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You are on page 1of 79

Meixia Tao

Shanghai Jiao Tong University Chapter 8: Digital Modulation Techniques Textbook: Ch 8.4 8.5, Ch 10.1-10.5

Topics to be Covered

data baseband Digital modulator

Noise

Bandpass channel

detector

Digital demodulator

BPF

Tradeoff study

Digital Modulation

The message signal is transmitted by a sinusoidal carrier wave In digital communications, the modulation process corresponds to switching or keying the amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier in accordance with the incoming digital data Three basic digital modulation techniques

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) - special case of AM Frequency-shift keying (FSK) - special case of FM Phase-shift keying (PSK) - special case of PM

Will use signal space approach in receiver design and performance analysis

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

In binary signaling, the modulator produces one of two distinct signals in response to 1 bit of source data at a time. Binary modulation types

Binary PSK (BPSK) Binary FSK Binary ASK

Modulation

1 0

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

, , bit duration : carrier frequency, chosen to be integer or f c >> 1/ Tb : transmitted signal energy per bit, i.e.

The pair of signals differ only in a relative phase shift of 180 degrees

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

Clearly, there is one basis function of unit energy

Then

A binary PSK system is therefore characterized by having a signal space that is one-dimensional (i.e. N=1), and with two message points (i.e. M = 2)

s2

s1

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

Assume that the two signals are equally likely, i.e. P(s1) = P(s2) = 0.5. Then the optimum decision boundary is the midpoint of the line joining these two message points

Region R2 Region R1

s2

s1

Decision rule:

Guess signal s1(t) (or binary 1) was transmitted if the received signal point r falls in region R1 Guess signal s2(t) (or binary 0) was transmitted otherwise

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

Observation scalar (output of the demodulator) r is

If s1 is transmitted If s2 is transmitted

where n represents the AWGN component, which has mean zero and variance Thus, the likelihood function of r is

Choose s1 > < Choose s2 s1 > < s2

Thus

And Finally

s1 > < s2

s1 < > s2

The conditional probability of the receiver deciding in favor of symbol s2(t) given that s1(t) is transmitted is Due to symmetry

r

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

10

Since the signals s1(t) and s2(t) are equally likely to be transmitted, the average probability of error is

Note: probability of error depends on ratio Eb/N0. This ratio is normally called bit energy to noise density ratio (or SNR/bit)

11

BPSK Transmitter

m(t)

Rectangular pulse

12

BPSK Receiver

Tb 0

dt

demodulator

detector

is the carrier-phase offset, due to propagation delay or oscillators at transmitter and receiver are not synchronous

Phase synchronization: ensure local oscillator output at the receiver is synchronized to the carrier in modulator Timing synchronization: to ensure proper bit timing of the decisionmaking operation

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

13

Binary FSK

Modulation

1 0

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

fi : transmitted frequency with separation f = f1 f 0 f is selected so that s1(t) and s2(t) are orthogonal i.e.

(Example?)

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

14

Unlike BPSK, here two orthogonormal basis functions are required to represent s1(t) and s2(t).

15

Message point Message point

Observation vector

16

R2 Message point Decision boundary R1 Message point

The receiver decides in favor of s1 if the received signal point represented by the observation vector r falls inside region R1. This occurs when r1 > r2 When r1 < r2 , r falls inside region R2 and the receiver decides in favor of s2

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

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Given that s1 is transmitted, and Since the condition r1 < r2 corresponds to the receiver making a decision in favor of symbol s2, the conditional probability of error given s1 is transmitted is given by

Define a new random variable Since n1 and n2 are i.i.d with Thus, n is also Gaussian with

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

18

By symmetry Since the two signals are equally likely to be transmitted, the average probability of error for coherent binary FSK is

i.e. to achieve the same Pe, BFSK needs 3dB more transmission power than BPSK

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

19

1 0

20

Tb 0

dt

Tb 0

Decision Device

dt

21

Binary ASK

Modulation

1 0

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

(On-off signalling)

Region R2 s2 0

Region R1 s1

22

Average probability of error is

Identical to that of coherent binary FSK

Exercise: Prove Pe

23

BPSK BFSK BASK

These expressions illustrate the dependence of the error probability on the distance between two signal points. In general,

24

10 10

0 -1

ASK/FSK

-2 -3

10 10 10 10 10 10

PSK

-4 -5

-6

3dB

-7

e.g.

