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A comprehensive Project report submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Award of MBA Degree

Dr. Sunil Misra

Rathod Sheetal(117880592018) Vaghasiya Sajal(117880592025)



Kum. C.C. Gardi School of Management

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We Rathod Sheetal and Vaghasiya Sajal hereby declare that the comprehensive study report entitled Child Labour in the Unorganized Sector is a result of our own work and our indebtedness to other work publications, references, if any, have been duly acknowledged.

Place: Date: Rathod Sheetal

Vaghasiya Sajal

Today we are at the door step of 21st century. The world is widening without having a New and new developments are coming these days in all fields all over India to make the people life more comfortable and luxurious. The industries are growing so fast in India in order to satisfy all the needs of people. Similarly government has supported to these companies for their development and progress of private companies.

Thus in order to survive in the market one should have theoretical as well as Practical knowledge about all different fields prevailing in market. With this view point, for this we have chosen Sri Lanka country for Global country Report.

We feel pleasure to submit this report, which includes the practical aspect of study. We are very happy to express our deepest gratitude to all persons who spared their valuable time and helped us in preparation of this Global Country Report.

We would like to thank our project guide Dr.Sunil Misra and for his moral support and guidance.


Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, children as young as four were employed in production factories with dangerous, and often fatal, working conditions. Based on this understanding of the use of children as labourers, it is now considered by wealthy countries to be a human rights violation, and is outlawed, while some poorer countries may allow or tolerate child labour. Child labour can also be defined as the full-time employment of children who are under a minimum legal age. Victorian era

Children going to a 12-hour night shift in the United States (1908). The Victorian era became notorious for employing young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps. Child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset, often brought about by economic hardship. Charles Dickens for example worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory, with his family in debtor's prison. The children of the poor were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous

jobs for low pay, earning 10-20% of an adult male's wage. In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children. In 19th-century Great Britain, one-third of poor families were without a breadwinner, as a result of death or abandonment, obliging many children to work from a young age. Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers and other cheap goods. Some children undertook work as apprentices to respectable trades, such as building or as domestic servants (there were over 120,000 domestic servants in London in the mid-18th century). Working hours were long: builders worked 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, while domestic servants worked 80 hour weeks. Early 1900s In the early 1900s, thousands of boys were employed in glass making industries. Glass making was a dangerous and tough job especially without the current technologies. The process of making glass includes intense heat to melt glass (3133 F). When the boys are at work, they are exposed to this heat. This could cause eye trouble, lung aliments, heat exhaustion, cut, and burns. Since workers were paid by the piece, they had to work productively for hours without a break. Since furnaces had to be constantly burning, there were night shifts from 5:00 pm to 3:00 am Many factory owners preferred boys under 16 years of age. Children as young as three were put to work. A high number of children also worked as prostitutes. Many children (and adults) worked 16-hour days. As early as 1802 and 1819 Factory Acts were passed to regulate the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts were largely ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" in 1831, a Royal Commission recommended in 1833 that children aged 1118 should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged 911 a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age of nine were no longer permitted to work. This act however only applied to the textile industry, and further agitation led to another act in 1847 limiting both adults and children to 10-hour working days. An estimated 1.7 million children under the age of fifteen were employed in American industry by 1900.

In 1910, over 2 million children in the same age group were employed in the United States. This included children who rolled cigarettes, engaged in factory work, worked as bobbin doffers in textile mills, worked in coal mines and were employed in canneries. Lewis Hine's photographs of child labourers in the 1910s powerfully evoked the plight of working children in the American south. Hines took these photographs between 1908 and 1917 as staff photographer for the National Child Labour Committee. Household enterprises Factories and mines were not the only place where child labour was prevalent in early 20th century. Home-based manufacturing across the United States and Europe employed children in tedious work. Poverty and misery were commonplace. Governments and reformers argued that labour in factories must be regulated and the state had an obligation to provide welfare for poor. Ironically, legislation that followed had an opposite effect. Work moved out of factories into urban homes. Families and women in particular preferred it because it allowed them to generate income while taking care of household duties. Home-based manufacturing operations were active year round. Families willingly deployed their children in these income generating home enterprises. In many cases, men worked from home. In France, over 58 percent of garment workers operated out of their homes; in Germany, the number of full-time home operations nearly doubled between 1882 to 1907; and in the United States, millions of families operated out of home seven days a week, year round to produce garments, shoes, artificial flowers, feathers, match boxes, toys, umbrellas and other products. Children aged 514 worked alongside the parents. Home-based operations and child labour in Australia, Britain, Austria and other parts of the world was common. Rural areas similarly saw families deploying their children in agriculture. In 1946, Frieda Miller - then Director of United States Department of Labour - told the International Labour Organisation that these home-based operations offered, "low wages, long hours, child labour, unhealthy and insanitary working conditions." . 21st century Incidence rates for child labour worldwide, per World Bank data. The data is incomplete, as many countries do not collect or report child labour data (colored gray). The color code is as follows: yellow (<10% of children working), green (10-20%), orange (20-30%), red (30-

