The table i s traversed by a s inglecstart square thread of external diam er 45 et m m and p itch 10 mm. The pressure of the cuttin g i s 600 N and the speed of cuttin g i s 6 met ers per minut . The coeffi c en t of fric tio for the table i s 0.1 and for the e i n screw thread i s 0.08. Fi n dthe power required. The m an radius of a screw of a square thread screw jack i s 2.5 cm The p itch of the e . thread i s 7 . 5mm. If the coeffi c en t of fric tio in 0.12, what effort applied at the end of a i s lever 60 cm length is needed to raise a weight of 2000 kg?. A screw press is used to compr ess books. The thread i s double thread (square head) w itha pitchof 4 m m and a m an radius of 25 m. e m The coeffi c en t of fric ti for i on the contact surfaces of the threads is 0.3. Determine the torque required for a pressure of 500 N.




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5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

161 kg, 3.47 N m 191 W 14.07 kg 4450 N m m



OVERHAULING OF THE SCREW When the load moves down and overcomes the thread fr ictio n by its own weight, i t i s sai d to overhaul. When i t move s down agai n s ta res istin g force P we found that P = W tan ( c ) When the load overhauls, P = 0 Therefore, tan ( c ) = 0 c =0 = Hence, when the angle of the inclined plane is equal to the angle of the friction the load w ill overhaul. The efficie n of such a screw when rai sin g a load i s giv e nby: cy tan 1 = tan( + ) but =
1 =

tan tan 2

Example 5.4 A load of 6 kN i s liftedby a jack hav ng a s in i glecstart square thread screw of 45 m m core diameter and p itch 10 mm. The load revolves w iththe screw and the coeffi c en t of fr ictio n at the screw thread i s 0.05. Fin dthe torque required to lif t the load. i Show that the load w illoverhaul.

Solution 5.4 G iv : en W = 6000 N + D mean = 45 1 x 10 = 50 m m = 0.05 p = 10

m m 2

Then , tan = tan = 0.05 = 2.86 1 2 1 tan = tan = p D

10 (3.14)(50) tan = 0.0637 = 3.64 WD tan ( + )

Torque required, T =

(6000)(50) tan (3.64 + 2.86) 2 = 3000(50) tan (6 .50 ) = 3000(50) (0.114) = 17.1 N m tan tan( + ) tan 3.64
0 0

Eff icie n cy,

= =

tan(3.64 + 2.86 ) 0.0636 = 0.114 = 0.558

= 56%



(overhau ling)

Activity 5B

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT! 5.5 The drum of a w ind lasss 10 cm in diameter and the effort i s appliedto the handle 60 i cm fro the axis .Fi n dthe effort necessary to support a weight of m m ass 120 kg. A wheel and axle i s used to raise a load of mass 50 kg. The radius of the wheel is 50 cm and wh ile i t mak es seven revolutio n sthe load rise s3.3 m What is the smallest . force that w ill support the load?. A table carrying a machin e tool i s traversed by a threecstart screw of 6 m m p itch and external diam er 23 m. et m The m ass of the table i s 200 kg and the coeffi c ent i of fric tio between the table an d its guidesi s 0.1. The screw i s driv by a m tor at 12 n en o rev/s. Fi n dthe speed of operatio n of the tool, the power required and the coeffi c en t of fric tio n i for the thread i f the efficie n i s 70 percen t. cy A d ifferen ital pulley, the two parts of which have respectively twenty four and twenty fiv e teeth, is used to raise a weight of m ass 500 kg. Show by sketch how the apparatus i s used, and determin e its velocity ratio. Fi n dalso what effort m ust be exerted i f the effi c ency i i s 60 percen t.




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5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

10 gN 7 1 gN 2

12.96 rnrmm , 60.5 W, 0.11 50, 16 2 gN. 3


You are approach mmg success. Try all the questions m mth m sselfcassessremt sectmo m am d check your amswers wmth those gm v e m mthe Feedback o m SelfcAssess rem t 5 gm v e m m the mext page. m o If you face amy problers, dmscussmt w mth your lecturer. Good luck.


Fm m the torque to ram s ea load of 6 kN u s m m a screw jack w m tha doublecstart square d g thread, co m ta m mg two threads per centimeter and a mean diameter of 60 mm. = mm 0.12. What ms the torque requmr d to lower the load? e


A lathe saddle of rass 30 kg m straversed by a s m m glecstart squarecthread screw of 10 r p mtch am d re am dmareter 40 rr. If the vertm calforce o m the cuttm m tool m s250 r g N, f m m the torque at the screw requmr d to traverse the saddle. The coeffmcm e mof d e t fr mctmo m betweem saddle am d lathe bed am d for the screw thread m s0.15.


A doublecstart squarecthread screw has a p mtch of 20 r am d a re am dmareter of r 100 r , = 0.03. Calculate mts effmcm em whem ram mm g a load. r cy s


A load of 2500 N m sto be ram sedby a screw jack w m thream dmareter of 75 r r am d p mtch of 12 rr. Fm m the effm c emcy of the screw jack, m fthe coeffm c em t of d m m frm c tm obetweem the screw am d mut ms 0.075. m

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1. 2. 3. 4.

31.4 N , 12 N r r 0.376 N r 80.5 % 41.5 %

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!.. May success be with you always.