25

Example #1

Binary data are transmitted over a microwave link at the rate of 106 bits/sec and the PSD of the noise at the receiver input is 10-10 watts/Hz. a) Find the average carrier power required to maintain an average probability of error for coherent binary FSK. b) Repeat the calculation in a) for noncoherent binary FSK

26

We have discussed

Coherent modulation schemes, .e.g. BPSK, BFSK, BASK They needs coherent detection, assuming that the receiver is able to detect and track the carrier waves phase

Update

In many practical situations, strict phase synchronization is not possible. In these situations, non-coherent reception is required. We now consider:

Non-coherent detection on binary FSK Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK)

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

27

Consider a binary FSK system, the two signals are

28

No matter what the two phases are, the signals can be expressed as a linear combination of the four basis functions

29

Correlating the received signal r(t) with the four basis functions produces the vector representation of the received signal

Detector

30

ML criterion, assume P(s1) = P(s2):

Choose s1 > < Choose s2

Conditional pdf

Similarly,

31

32

By definition

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

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Thus, the decision rule becomes: choose s1 if

But note that this Bessel function is monotonically increasing. Therefore we choose s1 if

Interpretation: compare the energy in the two frequencies and pick the larger => envelop detector Carrier phase is irrelevant in decision making

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

34

(For detailed proof, see Section 10.4.2 in the textbook )

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

35

10 10

Probability of Bit Error

0

-1

ASK/FSK

-2

10 10 10 10 10 10

NC FSK

-3

BPSK

-4

-5

DPSK

-6

-7

36

DPSK can be viewed as the non-coherent version of PSK. Phase synchronization is eliminated using differential encoding

Encoding the information in phase difference between successive signal transmission

In effect:

to send 0, we phase advance the current signal waveform by 1800 ; to send 1, we leave the phase unchanged

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

37

DPSK (contd)

Provided that the unknown phase contained in the received wave varies slowly (constant over two bit intervals), the phase difference between waveforms received in two successive bit interval will be independent of

38

We can generate DPSK signals by combining two basic operations

Differential encoding of the information binary bits Phase shift keying

The differential encoding process starts with an arbitrary first bit, serving as reference Let {mi} be input information binary bit sequence, {di} be the differentially encoded bit sequence

If the incoming bit mi is 1, leave the symbol di unchanged with respect to the previous bit di-1 If the incoming bit mi is 0, change the symbol di with respect to the previous bit di-1

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

39

Illustration

The reference bit is chosen arbitrary, here taken as 1

Binary data 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 mi di Differentially 1 1 0 encoded binary data Initial bit Transmitted Phase 0 0

d i = d i 1 mi

___________

40

Delay Tb

Tb 0

dt

Multiply the received DPSK signal with its delayed version Output of integrator (assume noise free)

becomes irrelevant

If if

= 0 (bit 1), the integrator output y is positive = (bit 0), the integrator output y is negative

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

41

The differential detector is suboptimal in the sense of error performance It can be shown that

42

Coherent PSK Coherent ASK Coherent FSK Non-Coherent FSK DPSK

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

43

10 10

Probability of Bit Error

0 -1

ASK/FSK

-2

10 10 10 10 10 10

NC FSK

-3

BPSK(QPSK)

-4

-5

DPSK

-6

-7

10 8 6 Eb/No in [dB]

12

14

44

Coherent modulation techniques: BPSK, BFSK, BASK Noncoherent modulation techniques: Non-coherent FSK, DPSK

Update

MPSK MQAM MFSK

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

45

In binary data transmission, send only one of two possible signals during each bit interval Tb In M-ary data transmission, send one of M possible signals during each signaling interval T In almost all applications, M = 2n and T = nTb, where n is an integer Each of the M signals is called a symbol These signals are generated by changing the amplitude, phase or frequency of a carrier in M discrete steps. Thus, we have M-ary ASK, M-ary PSK, and M-ary FSK digital modulation schemes

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

46

Another way of generating M-ary signals is to combine different methods of modulation into hybrid forms For example, we may combine discrete changes in both the amplitude and phase of a carrier to produce M-ary amplitude phase keying. A special form of this hybrid modulation is M-ary QAM (MQAM)

