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Xow d/ BK s/HHH

fJzdo f;zx xZrk


gq'c?;o

gqek;ae
|fsj gpbhe/PBI
wekB BzH 90, eoj/Vh,
ftZfdnk Bro, B/V/ gzikph :{BhH gfNnkbk.
(w'L 98144^55582)
Dharam De Naa Te.......
(Articles)
(Second Edition - 5 January 2006)
(Misrepresentations of Religion............)
By
INDER SINGH GHAGGA (M. 98551-51699)

;G jZe b/ye d/ okyt/A jB

FATEH PUBLICATIONS
H. No. 90, Karheri
Vidya Nagar, Near Punjabi University,
Patiala - 147 002 (Pb.)
Mobile : 98144-5582

TYPE SETTING
Avtar Singh
Kamal Computers,
Opp. Pbi. Univ. Patiala
Mobile : 98889-30910
Ist Edition, Oct. 2004
IInd Edition, Sep. 2005
IIIrd Edition, Jan. 07

PROOF READING
Kanwardeep Singh
Sukhjinder Kaur
Parminder Singh
Price: Rs. 120/-
$ 10/-
£ 5/-
shik n?vh;aB gkmeK ;Bw[y oZyD dh y[Ph b? oj/ jK.

nekb g[oy ih dk P[eokBk `

iBtoh ^ 2007

;wogD
ihtB ;kED ;odkoBh okitzs e"o ƒ. fi;B/ T[wo Go

r[opZs ftu ofje/ Gh fBopkj ehsk. fit/A fet/A xo ƒ ;zGkfbnk,

sK fe w?A fB;fuzs j'e/ Xow gouko dh ;/tk eo ;eK.

ftP/P XzBtkd `
vkH jofizdo f;zx fdbrho

ns/

f;odko r[opuB f;zx ndkok “d/; gzikp” ibzXo.

fiBQK B/ g[;se dh ;zg{oDsk tk;s/ :'r ;bkj fdZsh.


feskp gqkgs eoB bJh gs/

1H cfsj gpbhe/PBI ftZfdnk Bro, B/V/ gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk


(w'L 98144^55582)
2H bkj"o p[Ze Pkg, bkigs okJ/ wkoehN, b[fXnkDk (0161^2740738)
3H pkpk nkswk f;zx Xkowe g[;se Gzvko, r[od[nkok f;zx ;Gk,
pfmzvk (164^2215252)
4H e/jo f;zx uzvhrVQ (0172^3097627)
5H nikfJp f;zx ;[Bkw (94171^06555)
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gfNnkbk (98144^13453)
8H ;qH pbftzdo f;zx wkB;k (016652^228911)
9H ;qL fJzdoihs f;zx, ykb;k g[;se Gzvko, d[ekB BzH 13, r[odtkok
d[yfBtkoB ;kfjp, gfNnkbk.

gkmeK d/ GoG{o jz[rko/ s'A pknd sh;oh ;'Xh j'Jh n?vh;aB


r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih d/ r[og[op
s/ gkmeK d/ ;Bw[y eoB dh y[Ph b? oj/ jK.
b/ye dhnK j'o ouBktK

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™ eh fJj f;ZyK d/ fsT[jko jB (d; xzN/ dh nkvhT[ MP3 eEk)
™ r[o T[gd/;a eh j? (d; xzN/ dh nkvhT[ MP3 eEk)
™ nodk; eh j? (thvhT[ C.D. eEk)
™ r[o{ nwodk; ih (thvhT[ C.D. eEk)
™ f;Zyh ’s/ wkD (thvhT[ C.D. eEk)
™ 52 b?euo (;apd eEk) M.P. 3 24 xzN/ dh
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1H “w?A w{oy eh e/se pks j?HHH” 1^6


2H g/;aekoh 7^12
3H r[nku u[Ze/ f;Zy d/; d/ to;' ` 13^20
s[jkB{z r[og[op w[pkoeHHHH<
4H i[r g[oP (GktBktK d/ tfjD ’u'A) 21^25
5H fJfsjk; dh w"s 26^33
6H ;kek ;ojzd 34^40
7H Xow ftfdnk pZfunK bJh fe wksk^fgsk bJh< 41^61
8H pkpk fcfo we/ rfJnkHHH. 62^67
9H fJPe jeheh tkbk gzikp fe; okj < 68^74
10H f;Zy B"itkBK dk GftZy ^ nkofEe gZy 75^84
11H ikjok eokwks 85^90
12H r[opkDh ftZu g"okDe eEktK 91^96
13H Boe ;[or eh j? < 97^117
14H r[o[ ;oto[ jw jz; fgnko/ 118^133
15H wzrb fe wzso < 134^139
16H “f;Zy nodk;” ^ ni'e/ gq;zr ftu 140^167
17H s/ ;zs Gb/ r[of;yK j?HHH. 168^195
18H “fjod? egN[ w[fy frnkBh” 196^202
19H r[of;yK eh jfo X{fV d/jHHH 203^210
20H feogkB ^ rkso/ tkbh < 211^216
21H j[ewBkfwnK pko/ sZE 217^223
22H j[ewBkwk ^ nkX[fBe gq;zr ftu 224^264
23H thjthA ;dh dk Pq'wDh f;Zy 265^271
24H r[opkDh ftZu ftfrnkBe ;Zu 272^289
“w? I w{oy eh e/se pks j?HHHH”
d[BhnK d/ nDfrDs ihtK tKr, fgzv xZrk fibk gfNnkbk fty/,
nkgDk Gh “oV/ w?dkB”, iBw j' frnk. fwZNh xZN/ ftu o[bfdnK, SZgVK
N'fGnK ftu v[pehnK bkT[AfdnK, e[ZfsnK, rktK, wZMK dk ;kE wkDfdnK,
T[wo g"Vh d/ vzv/ uVQB bZfrnk. nZm e[ ;kb dk j'fJnk sK vzro ukoB,
uoKdK tZb N'o fdZsk frnk. vzro nkgD/ E'V/ b'eK d/ pj[s/. w/o/ tor/
j'o ;kEh gkbhnK Bkb y/vfdnK, MrVfdnK, fe;/ seV/ s'A d' ug/VK yk
b?DhnK, s/ wkV/ ƒ d' ug/VK iV d/DhnK. vzroK tb'A y/sK ftu edh w{zj
wko b?D s/ y/s wkbeK s'A uzrh frZdV e[ZN ykDh, rkbK dk fwou w;kbk
tkX{. ;G soK d/ BfPnK dk ;[nkd Gh fJ; nZbV T[wo/ uZy fbnk.
f;oc u"dK ;kb dk j'fJnk ;K fe ;[y ofjD/ fgT[ B/, ewi'ao p[ZY/ pbdK
dhnK g{SK wo'VB bke/, jb dk w[zBk cVk fdZsk. ;kok fdB jb tkj[Dk,
gkDh bkT[Dk, r'vh eoBh, gZm/ tZYD/, xo fbnke/ jZE N'e/ Bkb e[soB/,
gP{nK ƒ gkT[D/HHHH. ykD ƒ pkg{ dhnK rkjbK, ug/VK s/ cke/ eVke/. i/
ihts fojk sK wK d/ fgnko ns/ fdbkf;nK ekoB. tZv/ S'N/ G?D Gok
feskpK dhnK gzvK u[Ze ;e{b iKd/, ;oekoh ;e{b ftu fJZe nkBk ch;
GoB' Gh bkuko j' e/, ch; w[nkch dh noih d/ fdzd/. T[jBK s'A edh
r[ow[yh d/ fJZe d' nZyo g[ZS e/ f;Zy b?D/. fi; soQK dh e'Jh feskp fwb
iKdh T[;/ Bkb f;o ygkJh eoB br g?Adk. ezw dk pj[sk Gko, iwhB
E'VQh, b'VK g{ohnK Bk j'D s/ T[go'A fgT[ dhnK ci{b youhnK ns/ fBZs d/
MrV/ eb/;. fpBk ekoB s'A wK ƒ s/ ;kƒ ;kfonK ƒ wkod/ ofjDk, fizBh
d/o se fe n;hA, d'tK tZv/ GoktK B/, pkg{ ƒ vKr u[e e/ y[Zbh tzrko BjhA
gkJh. fJ; fBZs dh d[yh fIzdrh s'A szr nk e/, xo'A fBeb ikD dk gZek
wB pDk fbnk. nr;s wjhB/ 1963 ftu e/tb ;skoK e[ ;kb dh eZuh
(1)
T[wo/, c"i ftu ik Gosh j'fJnk. wK pj[s e[obkJh, pVk o'fenk, G?D
Gok Gh d[yh j'J/, go w?A fJokdk Bk pdfbnk.
Bkf;e fty/, fJZe ;kb dh f;ybkJh s'A pkd f;Zy oiw?AN ftu G/i
fdZsk frnk. ;[Gk dk nZyV g[Dk pk d;s{o ekfJw ;h. T[gob/ nc;oK
Bkb MrVBk w/o/ bJh nkw fijh rZb ;h. T[jBK rb'A bkj[D tk;s/ pV"dk
(r[ioks) ftu Gkoh s'gK dh f;fynk b?D bJh G/i fdZsk. fJj B" wjhB/
dh “rzB fcZNo” f;ybkJh J/ rq/v gfjb/ doi/ ftu gk; ehsh. tkg; fco
T[;/ oiw?AN ftu nk frnk, ;kfonK B/ uzr/ Bzpo b?D eoe/ pj[s ;fseko
fdZsk. e[Zb n"yhnK fvT{NhnK s'A S'N fwb rJh. gkfe;skB Bkb 1965
tkbh izr br rJh sK f;nkbe'N ;?eNo d/ w'ou/ ftu, w'joh j'e/ ezw
eoB dk w"ek fwfbnk. eJh vog'eK ƒ izr ftu'A ikB puke/ Gid/
t/fynk. fe;/ ƒ ;kpD dk x'b ghe/, fpwkoh dk gZi eoe/, j;gskbK ftu
dkyb j[zd/ t/fynk. eJhnK ƒ ikD p[ZM e/ Iywh j[zfdnk t/fynk sK fe
fJbki tk;s/, fgZS/ tZv/ j;gskb G/i d/D ikB pu ikt/. pjkdoK ƒ fjZe
skDe/ bVd/ s/ Pjhd j[zd/ t/fynk. PjhdK ƒ e[M Gh BjhA s/ ekfJo
n|;oK ƒ (i' gfjb/ fdB dh izr ftu'A jh BZ; e/ b[e rJ/ ;B) tho uZeo
s/ gowtho uZeo fwbd/ t/y/. w?ƒ fJ; izr ftu rzB fcZNo d/ tXhnk ezw
pdb/, d' ;/tk w?vb gqkgs j'J/. S/ ;kb j'D bZr/ ;B, c"ih B'eoh eofdnK,
fe wkwk ih nk Xwe/. T[jBK d/ xo e'Jh g[Zso BjhA ;h, d' XhnK jh ;B.
w?ƒ b? gkbe g[Zso pDkT[D dh e'fPP eofdnK, eJh bzwhnK d|soh
ekotkJhnK s'A pkd, c"i ftu'A Bkw eNtk fbnk. wkwk ih d/ xo BkBe/
fgzv ik y/sh eoB bZrk. w/ok nZyV g[Dk s/ wkwk ih dk ;ys otJhnk,
ns/ nkgDh IwhB dk w'j fBGk Bk j'fJnk. fJZe ;kb pkd fco fgzv nk
e/ y/sh bJh w[PZes P[o{ eo fdZsh. bZy gkgV t/bD d/ pkti{d Gh ezrkbh
B/ xo'A v/ok Bk u[Zfenk. fJjBK jh p[o/ fdBK ftu, nuBu/sh y[Ph Goh
xNBk tkgo bJh. T[j ;h ftnkj j'Dk, ;[xV ;[ikB, Gkr Goh ihtB
;kED dk fwbDk. you/ tZX rJ/, xo dh szrh s'A d[yh j' e/ w[V y/sh
wfjew/ ftu B'eoh s/ ik bZfrnk. ;KM/ gqtko ns/ G?D GoktK s/ ;G e[M

(2)
b[NKdk frnk. T[jBK dh gVQkJh ns/ nkoEe wzdjkbh, B/ eu{wo eY
Xfonk. gVQkJh g{oh j' ikD s/ B"eohnK s/ br ikD s/, T[j Gh nZyK c/o
rJ/. ehs/ rJ/ nfj;kBK ƒ w[V edh :kd Bk ehsk. ;r'A pj[sh gVQkJh dh
pd"bs nc;oh d/ ro{o ftu, w/o/ fjZ;/ dh IwhB, nDgVQ pkg{ s'A, eoi/
d/ pjkB/ nzr{mk brtk e/ X'y/ Bkb t/u fdZsh. bzwh bVkJh ns/ yZib
y[nkoh s'A pknd fJj uko f;nkV IwhB tkg; b? ;fenk. tkfjr[o{ B/ d'
j'Djko pZu/ p\; fds/, p/Nh Btdhg e"o s/ p/Nk eztodhg f;zx. B"eoh
d"okB pj[s T[sok uVkn nkJ/. iBtoh 1973 ftu yzv/ dh gj[b gqkgs
ehsh. ;zB 1975 ftu r[owfs fwPBoh ekbi fdZbh Bkb ;pzXs j' e/ ;/tk
nkozG fdZsh. B"eoh eofdnK jh r[ows ;kfjs gfVQnk, r[opkDh noE
gVQ/, fJfsjk; dk nfXn?B ehsk. wzr w[skpe r[o{ xoK ftu eEk s/
b?euo dh ;/tk Gh eodk fojk. wkB;k, pfmzvk, ;o;k, ;zrohnk, gfNnkbk,
cohde'N, r'fBnkDk wzvh, nkfd PfjoK ftu r[ows ;NZvh e/Ado ;Ekgs
ehs/. tes eZY e/ ;t/o/ Pkw pZ; nZfvnK ftu, jkeo pDe/ Xkowe
g[;seK, ezx/ eV/ Gh t/u/.
;zB 1984 dk efjo, dopko ;kfjp s/ jwbk eoe/ Gkosh
c"iK B/ x'o gkg ehsk, jo f;Zy sVfgnk. j'o nB/e dodBke
xNBktK tkgohnK. GVekT[ b?euo (Gkos ;oeko fto[X izr^124
J/) dk fJbikw bke/ w?ƒ frqcsko eo fbnk frnk. C.I.A. ;Nk|
pfmzvk tkfbnK, gzdoK fdBk d/ Boeh fowKv s'A pkd j[bhnk ftrkV
e/, ;?ANob i/bQ G/i fdZsk. pfmzvk i/bQ nzdo ny"sh ykVe{ ns/
n;bh ykVe{nK ƒ fwbD, goyD dk w"ek fwfbnk. fJE/ jh f;Zy
;N{v?AN c?vo/PB d/ “;zs f;gkjhnK” dk wkBf;e gZy'A ns/ j";b/
gZy'A fdtkbk fBefbnk t/fynk. fJ;/ EK fjo;h s/ “b[N/o/ ;zsK” d/
doPB dhdko eoB dk “;[Gkr” pfDnk. fJ;/ i/bQ ftu pzd, ijki
nrtkeko, GkJh r[op\; f;zx T[oc w[;hps f;zx (fgzv gZek ebk) ƒ
r[ows fto'Xh wzd eko/ eod/ ;[fDnk t/fynk. fJjBK ;kfonK Bkb
;woEk w[skpe f;XKse bVkJh bVh. tZvk NeokT[ j'fJnk, bfjokp/rk

(3)
fgzv d/ f;zxK, GkJh fBowb f;zx ns/ ;qL s'rk f;zx d/ ;fj:'r Bkb fJ;
bVkJh ftu ;cbsk fwbh. fJjBK ny"sh c?vo/PBhnK ns/ Ne;kbhnK
tb'A bkJ/ fJbikwK ekoB dk; ƒ d[pkok pfmzvk C.I.A. ;Nkc tkb/ b?
rJ/. gzdoK fdBk d/ s;hfjnK s'A pkd nX wfonk eoe/ i/b ftu ;[ZN
rJ/. fto'Xh bkD/ B/ bZv{ tzv/, GzrV/ gkJ/. GkDk eosko dk fi; g[fb;
nc;o B/ w/o/ T[go d[pkok M{m/ e/; gkJ/ ;B, T[;ƒ pkjo fe;/ ykVe{
ro[Zg B/, gzdoK fdBK d/ nzdo gko p[bk fdZsk. fJ; dfjPs Goh xNBk
ekoB, ny"sh ykVe{nK s/ ;kX bkD/ B/, fco edh nZy u[Zee/ BjhA t/fynk.
frqcskoh ekoB B"eoh s'A w[nZsb j' frnk, e'Jh j'o nkwdD dk
;kXB j? BjhA ;h. fiBQK s/ T[wo Go bj{ fSVfenk, wK ikJ/ Gok nZyK c/o
rJ/. fJ; w[;hps ftu T[jBK r[of;yK B/ GoG{o wds ehsh, fiBK ƒ r[o{
BkBe dh f;fynk dk frnkB ;h. T[jBK r[of;ZyK B/ x'o ;zeN ;w/A w/o/
gfotko dh nB/eK yso/ f;o b? e/ jo gZy'A wdd ehsh. w?A ;dk T[jBK dk
foDh ojKrk. T[j ;B ;H nikfJp f;zx, ;H pbftzdo f;zx, ;H eow
f;zx, ;H ftzdo f;zx wkB;k s'A. ;H wbehs f;zx, ;H ;[yd/t f;zx,
n?;Hn?wH p?Noh tkb/ s/ pkpk nkswk f;zx, ;H i;tzs f;zx, ;H rwd{o
f;zx, pfmzv/ s'A B/ gqtko ƒ v[ZpD' pukfJnk, j";bk fdZsk. fco Gh fJ;
;w/A ihtB ;kED ƒ nkoEe ns/ wkBf;e ;zskg G'rDk fgnk. fdwkrh
jkbs ftrV rJh. fJZe ;kb s'A tZX ;wK eZNe/ i/jb s'A fojkJh fwbh,
fco nke/ ;odkoBh dk bzwk fJbki eokT[Dk fgnk. w/oh r?o jkIoh
ftu, pZfunK ƒ v'bD s'A pukfJnk, Xkowe w[ekpfbnK ftu Pkwb
eokT[Adh ojh. pZu/ ;z;koh ftfdnk gVQfdnK Bkb r[ows ftu Gh gogZe
j' rJ/, ;N/i s/ p'bD tkb/ uzr/ p[bko/ pD rJ/. p/Nh Btdhg e"o M.A.
Xow nfXn?B r'bv w?vfb;, M.A. gzikph, phH n?v
Z , frnkBh, nkoehN?eN
dk fvgb'wk, fwPBoh e'o; nkfd eo rJh. p/Nk phHJ/H frnkBh, fvtBNh,
fwPBoh e'o; nkfd gk; eo frnk. phph ;[yfizdo e"o (B{zj) fwbh
fi;B/ phHn?;H;hH, n?wHJ/H fJzrfbP gVQkJh w[ezwb ehsh j'Jh j? (fJ;B/
feskp B{z fbytkT[D ftu, go{c ohfvzr ftu pj[s wdd ehsh)

