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ManufacturingandCertificationofComposite PrimaryStructuresforCivilandMilitaryAircrafts ARUpadhya

CSIR-NAL 1959-2009

Director CouncilofScientificandIndustrialResearch NationalAerospaceLaboratories,Bangalore,India

ICASBiennialWorkshoponAdvancedMaterials& Manufacturing Certification&OperationalChallenges

Stockholm,Sweden, 5th September2011

Development of national strengths in aerospace sciences and technologies Infrastructure, facilities and expertise I f t t f iliti d ti
In-house, Grant-in-aid, Sponsored projects

Advanced technology solutions to national aerospace programmes Fighter aircraft, gas turbine engines, defense y , , systems, defense services, launch vehicles and satellites, space systems
Sponsored projects

Civil aeronautics development (since 1990s) Design and development of small and mediumsized civil aircraft - Promote a vibrant Indian civil aviation industry a iation ind str
Government funding, Industry partnership

Core competence at NAL spans practically the whole aerospace sector

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN & ANALYSIS

STRUCTURAL TESTING NAL SCORE NALS CORE STRENGTHIN COMPOSITES

MANUFACTURING

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION

STRUCTURAL REPAIR

ADVANCED RESEARCH

STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING

Evolution of Composites at NAL

90110SeaterNCA
InitialDevelopment: BridgeDeckPlates, RadomeDevelopment, DO228Rudderwith DLRGermany

14SeaterSARAS 14 Seater SARAS

LCA Tejas 2SeaterHANSA 2 S t HANSA


1980-90 1993 2001 2004 2017

NALsHANSA,ALightAllComposite TrainerAircraft Trainer Aircraft


Length overall Wing span Empty weight All-up weight Usable fuel capacity : : : : : 25 ft (7.6m) 34.35 (10 47m) 34 35 ft (10.47m) 550 Kg 750 kg 85 litres

Two-bladed constant speed Hoffmann propeller of diameter 1730mm.

Performance
Stall speed with 20 flaps Max. cruise speed Max. Max rate of climb Endurance Landing distance Take-off distance : : : : : : 43 KIAS 96 KIAS 650 ft/min 4 hours 1770 ft (540 m) 1355 ft (415 m)

Rotax 914F3 (turbo charged engine with 100 BHP max. continuous power @ 5500 rpm)

Certified under JAR-VLA in 2000

Advanced Technology Features


HINGELESS MAIN ROTOR

ARIS- 6 DEGREE OF FREEDOM

INTEGRATED DYNAMIC SYSTEM

ADVANCED COCKPIT

EXTENSIVE USE OF COMPOSITES

CRASHWORTHY CREW SEATS

MODERN ENGINE WITH FADEC

BEARINGLESS TAIL ROTOR

India makes it to Global Composites Scene with LCA- Tejas Program

Courtesy: Boeing

LCA - ROLES & SALIENT FEATURES

Air Defence Roles Point Intercept Escort Air Superiority

Offensive Air Support Close Air Support Interdiction

Maritime Reconnaissance and Strike

Operational Mass : 9000 Kgs Max. Mach No. : 1.8 Max. Max War Load : 4500 Kgs Max. Altitude : 15 Kms

TECHNOLOGIES
Unstable Configuration High Agility & Maneuverability Control laws Advanced Carefree Maneuverability Advanced Materials (Composite Wing, Fin, Elevons, Fuselage Elevons Fuselage, Rudder, Doors & Hatches) Reduced Weight Increased Life R d Reduced Si d Signature

Digital Fly By Wire Flight Control System

Flat Rated Engine E Easy R l Ch Role Change

Advanced Avionics Easy Role Change

Stealth RCS IR

Multi Mode Radar Advanced Sensors

Glass Cockpit Reduced Pilot Load

General Systems Carbon brake disc 4000 PSI Hyd System ECS for tropical Climate Utility systems

Structural Optimization of Composite Wing Skins for Stress,Buckling, Aeroelasticity and Technological Constraints

Composite Parts made for LCA-Tejas by NAL

45% by weight in composites

Benefits of Integration through Cocuring CSIR NAL CSIR-NAL has developed Cocuring technology within the country for Light Combat Aircraft (LCA-Tejas) and SARAS aircraft
No holes- No stress concentration Increased stiffness of structure Better aerodynamic surface Reduced R d d assembly time bl ti Weight saving No fuel leakage