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

47

The phase of the carrier takes on M possible values: Signal set:

f c >> 1 T

Basis functions

48

MPSK (contd)

Signal space representation

49

BPSK

QPSK

8PSK

16PSK

50

The Euclidean distance between any two signal points in the constellation is 2 (m n) d mn = s m s n = 2 Es 1 cos M The minimum Euclidean distance is

2 =2 Es sin d min = 2 Es 1 cos M M

dmin plays an important role in determining error performance as discussed previously (union bound) In the case of PSK modulation, the error probability is dominated by the erroneous selection of either one of the two signal points adjacent to the transmitted signal point. Consequently, an approximation to the symbol error probability is

PMPSK d min / 2 2Q 2Q 2 Es sin = N /2 M 0

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

51

Exercise

Consider the M=2, 4, 8 PSK signal constellations. All have the same transmitted signal energy Es. Determine the minimum distance adjacent signal points

d min

between

For M=8, determine by how many dB the transmitted signal energy Es must be increased to achieve the same d as M =4.

min

52

For large M, doubling the number of phases requires an additional 6dB/bit to achieve the same performance

4dB

5dB

6dB

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

53

In an M-ary PSK system, in-phase and quadrature components are interrelated in such a way that the envelope is constant (circular constellation). If we relax this constraint, we get M-ary QAM. Signal set:

E0 is the energy of the signal with the lowest amplitude ai, bi are a pair of independent integers

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

54

MQAM (contd)

Basis functions:

55

Square lattice

Can be related with two L-ary ASK in in-phase and quadrature components, respectively, where M = L2

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

56

It can be shown that the symbol error probability of MQAM is tightly upper bounded as

3kEb Pe 4Q ( M 1) N 0

(for M = 2k )

in the average energy per bit Eb required to maintain the same error performance if the number of bits per symbol is increased from k to k+1, where k is large.

57

Signal set:

where

As a measure of similarity between a pair of signal waveforms, we define the correlation coefficients

58

MFSK (contd)

1

0.715/T

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

59

M-ary orthogonal FSK has a geometric presenation as M M-dim orthogonal vectors, given as

s0 = s1

( E , 0, 0,, 0 ) = ( 0, E , 0, , 0 )

s s

s M 1 = 0, 0, , 0, Es

= m 2 cos 2 ( f c + mf ) t T

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

60

61

Pe is found by integrating conditional probability of error over the decision region

Difficult for multi-dimensions Can be simplified using union bound (see ch04)

62

Example #2

The 16-QAM signal constellation shown below is an international standard for telephone-line modems (called V.29).

a) b) Determine the optimum decision boundaries for the detector Derive the union bound of the probability of symbol error assuming that the SNR is sufficiently high so that errors only occur between adjacent points Specify a Gray code for this 16QAM V.29 signal constellation

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

c)

63

Symbol errors are different from bit errors When a symbol error occurs, all be in error In general, we can find BER using bits could

and

64

Gray coding is a bit-to-symbol mapping When going from one symbol to an adjacent symbol, only one bit out of the k bits changes An error between adjacent symbol pairs results in one and only one bit error.

65

11

10

01

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

00

66

For MPSK with gray coding

An error between adjacent symbol will most likely occur Thus, bit error probability can be approximated by

For MFSK

When an error occurs anyone of the other symbols may result equally likely. On average, therefore, half of the bits will be incorrect. That is k/2 bits every k bits will on average be in error when there is a symbol error Thus, the probability of bit error is approximately half the symbol error 1

Pb

Pe

67

Channel bandwidth and transmit power are two primary communication resources and have to be used as efficient as possible

Power utilization efficiency (energy efficiency): measured by the required Eb/No to achieve a certain bit error probability Spectrum utilization efficiency (bandwidth efficiency): measured by the achievable data rate per unit bandwidth Rb/B

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

68

Example # 3

Suppose you are a system engineer designing a part of the communication systems. You are required to design three systems as follow: I. An ultra-wideband system. This system can use a large of amount of bandwidth to communicate. But the band it uses is overlaying with the other communication system. The main purpose of deploying this system is to provide high data rates. II. A wireless remote control system designated for controlling devices remotely under unlicensed band. III. A fixed wireless system. The transmitters and receivers are mounted in a fixed position with power supply. This system is to support voice and data connections in the rural areas or in developing countries. The main reason to deploy this in such areas is because it is either very difficult or not costeffective to cover the area through wired networks. This system works under licensed band. You are only required to design a modulation scheme for each of the above systems. You are allowed to use MFSK, MPSK and MSK only. If you choose to use MFSK or MPSK, you also need to state the modulation level. For simplicity, the modulation level should be chosen from M=[Low, Medium, High]. Justify your answers. (Hints: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has a power spectral density limit in unlicensed band. It is meant that if your system works under unlicensed band, the power cannot be larger than a limit.)