(4)
e[M io{oh ekotkJhnK g{ohnK eoB s'A pkd w?ƒ w[V nkgDh T[;/
g[okDh B'eoh s/ pjkb eo fdZsk frnk. Pq'wDh ew/Nh tb'A fpBk wzr/, d;
jiko o[g? ;jkfJsk bJh G/i/ rJ/. iBtoh 1993 ftu GkJh wBihs f;zx
w[Zy ;/tkdko nkBzdg[o ;kfjp ƒ ekoiekoh iE/dko nekb sys dh ;/tk
;zGkb fdZsh rJh. w?A fJjBK Bkb gzEe w;fbnK pko/, bzwh ftuko
ehsh. fJ;B/ w?ƒ nkgDk w[Zy ;bkjeko fB:[es eo fbnk, s/ w?A nkgDh
;oekoh B"eoh s'A nr/sh foNkfJow?AN b? e/ fJjBK Bkb ;/tk s/ jkIo j'
frnk. iBtoh 93 s'A ;szpo 95 sZe. fJ; nj[d/ s/ ofje/, f;nk;h
bhvoK, Xkowe ;/tkdkoK ƒ B/fVUA j'e/ t/yD goyD dk w"ek fwfbnk.
tZv/ S'N/ nj[fdnK s/ p?m/ ftneshnK dh soi/ fIzdrh t/ye/, nsh fBok;sk
j'Jh. fJ; bJh iE/dko Bkb x[ND wfj;{; eofdnK, fsnkr gZso d/
fdZsk. T[gqzs ;kfjpikdk i[Mko f;zx r[ows fwPBoh ekbi ftu, fJfsjk;
gVkT[D dh ;/tk s/ ik jkIo j'fJnk. fszB e[ ;kb s'A pkd e[M nD;[ykt/A
ekoBK eoe/, T[E'A Gh fsnkr gZso d/ fdZsk. fJsB/ ftu w/om s/ foPhe/;
fty/ S/ e[ wjhB/ Xow ftfdnk gVQkT[D dh ;/tk ehsh. frnkBh irihs
f;zx f;deh ns/ GkJh fJzdoihs f;zx okDk ns/ ;kEhnK d/ T[Zdw ;dek,
b[fXnkDk fty/ r[ows frnkB fwPBoh ekbi, 1996 s'A P[o{ j' frnk.
sd'A s'A dk; T[E/ fJfsjk; gVkT[D dh fIzw/tkoh fBGk fojk j?. e?B/vk,
fJzrb?v, iowBh, U.A.E. nkfd d/PK ftu Xow gquko bJh ikD dk w"ek
fwfbnk j?. fJZe ;" s'A tZX Xkofwe b/y j[D se gofunK ftu Sg u[e/
jB. d; S'N/ feskpu/ Skge/ ;zrsK sZe g[uk u[fenk jK. eJh ;ko/ b/y
jkbh nDSg/ gJ/ jB. r[ows f;XKsK ƒ fByko e/ g/P eoB tkbhnK
CDs Gh eZY uZ[fenk jK. w'jkbh fty/ 26 nes{po 2003 ƒ j'Jh ftPt
f;Zy ebt?PB ƒ, ekw:kp eoB tk;s/, pDdk ;odk :'rdkB gkfJnk
;h. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ uoBK ftu nodk; j? fe nkyoh ;[nk;K se nkgD/
do dh ;/tk b?Adk oj/.
r[ows pko/ fJ; bzwh emB xkbDk ftu'A i' f;fynk, gktB
r[opkDh ns/ fJfsjk; ftu'A i' wkDe w'sh bZG ;fenk, T[j ;zrsK nZr/

(5)
go'; fojk jK. pj[s/ b/y f;XKse jB. fJ; bJh eJh tkoh gVQe/, u[ZGD
wfj;{; Gh j' ;edh j?. feT[Afe nkw f;Zy nZi se e/tb r[o{ xo Bkb
PoXk tkb/ gZy ekoB jh i[fVnk j'fJnk j?, frnkB bZrGr BKj d/
pokpo jh j?. r[opkDh frnkB dk ;kro j?, fJfsjk; goT[geko s/
;{owrsh dh f;yo j?. r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftu i' gfVQnk, ftdtkBK s'A
f;fynk, ihtB siop/ Bkb foVfenk T[jh pDk ;ztko e/ gkmeK dh ;/tk
ftu jkIo j?. w?ƒ edh fuZs u/sk Gh BjhA ;h fe tZvh g{oh feskp fbyD
d/ ;woE j' ;eKrk, T[j Gh f;XKse feskp < fJ; fgS/ ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB
dh feogk s'A pkd w/o/ ;fseko:'r tZv/ tho, fiBQK ƒ w?A nkgD/ wB ftu
fIzdrh dk wkvb ;theko ehsk j'fJnk j? T[j jB, fgqz;hgb ezto wfjzdo
gqskg f;zx ih. fiBQk s'A w?A r[ows frnkB pko/ fgSb/ shj ;kb s'A f;ydk
nk fojk jK. T[j f;ykT[Ad/ j'J/ Bk Eed/ jB Bk ned/ jB, S[ge/ ofjD
dh fJZSk Bkb, brksko ezw eod/ jB. T[jBK dh d/D w?A edh d/ BjhA
;eKrk.
w? w{oy eh e/se pks j? e'fN gokXh sfonk o/]
r[o{ BkBe[ fiB ;[fDnk g/fynk ;/ fcfo roGkf; B gfonk o/] (612)
r[ows y'ih, goukoe ns/ j'o ftdtkB ;ZiD, r[opkDh d/ ukBD
ftu feskp ƒ goy e/, nro e'Jh ehwsh ;[Mk d/Dr/ sK fyV/ wZE/
;theko eoKrk. nkT[AdhnK n?vh;BK ftu ;'X eo btKrk. XzBtkd `
gq;z;eK dk Gh, *s/ nb'ueK dk Gh.

r[o{ xo dk ;/tkdko
fJzdo f;zx xZrk

(6)
g/ F ekoh
vkL jofizdo f;zx ‘fdbrho’

f;Zy ndp dhnK BhjK ftu e[M Ezw nfij/ Gh bZr/ j'J/ jB, fiBQK
ƒ jhfonK dhnK uNkBK nkyDk tkfip j't/rk. fe;/ ;[zdo fJwkos dh
fizd ikB, T[;dhnK BhjK ftu bZrhnK fJZNK ns/ w;kb/ *s/ w[BZ;o j'fJnk
eodh j?. eJh tkoh T[uhnK fJwkosK dhnK BhjK ftubh ewI'oh fgZbhnK
fJZNK, o/s dh pj[sks tkb/ xNhnk w;kb/ ekoB, bZfrnk pj[s ;kok g?;k,
nikJhA ubk iKdk j?. i/ edh f;nkDk fw;soh ezXK ftu fJZe d' wIp{s
Ewb/ T[;ko d/t/ sK MZyVK s[ckBK ftu, fJwkos ;kps sK Gkt/A Bk ofj
;e/, go T[; dk w{zj w[jKdok gSkfDnk ik ;edk j?. neb ns/ fwjBs
Bkb T[;ƒ w[V T[j' jh Peb fdZsh ik ;edh j?. f;Zy gzE d/ ndph wjb
ftu p/ soshph ns/ eZu/ w;kb/ dh Gowko j?. go nkcohB jB T[j uzd
fJZe uNkBK fijVhnK f;Zy ndp d/ wjb dhnK BhjK ftu nv'b yb'shnk
;kc fd; nkT[AdhnK jB. fJT[ gqshs j[zdk j? fJj Ewb/ Bjh fJZNK rkok
BjhA ;r'A jhfonK dhnK uNkBK jB. feT[Afe jhok ;ko/ gZEoK s'A wIp{s
j[zdk j?. efjzd/ B/ jho/ ƒ jhok sK eZN s'V ;edk j?, j'o e'Jh eZN BjhA
;edk. f;Zy ;kfjs dhnK nfijhnK ehwsh, BhjK ftu bZr/ c"bkdh jho/,
T[jBK dh ehws gkT[Dh ;zGt BjhA j?. fJjBK ftu gq'L r[ow[y f;zx, frL
fds f;zx, ;qL eow f;zx fj;N'ohnB nkgDh fw;kb nkg jB. go fJj
jho/ sK pj[s gfjbK j' r[io/ jB. fJjBK d/ ftdk j' ikD wro'A fco fJZe
ybkn fijk g?dk j' frnk ;h. w/o/ torh ykVe{ s/ uVQdh ebk ftu trD
tkbh ebw ƒ “fdbrhoh” dk nfj;k; j'D bZr fgnk ;h. nfijk
Gkf;nk fes/ j[D wod b/yeK dh bVh ysw sK BjhA j' ikt/rh <
fJZe fdB pqfwzxw (U.K.) p?fmnK fJzNoB?ZN d/ toe/ gosfdnK,
(7)
fJZe b/y Bioh fgnk. fJZe tko, d'tko, gfVQnk, o{j BfPnk rJh, wB
fyV frnk. f;zx ;Gk bfjo d/ w'YhnK dh soi^J/^fpnkBh s/ fbfynk
b/y gq'L fJzdo f;zx xZrk ih dk ;kv/ ;Bw[Zy ;h. fJZe tko fco gfVQnk,
:ehB BjhA j' fojk ;h, fe fJj b/y fJZe r[zwBkw fij/ ftnesh tb'A,
fbfynk j'fJnk j't/rk. ;r'A gfjbh Bio/ ebw dh gogZesk dk nfj;k;,
X[o nzdo T[so frnk. w?ƒ fJT[A gqshs j'fJnk, fit/A fe;/ B/ w/o/ fdb dh
nDejh rZb ƒ p[ZM e/ ekri dh fjZe s/ T[sko fdZsk j't/. eh e'Jh P\;
fJzBfpzB w/oh ;'u tkbk Gh j' ;edk j? < nzdo sKx g?dk j' rJh fe fJ;
“f;zx” ƒ Io{o fwfbnk ikt/. fJzB/ ftu w/ok fJZe d';s ;qL ikrho f;zx
“jwdod” w/o/ e'b nk g[Zik. T[; df;nk fe fJj tho fJzdo f;zx xZrk,
wBihs f;zx ;kpek iE/dko Bkb ps"o fBih ;jkfJZe ;/tk fBGk fojk j?.
w?A GkJh wBihs f;zx ƒ fBih s'o s/ ikDdk ;K. fJ; bJh xZrk ih ƒ
fwbD bJh g?dk j'Jh sKx, wZXw g? rJh. ;'funk wBk iE/dkoK dh ih
ji{oh eoB tkbk P\;, ykVe{ ;'u dk XkoBh BjhA ofj ;edk, T[;ƒ
nDy fsnkr e/ ;zg{oB r[bkwh ;theko eoBh g?Adh j?. w/oh ;'u ;jh
;kps j'Jh. e[M jh fdBK wro'A gsk bZrk fe tho fJzdo f;zx B/ sK
wBihs f;zx iE/dko dk ;kE pj[s d/o s'A SZv fdZsk j?. fJ; wro'A T[jBK
ƒ fwbD bJh w/oh ewI'o g? rJh fJZSk fco pbtkB j' rJh.
nr;s 2003 ftu w?A tsBh gos nkfJnk. fJ; s'A pknd xZrk
ih d/ e[M j'o b/ye gVQB dk w"ek fwfbnk. p;, fJ; wro'A w?ƒ j'o ;'uD
ftukoB dh b'V Bk gJh. fJZe fwbDh dk ;pZp sK ;kv/ ftueko seZbc
BK dh e'Jh nbkws Bk ojh. j[D sK fJT[A wb{w j[zdk j? fe n;hA t;d/
Gkt/A nbZr nbZr PfjoK ftu jK, go fdbK dh ;KM okjh e'b e'b jh
ofjzd/ jK. gq'L fJzdo f;zx dk jo BtK b/y w/oh BIo *u'A Io{o bzxdk j?.
jo tko w?ƒ BthBsk gqkgs j[zdh j?. ;'udk jK fe nfijh ;'u tkb/ f;ZyK
dk nro fJZe ekcbk pD ikt/. Bth ftfrnkBe ;'u ftu Ykbe/ fJfsjk;
s/ r[ows ;kfjs fbfynk ikt/HHHHH. eh edh fJj ;zGt j' ;e/rk < fJBK
fgnko GohnK fwbDhnK d"okB jh fJZe fdB tho ih B/ ngDZs Bkb w?ƒ

(8)
fJj wkD fdZsk fe Bth Sg ojh feskp ^ “Xow d/ BK s/HHH” dh g/Pekoh
fbyK.
tho fJzdo f;zx dh fJj feskp tZy^tZy ftfPnK Bkb ;pzXs
r[ows d/ f;XKse gfjb{nK pko/ gq"V wkBf;e gZXo dh ;{ue j?. j'o y{ph
fJj fe b/ye fgSb/ shj ;kb s'A r[ows ;N/iK s/ eEk$b?euoK okjhA
nkgDh Bt/ebh ;'u dk gorNktk eodk nk fojk j?. fe;/ d/ “frZN/ bZr/
r'v/ bZr/”, d/ w[jkto/ tKr r[ows d/ “nDhnkb/ sho” ekch fsZy/ wfj;{;
j[zd/ jB. go r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftu jh soe; ftu'A SZv/ iKd/ jB. fiE/
b/ye ftP/ pko/ v{zxh tkech d/ fojk j[zdk j?, T[E/ jo ftuko ƒ r[opkDh dh
e;tZNh s/ goyD dk wkfjo Gh j?. b/y dk ikpsk, ebuo, fJfsjk;,
g[okDe eEktK nkfd ƒ EK f;o oZyD dk j[ZBo Gh b/ye ƒ pky{ph nkT[Adk
j?. T[j gkme dh g{oh fdbu;gh pDkJh oZydk j?, gkme ƒ nkgDh okJ/
dk jkDh pDke/, nkgD/ Bkb N'o e/ wzfib sZe b? iKdk j?. nfijh y{ph
fes/ fes/ jh t/yD ƒ fwbdh j?.
fJj g[;se ;w{buh jh w/oh g;zd ftu j?, e[M b/y fJ; ftu
wk;No gh; nytkT[D d/ jZedko jB. f;Zy cb;c/ ftu ny"sh eokwksK,
ikd{ N{D/, G{s gq/s, fuZNk ekbk fJbw, ƒ e'Jh EK BjhA. f;Zy Xow ftu
n;b “eokwks” db/oh, pjkdoh tkb/ ekoBkfwnK ƒ wzfBnk frnk j?.
T[j db/oh Gkt/A ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gd/PK dh j't/, T[jBK dhnK fbysK gktB
r[opkDh dh j't/ iK T[jBK tb'A gkJ/ g{ofBnK dh j't/. Gkt/A T[j db/oh
GkJh T[d? f;zx GkJh pfuso f;zx, GkJh nkbw f;zx iK GkJh pki f;zx
pzdk f;zx dh. T[j ;{owrsh 1705 dh j't/ 1762 dh iK 1984 dh. fJjh
;{owrsh n;bh s/ “ikjok eokwks” j?. fJ; feskp ftu f;Zy cb;c/
dhnK fJjBK ikjoK eokwksK ƒ y{p;{os nzdki ftu g/P ehsk frnk j?.
gq'fjs g[ikohnK B/ Boe ;tor, g[Bo iBw, fe;ws dk r/V, fgSb/
eowK dk cb, dkB g[zB nkfd dk ikb ftSke/ G'b/ b'eK ƒ ;dhnK s'A
“Xkowe mZrh” okjhA b[ZN e/ ykXk j?. “Boe ;[or eh j?” b/y ftu fJ;/
gki ƒ T[xkfVnk frnk j?. nekb sys ƒ ;w[Zu/ f;Zy irs dk ;KMk

(9)
nbzpodko Bk ofjD d/ e/, fJZe XV/ B/ fJ;ƒ nkgDh iZdh ikfJdks pDk
fbnk j?. fBZih feVK eZYD bJh, iksh w[ckdK tk;s/, ny"sh j[ewBkfwnK
ƒ jfEnko pDk e/, fJ; gzEe ;z;Ek ƒ B/;s'A Bkp{d eoB dk pZIo gkg
ehsk frnk j?. tho fJzdo f;zx B/ fJ; Bki[e s/ nsh b'VhAd/ ftP/ s/ g{oh
p/pkeh Bkb ebw ubkJh s/ fJ; bfjo ƒ nZr/ N'fonk j?. gq'fjstkd ns/
oki;h ieV ftu'A nekb sys ƒ nkIkd eokT[D tkfbnK dh fJ; bfjo
ftu Pkwb j'e/, gq'L xZrk B/ fieo:'r fjZ;k gkfJnk j?. T[;/ db/oh dk
gqsZy ;p{s jB fJ; feskp d/ d' b/y nkX[fBe gq;zr ftu “j[ewBkwk ns/
nekb sys dh d[otos'A pko/ b/y fJ;/ gki ƒ T[xkVd/ jB.
d[Bhnk ftu pE/o/ g[oP j'J/ jB, go i[r ƒ pdb d/D tkbk,
fJfsjk; ƒ T[bN fdPk tb N[oB bJh wIp{o eoB tkbk, wjKpbh edh
edkJh fe;ws Bkb jh gqrN j'fJnk eodk j?. g[okDe wjKGkos dh
eEk okjhA ;[nkdb/ ns/ Bt/eb/ nzdkI ftu, b/ye B/ d;w gksPkj ji{o
ƒ i[Zr g[oP nky e/ ;Zuh PoXk gqrN ehsh j?. “fJfsjk; dh w"s” fJZe
j'o y{p;{os b/y j?, fi; ƒ gVQe/ fJZe tkoh sk f;o ueok iKdk j?. fe
j? ` i' e[M n;hA nZi se gVQ fby oj/ ;h, eh fco T[j w[odk bk; tork
fJfsjk; jh ;h < Mzi'V e/ irkT[D tkbk ikBdko b/y j?. w[Vw[V gVQB ƒ
fdb eodk j?, fJT[A gqshs j[zdk j? fe b/ye B/ fJfsjk; ƒ woB'A puk
fbnk j?. fJZe b/y j? “f;Zy G'iB”. wk; pko/ pIko ftu eJh g[;seK
nk uZ[ehnK jB. go gkmeK ƒ fJ; b/y ftu'A BthBsw frnkB gqkgs
j't/rk. ;zsK wjzsK dk r[ows ftu e'Jh tyok o[spk BjhA j?. fco Gh
v/o/dko f;ZyK ƒ Gowke/ nkgD/ v/fonK tZb fyZuD ftu ekw:kp j' oj/
jB. G'b/ f;Zy tes s/ ;wK ftnoE rztK oj/ jB. b/ye B/ “s/ ;zs G'b/
r[of;Zy j?” fby e/ ;[ui
Z h nrtkJh fdZsh j?. wksk fgsk pZfunK ƒ r[ows
ftfdnk d/D s'A bkgqtkjh tos iKd/ jB. fi; ekoB pZu/ e[okj/ g? e/ wksk
fgsk dk Bkw ebzes eod/ jB s/ nkgDh fIzdrh nzXeko ftu roe eo b?Ad/
jB. fJZe b/y “Xow ftfdnkHHHH” fbye/, fJfsjk; ftu fdb N[p
z D/ gq;r
z
Bkb i'Ve/, nfijk fdbeP BePk pzfBnk j? fe gVQe/ jh ;kj bJhdk j?.