NALdevelopedcompositespartsinLCATejas
Integralribskincocured construction Resultedinweightsavingsof35% anda20%weightreductionin and a 20% weight reduction in modifiedrudder Fabricationdoneusingprepregs withahybridizationoftooling technologiesliketapewinding anddissolvablecoretechnology d di l bl t h l Costreducedbyabout30% Fin Fin inner details

MLG Door

Rudder

Torque shaft

NALdevelopedcompositespartsinLCATejas

Fuselage Top Skin

Air Channel Dividing Wall

Co-cured CFC Circular Duct

LCA CFC Wing Assembly

TESTFACILITIESDEVELOPEDFORLCA

CompositeLayupShop

Autoclave

CScan

Lightningtestrig

Test Facilities
StructuralCouplingTest MainAirframeStaticTest

GroundVibrationTest

HalfWingTest

FullAircraftTest

Feature Level Testing for LCA


Fatigue testing for 5 life cycle Environmental aging g g Static testing under Hot Wet
Spar-3 pt Spar 3 pt. bending

CFC-CFC joint

L-Joint, BLK#18 Y-Joint, Circular Duct Spar opening

CFC-Metal j i t CFC M t l joint I

CFC-Metal joint II Skin T-Shear Skin-Spar Joint TT Pull T-Shear Stiffener

WINGROOTFITTINGBOX DRYASSEMBLY&FINALASSEMBLY WING BUCKLING TEST BOX

WING FUEL TANK SEALING TEST BOX

O/B Elevon test box

Fatigue and burst pressure


testing of Drop Tank Nose cone

BOX LEVEL TESTS

Testing of LCA Wing

- FLEXIBLE TEST RIG TO SIMULATE STIFFNESS EFFECTS - ISOSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM - INSTRUMENTED REACTIONS SIMULTANEOUS EXTERNAL & REACTION LOADING

Development of a Light Transport Aircraft


14 seater multi-role LTA - SARAS multiHybrid (metal + composite) airframe CFC flaps, control surfaces, fairings P&WC PT6A-67A turbo-prop engine 1200 SHP 2.65 (5 bladed) constant speed propeller Max. cruise speed Max. cruise altitude Max. R/C, ISA, SL Endurance T.O. distance, ISA, SL Landing distance, ISA, SL : : : : : : 550 km / h 9 km 700 m / min. ~ 5h 700 m 850 m

Design to meet FAR-23 requirements

Materials used for LCA and SARAS programmes


1.

AS4/914 Prepreg materials from Hexcel composites Pvt Ltd; 180 deg C curing systems; Dry D Tg =175 deg C 175 d Unidirectional fabric from Hexcel Composites and Resin from Axson France for the VERITy p process; 80 deg C cure followed by 180 deg C ; g y g post cure: Dry Tg of 145 deg C Rohacell foam for stringers and access covers

2.

3.

VERITy process mechanical p p yp properties within 2 % of prepreg properties

Composite Parts in SARAS Aircraft


Radome

HORIZONTAL STABILIZER FRONT TOP SKIN

ELEVATOR FLOOR BOARD WING

New Processing Technology: VERITy


AILERON

INBOARD FLAP OUTBOARD FLAP

35% by weight in composites

REAR PRESSURE BULK HEAD

FIN

HT Components of SARAS

Cocured Inter Spar Box with Bottom Skin With 2 Spars, 11 Ribs, 7 Stringers p p , , g

Size: 5.5mx 1m

Cocured Top Skin with Stringers


Metal Weight No. of parts No. of Fasteners 92 Kg 243 10,500 Composite 70 Kg (24%) 11 2900

HT Tip Cocured with Stringers

Horizontal Tail of SARAS: Cocured Bottom Section

Horizontal Tail aft box Comparative chart Metal Weight 32.0 kgs. No. of parts 75 No. of 5200 fasteners Assembly 4 weeks Composites p 24.0 kgs. 1 Nil Nil

Dimensions: 5.5mx1m. The skin is cocured with stringers, ribs and spars.