40%) and black (>40%). Some nations such as Guinea-Bissau, Mali and Ethiopia have more than half of all children aged 5-14 at work to make ends meet. Child labour is still common in many parts of the world. Estimates for child labour vary. It ranges between 250 to 304 million, if children aged 517 involved in any economic activity are counted. If light occasional work is excluded, ILO estimates there were 153 million child labourers aged 514 worldwide in 2008. This is about 20 million less than ILO estimate for child labourers in 2004. Some 60 percent of the child labour was involved in agricultural activities such as farming, dairy, fisheries and forestry. Another 25 percent of child labourers were in service activities such as retail, hawking goods, restaurants, load and transfer of goods, storage, picking and recycling trash, polishing shoes, domestic help, and other services. The remaining 15 percent laboured in assembly and manufacturing in informal economy, home-based enterprises, factories, mines, packaging salt, operating machinery, and such operations. Two out of three child workers work along side their parents, in unpaid family work situations. Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants. Child labour predominantly occurs in the rural areas (70%) and informal urban sector (26%). Contrary to popular beliefs, most child labourers are employed by their parents rather than in manufacturing or formal economy. Children who work for pay or in-kind compensation are usually found in rural settings, than urban centers. Less than 3 percent of child labour aged 5 14 across the world work outside of their household, or away from their parents. Child labour accounts for 22% of the workforce in Asia, 32% in Africa, 17% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations. The proportion of child labourers varies greatly among countries and even regions inside those countries. Africa has the highest percentage of children aged 517 employed as child labour, and a total of over 65 million. Asia, with its larger population, has the largest number of children employed as child labour at about 114 million. Latin America and Caribbean region has lower overall population density, but at 14 million child labourers has high incidence rates too.

A boy repairing a tire in. Accurate present day child labour information is difficult to obtain because of disagreements between data sources as to what constitutes child labour? In some countries, government policy contributes to this difficulty. For example, the overall extent of child labour in China is unclear due to the government categorizing child labour data as highly secret. China has enacted regulations to prevent child labour; still, the practice of child labour is reported to be a persistent problem within China, generally in agriculture and low-skill service sectors as well as small workshops and manufacturing enterprises. Maplecroft Child Labour Index 2012 survey reports 76 countries pose extreme child labour complicity risks for companies operating worldwide. The ten highest risk countries in 2012, ranked in decreasing order, were: Myanmar, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, Burundi, Pakistan and Ethiopia. Of the major growth economies, Maplecroft ranked Philippines 25th riskiest, India 27th, China 36th, Viet Nam 37th, Indonesia 46th, and Brazil 54th - all of them rated to involve extreme risks of child labour uncertainties, to corporations seeking to invest in developing world and import products from emerging markets.

General Information: About the industry:Unorganized sector

The unorganized sector has not been defined anywhere scientifically. Nor was there any serious attempt to define this word or phrase. However, this term was used to speak of availability or non-availability of certain benefits or rights to the working class outside the organized sector. Sometimes this sector is also termed as the informal sector. The first National Labour commission has however tried to define this term to some extent for the purpose of their report. We may use the same analogy for our understanding. The commission opined the group of workers, who cannot be defined by definition but could be described as those who have not been able to organize in pursuit of a common objective because of constraints such as:

hments with low capital investment, persons


This definition or analogy of the first national labour commission will help us understand what the unorganized sector is. Therefore based on this it can be identifying the workforce with the above attributions in:

ing construction workers

-scale industry

Domestic servants and other workers who do not fall under any of the above category but earn their lively hood by manual work and those self employed & not the masters of any other employees also form part of these unorganized work force. The term unorganized labor can also used in the context of employment, regulation and protection of labour. The unorganized labour covers: Wage labour Self-employed Casual labour etc.

Their earnings are very low. They are either unorganized or poorly organized and do not enjoy any social security protection as well as benefit available to organized labour.

As per the survey carried out by the National Sample Survey Organization in the year 200405, the total employment in both organized and unorganized sector in the country was of the order of 45.9 crore. Out of this, about 2.6 crore were in the organized sector and the balance 43.3. Crore in the unorganized sector. Out of 43.3 crore workers in the unorganized sector, 26.9 crore workers were employed in agriculture sector, 2.6 crore in construction, and remaining were in manufacturing activities, trade and transport, communication & services. A large number of unorganized workers are home based and are engaged in occupations such as beedi rolling, agarbatti making, papad making, tailoring, and embroidery work.

Child labour:
A general benchmark of child labour would include all children that are engaged in work that could be harmful to them. UNICEF defines child labour as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours, depending on the age of a child and on the type of work. Such work is considered harmful to the child and should therefore be eliminated. The ILO Convention No 182 defines the worst forms of child labour as slavery and forced labour, commercial sexual exploitation, illicit activities and hazardous work.

Background of Child Labour:

Children continue to form a sizeable section of the labour force in several fields of employment around the world. In the developing countries, the incidence of child participation in the labour force is considerably high. Not surprising therefore a consensus exists across the world that child labour represents a serious threat to social development. The latest estimates of child labour in India by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), shows an increase in the number of working children in India, from 10.1million to 10.6 million between 1999 and 2005. Also, a substantial proportion of child labour remains uncounted because children who are currently out of school may be working unreported. It is widely agreed that the main forces driving child labour are poverty and lack of education.

If you see the history, the Child Labour, relates back to the period of the industrial revolution where, children at the age of four, were employed in the production work in a factory, facing dangerous and fatal working conditions.

In the later period, i.e., Victorian Era, children were employed in factories and mines, Thereafter, slowly their work spread almost to all sections of society both in organized and unorganised sectors like Carpet industry, Match and fireworks, stone quarrying work (Moradabad), Glass bangles (Faridabad), Zari making (Lucknow), Lock making etc.

Now, it is to be found that more in restaurants, rag picking, Dhabas, domestic servants, shops, coolies, boot polishing, milk vending, newspaper vending, Begging, brick furnaces, etc. Thus, the child labour has become more common now.

This issue has gathered momentum internationally and United Nation and the International Labour Organization have considered this issue and suggested various remedial measures. U.N. Convention on the rights of the children, in Art.32 reiterates that States recognize the rights of the children to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work which is likely to be hazardous or the interfere with the childs education or to be harmful to the childs health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral, or social developments.

Almost all countries have become signatories of this Convention making it more legal internationally in respect of prohibiting illegal Child labour.