(10)
“r[o[ ;oto[ jw jz; fgnko/” b/y ftu shoEK dh ns/ eKtK s'A
jz; pDB dh rkEk fpnkBh rJh j?. fi; db/oh Bkb ;zt/dBPhb ftP/ ƒ
gfjbK fe;/ xZN jh jZE gkfJnk j?. tho xZrk ih ƒ fJ; i[nos bJh
tXkJh. “fJPe jeheh tkbk gzikp fe; okj”, tkbk b/y fJPe wikih
dhnK jho oKMk, ;Z;h g[zƒ, fwoik ;kfjpK nkfd dh eos{s fpnkB eoe/,
fco Pkw f;zx nNkoh tkbk, joh f;zx Bb{nk, GkJh wBh f;zx sko{ f;zx
uko ;kfjpIkd/HHHH. f;ZyK ƒ fgnko/ BjhA bZrd/, nfPe ftrV/ w[zv/ e[VhnK
jh uzr/ brd/ jB. tkj w/o/ tho xZrk ih s[;hA tdkDh u'N wkoh, nkcohB.
fJZe pj[s jh ;zt/dBPhb b/y j?, “f;Zy nodk; nkX[fBe gq;zr ftu”.
fJ; b/y ƒ d' tko gfVQnk, nzdo'A e[M NZ[ND dh nktkI nkJh. T[j ;h
nodk; pko/ T[wo Go pDh PoXk. eh f;Zy gzE ftu e/tb PoXk jh
gqtkB j?, frnkB BjhA < ;wki dk tv/ok fjZ;k PoXk ƒ jh Xow gotkB
eo u[Zek j?, id'A fe fJj nX{ok ;Zu j?. fJj nodk; tkbk b/y pj[s
n"fynk j'e/ ;zx j/mK T[skoBk g?Adk j?. ;Zu w[Zu gfjbh tko fe;/ ebw B/
fJ; nsh Bki[e ft;/a ƒ ebwpzd ehsk j?. nZyo nZyo Bki[nkp j?, go
fdb ƒ ;zGkbe/ gVBk gt/rk, toBkHHHHH. ;kvhnK gqw[y iE/pzdhnK B/
nkgDh fizw/tkoh ƒ BjhA fBGkfJnk. B"itkB do do dhnK m'eoK yk oj/
jB. Gfty nzXeko wJh j?, Bf;nK ftu roe j' oj/ jB, p/o[Irkoh j?.
fe;/ ƒ e'Jh fceo BjhA j?, ;kv/ fJjBK f;Zy jhfonK dk. gq'L fJzdo f;zx
B/, ew/NhnK d/ fizw/tko u"XohnK ƒ, tes f;o yohnK efj ;[DkJhnK
B/. go eh ;kv/ fdbh ew/Nh tkb/, nzfwqs;o SGPC tkb/ edh e[zGeoDh
BhAd ftu'A ikrDr/ < iK ;ko/ ykb;k gzE ƒ popkd eoB dk jh fJjBK
m/ek gqkgs ehsk j'fJnk j? < Ne;kb tkb/ bzw/ ;w/A s'A gouko okjhA
pqkjwDh eoweKvK ftu, r[of;ZyK ƒ T[bMk oj/ jB. r[opkDh s'A T[bN,
g"okDe e{V epkV gquko oj/ jB. edh fe;/ b/ye B/ xZN jh fjzws ehsh
j? T[jBK d/ gki Bzr/ eoB dh.
nkfyo ftu ykb;k ƒ oki y[P ikDdh fjod/t/Xe xNBk :kd
eotk e/ y{B y"bD bk fdZsk j?. fe; fwZNh d/ pD/ j'J/ ;B T[j f;Zy fiBQK f;oK

(11)
d/ rzi T[;ko e/ y{B d/ dfonk soe/, ykb;k oki dh ;EkgBk ehsh. nZi d/
f;ZyK dh s[bDk eo' oki gqkgsh tk;s/ e'Jh isB sK eh eoBk ;h, ;r'A oki
dhnK :kdK jh wB w;se ftu'A fwNk fdZshnK. ft;kyh iK fdtkbh ƒ
dhgwkbk, nkfsPpkih ubk e/, y[Ph wBkJh iKdh j?. go eh r[bkwK ƒ Gh
e'Jh y[Ph j'fJnk eodh j?< “y[; u[e
Z / ykb;k oki dh :kd dtkT[D bJh fywK
ukj[d
z / jK”, go fJj dodBke eKv fet/A G[bKr/ < ;kek ;ojzd, thjthA ;dh
dk Pqw' Dh f;Zy s/ fJeh ;kbk M{m ns/ fJZe ftfrnkBe b/y Pbkxk:'r jB.
“Xow d/ BK *s/HHHH`” g[;se w/oh BIo ftu, nsh ehwsh ouBk
j?, s/ gzEe fgnkfonK bJh Bk:kp s'jck j?, i' w/o/ tho xZrk ih B/ fdb
dhnK rfjokJhnK ftu'A fbfynk j?, r[opkDh dh e;tZNh s/ gofynk j?,
fJfsjk; ftu'A pjkdoK dhnK eokwksK bZGhnK jB, cb;c/ dhnK pkohehnK
ƒ ;wfMnk j?. fco fIzdrh d/ gogZe siop/ okjhA fJjBK dh u'D eoe/,
gzE fgnko tkbhnK gftZso o{jK nZr/ go'f;nk j?. w/oh ;bkw j? fJ;
db/o ebw ƒ ` fi; tes gzE d/ ny"sh^ftdtkB nekbh u"XohnK dhnK
uZgbK uZND bJh jZE pzBh tkoh dh T[vhe ftu jB. T[;/ jh t/b/ nfijhnK
ebwK Gh w"i{d jB, i' u"XohnK tZb'A g/P ehs/ bkbu, nj[fdnK, ;BwkBK
ns/ d"bs ƒ m[eok e/ ;Zu' ;Zu nkyD dh i[nos eodhnK jB. pfbjko
iktK, fiBQK XwehnK ns/ ysfonK dh gqtkj Bk eofdnK, ;w/A f;o ;Zu
nky ;[DkfJnk j?. w/o/ tho fJzdo f;zx dh ebw ƒ w?A “jw/;[b ;bkw/”
nky ;edk jK. fJj :kd oj/, w?A ftnesh d/ fBZi dh rZb BjhA ehsh,
;Zu fpnkB eoB tkbh ebw ƒ BwPeko ehsh j?. gqpzXeK ns/ gqukoeK
bJh fJj feskp gVQBh nsh Io{o ;wM e/, gVQB dh f;cko; eodk jK.
T[whd jh BjhA ftPtk; j? fe ;Zu Bkb s/ r[opkDh Bkb fgnko eoB tkb/
fJ; g[;se ƒ Io{o ;fsekoBr/.

gzEe ;/te ^ vkL jofizdo f;zx fdbrho


hsdilgeer@yahoo.com

[[[[

(12)
**r[nku uZ[e/ f;Zy d/; d/ tko;' s[jkB{z
r[og[op w[pkoe**HHHHHH<
“g'Eh gow/;o ek EkB[” d/ gfjb/ gqekP ƒ :kd eofdnK, f;Zy
;wki B/ 400 ;kbk iPB pVh X{wXkw Bkb wBkJ/ s/ wBkT[D/ ikoh jB.
r[o{ rqzE ih dk T[gd/P T[GkoB goukoB dh Ekt/A, p/JhwkB bhvoK B/,
nkgD/ nkg ƒ godoPs eoB dk fxBkT[Dk eow ehsk j?. r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp dk ngwkB eoB tkb/, f;Zyh ƒ wbhnk w/N eoB tkb/, r[o{ rqzE ih
dhnK jikoK gktB phVK nrB G/N eokT[D tkb/, dopko ;kfjp ;w{zj s/
y{Bh jwbk eotkT[D tkb/, p/d'P/ f;Zy wkJh GkJh :kso{nK dk y{B vheK
bk e/ ghD tkb/HHHHr[og[op wBk oj/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih dk puB j? ^
;[ofs wfs us[okJh skeh, fenk efo nkfy tykDhn?]
nzsfo pfj e? eow ewkt?, ;' uj[ e[zvh ikDhn?]
i' Xow[ ewkt?, fs;[ Xow BkT[ j't,? gkfg ewkt/, gkgh ikDhn?](138)
fJT[A ;wM bJhJ/ fe P?skB e[okB dhnK nkfJsK gVQe/, b'eK ƒ
Xow T[gd/P eoB dk y/yD eo fojk j?. P?skB fJZe BjhA, fuZN/ u'fbnK
ftu, Grt/A p;soK ftu, iK Bhb/ pkfDnK ftu, dBdBKd/ pVQeK wkod/
nDfrDs jB. e[M ;wK gfjbK “ft;kyh w[pkoe” sfjs e?B/vk d/ fJZe
nypko ftu pj[s jh dodBke dk;skB Sgh ;h. w?A T[; ƒ sd'A jh ;KG
fbnk ;h. fJ; fJpkos ƒ 400 ;kbk gqekP fdt; bJh, Iok e[ ;'Xe/
fby fojk jK. f;Zy B;b e[;h d/ erko s/ jB. f;Zy okiBhse e[okj/ g?
u[Ze/ jB, f;Zy Xow w[yh g{oh soK fBZxo uZ[e/ jB. e'Jh f;Zy :{[Bhtof;Nh,
f;Zy ekbi, nypko, ;?N/bkJhN u?Bb (r[ows ftuko eoB bJh) fJ;
400 ;kbk s/ P[o{ BjhA ehsk frnk. r[opkDh dhnK noEK tkbhnK g'EhnK
(13)
xo xo gZ[idhnK. d[Bhnk dhnK ;kohnK w[Zy p'bhnK ftu nB[tkd eoe/
u'DtK f;Zy ;kfjs gjzu
[ kfJnk iKdk. go nc;'; nfijk eoB s'A w[iowkBk
e'skjh ehsh rJh j?.
ni/ eZbQ dhnK rZbK jB, eohp d' bZy f;Zy B"i[nkB esb ehsk
frnk, xoK d/ fuokr r[Zb j'J/, pbkseko j'J/HHHH. fco fJj y[PhnK
dhgwkbk, tki/ rki/, wfmnkJhnK dk nkdkB godkB, wfonK dh y[;h
ftu < gzikp T[iVB dh y[Ph ftu < ;VeK s/ d"Ve/ (u/sBk wkouK dk
w{oysk Gfonk ezw) g;hBk pjke/, rZvhnK w'NoK dk s/b c{e e/, eh ;Zu
w[Zu f;ZyK ƒ neb nk ikt/rh < fco ;e{b ekbi :{Bhtof;NhnK pzd
BjhA eo d/DhnK ukjhdhnK < dhg wkbk Bkb f;ZyK d/ wB o'PB (frnkBtkB)
j' ikDr/ < gqXkB wzsoh, okPNogsh, GkigkJh, RSS, eh f;ZyK ƒ e[M
d/ ;eDr/ < nZi sZe fJjBK ;kfonK B/ f;ZyK ƒ b[ZfNnk ns/ e[ZfNnk j?,
fco fJj fe; y[Ph ftu “w[Zy wfjwkB” pDke/ fBtki/ ik oj/ jB <
PoXkb{nK dk nEkj g?;k s/ ;wK popkd eo fdZsk frnk, go f;ZyK dh
jkbs ftu e'Jh spdhbh BjhA nkt/rh. ekP` fJj PoXktkBK dk g?;k
;uh w[Zuh “Xow ekoiK” s/ yofunk iKdk. f;Zy e"w dh fprVh ;zto
iKdh. go BjhA ` brd? ni/ f;Zy e"w dh fe;ws ftu j'o y[nkoh fbyh
j'Jh j?.
fJj popkdh e'Jh j'o BjhA eotk fojk, f;ZyK dk ipoh pfDnk
“g'g” gqekP f;zx pkdb eotk fojk j?. ny"sh iE/dko ep{so tKr nZyK
whNh p?m/ fpZbh d/ ubh ikD dh nk; bkJh p?m/ jB. pkdb g'g fet/A j?
Bw{Bk jkio j? ^ i/ ykb;k gzE rcbs ftu'A Bk ikfrnk sK pkdb
tofrnK “r[o{” pD ikD dk n?bkB Io{o eo d/Dk j?. p; n?t/A fJZe
wjhB godk fijk jh ftueko j?.
(1) eJhnK dk xkD eoe/ e/Ado dh nfdy skes Bkb nekbh db dk
;ot/ ;otk gqXkB.
(2) nekbh db ƒ s'Ve/ w'rk fty/ (1996) gzikph gkoNh fJ; dk BK
oZy fdZsk frnk.

(14)
(3) dopko ;kfjp ftu nkJ/ ftP/P wfjwkBK ƒ f;o'g/ dopko ;kfjp
d/ rqzEh fdnk eod/ ;B n?seh gqXkB wzsoh s/ okPNogsh ƒ y[d
pkdb B/ f;o'g/ fdZs/. Gkt fe pkdb dopko ;kfjp dk w[Zy rqzEh Gh
pD frnk.
(4) ;L r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk gqXkB d/ woD s/ s[ozs nekb sys d/ rqzEh
ƒ nkye/ N'jV/ ƒ “gzE osB” dk fyskp Gh pkdb B/ d[nkfJnk.
Gkt nekb sys dk ;kok ezw eki pkdb d/ fJ;ko/ s/ j' fojk j?.
;wM nk ojh j? fe nekb sys dk iE/dko Gh pkdb.
(5) Pqw
' Dh ew/Nh dk gqXkB Gh (nf;ZX/ Yzr Bkb) y[d gqekP f;zx pkdb j?.
(6) nzfwqs;o fty/ Bro ehosB ftu r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh skfpnK w[Zy
rqzEh p?fmnk eod/ ;B. n?seh wjkoki d/ skp/ T[; oE ftu w[Zy
rqzEh dh Ekt/A (dkjVh eN/ pkvh rkovK ;w/s) pkdb ih ;tko j'
rJ/. :kBh fe fJE/ Gh rqzEh dh fvT{Nh y'j bJh rJh. Gkt/A oE d/
gjhJ/ N[ZN rJ/ s/ gktB ;o{g dh p/ ndph j'Jh.
(7) fco ;o{g u[Ze e/ fJZe x'Vk rZvh ftu ;tko eokfJnk frnk,
pkdb ;kfjp nkgD/ pkvhrkovK ;w/s T[; ftu Gh ik p?m/. fJsBk
Gko BK ;jkodh j'Jh rZvh fyZuD tkbh x'Vh iwhB s/ fvZr gJh s/
T[FZm Bk ;eh.
(8) ftdtkBK dh ekBcqz; ftu e[zihts GkPD i' fdZsk frnk fJZe “dkjVh
eN/ f;Zy” tZb'A fdZsk frnk.
(9) thj bZy b'e nzfwqs;o nkJ/ go pkdb s'A fpBK T[j j'o e[M BjhA
t/y ;e/.
(10) f;Zy e"w dk brgr gzikj eo'V o[fgnk popkd eo fdZsk frnk.
eh nfij/ jkbksK ftu f;ZyK dh uVQdh ebk j' ;edh j? < nZr/
f;ZyK dh d[odPk pko/ gV'Q ^
;kY/ 3 jIko ;kb s'A pqkjwDtkd dh ibkbs dk fPeko ns/
I[bw^ipo dh uZeh *u fg; oj/ b'eK ƒ r[o{ BkBe d/t ih dh ;'u B/ fJzB/
pbtkB pDk fdZsk fe T[jBK B/ 19thA ;dh d/ P[o{ ftu jh fJ; Xosh T[Zs/

(15)
(w"i{dk ;kT{E J/Phnk fyZs/ ftu) fJZe f;Zy d/P ;Ekfgs eo fbnk, f;ZyK
d/ fJ; d/P dhnK jZdK d/ nzdo r[o{ ;kfjp d/ nkP/ nB[;ko b'eK B/
nIkdh dk fBZx wkfDnk. fJ; s'A gfjbK fe fJ; nIkdh dk fBZx d[Bhnk
d/ pkeh b'e th wkD ;ed/ pqkjwD B/ nkgDhnK e'MhnK ukbK d[nkok f;ZyK
dk nkgDk ikB s'A th tZX fgnkok tsB nzro/IK dh M'bh ftu gk fdZsk.
nkgD/ T[; fgnko/ tsB ƒ nIkd eotkT[D bJh f;ZyK tZbA' nEkj e[opkBhnK
;dek }[bkwh dh T[j bzwh oks 1947 ftu w[Zeh sK Io{o, go f;ZyK dk
nkgDk d/P d' e"wK B/ nkg; ftu nZXk nZXk tzv fbnk. fJZe B/ d/P ftu'A
wko e/ GikfJnk s/ d{;o/ dh }[bkwh nZi sZe jzYk oj/ jK.
T[; fyZs/ dh nIkdh bJh 80 ch;dh e[opkBhnK d/D tkfbnK
ƒ s'j|/ ftu eh fwfbnk <
! “f;Zy ;w[Zu/ s"o *s/ iwKdo{ c;kdh ns/ IokfJw g/Pk b'e jB s/
fJj ;{p/ d/ nwB^g;zd fjzd{nK bJh yso/ Goh tzrko pD/ j'J/ jB.
fvgNh efwPBo fJjBK fto[ZX ftP/P ;kXB ngDkT[D. f;ZyK ƒ
p/ekƒBh d/ okj gkT[D tkbhnK T[BQK dhnK T[j iwKdo{ gqpb o[uhnK
jB, fiBQK dk M[ekn fJ;soh joB ns/ b[ZN^wko tZb j?.” ^ tZbG
GkJh gN/b rqfj wzsoh (gZso, BzL n?rfIfpN vhH 11$7, fwfs 10
nes{po 1947)
! “r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih G[ZbV d/P Grs ;B.” ^ M.K. rKXh
! “don;b r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx B/ r[o{ BkBe dh ftukoXkok dk ftek;
o'e fdZsk. T[j f;Zy ;fGnkuko d/ gsB dk :[Zr ;h.” ^ oftzdoBkE
N?r'o
! “xZN frDshnK ƒ n;hA eZY d/D ftu iK tZvh gZXo s/ esb eo d/D
s/ ftPtk; BjhA oZyd/, ;r'A Xow dh spdhbh d/ ukjtkB jK.” ^
wjKtho fsnkrh
! “:{H ghH ftu pj[s ;ko/ G/VhJ/ (f;Zy) nk u[Ze/ jB, T[BQK ƒ fBekbDk
Io{oh j?.” ^ gqXkB wzsoh u"Xoh uoB f;zx

(16)
fuZso
! “fjzd{ fjzd';skB d/ wkbe jB, fJj rZb ;wM bJh ikt/.” ^
fBokX u"Xoh
! “w?A d/P nzdo f;ftb tko sK podkPs eo ;edk jK, gqzs{ gzikph
;{pk BjhA.” ^ gzfvs itkjo bkb Bfjo{ (21 nes{po 1960 gq?Z;
ekBcoz;)
! “id'A e'Jh tZvk doZys fvZrdk j? sK Xosh ezpdh j?.” ^ okiht
rKXh (f;ZyK d/ Btzpo 1984 ftu :'iBkpZX esb/nkw ;w/A)
! i{B 1984 ftu dopko ;kfjp ns/ pkeh 37 r[oXkwK s/ c"ih jwb/
ns/ jIkoK f;ZyK d/ esb dh gqPz;k eod/ j'J/ fJzdok rKXh ƒ
“d[ork wksk” d/ fyskp Bkb fBtkfink ^ tZb'A nNb fpjkoh
tkigkJh, gqXkB wzsoh.
! f;Zy fyZs/ ƒ o/fr;skB pDkT[D bJh gkDh d/ ;'w/ y'j/.
! f;Zy fyZs/ dk nkX[fBe s/ ftfrnkBe ftek; o'eD bJh gzikp dh
Xosh s/ ;fEs GkyVk v?w s'A g?dk j'Jh fpibh y'j e/ fdZbh s/
r[nKYh okiK ƒ fdZsh. f;ZyK ƒ fpjko s'A fjzd';skBh jkewK d/ fwZE/
j'J/ wfjzr/ Gkn s/ yohd e/ fbnKd/ e'b/ Bkb ub oj/ EowZb gbkNK
dh fpibh s/ fBoGo eo fdZsk, fi; Bkb T[E/ ofjzd/ pfPzd/ X{zJ/ s/
IfjohbhnK r?;K d/ n;o G[rsd/ ofjDr/. fGnkBe o'rK d/ fPeko
j' ikDr/. fjzd';skBh jkewK tZb'A e'bk pzd eoe/ fe;/ th ;w/A
Eowb gbKNK ƒ pzd ehsk ik ;edk j?. fco g{ok gzikp ;'e/ s/
jBQ/o/ dhnK r[|ktK *u r[zw j' ikt/rk. u/s/ oj/ e'b/ dk youk f;Zy
fe;kB d/ fojk j?, go fiBQK v?wK s/ gzikp dk jZE j?, T[E'A dh fpibh
j'o okiK ƒ w[|s tKr{z fdZsh ik ojh j?.
! f;Zy fyZs/ ftu T[Zu seBheh s/ nkX[fBe ekoykB/ Bk bZrD d/D/.
! f;Zy e"w d/ p"fXe (fdwkrh) ftek; ƒ o'eD bJh nzdookPNoh
gZXo d/ ftfdne ndko/ Bk y[ZbQD d/Dk. gzikp ftu gfVQnk fbfynK
dh do Gkos ftu'A u"E/ Bzpo s'A j[D T[Bht/A Bzpo *s/ gj[zu rJh j?.