Tooling Concepts

Basic outer CFC Mould

Internal Flexible tools

Skin stringer Integration

Skin stringer spar Integration

Final bag for curing

Vertical Tail of SARAS

Cocured Inter Spar Box with 6 Spars and a Mid Rib


Metal Weight of IS Box No. of parts No. of Fasteners Total VT weight 65 Kg 130 1100 126 Kg Composite 50 Kg (23%) 01 0 101Kg (20%)

Size: 2.8mx1.8m

MasterModelForMould

Rh&LHMouldAssembly

CuredComponent

SkinBondedWithSpars& MidRibs

FinalBaggingforCuring Final Bagging for Curing

Cocured CFC Pressure Bulkhead of SARAS


Ring Dome shaped rear wall

1.8 m diameter dome having a depth of 175 mm, with thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.00 3 00 mm

Accuracy of outer contour and gusset spacing = +/- 0.5 mm Metal Composite 17 Kg (50%) 0

Weight No. of Fasteners

34 Kg 700

All the above were fabricated using Prepregs and th b f bi t d i P d Autoclave Moulding Technology

Challenge: How t cut costs??? Ch ll H to t t ??? One l ti Liquid Moulding Technology O solution- Li id M ldi T h l

LCM and its Variants


RTM (Resin transfer moulding) RIM ( Resin injection moulding) VARTM ( vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding) SCRIMP ( Seeman composite resin infusion moulding process) DCVRTM (Double chamber vacuum resin transfer moulding) FASTRAC ( Fast remotely activated channels) RFI ( Resin Film Infusion) SRIM ( Structural reaction injection moulding) VERITy ( Vacuum enhanced resin infusion technology) Developed b NAL D l d by

VERITy Process
Reinforcement Mould Resin infusion Resin impregnates fibers under vacuum

Resin

Vacuum pump

Consolidation Under 1 Bar External Pressure and Vacuum

Cured part

Vacuum Vacuum pump

Development of Integrated Wing Structures at NAL using VERITy Process


SARAS Wing: Substructure Details

BuildingBlockApproachforCompositeWingofSARASAircraft
Component Level FullScaleTest

`
TestBoxwithSkin &SparSplices LightningTestBox

SubComponentLevel p

FeatureLevel
SkinSplice SparSplice BirdImpactTest OnLeadingEdge

SingleLapBearingTest LAngleOpeningTest TPullStrength g Tension/Compression/ShearStrength Unnotched BluntNotch

ElementLevel (TestsatRT&ETW) CouponLevel (TestsatRT, ETW&CTA)

Box Level Studies using VERITy : SARAS Wing Test Box


Structural Details of Wing Test Box

Cocured bottom box

Assembled box undergoing Static Testing

Flow Sensor Development

Fibre Optic Flow Sensor


180 mm Resin Flow F Process After Embedment Before Infusion Resin crossed Sensor 1 Resin crossed Sensor - 2 Resin crossed Sensor - 3 Sensor 1 a b Sensor 2 a b Sensor 3 a b 10 mm 00

S-1 S1

S-2 S2

S-3 S3

c c c

b c c

b b c

Instrument

ResinVIEW Software Development


LabVIEW & MATLAB based modular code development for real time resin flow. flow Enables sequential infusion based on NetSense feedback. Resin arrival time information important for future infusion strategy and modeling. Low cost reusable sensor & modular open system architecture system.

00:00:00

00:54:15 01:31:38

SARAS Wing Components made using VERITy


Top Skin 6mx2m Inner Side

Top Skin 6mx2m Outer Side

Thickness varies from 1.7 mm to 8.6 mm Thickness of hat stringer is 1.36 mm

Centre Top Skin

1) 48 parts cocured t d 2) 41 Kgs 3) Complex ribs

SARAS Outboard Wing: Integrated Wing Concepts Cocured Coinfused Wing Bottom Skin with Substructure

Cocured Ribs and Stringers St i

@ 300 parts Cocured in one shot

Cocured Rib with Gussets

Cocured Spar with Gussets

Tool Design
Infusion St t I f i Strategy
Infusion strategy plays a key role, especially in components where the thickness and geometry of a p g y component varies from section to section and a lot of features are to be co-cured. In large structures sequential and/or parallel infusion structures, strategies need to be employed, as there is a limited time available to complete the infusion.

Vacuum B V Bagging T h l i Technology


This is yet another aspect that needs to be dealt with in order to get a complex co cured component that meets the required specifications of compaction and dimensions. Care has to be taken to avoid any Bridging at the radius and proper vacuum communication needs to be maintained throughout the cure of the component to ensure proper f consolidation of the part.

FabricationMethodology
Cocured Component

Master Model
Finished Master Model

5.8 m

Resin Infusion using VERITy Preform Layup & assembly

Mould Layup

1.8m
Finished Mould

Finished Mould

Internal Tool Development

Locator Development

Trial Assembly of Wing

Manufacturing & Assembly Issues


1) Toolcorrectionsforspringforwardbehaviourofcompositesistrail anderrormethodanddifficultforcomplexcompositeparts.