World Market:
According to the latest report of the International Labor Organization (ILO), 246 million children between the ages of 5-17 engage in child labor. The majority of the world's 211 million working children between the ages of 5-14 are found in the Asia-Pacific region (127.3 million or 60%), Sub-Saharan Africa (48 million or 23%), Latin America and the Caribbean (17.4 million or 8%), and the Middle East and North Africa (13.4 million or 6%). The rest can be found in both transitional and developed economies. Asia has the highest total number of child workers, but Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest proportion of working children relative to population.

Out of the 246 million working children worldwide, approximately 171 million are estimated to engage in what can be called hazardous child labor. They work under hazardous conditions in brick factories, mines, carpet-weaving centers, leather tanning shops, glass and match factories, and plantations growing products such as coffee, tea, tobacco, etc. They work as domestic servants and as scavengers. And because they work long hours under abusive

conditions, they are not able to obtain the education necessary to improve their lives. Furthermore, their health is often severely damaged through years of exposure to hazardous materials and substances. Many, if they survive, are crippled, mangled, and deformed before they are able to properly mature.

Researchers for years have studied adult labor supply with great interest, but the research interest in child labor is augmented by policy's interest in the topic. Consumer boycotts and student protests against products with some child labor component during production are relatively frequent occurrences. One often reads of protests in American universities over the involvement of children in the production of athletic clothing. Outrage over the involvement of children in producing soccer balls hit a fever pitch in the late 1990s when it was learned that FIFA licensed products contained a considerable child labor component. Beyond boycotts, labeling campaigns such as the Rug mark campaign to label hand-knit carpets as "child labor free" garner considerable popular support.

This consumer activism has been matched by legislative interest. For example, the U.S. Congress has repeatedly considered legislation that would prohibit imports into the United States of all products made with child labor. Under threat of such sanctions, export oriented garment factories in Bangladesh released more that 10,000 child workers under the age of 14 in the mid 1990s.

More recently, the U.S. House of Representatives has deliberated the "Child Labor Elimination Act" that would impose general trade sanctions, deny all financial assistance, and mandate U.S. opposition to multilateral credits to 62 developing countries with a high incidence of child labor. This threat is implicit in a 2002 act of the U.S. Congress that mandated a study by the Department of Labor's Bureau of International Labor Affairs about the relationship between military and education spending in countries with a high incidence of child labor. Under current law, the U.S. can withdraw a poor country's eligibility for trade preferences under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) based on a country's poor record on child labor.

Moreover, the 2000 Trade and Development Act restricts eligibility for trade benefits to countries that the Secretary of Labor certifies as showing progress towards eliminating the worst forms of child labor. This policy interest in child labor in developing countries is a

relatively recent issue, and corresponding to it is growth in the academic literature that seeks to understand why children work and measure the short and long term consequences of work.

During 1999, there was a global march against Child labour, which drew the attention of many on this issue of Child labour.

Article of the 15(3):

Nothing under Art.15 shall prevent from making special provision for children.

Right against exploitation is enshrined.

Mandates no child under the age 14 shall be employed to work in any factory or mines.

Art.39(e) :
Contemplates that State shall in particular direct their policy towards securing that the children of tender age are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocation to the age and strength.

Substituted by 42nd Amendment Act 1976 with effect from 03.01.1977 contemplates that the State shall in particular direct their policy towar4ds securing that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop any healthy manner and in condition of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

Contemplates that State shall not endeavor to provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete age of 14 years.

It shall be duty of every citizen of India who is parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his/her children or as the case may be between the age of 6 and 14 years. International regulation governing the prohibition of child labour International bodies: ILO, WHO, UNICEF.

Children are protected by various regulations, such as those that forbid or limit their employment if they are under a specific age, in particular occupations.

International Covenants, adopted by the UN in 1966 contains a provision on child labour in Article 10 which states, Children and young persons should be protected from economic and social exploitation. Their employment in work harmful to their morals or health or dangerous to life or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable by law. States should also set age limits below which they paid employment of child labour should be prohibited and punishable by law. The Convention states that every human being below the age of 18years is a child unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

International Regulations on the child labour

The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument. The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles and two Optional Protocols.

The Four core principles of the Convention are:

Non-Discrimination. Devotion to the best interests of the child. The right to life, survival and development Respect for the views of the child.

International Labour Organization (ILO), Conventions set out by ILO:

Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) :This fundamental convention sets the general minimum age for admission to employment or work at 15 years and the minimum age for hazardous work at 18.

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour:

Organization who is working for it called IPEC ( International Programmed on the Elimination of Child Labour )

Strategy taken by IPEC:

Motivating a broad alliance of partners to acknowledge and act against child labour. Carrying out a situational analysis to find out about child labour problems. Assisting with developing and implementing national policies on child labour problems. Strengthening existing organizations and setting up institutional mechanisms. Supporting direct action with (potential) child workers for demonstration purposes, including time-bound programmes to address worst form of child labour. Replicating and expanding successful projects into the programmes of partners. Mainstreaming child labour issues into socio-economic policies, programmes and budgets.

Recent facts on the child labour in 2010 and why Legislation has failed:
The global number of child labourers stands at 215 million, only seven million less than in 2004. Among 5-14 year olds, the number of children in child labour has declined by 10 per cent and the number of children in hazardous work by 31 per cent. There has been a welcome 15 per cent decrease in the number of girls in child labour and a 24 per cent decline in the number of girls in hazardous work. Boys, however, saw their work increase, both in terms of incidence rates and in absolute numbers. The extent of hazardous work among boys remained relatively stable.

There has been an alarming 20 per cent increase in child labour in the 15-17 years age group from 52 million to 62 million.