(17)
^ (fJzvhnk N{v/$wkor ns/ wodw P[wkoh 2001) (j[D 22t/A Bzpo
s/ j?)
! f;Zy e"w ƒ ;ohoe ns/ wkBf;e s"o s/ rkbD bJh ny"sh ;fGnkuko
dh nkV j/m popkd eoBk, fit/A fe dko{ ghDh, pZeo/ p[bkT[D/ u'oh
:koh s/ nPbhbsk ƒ T[sPkfjs eoB tkbh nfijh xNhnk gZXo
dh rkfJZeh s/ ;kfjsekoh ƒ jZbkP/oh d/Dh. fJ; dh fw;kb nZi
b[fXnkDk fIbQk Pokp dh gqsh ihn ygs d/ ftZu d[Bhnk *u'A gfjb/
Bzpo *s/ j?. fJZe frDh^fwEh ;kfIP sfjs f;Zy itkBh ƒ soQK
soQK d/ BfPnK ftu v'fpnk ik fojk j?. “gzikp ftu jo shi/
ftfdnkoEh ns/ ;ZsthA ftfdnkoED B/ BPhb/ gdkoEK dh tos'A
ehsh j?.” ;ot/yD gzikp f;js ftGkr, NofpT{B, ngq?b 8,
2001, J/vI dh fpwkoh gzikp ftu nZr tKr c?b ojh j?.
! T[go'es w[ZfdnK gqsh id'A f;Zy e"w ;[u/s j'Jh sK T[BQK ƒ i{B 84
*u jfowzdo ;kfjp ;w/s 37 r[oXkwK s/ jwb/ T[gozs Btzpo 84
*u g{o/ Gkos *u f;ZyK ƒ :'iBkpZX fxBkUD/ esb/nkw dk ;kjwDk
eoBk fgnk.
! fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA fJ; Ibw fto[ZX o'; ti'A T[Zm/ f;ZyK B{z dfjPsrod
n?bkB e/ 25000 ƒ bktkfo; rodkB e/ ;kV fdZsk. fJ; dh
gVskb eoB tkb/ ;qL i;tzs f;zx ykbVk ƒ Gh wko fdZsk frnk.
j'o nB/e i/jbK ftu ;V oj/ jB. fJj i[bw brksko ikoh j?.
ni'eh ;fEsh
! fjzd';skB *u ofjD tkb/ jo ftnesh ƒ nfj;k; j'Dk ukjhdk j?
fe T[BQK d/ g{opi fjzd{ ;B. fJE/ ofjD tkb/ jo ftnesh ƒ fJj
wzBDk gt/rk fe T[j fjzd{nK dh n"bkd jB. ^ nkoH n?;H n?;H
w[yh e/H ;[doPB (24 cotoh, 2001)
! ;kvk fto'X eoB tkfbnK ƒ ;kvh skes dk nzdkIk j' ikDk ukjhdk
j?. okw wzdo dk fto'X eoB tkb/ fjzd';skB d/ BeP/ s'A fwNk fdZs/
ikDr/. ^ ftPt fjzd{ gqhPd^w[yh, nP'e f;zxb, 23 iBtoh 2001

(18)
! f;Zy fjzd{nK dk nzr jB. ykb;k, fjzd{ e"w ƒ pukT[D tk;s/ c"ih
d;sk fsnko ehsk frnk ;h. ig[ ih rhsk dk ;ko j?. nkfd rqzE
(;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ƒ nkoH n?;H n?;H tkb/ nkfd rqzE efjzd/ jB)
ftubh r[opkDh n?;h frnkB rzrk j?, fijVh fjzd{ t/dK dh rzr'soh
s'A c[ZNdh j?. ^ nkoH n?;H n?;H
! f;Zy Xow ƒ y'ok bkT[D bJh r[o{vzw, okXk ;[nkwh, fBozekoh s/
ny"sh ;zsK ƒ ;oekoh Pfj d/ e/ gzikp d/ uZg/ uZg/ s/ v/okdkoh ƒ
T[sPkfjs eoBk, fi; dh fw;kb nZi jo f;Zy fJfsjk;e r[od[nko/
d/ nkb/ d[nkb/ fBZih v/fonK s/ wzdoK dh ;EkgBk ;gZPN BIo nk
ojh j?.
! f;Zy esb/nkw bJh iZr ikfjo j' u[e
Z / eksb ftneshnK s/ iE/pd
z hnK
ƒ d' djke/ phs ikD s/ th ;IktK Bk d/DhnK, T[bNk T[Zu gZdthnK
Bkb fBtkiDk. (n?uH e/H n?bH Grs, irdhP NkJhNbo nkfd).
! gzikp dh Xosh s/ gqwkD{ jfEnko fcZN eoBk sK fe d{;o/ w[beK
Bkb :[ZX d/ ;w/A B[e;kB dh wko gzikp tk;h MZbD. toBD:'r j?
fe fe;/ th ;w/A fJBQK jfEnkoK ftu'A gqwkD{ bhe/I ekoD gzikp
nzdo tZvk d[yKs tkgo ;edk j?. fi; d/ spkje[zB Bshi/ ;kv/ G?D
GoktK ƒ G[rsD/ g?Dr/. (fw;kb ti'A ;'thns :{BhnB d/ Pfjo
uoB'ftb dk d[yKs ;z;ko ;kjwD/ j?)
! f;Zy fe;kBk dhnK fwjBs Bkb g?dk ehshnK fiD;K ƒ wzvhnK
ftu o'bDk, sK fe r[ops Bkb o[bdk j'fJnk gzikp dk f;Zy fe;kB
jw/PK jw/Pk bJh fjzd';skB dk r[bkw pfDnk oj/. fgSb/ ;w/A ftu
u"bK *s/ nkb{nK dh c;b dk jkb ;kv/ ;kjwD/ j?, fi; ekoB nZi
gzikp dk fe;kB y[de[PhnK eoB ftu d[Bhnk Go ftu ;G s'A nZr/
j?.
! nkofEe s/ ;wkfie w[fZ dnK *u bj{ b[jkD j'Jh f;Zy e"w ƒ pqkjwDtkd
dk d?As Xkofwe s"o *s/ th jVZgD bJh fsnko yVQk j?. fw;kb ti'A
Gkigk, eKro;, nkoH n?;H n?;H, piozr db, fPt ;?Bk, ftPt

(19)
fjzd{ gqhPd nkfd fiBQK dh f;ZyK s/ xZN frDshnK gqsh ;'u yk;
stZi' ukjz[dh j?.
! fgSb/ ;w/A ftu Gkosh ;oeko tb'A f;ZyK d/ j'J/ xkD s/ godk Bk
u[Ze/ ikD d/D s'A pknd, f;ZyK ƒ g{o/ Gkos *u pbh dk pZeok
pDkfJnk ik fojk j?. 20 wkou 2000 ƒ SZsh f;zxg[ok ftu 40
f;ZyK d/ j'J/ esb ns/ fJ;/ bVh nXhB ePwho ftu f;ZyK d/ j' oj/
esb d[Bhnk ;kjwD/ fJZe fw;kb jB. nZi sZe th fjzd';skB
;oeko B/ fJBQK esbK dh iKu bJh x/;b tZNh j'Jh j?. n;hA nk;
eod/ jK fe s[;hA fJ; ;ko/ d[yKs bJh I[zw/tko skesK, ekoDK s/
ftneshnK dh fBPkBd/jh eoB bJh nkgD/ e"wh coI ƒ gfjukDd/
j'J/, nkgDh ehwsh fIzdrh d/ e[M gb d/D dh y/ub eo'r/.
T[gq'es w[ZfdnK gqsh nkg ih dk fXnkB fyZud/ j'J/, e"w T[go
tkgoB tkb/ tZv/ d[yKs ƒ GKgfdnK jzMn
{ K GohnK nZyK s/ fEVedh
nktkI Bkb s[jkƒ ft;kyh w[pkoe `
e[M fejk sK jB/ok io/rk fet/A, u[Zg fojk sK PwkdkB eh efjDr/.
rhs dh w"s fJ; oks i/ j' rJh, w/ok ihDk w/o/ :ko fezM ;fjDr/.
fJj th PkfJd w/ok nkgDk tfjw j?
e'Jh dhtk ir/rk w/oh epo *s/,
i/ jtk fJj ojh epoK T[s/ sK eh
;G xoK *u th dht/ p[M/ ofjDr/.
nkgD/, f;oc v/Y ;dh gfjbK nIkd d/P dh :kd fdtkT[D bJh
fywK d/ ikue jK ` s[jkvh y[Ph ftu n;hA ftxB gkfJnk, w[nkc eo
d/Dk go edh r[bkw Gh y[P j' ;ed/ jB< y[P j'D dk Gow gkb b?D
tkb/ Bk;wM b'e edh nkIkdh dk fBZx BjhA wkD ;ed/HHHH.

[[[[

(20)
i[ r g[ o F
(GktBktK d/ tfjD @u'I)

fjwkbk gops dh ;[zdotkdh, wBw'je fdqP, c[ZbK bZdh ;[jktDh


y[Pp{ Goh jtk, fBZxh X[Zg. d[nkg[o :[r dk :'Xk bk;kBh sho nzdkI
noiD s/ f;fynk dksk, ;fseko:'r r[o{ do'D nukohnk nkokw c[owk
oj/ jB. bzwh u[Zg s'A pknd noiD p'fbnk ^ “r[o{ ih s[;hA ;kB{z ;ko/
GoktK B{z nB/e gqeko dh ftZfdnk fdZsh, jo soQK d/ PPso n;so
ubkT[D ftu fBg[zB ehsk. w/o/ SZv/ shoK B{z t/y e/ s[;K eJh tko nkfynk
;h, p/N/ noiD s{z w/ok wkD tXkfJnk j?, w?A fisBh fwjBs ehsh s{z T[;
s'A tZX ;|bsk jk;b ehsh. izr ftu w/o/ shoK d/ eosp s/ wko{ ;woZEk
t/ye/ s[;hA w?B{z ;op ;z;ko dk Pq'wDh XB[yXkoh nkfynk ;h. xo xo
w/o/ pkj{pb dh uouk j[zdh ;hHHHH.”
“jK jK noiD ` ej[ s{z eh efjDk ukj[zdk j?, o[e feT[A frnk”<
do'D B/ T[s;[esk irkJh. “fgsk r[o{ ih` b'e pV/ Bk ;wM B/, pj[s
S/sh G[Zb iKd/ B/. d[nkg[o ftu w/o/ ;'jb/ rkT[Ad/ ;h, nZi eZbQ jtk jh
pdb rJh. fe;/ j'o jh sho nzdkI dh xo xo tfvnkJh j' ojh j?, x'o
ebi[r dh fJjh sK fBPkBh j?.” noiD B/ jT[ek b? e/ nkfynk.
nkg' nkgD/ ;w/A dh i[rK dh tfvnkJh j?, go fJZe rZb w?A
ftPtk; Bkb efj ;edk jK fe fJj i' ebi[r ftu gqrfNnk sho nzdkI
j? fJj pj[s ;ko/ r[DK ftu s/o/ Bkb'A fes/ nZr/ j?. s?B{z e"Vk ;Zu nZi eZbQ
;theko eoBk jh gt/rk. fJ; B/ i' e[M ftykfJnk j?, T[j s{z BjhA eo
;fenk p/Nk noiD.
“fJj s[;hA eh efj oj/ j' r[o{ ih<” noiD u"Afenk.
“fdb eoVk eoe/ ;[D p/Nk, w?A Gkt/A T[; wjKg[oy B{z B/fVUA BjhA
(21)
t/fynk, go o[ZyK B/ c[ZbK B/ T[; dh ;'Gk ehsh j?. gzShnK T[;d/ rhs rkJ/
jB, jtk T[; dh ;[rzXh fJE/ fjwkbk dh u'Nh sZe Gh b? nkJh j?. T[; d/
shoK dh roi rrB wzvbK sZe ;[Dh rJh j?. T[; dh sbtko dh uwe
fpibhnK B{z wks d/Adh ojh j?. T[; dh nkswe nv'bsk tkj tkj` ;kro
v'b ikt/, fjwkbk ezp ikt/ p/Pe, go fJ;d/ fdqV fBPu/ B{z v'bkfJnk BjhA
ik ;e/rk.” “eh nky oj/ j' wjkoki< eh j' frnk s[jkB{z nZi, w/o/
;kjwD/ fe;/ j'o dh P'Gk go eh t/fynk s[;hA T[; ftu<” noiD p/u?B
j' T[fmnk.
“fXnkB Bkb ;[D nkohnk g[Zso”` do'D p'b/, “id'A wjKGkos dh
izr j'Jh ;h, sK w'Nk fijk ekoB ;h i{nk s/ ikfJdkd dh tzv. e"otK B/
pbdh T[FZgo s/b gkT[D tkbk p[ok ezw fJj ehsk fe Goh ;Gk, oki
dopko ftu dq'gdh B{z p/fJZis ehsk. pi[orK tZb'A ;wMkT[D d/ pkti{d
fJ; spkje[B izr B{z o'fenk Bk ik ;fenk. T[Ai fXnkB wko d/; T[s/
fe;/ pd/Ph tZb'A jwbk BjhA ehsk frnk ;h. nkohnk Xow, t?fde ws B{z
e'Jh ysok BjhA ;h. d/P tk;h nwB dk ihtB fpsk oj/ ;B. s[jkvh
GoktK dh oki tzv ekoB nBzs b'eK B{z ikB rtkT[Dh gJh.”
j'o ;[D w/o/ pZu/ noiD` s?B{z n;so PPso ubkT[D ftu w?A Gkt/
A g{oB wkjo pDk fdZsk, go s{z edh Gh nkgDh ;'u Bkb y[d c?;bk Bk eo
;fenk fe sho feE/ ubkT[Dk j?, s/ ed'A ubkT[Dk j?. eh s?B{z :kd BjhA,
s{z sK n?B izr dh f;yobh nt;Ek tes bVB'A fJBekoh j' frnk ;h,
PPso IwhB s/ oZy e/ o' fgnk ;h. s/ok oEtkjh feqPB nro s?B{z bVB
tk;s/ fsnko Bk eodk, “;ko/ :'X/ gfjbK jh wo uZ[e/” Bk ftyk fdzdk, sK
s{z w?dkB SZv e/ BZ; ikDk ;h. fco fiE/ feqPB ih efjzd/ s{z sho ubkT[Adk,
s/oh nkgDh neb ezw BjhA eodh ;h. ;'bK ebK ;zg{oB GrtkB feqPB
s/ok foPs/dko, s/oh fgZm s/, nDfrDs fonk;sK d/PK d/ oki/, nkgDhnK
c"iK ;w/s s/o/ Bkb jwkfJs ftu fsnko ;B. n;bk pko{d oE x'V/
jkEh, nzB t;so dh e'Jh s'N BjhAHHHH s{z fco Gh v'b frnk. go w?A ;w/
A dh X[Zg ukdo s/ fbfynk gfVQnk j?, uzd ;{oi rtkjh God/ B/, fe id'A

(22)
fJ; ebi[r ftu g/dk j'J/ pjkdo B/ izr bVh j?, sd'A Gkos to; B{z
r[bkwh dhnK izihoK ftu iefVnK 700 ;kb j' u[e/ ;B. t;dk o;dk
d/P spkj eo fdZsk frnk ;h. Xow wzdo frokJ/ ik oj/ ;B, fsbe izi{
T[sko/ ik oj/ ;B. d/P dh nkpo{ d[Bhnk d/ pikoK ftu Bhbkw j' ojh
;h. fJ; e'b Bk e'Jh oki Bk febQ/, B c"iK Bk jkEh x'V/. Bk oki/
wjkokfinK tb'A e'Jh ;jkfJsk. Bk nzB XzB d/ Gzvko Bk jfEnkoK pko{d
d/ iyho/. ;r'A nkgD/ jh r[nKYh oki/ drk d/ rJ/, d/P d/ d[PwD Bkb ik
ob/. bVB tkb/ ;kXkoD b'e ;kXK d/ N'b/. fJ; sho nzdki B/ i' nrB
pkD SZv/ T[jBK dh i[nkbk w?A fjwkbk sZe dfjedh j'Jh t/yh ;h. fJ; dh
bk;kBh s/r dh uweko jB/QohnK oksK B{z uhodh j'Jh nkgDh nEkj
Pesh d[nkok Xosh nekP B{z ezpk fdzdh ;h. d[PwDHH BjhA BjhA Xowd'yh
b'eK d/ N'b/ eZyK tKr T[FZv ikfJnk eod/ ;B. fJ; d/ i?eko/ dh r{zi sK
nZi sZe jtk d/ p[fbnK ftu'A Gh ;[DkJh d/ ojh j?. fJ; d/ f;ykJ/ to';kJ/
P/oK B/ T[j e"se toskJ/ i' wjKGkos dh izr B{z fes/ fgSKj SZv rJ/ s/
fBokbk :'Xk ;ko/ ekoi y[d jh efonk eodk ;h. fJ; B/ c"iK B{z f;Zfynk
Gh y[d jh fdZsh. ;?Bk dk uh| ewKvo Gh y[d jh j'fJnk eodk ;h. nzB
dkD/ s/ n;so PPso Gh fJ; B{z y[d jh fsnko eotkT[AD/ g?Ad/ ;B. fJj
;G dk ;fseko:'r Xow r[o{ Gh ;h s/ fJ; dk feqPB tKr e'Jh j'o
;bkjeko BjhA ;h. sscZN, ;ko/ c?;b/ fJj y[d jh efonk eodk ;hHHH.
“pZ; eo' nukohnk ih pZ; eo'` w?E'A j'o fe;/ dh gqPzPk podkPs
BjhA j[zdh, e'Jh j'o rZb eo bT[” noiD e[obkfJnk.
do'D B/ nD;[Dh eoe/ rZb nZr'A N'oh “t/y noiD n;hA s/ok fto'Xh
e'Jh BjhA ofjD fdZsk. fJZe tkoh PZe fgnk ;h, gJh fJZe P{do fJebZft:k
s/o/ tk;s/ ysok pD ;edk j? s/ w?A y[d fJj gkg eow ehsk. r[o{
dePDk d/ pjkB/ T[; d/ ;Zi/ jZE dk nzr{mk eZN fdZsk, sK fe nZr/ B{z ewkD
dk fuZbk Bk ukjV ;e/. eoD s/o/ Bkb'A ;?AeV/ r[D skesto ;h, go
feqPB ih ns/ s/oh wksk e[zsh okjhA T[; dhnK ;kohnK PeshnK y'j
bJhnK, sK fe s?B{z i/s{ x'fPs ehsk ik ;e/. eoD dk eh j? T[j sK

