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****PHARMACEUTICS**** The study of how various dosage forms influence the way in which the body metabolizes a drug

and the way in which the drug affects the body. (influences pharmacokinetic and pharmacodymanic activities) - Dissolution: dissolving of solid dosage forms and their absorption occurs. - Drug Absorption Rates (ORAL): 1. liquids, elixirs, syrups (FASTEST) 2. suspension solutions 3. powders 4. capsules 5. tablets 6. coated tablets 7. enteric-coated tablets (SLOWEST) - Dosage Forms: 1. Enteral: tablets, capsules, pills, timed-release capsules, timed-release tablets, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, emulsions, solutions, lozenges, troches, rectal suppositories, sublingual or buccal tablets. 2. Parenteral: injectable forms, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, powders for reconstitution. 3. Topical: aerosols, ointments, creams, pastes, powders, solutions, foams, gels, transdermal patches, inhalers, rectal and vaginal suppositories. ****PHARMACOKINETICS**** The study of what the body does to the drug molecules: 1. absorption 2. distribution 3. metabolism 4. excretion. Characteristics: 1. time to onset of action 2. time to peak effect 3. duration of action

**1. Absorption** The movement of a drug form from its site of administration into the bloodstream for distribution to the tissues. - First-Pass Effect: the initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed form the GI tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream. It reduces the bioavailability of the drug to less than 100%. - First Pass Routes: 1. hepatic arterial 2. oral 3. portal venous 4. rectal* (both first and non-first) - Non-First Pass Routes: 1. aural 2. buccal/sublingual 3. injection (IV/IM etc.) 4. transdermal - Bioavailability: extent of drug absorption. - Bioequivalence: same bioavailability and same concentration of active ingredient. - Routes of Absorption: 1. enteral (sublingual/buccal) 2. parenteral (route of administration other than GI) 3. topical (transdermal/inhaled) **2. Distribution** The transport of drug by the bloodstream to its site of action. - Route of Rapid Distribution: 1. heart 2.liver 3. kidneys 4. brain - Route of Slow Distribution: 1. muscle 2. skin 3. fat - "Free" Drug: pharmacologically ACTIVE (non-protein bound)

- "Bound" Drug: pharmacologically INACTIVE (protein bound) - Drug-Drug Interaction: unpredictable drug response, occurs when the presence of one drug decreases/increases the actions of another drug given at the same time. - Volume of Distribution: used to describe the various areas in which drugs may be distributed. - Water Soluble Drugs (hydrophilic): small volume of distribution and high blood concentrations. - Fat Soluble Drugs (lipophilic): larger volume of distribution and low blood concentrations. **3. Metabolism** Also referred to biotransformation, it involves the biochemical alteration of a drug into: 1. inactive metabolite 2. more soluble metabolite 3. potent metabolite - Sites Responsible for Metabolism: 1. liver (most responsible) 2. skeletal muscle 3. kidneys 4. lungs 5. plasma 6. intestinal mucosa - Factors That Decrease Metabolism: 1. cardiovascular 2. renal insufficiency 3. starvation 4. obstructive jaundice 5. slow acetylator 6. P-450 inhibitor (ketoconazole) - Factors That Increase Metabolism: 1. fast acetylator 2. barbiturates 3. P-450 inducers (rifampin, phenytoin) - Metabolic Delay: accumulation/prolonged action of drugs which can lead to drug toxicity. - Metabolic Stimulation: causes diminished effects.

**4. Excretion** The elimination of drugs from the body. - Organs Responsible for Excretion: 1. kidneys/renal (main) 2. liver 3. bowel (intestines) ****PHARMACODYMANICS**** The study of what the drug does to the body. Involves drug-receptor interactions. - Drug Actions: the cellular processes involved in the drug and cellular interaction. - Drug Effect: the physiologic reaction of the body to the drug.