The Laws on child labour may seem inadequate because even though more than130 country signed in the International conventions for not allowing children to work under 14 or 15 but to some countries these laws are still confusing or vague and not enforced. The laws to regulate childs health and safety at work are rarely enforced. Poor infrastructure like systematic birth registration in the developing countries fails to recognize the actual age of the children and employers take advantage of such loopholes. According to ILO Director, General Juan Somavia reduction rate of child labour is not satisfactory i.e. from 2004 to 2008, only 3% reduction of child labour.

Child labour in India:

According to Census of India, 2001, there were 12.26 million working children in the age group of 5-14 years as compared to 11.3 million in 1991 revealing an increasing trend in absolute numbers though the work participation rates of. Children (5-14) have come down from 5.4 percent during 1991 to 5 percent during 2001. The recent round of the National Sample Survey (NSSO) estimates suggests that the child labour in the country is around 8.9 million in 2004/2005 with a workforce participation rate of 3.4 per cent (NSSO 2004/05). Due to definitional problems, as discussed is this paper, a substantial proportion of child labour may remain uncounted.

Census data shows that there is a decline in the absolute number as well the percentage of Main workers of children 5-14 to total population in that age group, from 4.3 percent in 1991 to 2.3 percent in 2001. But there was a substantial increase in marginal workers in every category of worker irrespective of sex and residence. As a result, despite the number of main workers declining from 9.08 million in 1991 to 5.78 million in 2001, the total number of children in the work force increased. A large part of the increase was accounted for by the increase in marginal workers, which increased from 2.2 million in 1991 to 6.89 million in 2001. Main and Marginal workers put together, the work participation rate (WPR) of children

in the 5-14 age group has declined from 5.4 percent during 1991 to 5 percent in 2001. The trends between 1991 and 2001 of declining main child workers along with increasing marginal workers may indicate the changing nature of work done by children. (Detailed tables of main and marginal workers by residence and sex for the age-group 5-9 and 10-14 for 1991 and 2001 are at Annexure I). There is a general trend of marginalization of labour force in the country and this is also reflected in the Census figures. This is to be seen in the context of decelerating employment growth in general in the economy during the last decade that is characterized as an era of globalization.

U.P. has the highest number of child labourers. More than 80% are employed in villages that also in agriculture and non-formal activities like livestock rearing, fishing etc.

Laws of child labour in India:

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 prohibits employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory or any hazardous employment Any person who employs child he is liable for punishment with imprisonment for 3 month which can be extended to 1 year or Rs. 20,000/- fine.

It provides free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years. Many beggar children and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and violation of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

Child Labour Policy in India:

There are specific clauses in the draft of Indian constitution dated 26th January 1950, about the child labor policy in India. These are conveyed through different articles in the Fundamental rights and the Directive Principles of the State Policy. They lay down four specific policy rules regarding child labor.

The main legislative measures at the national level are The Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act-1986 and The Factories Act -1948. The first act was categorical in prohibiting the employment of children below fourteen years of age, and identified 57 processes and 13 occupations which were considered dangerous to the health and lives of children. The details of these occupations and processes are listed in the schedule to the said Act. The factories act again prohibits the employment of children less than fourteen years of age. However an adolescent aged between 15 and 18 can be recruited for factory employment only after securing a fitness certificate from a medical doctor who is authorized. The Act proceeds to prescribe only four and hours work period per day for children between 14 and 18 years. Children are also not allowed to work in night shifts.

The fundamentals of child labour:

1) ( Article 14) No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. 2)( Article 39-E) The state shall direct its policy towards securing that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that they are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to there are and strength. 3) (Article 39-f ) Children shall be given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth shall be protected against moral and material abandonment. 4) (Article 45 ) The state shall endeavor to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of the constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. Moreover, in the year 1996 the Supreme Court of India came out with a judgment in court that directed the State and Union.

Government to make a list of all children embroiled in hazardous occupations and processes. They were then told to pull them out of work and asked to provide them with proper education of quality. The judiciary also laid down that Child Labor and Welfare Fund is set

up. The contribution for this was to be received from employers who contravened the Child Labor Act.

Apart from the above Constitutional safeguards, the Centre and the State governments have legislated various laws to combat evil of this problems like; 1) Child (Pledging of Labour) Act 1933 2) The Plantation Labour Act 1951 3) The Mines Act 1952 4) The Immoral Trafficking (Prevention) Act 1956 5) The Merchant ship Act 1958 6) Factories Act 7) Apprentices Act 1961 8) The Motor Transport workers Act 1961 9) Beedi and Cigar workers (Condition of employment ) Act 1966 10) The Dangerous Machineries and Regulation Act 1983 11) Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 12) The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of child) Act 2000

The enforcement of Laws on child labour has been increased, for example, in UK Fast food giants McDonalds have been fined 12,400 for allowing children to work there. Even third world country like Bangladesh had also enacted the Labour Act in 2006 which prohibits employment of children under 14 years of age Garment manufacturers of Bangladesh also put an end to the employment of children under 14 years in their 200 factories because there was a threat of boycott from the consumer countries.

International key regulations had a great impact as it impliedly enforced governments to enact some laws in order to protect children from child labour. The children of third world countries are the main victims, so it is the duty of these International Organizations and first world countries to help these children as their government cannot ensure the basic requirements of a child. However, it will not be the wise to stop working of children, rather proper rehabilitation of their living will be more preferable. Exploitation of working children in developing countries has been reported since the 1800s. However, political awareness of the effects of working on childrens physical and psychological well being has gained substantial momentum in the international community only since the start of the 1990s. The International Labour Organizations International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), founded in1992, aims to eliminate child labour. It operates in 88 countries and is the largest program of its kind in the world. IPEC works with international and government agencies, NGOs, the media, and children and their families to end child labour and provide children with education and assistance.

Governments Initiatives
To enforce laws against child labour, governments have taken several initiatives. The National Policy on Child Labour has three components in this regard, Legislative Action Plan emphasizing strict and effective enforcement of legal provisions relating to Child Labour, Focus on General Development Programmes for benefiting children and their families and Project-based Plan of Action focusing on area with high concentration of child labour through implementation of the National Child Labour Project.