(23)
ftukok ;{d g[Zso ;h. fe;/ B{z iwhB s'A u[Ze e/ T[FZgo T[mkT[Dk j't/ sK
fInkdk w[Peb BjhA j?. go i/ e'Jh fe;/ v{zxh ykJh ftu, jB/oh r[ck
ftu, iK fGnkBe dbdb ftu Xf;nk fgnk j't/, T[; B{z pkjo eZYDk
;kt/A g?oh yVQk eoBk, fjzzws j";bk GoBk s/ ;dhnK s'A oki wd ftu nzBQ/
j'J/ Xow d'yhnK Bkb bVk d/D dh ;woZEk g?dk eo d/DhHHHH f;qPNh dh
nb'eko xNBk ;h. fJZe gk;/ ;ko/ jh ;{d g[Zso, d{i/ pzB/ iksh BP/ ftu
nzBQ/ j'J/ Xow d'yh. y[dk dh ybes s/ efjo Ykj[D tkb/ y[dk B{z wzBD dk
BkNe eoB tkb/ gkgh N'b/. fJ; B/ ;{d g[ZsoK d/ nzr{m/ BjhA eZN/, PPso
y'j e/ Ikbw pfxnkVK d/ jtkb/ BjhA ehsk, ;{d g[ZsoK B{z Pow;ko Bjha
ehsk ;r'A nkgD/ g[Zso nky e/ wkD fdZsk. ;kfonK B{z ;KMk Xow T[gd/P
fdZsk. ;G n;soK PPsoK Bkb Xow ns/ ;t?wkD dh okyh eoBh
f;ykJh. p/^r?os ihtB Bkb'A ;{ofwnK tKr woBk f;ykfJnk s/ id'A edh
fJj wjkB :'Xk rKvht (ewkD) s/ fuZbk uVQkT[Adk ;h, sd'A rKvht dhnK
jZvhnK eVe iKdhnK ;B. d[PwD db ftu jkjkeko wu iKdh ;h. jtk
B{z uhodk pZdbK B{z nZr bkT[Adk fJj nrBpkD Xow d'yhnK s/ fvZrdk ;h,
sd'A Xosh ezpD bZr iKdh ;h. ;w[zdo v'b iKd/ ;B.HHH”
“nukohnk ih` ipkB B{z brkw fdU, toBK w?A e'Jh ;ys edw
u[ZeD bJh wIp{o j'tKrk. s[jkv/ fdwkr B{z eh j' frnk nZi< fe; okj
g? rJ/ j' s[;hA< gsk BjhA fe; p[o/ tes w?A fJ; ezpys sho nzdkI dh
rZb S/V p?mkHHH.” noiD g{o/ eo'X ftu T[FZpb fojk ;h.
“PKsh p/Nk PKsh oZy ` Xhoi Bkb ;[D`HHHH id'A w?A s[jkvh n;so
PPso ftZfdnk dh gqhfynk b? fojk ;K sK w?A s[jkB{z ;kfonK B{z tkoh tkoh
fJZe gzSh c[zvD tk;s/ fejk ;h. go id'A s/oh tkoh nkJh sK s{z fejk ;h
fe w?B{z gzSh BjhA fd;dk e/tb gzSh dh nZi BIo nkT[Adh j?. s{z sho
SZfvnk s/ sho gzSh dh nZy ftzB frnk ;h. ;kfonK d/ w{zj'A nkg w[jko/
s/oh tkj tkj j'Jh ;h. w?A T[;/ tes s?B{z P'qwDh sho nzdkI dk fyskp d/
fdZsk. s{z wZSh dh nZy B{z Gh fBPkBk pDkfJnk dq'gdh B{z toB ykso
e/tb. sK Gh s/oh i? i? eko d/ vze/ ti/ ;B. T[; d[nkg[o i[r dk s{z ;Zu

(24)
w[Zu jh bkitkp sho nzdkI ;h. i[r pdb frnk, s/ok Bkw X[zdbk g?Dk
P[o{ j' frnk. s/oh izr nkgD/ nkg tk;s/ ;h, nkgD/ fgsoh oki bJh
;h. t/y s/ok g[Zso nfGwzB{z izr ftu id'A wkfonk frnk ;h s{z T[; tes
Gh bVB'A BKj eo fdZsh. fco g[Zso d/HHH eksb B{z ;{oi v[ZpD s'A gfjbK
wko w[ekT[D dk gqD ehsk. i/ ekw:kp Bk j'fJnk sK “nZr ftu ;V
woKrk” nkfynk ;h. fJj sK feqPB B/ Sb wkfJnk Bkb s?B{z ekw:kph
fdtk fdZsh, toBK s{z T[; tes nksw dkj eo b?Dk ;h”HHH.
“r[o{ ih s[jkvhnK rZbK ;Zu d/ B/V/ gqshs j' ojhnK B/. go rZb B{z
S/sh feBko/ bkU. noiD dhnK B;K fYZbhnK g? ojhnK ;B.”
“jK w/o/ nkohnk g[Zso bkvb/ ;[D` w?A fJ; i[r d/ bkfw;kb sho
nzdkI B{z fJZe fdB fJPko/ Bkb g[ZfSnk, eh s[jkB{z n"j ;kjwD/ p?m/ gzSh
BIo nkT[Ad/ jB< efjD bZr/ BjhA, fco s[jkB{z ftuekob/ gzSh dh nZy sK
Bio nk jh BjhA ;edh. nkyD bZr/ BjhA. fco s[jkB{z n"j o[Zy Bio
nkT[Adk j? fi; s/ gzSh p?m/ jB nkyD bZr/ BjhA. w?A j?okB j' e/ g[ZfSnk
s[jkB{z e[M fd;dk Gh j? fe BjhA< nkyD bZr/, w?B{z ;kohnK ;E{b t;sK Gh
fd;dhnK jB s/ ;{yw Gh go fJ; tes w?B{z o[Zy, gzSh iK gzSh dh nZy
BjhA fd;dh w?B{z Xow d'yhnK dh gkgK Bkb Goh o{j BIo nkT[Adh j?. w?A
fJZe gzSh s/ sho BjhA SZvKrk ;r'A gkghnK dh nkswk s/ gojko eoKrk.
fJjBK d/ wBK B{z c[zv fdnKrk s/ T[; B/ w/o/ t/yfdnK^t/yfdnK nB/e
gkghnK d/ wbhB wBK B{z sho Bkb c[zv fdZsk. b'e gqb'e ftu i? i? eko
j'Jh. Bk T[j g[ZsoK d/ b/y/ bZrD s/ ftbQfenk Bk wksk fgsk d/ Pjhd j'D
s/. Bk nkswdkj dk gqD ehskHHH nZi d[Bhnk d/ e'B/^e'B/ ftu T[jBK d/
rhs jB, tfvnkJhnK jB uouk j?. fJj ;h wjkpbh sho nzdkI
;fsr[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih` w/oh BwPeko j? T[;B{zHHH 1 s{z Gh ;h; M[ekHHHH.
s/ noiD d/ d't/A jZE i[V rJ/, f;o M[e frnk, nZyK ftu'A t?okr d/ jzM{nK
dh Xkok tfj N{oh. o[wedh jtk B/ fgnko ftu nk e/ r[ziko gkJh
tkfjr[o{ ih ek ykb;k,
tkfjr[o{ ih eh cfsj.

[[[[
(25)
fJfsjk; dh w"s
id'A e'Jh oZph B{o Xosh B{z ;'XD^;ztkoB bJh, nkgD/ gftZso
T[gd/P ihtK ;Bw[y wKi, ;ztko e/ oZydk j?, sd'A jh fJfsjk; dk toskok
P[o{ j' iKdk j?. fJBQK T[gd/PK B/ id'A^id'A Gh nwbh o{g XkoB ehsk, sK
fJfsjk; ;keko j' T[mdk j?. wjK g[oyK dk ;z;ko s/ nkT[Dk Gh sK fJZe
;[zdo, fJfsjk;e xNBk jh j[zdh j?. i' e[ZM Xosh d/ fe;/ fyZs/ ftu uzrk
iK wzdk tkgfonk j?, T[;B{z fJzB^fpzB g/P eoe/, fbys iK fe;/ j'o
wkfXnw okjhA nkT[D tkbhnK B;bK bJh ;[oZfyns eoBk jh fJfsjk;
ejkT[Adk j?. e'Jh wB[Zy d[BhnK ftu fwb ;e/rk, i' j{^p^j{ xNBktK B{z
fpnkB eo ;e/, fit/A fe T[j tkgohnK ;B< ih BjhA, fJ; soQK ;zGt
BjhA j?. gfjbh rZb fe n;b xNBk tkgoB s'A fezBk ;wK pknd, fbys
fsnko ehsh iKdh j? feT[Afe ;wK phsD Bkb xNBk dk dod wZmk g?Dk
P[o{ j' iKdk j?. fco xNBk d/ ;p{s fwND bZr g?Ad/ jB. nZr'A b/ye dk
wkBf;e gZXo fezBk e[ j?< ;kv/ pj[s/ fJfsjk;ekoK B{z BktK^EktK s/
xNBktK pko/ ;kXkoD fijh ikDekoh j?. T[BQK dhnK fbysK ftu'A pVh
fwjBs Bkb e'Jh ;[Zuk w'sh PkfJd edh bZG gt/. b/ye fi; ;fGnsk
ftu gfbnk, gqtkB ufVQnk j?, T[; nB[;ko T[j xNBktK B{z ;wM/rk s/
fpnkB eo/rk. b/ye fi; Xow B{z wzBD tkbk j?, T[; w[skpe T[;dh
wB';fEsh gqtkB uVQdh j?. T[;/ gfog/y ftu T[j j'Jh phsh B{z toDB
eodk j?. iK fJj Gh i'V bJhJ/ fe b/ye dk ;wkie o[spk fezBk e[ tZvk
j?, feT[Afe fJ; o[sp/ okjhA “eJh T[uhnK EktK s/ p/o'e g[Zi ;edk j?”,
fiE'A eJh soQK dh ehwsh ikDekoh fwb ;edh j?. b/ye e'b y'i iK
fbyD bJh ;kXB fej' fij/ jB< T[j fezBhnK e[ GkPktK dk frnkB oZydk
j?, s/ T[;dh T[wo ns/ fIzdrh ftu jzvkfJnk sIopk fezBk j?< p; fJBQK
(26)
w'N/ B[efsnK B{z ;wMD s'A pknd rZb nZr/ N[odh j?.
;z;ko ftu fizBk e[ “gqubsh$gqtkfBs fJfsjk;” j?, fJj ;ko/
“i/s{ b'eK tZb'A” fbfynk frnk j?. i/s{nK dh gq;z;k ftu fbfynk frnk
j?. jko/ j'J/ b'eK dk dod e"D g/P eo/< fit/A T[BQK B{z fpBK ekoB fBPkBk
pDkfJnk frnk, ;w{je esb ehs/, pZu/, p[ZY/ s/ n"osK se B{z p/ofjwh
Bkb e[ufbnk frnk, nZrK bk e/ ;G e[ZM ;[nkj eo fdZsk frnk, Xow
n;EkBK B{z fwZNh ftu fwbk fdZsk frnkHHH. fJjBK y"cBke ekfonK B{z
e'Jh fpnkB eo ;edk j?< fijV/ b'e y[d wo u[Ze/ jB, ihts b'e jkoe/
r[bkwh rb g[nk u[Ze/ jB, T[jBK d/ jZe ftu, fbyD dk wspb j?, jkfonK
j'fJnK d/ ;kEh pDBk. jko/ j'J/ b'eK dh jwkfJs eoe/ gqsZy gqkgsh e'Jh
BjhA j'Dh, go I'oktoK dh e'qgh tkX{ dh rb nk gt/rh. fco eh b'V e'Jh
nky/ “nk p?b w?B{z wko” d{;o/ gk;/ i/s{ b'eK dh gq;z;k ftu d' nZyo
fbyD pdb/ T[BQK d/ BIo^J/^eow pDKr/. wkD^;BwkB fwb/rk, Brd
BokfJD jkIoh Go ;ed/ jB. nj[d/ o[sp/ fwb ;ed/ jB. p; nkw
b/ye, fJfsjk;eko, iK eth i'
“;u[ eh pkDh BkBe nky/
;u[ ;[DkfJ;h ;u eh p/bk” (gzBk 722)
nkyD dh i[onZs eodk j?.
pj[ frDsh d/ I'o Bkb fJe' M{m B{z pko^pko ;Zu pDk e/ g/P ehsk
ikt/, T[j th “;Zu dh EK gk b?Adk j?”. g?;/ d/ I'o Bkb b/yeK dh I[pkB
pzd eo fdZsh iKdh j?, ebwK \ohd bJhnK iKdhnK jB. nZi whvhnk
pj[s I'okto pD frnk j?, fJ;dh tos'A^d[otos'A okjhA oZ;h B{z ;Zg s/ ;Zg
B{z oZ;h ;fji/ jh pDkfJnk ik ;edk j?. gZEo d/ N[eV/ B{z oZp ‘s/ oZp B{z
fyb"Dk pDk d/Dk Gh pj[s ;[ykbk j?. wB[Zyh ;'u \k; t;s{nK okjhA Gh
fJfsjk; Bkb iIpksh ;KM oZydh j?. i/s{ b'e jo jhbk tos e/, jko/
b'eK dhnK fJfsjk;e fBPkBhnK g{oh j[fPnkoh Bkb \sw eod/ jB sK
fe edh g[oksB fuzBQ t/ye/ Gh, }[bkw B{z nkgD/ fgS'eV dh :kd Bk nk
ikt/. id'A e'Jh wkD eoB :'r t;s{ Bk ojh, ;t?wkD Goh xNBk Bk ojh,

(27)
fco wkD ekjd/ s/ eoBk j'fJnk< fJ; bJh i/s{ dfozd/ fe;/ Bk fe;/
pjkB/ :kd fuzB, fJfsjk;e fBPkBhnK, \sw eoB ftu fYZb BjhA eod/.
EK^EK p'Xh wzdo s'V/ rJ/. fJj ;G fe;/ j'o tZb'A BjhA fJZe g{oh ;kfiP
sfjs, fjzd{nK dh g[Bo ;[oihsh d/ nbzpodko ;zeokukohnk B/ ehsk,
eokfJnk. fJ;/ soQK e[ZM pjkB/ xVe/ w[;bwkB jkewK tZb'A, fjzd{ ;wki
B{z g[Zi e/ p/gs ehsk frnk, wzdo Ykj/ rJ/HHH. f;ZyK d/ r[od[nko/ “nkgDh
;oeko” tZb'A Ykj/ rJ/, g[oksB o?co?A; bkfJpo/oh, ;kV e/ ;[nkj ehsh
rJh. pZfunK B{z pzBQ e/ wkfonk frnk, n"osK Bkb tfjPh Yzr dk ;b{e
ehsk frnkHHH. e"wh wkD s'VB bJh, Xow n;EkB s/ jwbk wB[Zyh
fdqzdrh dk sKvt Bku, ;w{je pbksekoHHH.
;'u wzvb B{z fgS/ tZb b? ikU ` sq/s/ :[r dk wjKpbh oktD, eh
;Zuw[u e;{otko ;h< fco ;G s'A gfjbK sK okw^bSwD B/ ;o{gbsk
(oktD wjkoki/ dh eztkoh G?D) dh p/gsh ehsh ;h, fpBK fe;/ ekoB.
fco X'y/ Bkb pkbh B{z okw B/ wkfonk, T[;dh gsBh ;[rqht d/ jtkb/ eo
fdZsh. oktD ;hsk B{z fbike/ Gh T[;dh fJZSk s'A pr?o e'Jh p[ok ;b{e BjhA
eodk. okw ;hsk dh nrBh gqhfynk b?Adk j?, ;Zuh j'D d/ pkti{d Gh
;hsk B{z xo'A eZY, izrb ftu G/i fdzdk j?. go g/Pekoh t/y'` oktD okyP
pDk fdZsk frnk j? s/ Ikbw okik okw, GrtkB Ekg fdZsk frnk. j? Bk
pj[ frDsh i/s{nK dh ewkb ebk feqs< doi'XB oki dk n;bh jZedko
;h, go oki s'A tKMk eo fdZsk frnk. eoD gKvtK dk ;ek tZvk Gok,
;ko/ jZeK s'A wfjo{w eo fdZsk frnk. eoD bk;kBh :'Xk, Sb^egN s/
co/p Bkb wko fdZsk iKdk j?. noiD i' nsh p[Ifdb ;h, T[j izr dk
jho' pDk fdZsk frnk. Xow g[Zso M{m Gh p'bdk j?, i{nk Gh y/vdk j?.
oki, g?;k, wfjb s/ gsBh sZe i{J/ ftu jko iKkdk j?, fco Gh “Xow
g[Zso” j?. feqPB \[d Gh M{m ns/ |o/p dh tos'A eodk j?, o[ewDh ns/
j'o nB/e shthnK B{z Ipoh T[Xkb b? iKdk j?, fJPBkB eodhnK shthnK
d/ eZgV/ u[Ze b? iKdk j?HH. i/s{ j'D eoe/ fJj ;ko/ T[;d/ u'i jB. jko/
j'D eoe/ doi'XB s/ eoD fsq;eko d/ gkso jB feT[afe gKv' fiZs rJ/,

(28)
fJ; eoe/ T[jBK dk ehsk jo gkg I[bw ;jh mfjok fdZsk frnk. w[rbK
fJE/ i/s{ j' e/ i' efjo Ykj/, T[jBK dhnK e[ZM tzBrhnK fJfsjk; d/
gzfBnK ftu'A fwb iKdhnK jB. w[;bwkBK s'A pknd nzro/IK i' ehsk
T[jBK d/ j[zfdnK T[;B{z pkjo BjhA fBebD fdZsk frnk. fijV/ nZi i/s{
Gkos ftu Pjhd jB, e"wh jho' jB nzro/IK dhnK BIoK s/ fbysK ftu,
ekfsb vke{ s/ pdwkP ;B. ;fsr[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih dh gftZso
P\;hns s/ ijKrho dh “s[ie/ ijKrhoh” ftu, pj[s jh fxBkT[D/
fJbIkw bkJ/ rJ/ ;B. goT[geko dh w{os B{z, fpBK e;{o s;hj/ d/ e/
Pjhd Gh ehsk frnk s/ pdBkw Gh ehsk frnk. fJjh e[ZM B"t/A ;fsr[oK
ns/ fszB/ f;ZyK Bkb ehsk frnk. pzdk f;zx pjkdo s/ ;kEh, T[;s'A pknd
fw;bK dk fGnkBe ;wK, izrbhA tk;, ikBtoK tKr fPeko ehsk ikDk,
f;oK d/ w[ZbHHH. skes ns/ pj[^frDsh d/ I'o, f;ZyK B{z g[Zie/ pdBkw
ehsk frnk. fiT{D d/ ;ko/ jZe y'j bJ/ rJ/, fco Gh e;{otko f;ZyK B{z
jh rodkfBnk frnk. ekIh B{o w[jzwd tofrnK f;ZyK B{z e[Zs/ sZe nkgDh
fbys ftu fbfynk. id'A skes dk gZbVk f;ZyK d/ jZe ftu M[Ze frnk,
jkewK dhnK iVQK T[yV rJhnK, f;Zy gzikp d/ oki/ pD rJ/, sd'A p[bQ/ Pkj
nkyD bJh wIp{o j' frnk L “w[rbK Ifjo fgnkb/ ghs/, G{fonK tkb/
oki/ ehs/”. Pkj w[jzwd e{fenk L “Pkj w[jzwdk f;zxK B/ r'fonK d/, tKr
fBzp{nK bj{ fBu'V ;[ZN/”. rZb eh ewI'o wB[Zy, ewI'o e"w mhe j'D d/
pkti{d Gh rbs j'fJnk eodh j?. skesto e"w s/ ftnesh, rbs j[zdk
j'fJnk Gh mhe wzfBnk iKdk j?. fijV/ f;Zy e[ZM ;wK gfjbK u'o, vke{,
b[N/o/, ekfsb BIo nkT[Ad/ ;B, T[j skesto pDB s'A pknd, ;odko
;kfjp, f;zx ;{ow/, pjkdo, P/o, s/ pZpo P/o BktK Bkb fBtki/ ikD bZr.
/
fjzdn
{ K B{z w[;bwkBK s/ nzro/IK B/ bzw/ ;w/A sZe nDfrDs sohe/,
ngwkBs ehsk. “ekb/ e[Zs/, u'o” (fjzd{ wfjB/ u'o iK ewhBk) s/ ek|o
fejk iKdk fojk. G[Zy/ wkoB dh jZs se N?e; bk e/, ;G e[ZM b[ZN fbnk
iKdk. shoEK^wzdoK s/ Gh N?e; bk fdZsk frnk. skes ekoB T[j fco
Gh nkgD/ nkg B{z mhe f;ZX eod/ oj/. \[d fjzd{nK (n;b nkohnBk)