2) Thicknessgrowth2%to+8%incompositesareleadtoassembly fitmentproblems. 3) Maintainingthefiberdirectionduringthelayupofcomplex componentisdifficultissue. 4) Outofplaneloadsareimportantwhenlaminateisassembledwith mechanicalfasteners.Iffastenerpullingforcesaretoohigh, Compositesexperiencedelaminate&possiblelossofstructural p p p integrity.

5) Presenceofplydrops,lapjoints(BDComposites)andtheirvariability inthicknessresultsinhigherthicknessshimwhenmatingwith machinedmetallicmembersduringtheassembly.

Operational Issues with composite Structure


1) RemovalofPanels:Ascompositehavelowwearresistanceas comparedtometal,holesareelongatingaspanelsareremoved frequently.Incaseoffueltanks,fuelisleaksduetothiselongates. frequently. In case of fuel tanks, fuel is leaks due to this elongates. Remedial:Usemetallicsleeves/bushesfortheseholes 2) Delaminationsareoccurringduringdrilling&othermachining 2) Delaminations are occurring during drilling & other machining operationsevenforminordeviationintheprocesslikeimproper supportduringdrillinganddirectdrillingofhigherdiameterholes. 3) Ascompositesarebrittle,evenminordeviationsinthecontouris difficultduringassembly. 4) Theinspectiontimerequiredforcompositestructuresismoreas comparedtometallicstructures.Itisdifficulttoinspectthe delamination/damagesotherthanthroughtheultrasonicinspection. d l /d h h h h h l Someimpactdamagearenoticedonlyduringschedulemaintenance period.

Operational Issues with composite Structure Contd


5) Moreprecautionshavetotakenwhilewalkingoncomposite partslikewingasitleadstodelamination/debondingwhen thereislocalhardpoints. ) g g q y p 6) Edgedamagesareoccursfrequentlywhencomposites doors/panelareremovedfromtheaircraft&during installation. 7) Fuelleaksareoccurringduringtheservice(12years)dueto resinstarvationzoneseventhoughitiscleanedstructurally. 8) Modificationofcompositestructuresduetooperation requirementslikeinstallationofnewequipmentsetc,is difficultascomparedtometal. difficult as compared to metal.

Damage Tolerance Studies towards certification

Aspects
Damage threats & classification Aspects of damage tolerant design Airworthiness requirements Ai thi i t Structure substantiation
Building block approach Test Sequence/Protocol

Damage Threats
Processinganomaliesandinprocesshandlingdamages Inservicedamages:E.g.Tooldrops,groundvehicle I i d E T ld d hi l impacts,birdstrikes,runwaydebris,uncontainedengine rotorfailureetc. rotor failure etc. Environmentaldamages:E.g.Hail,Lightningstrike, Moistureingression,UVradiationetc. g , IATAsurvey:Groundhandlingandmoistureintrusionare mostcommonsourcesofdamage

Damage classification
Barely visible impact damage (BVID)
Small damages that may not be found during inspection Typical dent depth 0.5 to 1 mm

BVID

Visible impact damage (VID) and penetrations Scratches, gouges, surface and coating inspections Fluid and moisture ingress Delamination, debonds etc. Thermal damage; Chemical g ; damage; Others

C-scan of CFRP laminate with BVID

Why should we care about impact damage?


Laminated composites have very low shear strength, hence are susceptible to impact damage Invisible internal delamination and BVID are most detrimental and leads to low allowable load/strain in design Impact damage is accommodated by limiting the design strain leading to significant conservativeness Safety & economical reasons damage has to be detected and repaired during inspection and maintenance

Typical Energy Levels for Projectile Impact

Courtesy: Impact on aircraft, Marclio Alves et.al.