The National Child Labour Project (NCLP) forms an integral part of the last component. It was launched in 1988 in nine districts of high child labour endemicity. At present the project covers 250 districts of the country.

Besides the gradual expansion of the project in many other districts, the priority of the Government was reflected in a quantum increase in budgetary allocation. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) in January 1999, while approving the continuance of the NCLP approach during the 9th Plan period, raised the number of projects to 100 with a total outlay of Rs. 261 crores. During the 10th plan period, the allocation was further increased to Rs. 602 crores. NCLP aims to minimize the incidence of child labour by providing education through special schools. These schools provide non-formal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition, monthly stipend, health care, besides other services, to children withdrawn from employment. After completion of three years in special schools, children are mainstreamed into formal education. However, it is pertinent to mention that the NCLP programme focuses only on child labour engaged in hazardous occupations and processes. A large percentage of child labour residing in rural areas but not engaged in the identified occupation and processes does not come under its purview. National policies should aim at elimination of all types of child labour in agriculture as well as in the non-agricultural sector.

The National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) in its report has admitted that the banning of child labour through legislation (confined to the hazardous industries) has not proved to be very effective, further legislative effort should aim at regulating child labour and restricting their employment in all sectors, consistent with the needs of their development. The NCEUS has further made some specific recommendations with regard to child labour engaged in the unorganized sector. It suggests that efforts should be made to promote relevant, child centred primary education of good quality, and expand employment and livelihood opportunities for adult workers. It is felt that child labour helps employers by depressing general wage levels in their industries. This leads not only to children losing their childhood and opportunities for education but working in deplorable conditions.

Causes of child labour:

The main factor pushingchildren to work is poverty. This is often compounded by a lack of access to, or poor quality, education, the effects of HIV/AIDS and discrimination based on gender or social grouping. In addition, the demand for child workers is high because they are usually cheaper, less demanding and more easily intimidated. Reasons behind child labour is the poverty when children have no option left other than to work for their survivals. Also, in the developing countries when the government fails to provide the basic requirements for the children. When the only earning member of the family dies or suffering from serious illness. Further, the natural calamity like Tsunami, cyclone, flood etc. also drag children towards child labour.

Primary causes
International Labour Organisation (ILO) suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind child labour. For impoverished households, income from a child's work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 to 40% of these household income. Other scholars such as Harsch on African child labour, and Edmonds and Pavcnik on global child labour have reached the same conclusion. Lack of meaningful alternatives, such as affordable schools and quality education, according to ILO, is another major factor driving children to harmful labour. Children work because they have nothing better to do. Many communities, particularly rural areas where between 60-70% of child labour is prevalent, do not possess adequate school facilities. Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worth it.

Young girl working on a loom Cultural causes In European history when child labour was common, as well as in contemporary child labour of modern world, certain cultural beliefs have rationalised child labour and thereby encouraged it. Some view that work is good for the character-building and skill development of children. In many cultures, particular where informal economy and small household businesses thrive, the cultural tradition is that children follow in their parents' footsteps; child labour then is a means to learn and practice that trade from a very early age. Similarly, in many cultures the education of girls is less valued or girls are simply not expected to need formal schooling, and these girls pushed into child labour such as providing domestic services.

Child labour in Brazil, leaving after collecting recyclables from a landfill.

Agriculture deploys 70% of the world's child labour. Above, child worker on a rice farm in Vietnam.

Macroeconomic causes
Biggeri and Mehrotra have studied the macroeconomic factors that encourage child labour. They focus their study on five Asian nations including India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines. They suggest that child labour is a serious problem in all five, but it is not a new problem. Macroeconomic causes encouraged widespread child labour across the world, over most of human history. They suggest that the causes for child labour include both the demand and the supply side. While poverty and unavailability of good schools explain the child labour supply side, they suggest that the growth of low paying informal economy rather than higher paying formal economy is amongst the causes of the demand side. Other scholars too suggest that inflexible labour market, sise of informal economy, inability of industries to scale up and lack of modern manufacturing technologies are major macroeconomic factors affecting demand and acceptability of child labour.

Types of Child Labour Categorized by workplace:

Industries Hotels Restaurants Tourism Streets Tea stalls

Worst form of child Labour

These forms include:

Child Trafficking: Transfer of child to another person in return of consideration is called child trafficking. Child Prostitution and Pornography: Sometimes children are forced in prostitution and pornography which create physical risk and diseases like AIDS. Children used in Armed Conflict: Involvement in arm conflict is dangerous for physical and mental growth. Other types of child labour are domestic slavery, hazardous child labour etc.

Child abuse:
A recent study on Child Abuse: India 2007, conducted by Ministry of Women and Child development (GOI) revealed that across different kinds of abuse, it is young children, in the 5-12 year group, who are most at risk of abuse and exploitation. Two out of every three children were physically abused. Out of 69% children physically abused 54.68% were boys. Over 50% children were being subjected to one or the other form of physical abuse. Out of those children physically abused in family situations, 88.6% were physically abused by parents. The State of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Delhi have almost consistently reported higher rates of abuse in all forms as compared to other states. 50.2% children worked seven days a week.

Sexual abuse
53.22% children reported having faced one or more forms of sexual abuse. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Delhi reported the highest percentage of sexual abuse among both boys and girls.

21.90% child respondents reported facing severe forms of sexual abuse and 50.76% other forms of sexual abuse. Children in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Delhi reported the highest incidence of sexual assault. 50% abuses are persons known to the child or in a position of trust and responsibility.