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

69

MFSK MPSK

70

MFSK:

At fixed Eb/No, increase M can provide an improvement on Pb At fixed Pb increase M can provide a reduction in the Eb/No requirement

MPSK

BPSK and QPSK have the same energy efficiency At fixed Eb/No, increase M degrades Pb At fixed Pb, increase M increases the Eb/No requirement

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

71

To compare bandwidth efficiency, we need to know the power spectral density (power spectra) of a given modulation scheme MPSK/MQAM

Bandwidth required to pass MPSK/MQAM signal is given by

But

= bit rate

(bits/sec/Hz)

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

72

MFSK:

Bandwidth required to transmit MFSK signal is (Adjacent frequencies need to be separated by 1/2T to maintain orthogonality) Bandwidth efficiency of MFSK signal (bits/s/Hz)

As M increases, bandwidth efficiency of MPSK/MQAM increases, but bandwidth efficiency of MFSK decreases. This is a consequence of the fact that the dimension of the signal space is two for MPSK/MQAM and is M for MFSK.

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

73

Fundamental Tradeoff :

Bandwidth Efficiency and Energy Efficiency

To see the ultimate power-bandwidth tradeoff, we need to use Shannons channel capacity theorem:

Channel Capacity is the theoretical upper bound for the maximum rate at which information could be transmitted without error (Shannon 1948) For a bandlimited channel corrupted by AWGN, the maximum rate achievable is given by

Thus

Eb B R / B = (2 1) N0 R

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

74

Power-Bandwidth Tradeoff

Capacity boundary with R = C

Shannon limit

75

In the limits as R/B goes to 0, we get

This value is called the Shannon Limit Received Eb/N0 must be >-1.6dB for reliable communications to be possible BPSK and QPSK require the same Eb/N0 of 9.6 dB to achieve Pe=10-5. However, QPSK has a better bandwidth efficiency, which is why QPSK is so popular MQAM is superior to MPSK MPSK/MQAM increases bandwidth efficiency at the cost of lower energy efficiency MFSK trades energy efficiency at reduced bandwidth efficiency.

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

76

Bandwidth Limited Systems: Bandwidth scarce Power available

Power Limited Systems: Power scarce but bandwidth available

77

Example # 3

Suppose you are a system engineer designing a part of the communication systems. You are required to design three systems as follow: I. An ultra-wideband system. This system can use a large of amount of bandwidth to communicate. But the band it uses is overlaying with the other communication system. The main purpose of deploying this system is to provide high data rates. II. A wireless remote control system designated for controlling devices remotely under unlicensed band. III. A fixed wireless system. The transmitters and receivers are mounted in a fixed position with power supply. This system is to support voice and data connections in the rural areas or in developing countries. The main reason to deploy this in such areas is because it is either very difficult or not costeffective to cover the area through wired networks. This system works under licensed band. You are only required to design a modulation scheme for each of the above systems. You are allowed to use MFSK, MPSK and MSK only. If you choose to use MFSK or MPSK, you also need to state the modulation level. For simplicity, the modulation level should be chosen from M=[Low, Medium, High]. Justify your answers. (Hints: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has a power spectral density limit in unlicensed band. It is meant that if your system works under unlicensed band, the power cannot be larger than a limit.)

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

78

Practical Applications

BPSK: WLAN IEEE802.11b (1 Mbps) QPSK:

WLAN IEEE802.11b (2 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, 11 Mbps) 3G WDMA DVB-T (with OFDM)

QAM

Telephone modem (16QAM) Downstream of Cable modem (64QAM, 256QAM) WLAN IEEE802.11a/g (16QAM for 24Mbps, 36Mbps; 64QAM for 38Mbps and 54 Mbps) LTE Cellular Systems

FSK:

Cordless telephone Paging system

2012/2013 Meixia Tao @ SJTU

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