Aspects of Damage Tolerant Design


Residual strength capability
Residual strength of several damage scenarios to be demonstrated after application of repeated loading d d f li i f d l di

Damage growth characterization


No initiation No growth approach is usually adopted

Usual design practices


Multiple/Redundant load paths Materials with slow crack growth rates Design for good inspectability

Civil Aviation Authorities


Federal AviationAdministration FAA Federal Aviation Regulations AviationRegulations FAR AirworthinessDirectives AD AdvisoryCirculars AC EuropeanAviationSafety g y Agency EASA CertificationSpecifications Certification Specifications CS AirworthinessDirectives AD

Compliance to FAR/CS
Allowable damage that may go undetected
(DUL residual strength; No growth for minimum of 2 service lives)

Damage detected by field inspection


(DLL residual strength; No growth until 2 inspection intervals)

Discrete source damage known to pilot


(Continued safe-flight; get-home loads)

All damage that lowers strength below DUL must be repaired when found Any damage that is repaired must withstand DUL and not impair safe operation of the aircraft for its lifetime

Damage Tolerance Test Protocol


Acceptable Manufacturing Defects Strain Survey at 60% DLL Fatigue Loads One Life Strain Survey at 60% DLL

Panel

Panel

Introduce BVID Strain Survey at DUL t Fatigue: Two Inspection Interval

Monitor Damage during Static & Fatigue g Testing

Fatigue Loads One Life Strain Survey At DUL

Panel

Strain Survey at DLL

Fatigue: Two Inspection Interval

Panel P l
Strain Survey at 60% DLL

The Next Design Philosophy???


Design Philosophies Safe-life Fail-safe Damage tolerance

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)


Sensors can be embedded in the structure Attained certain degree of maturity and field trials started Can we go for a SHM based design? g g Is it possible to build a light weight and damage tolerant structure using this philosophy? What are the Issues?

Benefits of Structural Health Monitoring


Condition-based maintenance or maintenance-ondemand
Lower maintenance costs L i t t Higher availability of aircraft

Prognostic capabilities of SHM


Better fleet management leading to better resource utilization

SHM-based design
Move away from Damage Tolerance design philosophy Lower weight, lower operating costs

HANSA Flight Trials

Real Time Measurement

Strain Variation During Take-off


600 FBG 130 L FBG 130 R FBG 190 L FBG 190 R FBG 250 L FBG 250 R

500

Strain (m microstra ain)

400

300

200

Starting on Runway
100 0

Level Flight

-100

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (secs)

Strain Variation During Flight Maneuvers


3g
1400 FBG 130 FBG 130 FBG 190 FBG 190 FBG 250 FBG 250 L R L R L R

1200

2g 1.5g 15

St train (mic crostrain)

1000

Level Flight
800

600

400

200

0 800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

Time (secs)

Flight Trial of SHM system on Nishant UAV


A successful flight trial of SHM system was f l fli ht t i l f t conducted on Nishant UAV on October 28, 2010 at 12:15 PM at Kolar. The Th UAV was flown for more than two h fl f th t hours as per the flight plan starting from catapult launch, various flight maneuvers and recovered as per parachute recovery recovery.

More than 6GB of FBG sensor data throughout the flight was acquired. g g q Challenge: Large volume flight data processing and load estimation QuickVIEW software was developed Temperature compensation with Push-Pull topology Push Pull Sensor data integration with flight data (pitch, yaw, roll etc.) On-site data view and load estimation using ANN based load estimator.

Flight Data Analysis Results

Parachute Recovery R Catapult Launch

SHM of Nishant UAV Using Fiber Optic Sensors

Smart Concepts: SMA based HANSA trim tab actuation

Wind Tunnel Tests


Windtunneltestshavebeen carriedoutatdifferentwind velocitiesof25,35&42m/s

HorizontalTail

Elevator

Trimtab

SMAactuatedtrimtabremained stableinthedeflectedcondition bl i h d fl d di i underthewindload.

Wind tunnel testing of trim tab & Hor. Tail

Concluding remarks
Challengeistoreducecost Aerospacematerials&associateddesignand A t i l & i t dd i d manufacturingprocessesmustbeoptimizedinan integratedmannertodelivercostefficientproducts g p Environmentaleffectsandissuesofrecyclingtobe addressed Advancedstrikeraircraftsbeingdevelopedwhichwill flyathighermachnos:henceneedcompositestomeet highertemperatures. hi h t t Stealthtechnologyisamajorareaofresearch New materialsandnanocoatings materials and nano coatings

Concluding remarks
Needtoreducemaintenancecostsandhavefullyon lineSHMsystems Smartmaterials/structuresformorphing FMLforenergyabsorptionneedtobefullydeveloped f b i d b f ll d l d Mechanicfriendlyrepairtechnologytobeestablished Betterunderstandingofdamagetolerance:more B tt d t di fd t l robustfailuretheories willenablefastercertification AllfieldsofEngineeringlikelytousemorecomposites All fields of Engineering likely to use more composites challengeishigherefficiencyatalowercost

CSIR-NAL 1959-2009