Physical abuse
According to the Indian census of 1991, there are 11.28 million working children under the age of fourteen years in India. Over 85% of this child labour is in the country's rural areas, working in agricultural activities such as fanning, livestock rearing, forestry and fisheries The worlds highest number of working children is in India. ILO estimates that 218 million children were involved in child labour in 2004, of which 126 million were engaged in hazardous work.

Estimates from 2000 study suggest that 5.7 million were in forced or bonded labour, 1.8 million in prostitution and pornography and 1.2 million were victims of trafficking. In India, 1104 lakh children are working as labourers. The Hindi belt, including Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, account for 1.27 crore working children in the country, engaged in both hazardous and non-hazardous occupations and processes. Over 19 lakh child labourers in the 5-14 age group are in Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan accounts for over 12.6 lakh workers followed by Bihar with over 11 lakh and Madhya Pradesh with 10.6 lakh. However, according to the 2001 census, in state-wise distribution of working children in the 5-14 age group, Andhra Pradesh with 13.6 lakh child labour stands second in the national list after UP.

Adult unemployment Depreciation in wages Increased abuse of children Increased bottlenecks in the development process Wasted human resources Wasted human talents and skills Suffer injuries and illness from work Not accessible to education

Widespread awareness generation to create a positive climate for children to go to school and not to work. Effective utilization of print and electronic media. Programme is to be conducted on child rights. Incentive should be given to teachers by way of Best Teacher Award' for enrolment of child laborers and dropouts into Formal Schools. Observance of a specific day as Anti Child Labour Day. (June 12th is being observed as Anti Child Labour Day by ILO)

Child line
Started in 1978 Situated all over INDIA in 73 cities Started in 1996 in Mumbai, as a CHILDLINE India Foundation near Grant Road Station, Mumbai Works under CHILD WELFARE COMMITTEE (CWC) has large networking system.

Sectors where they work

Child labour work at various industries like:

Restaurants Department stores Grocery Stores Construction Manufacturing Agriculture Service Book stores. Tea stalls Other retail

Unorganised sector:
They are also active in certain unorganised sectors and their contributions in India as follows:

Narang (2009) study used household data collected from the villages of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, gathered from the Poverty Action Lab website,and some of the literature review, they addressed the impact of a series of variables like Wealth ,Household size, Sociological variables on the probability of a child attending school & become child labour. She has found by research that Poverty has been the most common factor for the lack of school attendance and greater incidence of child labour. Parents in poor households may be less likely to enroll their children in schooling even though the long-run impact of schooling may deter them from future poverty. For the household she found that having more children implies fewer resources per child, the likelihood of them attending school would decrease. Sociological variables may play an important role in determining the probability of a child employed in labour as lower caste families may be gender biased than those of higher castes & for culture specific variables such as gender, caste and age, are important as Indian parents may be biased when choosing which children to enroll in school and which ones to send to work.

Madhur and Bhargava(September 2000)study based on the problem of child labour, particularly in the gem-polishing Industry, in Jaipur and other areas of Rajasthan. Despite the Supreme Courts directions and efforts of the State Government, this evil continues to exist and prevail in the area. The study reveals that the main cause for the existence of this problem is the concerned peoples ignorance. Most parents whose young children work in these industries are simply unaware of the welfare measures that are being implemented for their benefit and that of their children. Secondly, many of the parents do not consider anything wrong in making their children work from an early age. They are more concerned about the childrens ability to be able to earn wages by becoming skilled, rather than about their academic education. Schools have a low priority in their eyes. They also feel that if a child is thus gainfully occupied, it will keep him or her out of mischief.

R. Giriraj( June 2000) study of the conditions of the child labourers in Hosiery units of Tirupur
municipal area, Coimbatore District, Department of Social Work, PSG College of Arts and Science,

Coimbatore Tirupur Municipal area of Coimbatore district, in Tamil Nadu has shown a significant rise in the employment and engagement of Child Labour in the numerous housing units located there, despite stringent legal prohibition. One fact clearly emerges from the data

collected that is, people are forced to do this because of object poverty. The employers, although equally guilty, cannot be faulted solely because the parents of the children sent to work also bear equal responsibility. So they concluded that there must be alternative income generating programmes for parents are essential to prevent families from economic depression & it is the social responsibility of all hosiery unit owners to see that children working in their units are given elementary education. Awareness should be created among the parents and employers about this objectionable practice. The school going children may be given scholarships along with nutritional meals to avoid dropouts. Social workers may be appointed to create awareness about different educational, health & other programmes. Jameel and Kazmi(6th August, 2002)study is restricted to only four out of 32 districts of Rajasthan, but it shows a very disturbing light on the prevailing trend. The worst aspect of this situation is that nobody least of all the parents of the children are worried about their childrens future. It is the present-today- that matters most to these guardians of the innocent, hapless youngsters. The results of the study indicate that Child labour elimination requires co-operation from parents, children, private agencies, voluntary agencies, industries, administrators, etc. The provision of family planning must be implemented strictly so that earning of the adult wage earners would suffice for the needs of the family. NGOs can be more effective in the areas like advocacy, organizing work, implementing small local projects etc. Government and NGOs should function within the frame work of partnership. Only this way their working may bring some good results in combating child labour. Education upto 14 yrs. without any discrimination based on sex, caste, should be given free of cost. Special attention must be given to the girls, considering more incidences of dropouts among girls

Parekh and Vikram study each year over one million children between the ages of seven and twelve are hired by Egypts agricultural cooperatives to take part in cotton pest management. Employed under the authority of Egypts agriculture ministry, most are well below Egypts minimum age of twelve for seasonal agricultural work. They work eleven hours a day, including a one to two hour break, seven days a week-far in excess of limits set by the Egyptian Child Law. They also face routine beatings by their foremen, as well as exposure to heat and pesticides. These conditions violate Egypts obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child to protect children from ill-treatment and hazardous employment. They are also tantamount to the worst forms of child labour, as defined in the International Labour Organizations Convention 182, which Egypt has not yet ratified. Children were forcibly

recruited to take part in pest management as recently as ten years ago, and some farmers continue to believe that they will be fined if they resist their childrens recruitment. However,most children today are compelled to work by the driving force of poverty.