(29)
tZb'A fJE'A d/ t;Bhe GkoshnK B{z (ny"sh P{doK B{z) jko ikD s/, ;dhnK
s'A ngwkBs ehsk ik fojk j?. ihtB d/ ;ko/ jZe y'j bJ/ rJ/, gP{nK
Bkb'A pdso Boeh ihtB fiT[D bJh wIp{o ehsk frnk. i/ e'Jh iok
T[Zuk ;kj Gh b?Adk BIo nkfJnk sK f;o ebw eo fdZsk frnk. fJBQK d/
xo, IwhBK, ;G y'j bJ/ rJ/, ezrkb eo fdZs/. nkgD/ nXhB ;dhnK s'A
r[abkwh eotkJh ik ojh j?. fJBQK ;ko/ nD wB[Zyh gkg ekfonK B{z Xow
dk ;oNhfce/N fdZsk frnk. ftfdnk ns/ skes tos e/, P{doK B{z
popkd eoe/ Gh, nkohnk g[Zso (yZsoh s/ pqkjwD) g{iD:'r j?, wjkB j?,
oZp d/ do s/ gqtkB j?, ;tor dk g{ok jZedko j?. ;{do ftuko/ fJE/ Gh
Boe G'r oj/ jB, dkB eoB bJh gZb/ c[ZNh e"vh BjhA, Xow eow
(ny"sh) e'Jh eo ;eD dk nfXeko BjhA, sK s/ T[BQK B{z nrb/ iBw ftu
Gh BoeK ftu rbDk gt/rk. gkme iB' ;'u'` skes ns/ pj[sh frDsh,
ftfdnk nkfd Bkb wB[Zy eh^eh Bhu eow eoe/ ;k| pu fBebdk j?.
bZrdk j? oZp i/s{nK Bkb jh ob iKdk j?. jko/ j'fJnK dh wZdd oZp feT[A
eo/< ewI'oK Bkb ob e/ p/fJZIsh feT[A eokt/<
d/P tzv s'A gfjbK f;ZyK Bkb, fjzd{nK dk ftjko j'o soQK dk ;h,
feT[Afe sd'A fjzd{ Gh T[sB/ jh }[bkw ;B, fizB/ f;Zy. d/P tzv s'A pknd
skes d/ wkbe fjzd{ pD p?m,/ ehs/ tkjd/ ;ko/ p/Powh Bkb G[b
Z k fdZsk rJ/.
d/P tzv d/ d' wjhfBnK nzdo, T[iV e/ nkJ/, popkd j' u[Ze/ f;ZyK B{z
nkIkd Gkos ftu gfjbk fJBkw fwfbnk, “f;Zy IokfJw g/Pk e"w
jB”. IwhBK xN rJhnK, bZyK gfotkoK d/ w?Apo oZp B{z fgnko/ j' rJ/
, eZy'A j"b/ j' rJ/ f;Zy ;odko i' eZbQ bZyK d/ wkbe ;B. fJ; bVkJh ftu
f;Zy g{oh soQK jko rJ/. jko/ j'fJnK dh ewI'oK dh fJZIs ekjdh< fJ;
gqEkJ/ fJepkb dk P/no j?L-
“Ek i' Bk\{p pdsohi tjh \{p j{nk.
fe }[bkwh w/A pdb iksk j? e"w'A ek Iwho.”
nZi f;Zy jo gZy'A ngwkBs, ewI'o jB. fpibh, gkDh, gzikph
p'bd/ fJbke/, okiXkBh, gzikp dk g?;k ;G b[ZN fbnk j?. id'A iok n"y/

(30)
j' e/ jZe wzfrnk sK s'gK^N?eK d[nkok, f;ZyK dh Iwho dk xkD. d' bZy
f;Zy B"itkBK dk esb. pj[ frDsh, whvhnk s/ ndkbsK T[BQK dhnK
nkgDhnK. pZeok fJB;k| bJh p/Bsh e/tb e;kJh nZr/ jh eo ;edk
j?, prkts BjhA eo ;edk. B"itkB iZE/pzdhnK, fte u[e/ }[bkw bhvoK
nZr/, }[bkwh eofdnK oki gqkgsh tZb tX oj/ jB, go f;Zyh dk PkBdko
fto;k ed/ dk G[Zb ft;o frnk j?. feE/ jB p'sk f;zx$roik f;zx d/
tkfo;< feE/ jB oDihs f;zx, joh f;zx Bb{nk, Pkw f;zx nNkoh d/
g?o'eko< feXo uZb/ rJ/ pkpk ioB?b f;zx d/ ;kEh< T[jh ewhD/ ftekT{
b'e fco i/s{nK nZr/ tckdkoh dk jbc b? u[Ze/ gkbs{, ;oe; ftu
wB'oziB eoB tkb/, fgzio/ ftu e?d nekbh ;{ow/< gzi ;kb d/ ny"sh
oki ;w/A, f;Zy jZeK, gzikp wzrK pko/, fJZetko Gh I[pkB B{z bZrk skbk Bk
y'fbQnk. oki rZdh y[;D s/ gzikp dhnK wzrK gqkgs eoB d/ y/yD<
wrowZS d/ jzM{HHH<
d/P dhnK :{Bhtof;NhnK$ekbiK d/ ;b/p; e/Ado ;oeko dh
fJZSk w[skpe pDdk j?. “y'i ekoiK” d/ Bkw j/m e{V^e[;Zs, xZN frDshnK
B{z j"";bkjhD eoB tkbk fbfynk, fbytkfJnk ik fojk j?. fjzd{ ;'uXkok
s'A tZyoh, e'Jh Xkok g?dk jh BjhA j'D fdZsh iKdh. \kb;/ dk 300 ;kbk
;zg{oDsk fdt;, ;kv/ ny"sh nkgfDnK B/ ;" eo'V ftu t/u fdZsk. fJ;/
;kb (1999) d;zpo wjhB/ Gkos ;oeko tZb'A B'Nhche/PB okjhA, gzikp
dhnK :{Bhtof;NhnK ftu Xow nfXn?B d/ ft;/a Bkb, r[ows pko/ gVQ
oj/ ;ko/ czv o'e fdZs/ rJ/. fJ; dh Ekt/A “rKXh ;NZvh” P[o{ eo fdZsh
rJh. fJ; rKXh ;NZvh tkfbnK B{z czv$tIhc/ gqtkB/ rJ/. p[ZX, i?B,
fJ;bkw, Jh;kJh s/ fjzd{ Xow gVQB tkb/ ftfdnkoEhnK B{z tIhck
fwb/rk. go f;Zy Xow gVQB tkb/ B{z tIhck BjhA fwb/rk. ;kv/ fgzio/ d/
P/oK Gpe sK eh wkoBh ;h fwnkT[A^fwnkT[A Gh Bk ehsk. nZi sZe
r[opkDh fjzd{ fwfEjk; s'A w[es BjhA ehsh ik ;eh. r[ows Xkok tkbk
f;Zy ;e{b (EkN) ni/ sZe wK d/ roG ftu jh j?, nro “fe;/ ;w/A” s/
iBw b? ;fenk sKHHHH.

(31)
f;Zy fcbk;ch fizBh e[ fbyh rJh j?, g[oksB fjzd{ Xkok d/ B[esk^J/
^BIo s'A fbyh rJh j?. iks^gks pko/ nZi sZe PkfJd fJe' g[;se fbyh
rJh j?, fi;B{z ;jh wkjfBnk ftu “f;Zyh ;e{b” ftu'A gqrN j'Jh gqtkfBnk
ik ;edk j?. fJj j? “f;Zy fJBebkp” feqs vkH irihs f;zx.
S.G.P.C. s/ nekbh db, g{oh soQK fjzd{ oki dh }[bkwh B{z wB'A
;theko eo u[Ze/ jB. fJBQK tk;s/ pqjkwDh ohsK “g{oB r[o^wfo:kdk”
d/ b/pb nzdo gqtkB j' u[ZehnK jB. iE/dko g[ikoh Po/Dh tKr Xow d/
n;{bK (gktB r[opkDh) s'A nkgD/ nkg B{z “;ot'sw” n?bkB u[Ze/ jB.
r[opkDh d/ jtkb/ d/ e/ ;wMkJh rZb Gh, wzBD s'A g{oh soQK fJBekoh jB.
;Zu s/ gfjok d/Dk, gzE B{z e'Jh BthA ;/X^fdPk gqdkB eoBh, }[bkw
ifjBhns tkb/ ftneshnK s'A fJ; soQK dhnK nk;K eoBhnK, “pKM
n"os B{z g[sotsh j't/A, ftXtk B{z ;[jkrD pDh oj/A” dh n;h; s'A tZX
ehws BjhA oZydhnK. ftdtkBK B{z nBgVQ, bZmwkoK B/ dpek e/, xohA
p?mD bJh wIp{o eo fdZsk j'fJnk j?. fJBQK d/ “nkek” e/Adoh gqG{ y[P
jB, fe f;ZyK B/ gVQBk^fbyDk s/ ;'uDk fsnkr fdZsk j?. i/ e'Jh E'VQh
pj[s edh neb dh rZb eoB dh r[;skyh eo jh ikt/, sK T[;B{z
fJzBh tko d[o/^d[o/ ‘s'J/^s'J/ eo'’ w[V nfijh w{oysk Bk eo ;e/.
d;w gksPkj jI{o B/ wxdh izr ;w/A, toQd/ r'fbnK ftu Gh,
ftfdnk ns/ ftdtkBK B{z bKG/ BjhA ehsk, ptzik eth oyD/ e'Jh P"Ae
gkbD tk;s/ BjhA ;B. T[j ;ko/ d/P d/ tZy'^tZyo/ fjZf;nK ftu'A, nbZr
nbZr p'bhnK ikBD tkb/, f;nkD/ g[oy ;B. ;fsr[o{ ih T[BQK B{z r[ows
Xkok uzrh soQK ;wMk e/, tkg; nkg'^nkgD/ fJbkfenK ftu G/i fdnk
eod/ ;B sK fe fJ; r[owfs bfjo B{z j'o gquzv ehsk ik ;e//. u'DK d/
B/V/ nkT[D s/, e[ZM tesh fij/ ekoi T[bheD d/ fpnkB dkr fdZs/ iKd/
jB. d/y' ih n?sehA n;hA r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk 400 ;kbk g[op
nzfwqs;o wBktKr/, go fet/A< r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih dk 500 ;kbk g[op
yv{o ;kfjp wBktKr/, go fet/A< tZv/ ;kfjpIkfdnK dk Pjhdh fdt;,
uwe"o ;kfjp d/ S'N/ ;kfjpIkfdnK dk Pjhdh fdt;, cfsjrVQ ;kfjp

(32)
fty/ wBktKr/. fet/A< e'Jh o{g^o/yk BjhA j?. ftPt f;Zy ;zw/bB s/ eohp
gzikj eo'V o[gfJnk \ou fdZsk frnk ;h, go Bshik e'Jh BjhA. fJ;
soQK d/ otkfJsh r[og[op sK jo ;kb jh wBkJ/ ik oj/ jB, fco n?sehA
Gh i/ wBk bJ/ sK tyo/tK eh j'fJnk< T[jh “Bro ehosB, ehosB
dopko, ykb;k wkou, ykb;k u/sBk wkou, nzfwqs;o s'A gNB/ sZe o/b
rZvh okjhA wkou, gkfe;skB s'A Gkos sZe wkou, gziK fgnkfonK d/
fgzvK s'A nBzdg[o ;kfjp sZe dk wkouHHHH”. j'o eJh soQK d/ ozr fpozr,/
yZp/^;Zi/ T[go EZb/ wkou j'Dr/. go f;ZyK dk eo'VK o[gfJnk youe/ Gh
X/b/ dk ckfJdk BjhA j'Dk. }[bkwh ftu f;ZyK ;G e[ZM rtk fbnk, ;w/s
nkgDh pjkdoh ns/ f;nkDg d/. ;ko/ gk;/ “nZyK whNe/ u"eV/ wkoe/
Bkw igkJ/ ik oj/ jB” wkbktK c/ohnK ik ojhnK jB. nyzv gkmK dhnK
bVhnK ubkJhnK ik ojhnK jB. nodk;K PoXk g{ote ehshnK ik
ojhnK jB. “j[ewBkw/” ;[D/ ik oj/ jBHHH. go f;Zy j'o ewI'o, j'o
ew neb, j'o ekfJo, j'o r'be u'o, j'o ftekT{ s/ }[bkw pDd/ ik oj/
jB. nro e'Jh gzE dodh edh tes eZY e/, fJBQK gZyK tZb, BIo wkoB
dh y/ub eo/ sKHHHH. HHH r[o{ okyk.

[[[[

(33)
;kek ;ojzd
d;zpo 1705 JhH ekbh p'bh oks, ;o;k Bdh feBko/ fGnkBe y{Bh
izr, pj[s ;ko/ f;Zy ;{ow/ PjhdhnK gk rJ/. ;fsr[o{ ih dk gfotko ns/
f;Zy fyZbo rJ/, ftS[ZV rJ/. wksk r[ioh ih d'tK ;kfjpIkfdnK B{z T[Arb
bk e/ izrbK jBQ/fonK m'jeoK, o[ektNK B{z podkPs eod/, N[o/ ik oj/
jB, gsk BjhA feZXo< e'Jh wzfIb, pkeh gqtko dk eh pfDnk, e'Jh ypo
BjhA, nZr'A eh s{ckB nkT[D tkbk j?, e[ZS fejk BjhA ik ;edk. ;'jD/
bkvb/ bkb nkg; ftu rZbK eod/ j'J/ dkdh ih Bkb N[o oj/ jB. fJ;
;co B{z wjkB eth nZbk:ko ykB :'rh ih B/ IIpksh oT[A ftu fJ; soQK
fpnkB ehsk j?L^
i'okto n"o cfsj ek fJ; dw fpnK ;[B'.
gj[zu/ fpSV e/ jkJ/ ejK ;/ ejK ;[B'.
dkdh ;/ p'b/ ngB/ f;gkjh feXo rJ/<
dfonk g/ jw/ S'V e/ okjh feXo rJ/<HH
ip oD nihs ihs e/ sPohc bkJ/Ar/.
nZpk e/ ;kE fi; xVh i[Mko nkJ/Ar/
eoe/ frbk jo J/e ;/ jw o{m ikJ/Ar/.
wksk eGh fgsk eGh GkJh wBkJ/Ar/.HHHHH
pZu'A eh r[csr{ ;[Bh i' dkdh ikB B/.
p/ fJyfsnko o' dhnk T[; tkbkPkB B/.
wksk ih B{z nfj;k; j? fe ewhB/ d[PwD, fgSb/ pj[s bzp/ no;/ s'A
r[o{ xo Bkb gkg Goh Bhns Bkb izr bV oj/ jB. nBzdg[o B{z nZm
wjhB/ x/ok fgnk fojk. nzdo'A nzB gkDh eZgVk xkj bZeVK sZe ;G e[ZM
ysw j' frnk. ftPtk; eoe/ fBebD s/, fco fGnkBe jwbk ehsk

(34)
frnk. nr'A e'Jh y ?o r[ioB tkbh BjhA. w?A sK pI[or jK, go fJjBK
fBZehnK fizdK B{z fet/A Bk fet/A puk btKHHHH. :'rh ih s'A ;[D' L^
nks/ E/ P/o ;kjwD/ rodB e' vkbe/.
ses/ fjoB Gh nki j?A nky/A fBekb e/.
dog/; nB eohp e'Jh fJwfsjkB j?.
yso/ w/A fdy ojh w[M/ pZu'A eh ikB j?.
gkgh rzr{ dh fPekfJs s/ w'fozv/ d/ g[fb; tkb/ ikBh yK wkBh yK
nkD g[Zi/. wksk ih s/ ;kfjpIkfdnK B{z “frqcsko” eo fbnk frnk.
d'tK ;kfjpIkfdnK B{z y[oihnK ftu (;wkB gkT[D tkb/ tZv/ p'o/) gk e/
yZuoK T[s/ bNek fdZsk frnk. wksk ih B{z jZEK ftu bzwk oZ;k pzBQ e/ s/I
s[oB bJh wIp{o ehsk frnk. fJ;/ s;hfjnK Go/ bzw/ ;co s'A pknd
;ojzd gjz[ukfJnk frnk.
Btkp tIho ykB s/ j'o nc;o ni/ uwe"o dh izr tb'A tkg;
BjhA w[V/ ;B. gos e/ fJZe fdB nkokw ehsk fco ;kfjpIkfdnK B{z g/
Ph dk j[ew fdZsk frnk. fJj eow fszB fdBK sZe uZfbnk wzfBnK iKdk
j?. go fJE/ ;zy/g ftu jh ftuko ehsh ik ojh j?. f;gkjh “w[bIwK” B{z
ndkbs ftu fJB;kc tk;s/ b?D nk rJ/. wksk ih B/ bkbK B{z fsnko
ehsk f;Zfynk fdZsh. :'rh ih tZb'A ;[D' ^
ikB/ ;/ gfjb/ nkT[ rb/ ;/ brk s' b{z..
e/;'A e' ezxh eo{z iok w{zj X[bk s' b{z.HHH
p/N/ ;/ gfjb/ fpSVh Eh s[w Gh fpSV ub/.
fprV/ j{J/ B;hp E/ fInkdk fprV ub/.
p/ ofjw d[PwB e/ s[w jkE'A w/A gV ub/.
iziho rw w/A w[M e' :jK go ieV ub/.
e'wb wb{e fizdK i' wB eoe/ nsh pbtkB ;B, ;{p/ ;kjwD/ g/P
ehs/ rJ/. T[E/ eJh soQK d/ vokt/ fdZs/ rJ/. bkbu fdZs/ rJ/, go nv'b
PeshnK fet/A v'b ;edhnK ;B< id'A tIho ykB B/ ;\sh ehsh e[okB d/
ekB{zB dk jtkbk fdZsk sK i'okto f;zx B/ eVe e/ i[nkp fdZsk. nZbk :ko