Ashish and Sekar(2003) study was conducted for the first time on the situation of child labour in the knife- making industry in Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh. The study analysed the educational status of labour class families, the official measures adopted for their welfare, and the impact of these measures. A total of 202 households were taken for the sample, out of which 75 were fully engaged in knife making, and 127 were involved in knife making along with other occupations. A close ended questionnaire was used to collect basic information and found that the proportion of child labour was higher than adult workers because these industries were on the lookout for cheap labour. Children were working as helpers and apprentices. Findings of the study showed that the people related to knife making have become very alert and cautious. 80% people were aware about the child labour law of 1986 and the Supreme Court judgement. It was found that 41.7% children were neither at school nor at work, and child labour was caused by large family size. The knife industry is declining because of government restrictions, license system related to manufacture, sale and transport of the goods. It was suggested that schooling should be encouraged, and schools should be developed, upgraded and made quality oriented. Child labour can be stopped if the families are able to look for employment, earn their livelihood and thereby provide education to their children.

Manish and Tivari(1999) study was carried out to examine the situation of child labour in the carpet industry of Jaipur district, Rajasthan. Rajasthan was taken for the case study because the incidence of child labour in Rajasthan is higher than the national average. Field survey and interviews were conducted, and information/data was gathered from primary and secondary sources. Articles 23, 24, 39 (e) and (f), 45 and 51 (c) of the Constitution showed the nations concern to eradicate child labour. It was found that 92 children were engaged in the carpet industry, and of these 71 were males. Almost all the children described their job as non-hazardous and 53 children liked their jobs. The main reason for child labour was poverty, and the childs income was used to support the family. It was found that nearly all the children were illiterate, so there should be provision of free and attractive schooling for children. Expenditure on education should also be increased. It was suggested that remedial measures should not only target child labour, but also focus on other forms of child abuse.

While advocating a ban on child labour, there should be a scheme for compensating the individual child who loses his job. NGOs should initiate awareness-building programmes for children. South Asian Association against Child Servitude (SAACS) initiated the programme called RUGMARK, which guarantees the buyer that the carpet is manufactured without child labour. NGOs should make an effort to aid poor families in different ways. To restrict the supply of child labour in the market, it may be appropriate to build a centre for vocational training, so that alternative methods of skill building are available.

Yamuna and Jaya(2001) study examined the socio-economic profile of child workers working in the hosiery industry in Tamil Nadu. The study included one male child worker and / or one female child worker below 14 years from 48 hosiery industries. Most of the respondents belonged to Hindu backward castes, low income group and were from nuclear families. The parents were illiterates and were involved in wage labour. Monetary benefits compelled the children to work and contribute towards their family's sustenance. Although most of the child workers attended school, only 11 per cent could read and write some alphabets. Parents preferred to send their male children to study rather than to work. The lower percentage of female child workers' school attendance also confirmed the attitude of parents and discrimination meted out towards female children's education. Results confirmed the hypothesis that sides economic factors, there are several sociological factors which are responsible for the sustained participation of children as full time and part time workers in the labour force in the hosiery industry.

March against child labour and trafficking in Guwahati In a bid to sensitize the masses and strengthen concerted and collaborative efforts to fight child labour and trafficking, Bachpan Bachao Andolan and Global March against Child Labour in association with the state government and Assam State Legal Services Authority are going to organize a 300 kilometre march on Saturday.

The march will be flagged off by Chief Justice of India Altamas Kabir and senior judge of the Supreme Court and executive chairman of National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) Justice DK Jain. The march will pass through Nalbari, Barpeta, Sorbhog, Bongaigaon, Chapar, Bilasipara, Kokrajhar and will culminate at Dhubri. Over 150 people who have been victims of child labour and trafficking will be leading the rally.

The founder of Bachpan Bachao Andolan and chairperson of Global March Against Child Labour said, "The northeast, particularly Assam, is emerging as one of the biggest source area, transit route and destination for trafficking of children for forced labour. Assam is the choicest place for the child traffickers to thrive on account of frequent natural calamities, insurgency, acute poverty, illiteracy an ignorance of the masses and weak law enforcement."

"Children from NE are trafficked for forced labour as domestic help in metros and are physically abused and sexually exploited. Every year 4000 children go missing from the state. They are sold off at the rate of Rs 1 lakh for marriage purposes, Rs 1.50 lakh for prostitution and Rs 5000-Rs 6000 for bonded labour," he added.

He added there are 40 placement agencies who are operating in Delhi, Bangalore, Tirupur and other parts of South India. These agencies do not keep official records. They work for bringing people from northeast and are run by people mainly from Assam residing there.

"The conviction procedure related to child labour and trafficking is very poor. In the year 2007-11, 17,558 inspections were made by the government in Assam out of which 58 prosecutions were made and there were 9 convictions. In northeast, total 26,553 inspections were made out of which 64 prosecutions were completed and 15 of the accused were convicted. Police and labour department should take the responsibility to persuade the conviction. Government prosecution should meet a logical end," he added.

"In Assam, bonded child domestic workers are increasing. Children and women from Bihar, West Bengal, Bangladesh and Nepal are trafficked and are forced to work in the coal mines of Assam and tea gardens," he added.

Background of Study
Child Labor "Child labor" is, generally speaking, work for children that harms them or exploits them in some way (physically, mentally, morally, or by blocking access to education). BUT: There is no universally accepted definition of "child labor". Varying definitions of the term are used by international organizations, non-governmental

organizations, trade unions and other interest groups. Writers and speakers dont always specify what definition they are using, and that often leads to confusion.