(35)
ykB :'rh ih fJ; soQK fpnkB eod/ jBL^
;fsr[o e/ bkvb'A B/ dhnk o'jp ;/ ipkp.
fe; ik fbyk j? i[bw fdyk s{z jw/ feskp<
skbhw I'o eh ejh e[onkB w/ BjhA.
y{ph s[wko/ ;kj e/ fJwkB w/A BjhA.
nZr'A nkgDh rZb B{z ;kfjpIkd/ uzrh soQK y'jb e/ ;wMk oj/ jB.
eufjoh ftu jkIo ;ko/ nc;o ekIh fpZN fpZN fJjBK tZb j?okB j' e/
sZe oj/ jB. j?A n?Bh S'Nh T[wo fJsBk tZvk j";bk, fJzBh T[uh ;'u< jZd
j' rJh. nr'A j'o ;[D'L^
e[S p[s gq;s Gh Bjh, B p[s f;eB j?A jw.
nzfwqs Sek j? ip;/ fBjkfJs wrB j? jw.
o'ek i' i[bw ;/ s' w[;bwK fprV rJ/.
p[s e' p[ok ejk s' f:j fjzd{ fpNo rJ/.
c'i'A g/ Bki fJB/, T[B/ d/th ek wkB j?.
nkfPe j? jw y[dk e/ jE/bh g/ ikB j?.
;u e' fwNkT[r/ s'A fwN ikT[r/ ijkB ;/.
vosk BjhA nekb ;fjBPkj eh PkB ;/.
nB/e sohe/, pjkB/, jEezv/ tos e/ ns/ gftZso e[okB B{z ekIh
okjhA ftueko fNek e/, ;kfjpIkfdnK B{z pVh dfozdrh Bkb w"s dh ;Ik
;[Dk fdZsh rJh. gsk BjhA fe; fwZNh d/ pD/ j'J/ ;B, fJj ikpo b'e< s/
d{;o/ gk;/ fJZe tZyoh jh fwZNh d/ ;ki/ ;ztko/ ;B r[o{ e/ bkvb/. Bk vo/
ezp/ Bk fpnkB pdb/HHHH. BhjK ftu fuD/ ikD dk j[ew ;[Dk fdZsk frnk
sK Gh xpokjN Bk j'Jh. :'rh s'A ;[D'L^
fi; dw rb/ rb/ E/ t[j wk;{w rV rJ/.
fdB S[gB/ Gh Bk gkfJnk Ek fe ekfsb TiV rJ/.
fJ; Pjhdh dk f;Zy wBK s/ pj[s rfjok n;o j'fJnk. ;ojzd
gqsh f;ZyK d/ wB nzdo wkB' nZr d/ GKpV pb gJ/. id'A Gh f;ZyK B/ edh
;ojzd s/ uVQkJh eoBh sK bzw/ b?euo d/D dh b'V Bk g?Adh, e/tb fJzBk

(36)
efjDk jh ek|h ;h ^ “f;zx' r[o{ wkoh ;ojzd ftu ;kfjpIkd/ tkiK wko
oj/ jB”. f;zx ;{ow/ jfEnko pzBQ e/ x'fVnK s/ ;tko j', fpBQK d/o ehs/
;ojzd s/ wko{ jZbk p'b fdzd/. :'rh ih dh I[pkBh ^
jw ikB d/ e/ n"o'A eh ikB puk ub/.
f;Zyh eh BhAt jw j?A ;o'A go T[mk ub/.
r[fonkJh ek j? fe;k ijK w/ pBk ub/.
f;zx'A eh ;bsBs ek j? g"dk brk ub/.
rZdh s'A sys p; np e"w gkJ/rh.
d[Bhnk ;/ ikbw'A ek fBPK se fwNkJ/rh.
i'rh ih fJ; pks e' j{Jh E'Vh d/o Eh.
p;sh ;ojzd eh JhN'A ek Y/o Eh.
;Zuw[Zu fJ; soQK dhnK e[opkBhnK B/ :Zy pD/ y{B B{z y"bD bJh
wIp{o eo fdZsk. i'P itkbk GVe T[Zmh. je{ws d/ I[bwK nZr/ M[eD
tkb/ f;o sD yb's/, i[VB tkb/ jZE feogkBK d/ w[ZfmnK B{z ik gJ/. xohA
p?mD tkb/ x'fVnK s/ ;tko j' rJ/. oikJhnK dk fBZx wkBD tkb/ izrbK
dk fBZx wkBD bZr/. r'ohnK dhnK i[bcK Bkb y/vD tkb/ d[PwDK Bkb
izrh ekoBkw/, b[eD whNh y/vD bZr/. MKioK u{VhnK dh ;zrhswJh
nktkI ;[DB dh EK izrh Bkjo/ r[zikT[D bZr gJ/. fJPe wIkIh d/ rhs
rkT[D dh Ekt/A “gkg eh izR b? ekpbj[ XkfJnk i'oh wzr? dkB t/ bkb'”
dhnK r[ikoK g?D bZrhnK. Gkos dk okPNoh eth w?Ebh PoB r[gs
;kfjpIkfdnK dh bkfw;kb e[opkBh pko/ fbydk j? ^
fi; e[b e"w iks e/ pZu/ d/ ;es/ :{z pbhdkB
T[;ek toswkB e[S Gh j' GftP j? wjK wjkB.
brGr 1927 ftu ;ojzd ftu'A dh o/b bkJhB eZYh rJh. ;ojzd
dk wbpk T[; o/b dh gNVh T[s/ gkT[D d/ ezw nkfJnk. T[d'A sZe EK EK
fJE/ fJZNK wbp/ d/ Y/o bZr/ t/y/ iKd/ ;B. e'Jh ftnesh nkgDk xo
pDkT[D tes fJjBK wbp/ dh tos'A BjhA eoBh ukjz[dk ;h. fJj r[o{ wkoh
;ojzd j?, fJ; wbp/ ftu fes/ wk;{wK dk y{B bZrk j't/rk. pzdk f;zx

(37)
pjkdo B/ wbhnk w/N ehsk j? n;hA feT[A fJjdh xoK ftu tos'A eohJ/.”
jo ;kb d;zpo d/ nkyoh jcs/ ;z;ko Go s'A r[o{ xo B{z fgnko
eoB tkb/, ;kfjpIkfdnK dh e[opkBh B{z :kd eoB tk;s/, T[sPkj ns/
gq/oBk b?D tk;s/, fJE/ brGr d; bZy wkJh GkJh nk i[Vd/ jB. XzB jB
nfij/ fgnko tkb/ pI[or phphnK pZu/ B"itkB. Bw;eko j? T[jBK d/
f;de B{z, PoXk B{z bZy bZy gqDkw. okjK ftu bzro bkT[D tkfbnK B{z,
cfsjrVQ ;kfjp fty/ bzroK ;w/s nB/e gqeko ;/tk eoB tkfbnK B{z,
Bw;eko j? nB/e tko. go bkjDs j? T[jBK b'eK s/ i' nfij/ gftZso
GktBK tkb/ fdB rzdrh$gqd{PD c?bkT[Ad/ osh Pow BjhA eod/. w/oh w[okd
j? gkyzvh s/ Y"Arh gogzuh Xkowe w[yhnK s'A (r[ow[y iB fywK eoB)
fiBQK fJE/ nkgDhnK fBZih fe;w dhnK v/o/dkohnK, fBZih wfonkdktK,
nkgD/ jh wo u[Ze/ pkfpnK dh ejkDhnK pVh p/^Powh Bkb ;[Dk oj/ j[zd/
jB. nkg' nkgDh soQK dhnK wZsK d/ oj/ t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. nkg' nkgD/
v/o/ ftnesh dh skoh| g{ik tkbhnK g[;seK s/ c'N'nK, G'b/ PoXkb{nK B{z
t/u oj/ j[zd/ jB. Pq'wDh ew/Nh tkb/ fizw/tkohnK s'A ed'A d/ GZi u[Ze/ jB.
fJjBK gkyzvhnK fto[ZX T[jBK eh eoBk j'fJnk T[j sK y[d jh rb rb
se gkyzv ftu roe j' u[e/ jB. T[jBK dk nkgDk gouk r[ows gqekP
Bk j' e/ wBws gqekP pD u[Zfenk j'fJnk j?. nes{po s/ Btzpo 03 d/
gou/ ;p{s tk;s/ t/y b?Dk. ew/Nh dk gqXkB o'IkBk p/f;o g?o d/ fpnkB
dkr fojk j?. GkJh r[odk; ih fpnkB eod/ jB ^
“wkfJnk vo vogs jko r[od[nko? ikt?,
soK iT[ wkfJnk fpnkg? ejK mfjokJh n?..”
fJjBK T[go tofDs Xow s/ okiBhsh fJeZmh dh v"Avh fgZND tkb/
gqpzXeK dh ;kfiPh fwbh G[rs Bkb r[od[nkok cfsjrVQ ;kjfp d/ d[nkb/
mZr, e[ogN s/ M{m/ oki;h u"XohnK B/ x/ok gkfJnk j[zdk j?. nkg'
nkgDhnK EktK epi/ ftu b? e/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk gqekP eoe/, ezB
gkVthnK T[ZuhnK nktkIK tkb/ eJh eJh ;gheo bk e/ e[co s'bd/ jB.
d{ihnK gkoNhnK s/ (;ko/ jh fJZe d{i/ s/) p/Powh Go/ rzd/ fJbIkw bkJ/

(38)
iKd/ jB. T[jBK dk nZrk fgZSk ;G Bzrk eo fdZsk iKdk j?. eh fJ; soQK
fJjBK B{z e{V dh wzvh bkT[D dh nkfrnk fwbDh ukjhdh j?< ;kfjpIkfdnK
dh wjkB e[opkBh tkbk fJfsjk;e EK,r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk gqekP, “;u
eh pkDh BkBe[ nky/ ;u[ ;[DkfJ;h ;u[ eh p/bk”. nfij/ gftZso Ekt/A
“ebo[ y/s[ b? e{V iwkfJnk ;G e{V? e/ ybtko/” (981)
torh ;fEsh pDh j'Jh j[zdh j?. fJjBK oki;h b'eK B{z whvhJ/ ftu
o'ikBk M{m/ fpnkB fdzd/ ;[Dhdk t/yhdk j?. pj[s ;kfonK s/ w[eZdw/ pD/
j'J/ jB. fco Xow n;EkBK s/ Gh f;Zy ;zrsK B{z weko b'eK d/ fujo/
feT[A fdZ;D< i' ;oXktkB bZyK wkJh GkJh fJjBK ;EkBK s/ iKd/ jB, eh
oki;h b'eK s'A e{V s/ co/p ;[BD iKd/ jB< bzw/ no;/ s'A fet/A PoXkb{nK
dhnK gftZso GktBK B{z wX'fbnK tb{zXfonk ik fojk j?. j? fe;/ B{z
fceo< nfij/ gftZso fdjkV/ s/ f;y ;zrsK gktB r[opkDh ;[D ;wM e/
ihtB ;cbk eoBk ukj[zdhnK jB. fJfsjk; s'A gq/oBk b? e/ ihtB ftu
T[sPkj GoBk ukj[zdhnK jB. edh ;'funk j? ;kv/, iE/dkoK$gqXkBK B/ fe
fJj Xow n;kEkBK s/ e{V gquko feT[A ehsk ik fojk j?. id'A edh fe;/
r[odtko/ ftu ;zrs i[Vdh j? sK e{V egN Bkb Go/ oki;h B/sk g[i iKd/
jB. Xow T[gd/P eoB bJh. eh fJjBK B{z Xow dh e'Jh v{zxh ikDekoh
j?, eh fJjBK dk nkgDk ihtB Xow s/ nXkfos j?< Xow ft;/a dk wkfjo
gk;/ XZe fdZsk iKdk j?, s/ okiBhsh dk e{V epkV Xow ;EkB dh ;N/i
s/ tzfvnk ikDk P[o{ j' iKdk j?, PkfJd gq;kfd ;wM e/. ;q'L ew/Nh d/
gqXkB ih, y[d fgSb/ thj ;kb s'A oki;h dbdb ftu u[GhnK wkoh ik oj/
jB. bZsK epoK ftu g[Zi rJhnK, oki;h bkb;ktK T[;/ soQK T[;btZN/ b?
ojhnK jB. fezBk uzrk j[zdk nro (iKdh tkoh ;jh) Xow dk e'Jh
tv/ok ekoi eotk iKd/. S/sh jh ;q'L ew/Nh dhnK u'DK j'D tkbhnK jB,
T[jBK d/ wZd/BIo e[M o;wh fijhnK whfNzrK, n?bkB, fpnkB fds/ ik oj/
jB. gfjbK tKr jh u'DK s'A pknd fco T[jh g[okDk okr j't/rk. gzE B{z
ysok j'o fe;/ s'A fJzBk BjhA j? fizBK fJjBK ;kv/ f;o s/ fje d/ skD p?m/
u"XohnK s'A j?. fJ; okw o"b/ ftu Bk Xow fojk Bk okiBhsh ojh. p;

(39)
c'e/ dwri/ wko/ ik oj/ jB. eh ;ko/ f;Zy ;wki ftu e'Jh nfijh ikrdh
iwho tkbk f;Zy BjhA fijVk fJjBK e[eowK d/ fto[ZX fJZe ijkd S/V ;e/
iK fJj wzB bJhJ/ fe fJjBK dhnK pkjtK pj[s bzwhnK jB< 26 nes{po
dh eBt?B;aB ftu r[o{ xo d/ ;Zu/ fjs?PhnK B{z nktki wko e/ ;Zfdnk
frnk ;h. ;zrsK tZb'A GotK j[zrkok fwfbnk. gkyzvhnK$M{fmnK B{z eKpk
fSV frnk. fJj frnkB dh jB/oh T[m gJh j?, e{V/ ey ^ ekB/ fJ; nZr/
fNe BjhA ;eDr/. b'V j? r[o{ frnkB Bkb bpo/i j' e/ i'odko jzGbk
wkoB dh ;fsr[o{ io{o pKj cVBr/.
;G/ rbK ikshnK ;[fD e? u[g ehnk..
edjh ;[ofs B ;Xhnk wkfJnk w'jfVnk..
d/fJ p[Mkos ;kosk ;/ nyh fvmfVnk..
e'Jh fi w{oy b'Ghnk w{fb B ;[Dh efjnk.. (218)

[[[[

(40)
Xow ftfdnk pZfunK bJh fe wksk-fgsk bJh<
d[Bhnk d/ gqf;ZX wB'ftfrnkBh d;d/ jB fe i' ftuko s[;hA pZu/ B{z
S'Nh T[wo s'A d/D/ P[o{ eo fdT[r/ T[jBK ftukoK B{z XkoB eoe/ pZuk T[;/
soQK dk fJB;kB pD ikt/rk. fJj fBoGo eodk j? f;ykT[D^gVQkT[D
T[go fe T[j y[d fesBk frnkBtkB j?, nkgD/ frnkB B{z pZfunK ftu
;zukos eoB dh fezBh e[ :'rsk oZydk j?. pZfunK B{z fsnko eoB s'A
gfjbK NhuoK dh f;Zfynk nsh Io{oh j? toBk fi; soQK d/ nfXnkge
j'Dr/, pZu/ T[jBK s'A fe;/ soQK Gh uzr/ BjhA j' ;eDr/. pZu/ tk;s/ wksk
fgsk s'A pknd nfXnkge o'b wkvb j'fJnk eod/ jB. i/ wk;No
nfrnkBh j?, eq'Xh j?, ftekoh j?, BPJh j?, M{m p'bdk j?l sK pZfunK s'A
uzr/ Bkrfoe pDB dh nk; oZyDh p/wkjBh j?. mhe tes f;o fdZsh rJh
:'r ;/X ns/ T[sPkj ftfdnkoEh B{z p[bzdhnK s/ gj[zuk ;edh j?. T[;skd
tZb'A fdZsh rJh rbs ;bkj, uzrk ezw eoB tkb/ pZu/ B{z Bekod/^fcNekod/
ofjDk, T[;Bz{ e[okj/ gk ;edk j?. fizadrh ftu'A c/b eo ;edk j? sK s/
fiZE/ Nhuo frnkBtkB j't/ T[E/ fJj Gh T[sBk jh Io{oh j? fe T[FZsw
feodko tkbk Gbk wB[Zy j't/. ;kvhnK ;oekoK ns/ ;e{b ubk ojhnK
;Gk ;[;kfJNhnK B{z fJ; gZy tZb ftP/P fXnkB d/Dk pDdk j?.
;kv/ ;wki ftu pZu/ g?dk eoB s/ e'Jh yk; o'e BjhA j?. wksk^fgsk
fpwko j'D, ngkji j'D, wkBf;e o'rh j'D, Jhoykb{ e'qXh ftekoh j'D,
;G B{z pZu/ g?dk eoB dk jZe j?. fco pZfunK dh ;zGkb pko/ wksk^fgsk
B{z e'Jh frnkB BjhA j[zdk. wkw{bh nbkws s'A tZvhnK fpwkohnK pD
iKdhnK jB, go gsh gsBh p/\po j[zd/ jB. eJhnK EktK s/ fgsk BPJh
j[zdk j?, j'o eJh n?p j' ;ed/ jB. nkoEe szrh ftu fIzdrh dhnK b'VK
g{ohnK eoBhnK ;zGt BjhA j[zdhnK. fJBQK nbkwsK dk yfwnkik pZfunK

(41)
B{z ;koh T[wo G[rsDk g?Adk j?. wksk^fgsk fij'^fijh neb ns/ feodko
d/ wkbe j[zd/ jB, y[d ;z;ko s'A e{u eoB s'A gfjbK, nkgDhA Ekt/A nkgD/
tor/ j'o d' uko (pZu/) fJB;kB ;Ekgs eo iKd/ jB. fJj uZeo fJ;/
soQK fBozso uZbdk ofjzdk j?, edh e'Jh ftobk fJ; x[zwD^x/o ftu'A
pkjo Gkt/A fBeb ;e/ s/ pu ikt/ toBk fJj toskok ;dhnK s'A fJ;/ soQK
tos fojk j?.
gsh^gsBh nkgD/ S'N/ fij/ pZu/ B{z Bkb b? e/ fJZe wB'^ftfrnkBh
e'b ik e/ g[ZSD bZr/ “ih ` feogk eoe/ dZ;' n;hA nkgD/ pZu/ B{z fe; T[wo
s'A ftfdnk d/Dh P[o{ eohJ/<”.
“iBw s'A fJZe ;kb gfjbK gVQkJh P[o{ eo fdT[.” vkeNo B/
;[MkT[ fdZsk. gsh^gsBh j?okB j' e/ g[ZSD bZr/ “Gbk fJj fet/A ;zGt
j?<” id'A pZuk ni/ iBfwnk BjhA sK f;Zfynk fet/A d/JhJ/< “vkeNo B/
rZb ;gZPN eofdnK dZf;nk fe i' e[ZM s[;hA pZu/ B{z gVQkT[ADk ukj[zd/ j',
gfjbK y[d T[; pko/ gVQkJh eo'. pZu/ B{z sK jh e[ZM f;yk ;e'r/ nro s[;hA
y[ad f;Zy u[Ze/ j't'r/. fJ; bJh pZu/ d/ iBw s'A fJZe ;kb gfjbK s[;hA y[d
nkgDh fsnkoh nkozG fdT[.” fJ; nt;Ek B{z t/y e/ jh PkfJd fe;/
PkfJo B/ fJj ;soK fbyhnK jBL^
fscb (pZuk) ;/ p{ nkJ/ fenk, wK pkg e/ feodko eh.
d{X s' vZp/ ek j?, skbhw j? ;oeko eh.
;kvk ;kfonK dk t/fynk^gofynk fIzdrh dk siopk dZ;dk j?
“s{s nkfd o[Zy dhnK gsbhnK johnK NkjDhnK b? e/, T[;B{z wB fJZS/ Yzr
Bkb w'fVnk ik ;edk j?. N'eohnK nkfd b'VhAdhnK t;sK pDkJhnK ik
;edhnK jB. d{i/ gk;/ nro fJj gsbhnK NkjDhnK w'NhnK j' ikD iK
;[Ze ikD sK fJj w[VBrhnK BjhA N[ZN Gkt/A ikD. x[fwnko y/sK ftu'A
;'jDh fwZNh fbnk e/, T[;B{z eZ[N e/ pohe eo b?Adk j?. gkDh gk e/ r[zBdk
j?. g{oh fsnkoh s'A pknd uZe B{z I'o Bkb x[wk e/ gkDh tkb/ jZEK ftu
T[; fwZNh dk Y/bk b? e/, wB tkSs Gkv/ fsnko eoe/ gk;/ oZyh iKdk j?.
pD/ GKfvnK B{z ;[ek e/ ozr eoe/ nZr ftu gZeD bJh soshp Bkb oZy