Child International conventions define children as aged 18 and under. Individual governments may define "child" according to different ages or other criteria."Child" and "childhood" are also defined differently by different cultures. A "child" is not necessarily delineated by a fixed age. Social scientists point out that childrens abilities and maturities vary so much that defining a childs maturity by calendar age can be misleading.

Child Labours: In 2000, the ILO estimates, "246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved in child labor, of which 171 million were involved in work that by its nature is hazardous to their safety, physical or mental health, and moral development. Moreover, some 8.4 million children were engaged in so-called 'unconditional' worst forms of child labor, which include forced and bonded labor, the use of children in armed conflict, trafficking in children and commercial sexual exploitation Unicefs State of the Worlds Children Report says only that although the exact number is not known, it is surely in the hundreds of millions.

Child Labourers Live:

61% in Asia, 32% in Africa,

7% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations In Asia, 22% of the workforce is children.

In Latin America, 17% of the workforce is children. The proportion of child laborers varies a lot among countries and even regions inside those countries. "In Africa, one child in three is at work, and in Latin America, one child in five works.

Child Laborers Do:

Work ranges from taking care of animals and planting and harvesting food, to many kinds of small manufacturing (e.g. of bricks and cement), auto repair, and making of footwear and textiles. A large proportion of children whom the ILO classifies as child laborers work in agriculture.

More boys than girls work outside their homes. But more girls work in some jobs: for instance, as domestic maids. Being a maid in someones house can be risky. Maids typically are cut off from friends and family, and can easily be physically or sexually abused by their employers. Less than 5% of child laborers make products for export to other countries. Sources for this statistic include Unicefs State of the Worlds Children Report 1997.

Many children in hazardous and dangerous jobs are in danger of injury, even death. Beyond compassion, consider who todays children will become in the future. Between today and the year 2020, the vast majority of new workers, citizens and new consumers whose skills and needs will build the worlds economy and society will come from developing countries. Over that 20-year period, some 730 million people will join the worlds workforce more than all the people employed in today's most developed nations in 2000. More than 90 percent of these new workers will be from developing nations, according to research by Population Action International. How many will have had to work at an early age, destroying their health or hampering their education?

Ordinary People can also help to Reduce Child Labor

Learn about the issue. Support organizations that are raising awareness, and providing direct help to individual children.

Effects of child labour

"The parents of child labourers are often unemployed or underemployed, desperate for secure employment and income. Yet it is their children - more powerless and paid less - who are offered the jobs. In other words, says UNICEF, children are employed because they are easier to exploit," according to the "Roots of Child Labor" in Unicefs 1997 State of the Worlds Children Report. The report also says that international economic trends also have increased child labor in poor countries. "During the 1980s, in many developing countries, government indebtedness, unwise internal economic policies and recession resulted in economic crisis. Structural adjustment programmes in many countries accentuated cuts in social spending that have hit the poor disproportionately. " Although structural adjustment programs are being revised to spare education from deep cuts, the report says, some countries make such cuts anyway because of their own, local priorities. In many countries public education has deteriorated so much, the report declared, that education itself has become part of the problem because children work to avoid going to school.

Some Solutions to Child Labor

Not necessarily in this order:

Increased family incomes Education that helps children learn skills that will help them earn a living Social services that help children and families survive crises, such as disease, or loss of home and shelter Family control of fertility so that families are not burdened by children Single action or isolated measures against child labour will not have a lasting impact. Actions must be part of an overall national plan.

To develop effective national (and international) policies and programmers, extensive research must be undertaken to determine the state of child labour. Child labour is often viewed as an unavoidable consequence of poverty. Without greater awareness about the extent and exploitative nature of child labour, the conditions for change will not occur. Government action against child labour often ends with making laws. Initiatives against child labour traditionally come from non- governmental organizations that have limited resources. It needs to work together with other segments of civil society the media, educators, artists and parliamentarians should also be enlisted in the fight. The ILOs International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) has explored many programs to help child laborers. The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for children to participate in important decisions that will affect their lives. Some educators and social scientists believe that one of the most important ways to help child workers is to ask their opinions, and involve them in constructing "solutions" to their own problems. Strong advocates of this approach are Boyden, Myers and Ling; Concerned for Working Children in Karnataka, India; many childrens "unions" and "movements," and the Save the Children family of non-governmental organizations.

Problem statement and Importance of the study

The fight against child labor is a real challenge for many of the States. It is worth taking up the challenge; what is at stake is the future of young people and hence of society itself. This fight is also a challenge for the world. We should all strive to solve this problem to make this world a better place to live.

Problem statement:
To find out the Reasons which enforce child to be labour.

Objectives of the study:

To know the major reasons to be the child labour


1. What are the reasons for working at this early age?

2. Who else are earning person in your family?


3. What kind of work your parents do?

4. Are you currently attending school?

5. Which level are you attending? Level: -school

6. Have you ever attended school?

7. What is the highest level of school you attended?

Level: -school

ndard Curriculum

8. What were the main reasons why you are not attending or never attended the school?

9. What are the jobs you are performing?


tools or equipment for someone else for payment in cash or inkind

of goods for sale ngs, homes or cars for someone else

10. What is the main reason why you are doing the work?

11. What is the mode of payment?


12. What was most recent illness or injury or consequences you got?

13. Do your parents forcing you for work as well as drop out?

14. Do your parents encourage even girl child for work?

15. Which type of work they allow girl to do?


16. Do the working hours become barrier for attending the school?

17. Are you aware about the prohibition on child labour act?

18. What encourage you to go to school?

19. If your parents withdrawing you from school, do they sent you back after situation improve? No Dont know

20. Which level of school did your parents attended? Level: -school

21. In opinion to you what kind of support the child requires to reduce child employment?

compulsory education

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