(42)
fdzdk j?. e[ZM fdBK s'A pknd nZr p[ZM ikD s/, nkth ftu'A GKv/ eZY bJ/
iKd/ jB. go j[D gZe/ j'J/ fwZNh d/ posBK B{z e'Jh pdbtK o{g d/Dk
ukjhJ/ sK BjhA d/ ;eKr/. j[D sK i/ fwZNh dk posB N[ZN Gh frnk sK
mheohnK sK pD ikt/rk d[pkok fJ;B{z i'VBk Bk w[wfeB j?. wB fJZSs
wPhBK pDkT[DhnK j'D sK b'jk nZr s/ ukjV e/ YkbDk$fgxbDk gt/rk, sK
jh b'VhAdh Peb fdZsh ik ;edh j?.”
fi; d{o nzd/P fe;kB B/ c;b s'A uzrk MkV s/ w[Bkck b?Dk j't/,
T[j bzwh ;'u ftuko s'A pknd, y/sh wkfjoK dh okJ/ b? e/, ;ko/ b'VhAd/
gqpzX eoe/ ezw P[o{ eodk j?. fe;/ wB[Zy B/ pk} bkT[Dk j't/ sK gfjbK
IwhB dh goy eotkJ/rk, gkDh ykd pko/ ;'u/rk. cbK bJh wzvheoD
fXnkB ftu oZy/rk. ;kohnK Io{osK g{ohnK eoB s'A pknd i/ pk} bkt/
rk w[Bkck ewk ;e/rk. fJ;/ soQK y/vK ftu B"itkBK B{z ekw:kph gqkgs
eoB tk;s/ bzwh fsnkoh dh Io{os j'fJnk eodh j?. fit/A uzrh g"PfNe
y[oke, szdo[;s ;oho, ;tZS tksktoD, y[Zb/Q y/v rokT{Av ns/ wkfjo
y/v e'u sK fes/ ekw:kph dh T[whd ehsh ik ;edh j?. \kBdkBh s"o s/
eJh fJZe ;zrhs xokD/ gqf;ZX jB. T[jBK ftu ;zrhs pko/ fJBk frnkB
fJe' fdB BjhA nk frnk. fe;/ g[okD/ pI[or B/ ihn ikB bk e/ emB
fwjBs ehsh. p; T[; s'A wro'A wkj"b fsnko j' frnk. pZfunK B{z fBZeh
T[wo/ ;ki ;zrhs Bkb tkj tk;sk g?D bZrk s/ f;ybkJh xo'A ;fji/ jh
gqkgs ;h. fJ; soQK nZr/ s'A nZr/ uzr/ ;zrhs xokD/ ;Ekgs j' rJ/.
fIzdrh d/ jo y/so ftu fJjh f;b;bk uZfbnk nk fojk j?. j[D Iok e[
fJfsjk; tZb sodh BIo wko bJhJ/. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh PoB ftu
j'o nDfrDs ifrnk;{ nkJ/ ihtB ;/X b?Ad/ oj/. go p{Vk Bkwh pkbe
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh jI{oh ftu nfijk bhB j'fJnk. ftdtkB g[oy
pfDnk fe f;Zy ;wki pkpk p[ZYk ;kfjp ih nkye/ ;fseko d/D bZr
fgnk. fJ; pkpk ih B{z S/ r[o{ ;kfjpkB d/ doPB eoB dk ;[Gkr gqkgs
j'fJnk. r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih yv{o fty/ S'N/ pkbeK B{z r[opkDh gVQkT[D
bJh T[u/uk fXnkB fdzd/ ;B. y[d bZeVh dh sysh s/, gfjb/ gzi r[ow[yh

(43)
nZyo fby pZfunK B{z fbyD bJh T[sPkjs eod/ ;B. fJjh sohek sh;o/
;fsr[o{ ih ;w/A Gh ubdk fojk. r[o{ noiB ;kfjp fgqEh uzd s/ wjKd/t
ih B/ ;koh ftfdnk BkBk ;fsr[o{ ih s'A jh gVQh ;h. BkBh ih nkgD/ Bkb
pk;oe/ b? nkJ/. fJE/ jh r[o{ nwodk; ih dk fwjo Gfonk jZE pkbe
i/mk ih d/ f;o s/ fNfenk s/ ;fsr[o{ T[;B{z nkgD/ Bkb r'fJzdtkb b? rJ/.
y[d r[opkDh r[ow[yh gVQkJh, ;zrhs dh ftfdnk fdZsh, ;/tk bJh T[sPkj
Gfonk. ;ko/ gZyK s'a w[ezwb j'D s/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh rZdh s/ fpmk,
fizaw/tkoh ;"Ag fdZsh.
fszBK GoktK ftu'A pkbe (r[o{) noiB ;kfjp tX/o/ j'Djko
fBefbnk. e/tb nmkoK ;kb d/ w[ZS^c[ZN rZGo{ ;B fe ;fsr[o{ okwdk;
ih B/ fJBQK B{z r[orZdh dh wjkB fIzw/tkoh p\P fdZsh. ;w/A dh fcoe{
;oeko tZb'A iB{Bh pqkjwDK tZb'A, ns/ tZv/ Gok fgqEh uzd tZb'A pj[s
o[ektNK yVQhnK ehshnK rJhnK, go nv'b ofj e/ ;ko/ ekoi eod/ oj/.
fJBQK dh Pjhdh tes r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp ih dh T[wo e/tb frnkoK e[
;kb ;h. r[o{ fgsk dh nkfrnk w[skpe jfEnko XkoB ehs/, c"iK Gosh
ehshnK, nekb s\s dh f;oiDk ehsh, izr i[X ehs/. fJzBh S'Nh T[wo/
pj[s tZvh fIzw/tkoh B{z pky{ph fBGkfJnk. r[owfs dh f;Zfynk uZbdh
ojh, nkgD/ g'so/ jfo okfJ ;kfjp ih B{z r[orZdh s/ fpokIwkB eo fdZsk,
sd'A jfo okfJ ;kfjp dh T[wo e/tb u'dK e[ ;kb dh ;h. nZr'A sK j'o Gh
j?okBhiBe ekoBkw/ j'J/ pkbe (r[o{) jfo fePB ih ;kY/ e[ gzi ;kb dh
T[wo ftu r[orZdh dh fIzw/tkoh ;zGkbD d/ g{oh soQK ;woZE ;B. fisBk
;wK nekb g[oy tZbA' fwfbnk, ;kohnK fIzwt
/ kohnK pky{ph fBGkT[Ad/ oj/.
nzs f;nkDg Goh u'D eoe/ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih B{z r[orZdh s/
fpokiwkB eoe/, i'sh^i'fs ;wk rJ/. d;w gksPkj ih B{z g{oh soQK :'r
ikDe/ goy eoe/ B"t/A ;fsr[oK, r[orZdh d/D dk n?bkB eo fdZsk s/ y[d
n'ozrI/p d/ ;Zd/ s/ fdZbh tZb uZb gJ/. sd'A r[o{ r'fpzd okJ/ ih dh ;ohoe
T[wo eohp ;kY/ B"A e[ ;kb ;h. T[j r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh i'fs d/ mhe
tkfo; f;ZX j'J/. uko/ ;kfjpIkd/ pj[s S'Nh T[wo ftu jh ;z;ko ;kjwD/

(44)
Bt/A ehoshwkB ;Ekgs eo rJ/. nihs f;zx T[FZBh ;kb s/ i[Mko f;zx
gzdoK e[ ;kb d/ ;B id'A nDfrDs IkbwK B{z gko p[bkT[AfdnK Pjhdh B{z
gqkgs j' rJ/. I'okto f;zx B" ;kb s/ |fsj f;zx ;Zs e[ ;kb d/ ;B id'A
T[jBK nfijk ;kek toskfJnk fi;d/ Bkb jh d[Bhnk ftu fw;kb BjhA
fwbdh. “fBZehnK fizdK tZvk ;kek”. fJj dZ;D s'A w[okd fJj' j? fe
pZfunK B{z mhe ;w/A s/ T[fus f;Zfynk fwbh. fBZehnK T[woK ftu jh
wjkB ekoBkw/ eoB d/ ;woZE pD rJ/. fJ; ;ko/ ;wA ftu fJBQK T[woK
tkb/ fe;/ pkbe B/ ;ko/ fjzd';skB eh d[Bhnk ftu nfij/ p/i'V f;nkDg
ns/ ;{owrsh d/ ekoBkw/ BjhA ehs/. fJj e/tb r[o{ xo d/ jh fjZ;/
nkfJnk ;h.
GkJh sko{ f;zx ih B{z pugB ftu jh f;nkDh wK s'A r[owfs dh
;'Mh gokgs j'Jh. r[opkDh dk frnkB fdqV j' frnk, ikbwK B/ M{m/
fJbikw bk e/ Gkt/A p/nzs s;hj/ fdZs/, y'goh sZe T[sko fdZsh, go GkJh
sko{ f;zx ih fe;/ w[;hps B{z t/y e/ v'b/ BjhA. f;Zyh e/;K ;[nk;K Bkb
fBGk rJ/. GkJh jehes okJ/ B/ jkbh yzv/ dh gkj[b BjhA bJh ;h. wksk
fgsk r[o{ fgnko tkb/ ;B. ;j[ok gfotko f;Zyh ftu gqgZe ;h. jehes
okJ/ s/ M{mk d'P bk e/ frqcsko ehsk frnk, s;hj/ fdZs/ rJ/ e/tb s/oK e[
;kb dk nZbV b{nK pkbe, f;Zyh s/ fdqV fojk. Pjhdh sK gk frnk go
Xow s'A Bk v'fbnk. GkJh ;[p/r f;zx dk Bkpkbr fBnkDk g[Zso Pkjpki
f;zx f;oc 18 e[ ;kb dk ;h id'A ikbwK B/ nB/e s;hj/ fdZs/, nv'b
fojk. nzs fgsk dhnK nZyK d/ sko/ B{z fgsk d/ ;Bw[y jh uoyVh s/
u{ok^u{ok eo fdZsk. go nkyoh ;[nk; sZe f;Zyh f;de s'A Bk v'fbnk.
pknd ftu fgsk ;H ;[pr
/ f;zx B{z Gh g[s
Z o d/ fgS/ N'o fdZsk frnk. d'tA/
fgT[^g[Zso “uoyhnK s/ uVQ/” Pjhdh gk e/ nkgD/ Bkw B{z nodk; ftu
Pkwb eotk rJ/. fBZe/ pZfunK d/ N[eV/ eoe/ wktK d/ rbK ftu jko gkJ/
rJ/, nKdoK eZYe/ wksktK dhnK M'bhnK ftu oZy fdZshnK rJhnK,
B/fInK ftu wk;{w fizdK B{z go' fdZsk frnk, go f;Zyh f;de fe;/ B/ BjhA
jkfonk. fJj ;ko/ e"se fet/A tosd/ oj/< feT[Afe xo ftu f;Zyh dh

(45)
f;Zfynk dh f;Zfynk pugB s'A jh fdZsh rJh. wksk fgsk fBwkDh fIzdrh
Bkb'A ;fsr[o{ dh f;Zyh B{z fInkdk fgnko eod/ ;B. jo soQK d/ d[Zy dod
T[jBK r[ows s'A e[opkB eo fds/.
wjkB i'X/ ;H uVQs f;zx dk g'sok, ;H wjK f;zx dk g[Zso jkbh
frnkok e[ ;kb dh T[wo ftu ;h fe fgsk ;H wjK f;zx fJZe izr ftu
b/y/ bZr rJ/. P[ZeouZehnk fw;b dh tZvh fIzw/tkoh pkbe d/ f;o nk
rJh. eBQJhnK fw;b dh d{o^nzd/P ;odkoBh ;dk e"o B/ ;ko/ t?o G[bk
e/ oDihs f;zx Bkb nkgDh p/Nh dk foPsk eo fdZsk. d' fw;bK fJZe j'
rJhnK, fgsk torh pjkdo, ykb;k gzE dh p/i'V ;yPhns ;odkoBh
;dk e"o B/ pkbe oDihs f;zx B{z j"A;bk fdZsk, nrtkJh fdZsh. f;ybkJh
fdZsh. y[d jfEnko pzBQ e/ x'V/ s/ ;tko j' e/ izr ftu ik GVE{ gkT[Adh.
d[PwDK B{z d"VfdnK okj Bk bZGdk. ;ko/ pzB/ ykb;k oki bJh fiZs d/ Mzv/
rZvdh ojh. oDihs f;zx B/ fiE/ fgsk wjK f;zx s'A :[ZX ftfdnk f;Zyh,
T[E/ nkgDh ;Z; wK ;dk e"o s'A fjzws j";bk izrh dkn g/u f;Zye/ fJj
pkbe pjkdoK dh gqEw Po/Dh ftu ;[wko j' frnk.
fJZe fdB fJj s/oK e[ ;kb dk nZbV T[wo B"itkB oDihs f;zx e[M
;kEhnK ;w/s fPeko y/vdk, nkgD/ d[PwD ‘j;ws uZm/’ d/ fJbke/ ftu
dk\b j' frnk. nuBu/sh uZmk ;odko Gh fJ;/ izrb ftu fPeko eodk
nkD g[Zfink. ;H uVQs f;zx ns/ wjK f;zx B/ uZm/ ;odkoK dk pj[s tZvk
fJbkek y'je/ nkgD/ oki ftu Pkwb eo fbnk ;h. T[j t?o fJ; d/ nzdo
ezv/ tKr u[G fojk ;h. uZm/ ;odko B/ fJ; jZE nkJ/ w"e/ s'A g{ok ckfJdk
T[mkT[D dh mkD bJh s/ u"dK e[ ;kbk nZbV T[wo d/ pkbe B{z tzrko gkJh
“oDihs f;zxK fi; w"e/ dh w?A sbkP ftu ;K T[j nkD Y[Zfenk j?. i/
fjzws j? sK BZ; GZi eo t/y. P/o dh dkVQ ftu'A pN/ok pu e/ BjhA ik ;e/
rk. b? eo b? oZp B{z :kd wko ntkI nkgD/ tv/fonK B{zHHHH”.
oDihs f;zx ;zGfbnk, uko/ pzB/ s/ih Bkb fBrkj d[VkJh BZ; ikDK
n;zGt ;h. T[;B/ nkyoh Yzr tofsnK g{o/ o'jp Bkb uZm/ ;odko B{z
w[yksp j[zfdnK fejk ^ “UJ/ tZfvnk ;{ofwnK fJZe pkbe B{z wkoB tk;s/

(46)
nkj pfxnkVk dh g{oh XkV b? e/ vhrK wko fojk j?A. i/ pjkdoh dk osk
wk;k s/o/ nzdo eD j?, s/o/ tZfvnK dk y{B s/ohnK BkVK ftu tr fojk j?,
i/ s?B{z nkgD/ jfEnkoK ns/ v'fbnK s/ wkD j? sK fJBQK N[ZeV p'uK B{z gk;/
eoe/ nk uVQs f;zx d/ g'so/, fBZe/ fij/ pkbe Bkb s{z f;ZX/ wZE/ d' jZE eo
t/y `” j? fjzws< j;wsykB nkgD/ ;kEhnK ;kjwD/ Pofwzdrh BjhA
T[mkT[Dk ukj[zdk ;h. T[;B{z fJj Gh wkD ;h fe eZbQ dk pkbe w/o/ tor/
siop/eko ;{ow/ nZr/, fezBh e[ d/o nV ;e/rk. T[;B/ oDihs f;zx dh
bbeko ;theko eo bJh. nkgD/ ;kEhnK B{z gk;/ ybQko fdZsk, fJXo'A
oDihs f;zx i?ekok rike/ nZr/ tfXnk. d't/A ;{ow/ jfEnko ;{sh r[Z;/
ftu v'ba/ coed/ x'fVnK s/ ;tko j' nkjw'^;kjwD/ NZeo gJ/. fJZe xVh
y{p b'j/ s/ b'jk yVfenk. x'V/ jzG rJ/ ;{ofwnK B{z S'N/^w'N/ i\w Gh bZr
u[Ze/ ;B g;hB/ ftu rV[Zu, fJZe d{i/ d/ y{B d/ fgnk;/. uZm/ ;odko B/
;koh skes fJeZmh eoe/, fJZe j'o i'aodko jZbk p'fbnk. T[; tZb'A ehs/
Got/A tko B{z oDihs f;zx B/ u[;sh tos e/ Bekok eo fdZsk, s/ g?Adh ;ZN/
nZy d/ gbeko/ fizB/ ;w/A nzdo, nfijk ekoh tko ehsk fe j;ws ykB
fJ; w"s d/ cfoPs/ Bz{ o'e Bk ;fenk, s/ T[;dk f;o eZd{ tKr eZN e/
IwhB s/ ik fvZrk. fpibh fijh c[osh Bkb oDihs f;zx B/ eZN/ f;o B{z
s[ozs B/i/ go'fbnk s/ nkgD/ x'V/ B{z nZvh bk fdZsh. pkeh uZfmnK d/
;zGbD s'A gfjbK^gfjbK fJj r[o{ ek to';kfJnk, ykb;k gzE dh nkB
PkB, nZyK s'A T[jb/ j' u[Zfenk ;h. okDh wK ;dk e"o d/ uoBK s/, j;ws
dk f;o ik ;[ZfNnk. “t/y wK s/o/ j'D jko d[bko/ B/ tkfjr[o{ dh feogk
Bkb fJeZfbnK jh nkdwy'o pZpoP/o B{z gko p[bk fdZsk j?. j[D ;ko/ oki
dhnK jZdK j'o w'ebhnK j' ikDrhnK.” d't/A wksktK B/ oDihs f;zx dk
wZEk u[zfwnk, rbtZeVh ftu b?, n;h;K dh MVh bk fdZsh. nekb g[oy
dk bZy^bZy P[eo ehsk.
gkme iB' ` fJZe tkoh fJ; xNBk tZb w[V Mksh wko' goy'. e/tb
u"dK ;kb T[wo dk oDihs f;zx, x'V/ dk Pkj ;tko j?. Ykb^sbtko,
sho, B/Ik nkfde ;ko/ jfEnkoK dh tos'A eoB dk T[;skd j?. S'Nh

(47)
T[wo/ ;oho B{z c'bkd tKr wip{s eo u[Zfenk j?. j";b/ ftu nv'b j?,
s[ozs c?;bk eo b?D dh nEkj neb dk e'N j?. jzY/ tos/ i'X/ B{z ;ohoe
ns/ wkBf;e pb Bkb w?dkB ftu jok e/, nkgDh ;{owrsh d/ Mzv/ rZv
frnk j?. fJ; d/ nkgD/ ;kEh ns/ f;o eNtk u[Ze/ j;wsykB d/ ;kEh
fpZN^fpZN j?okB j'J/ t/yd/ jh ofj rJ/, id'A fJj ekok tkgo frnkHHH.
iok ;'u' ` oDihs f;zx dh f;ybkJh fezBh T[wo s'A P[o{ j'Jh j't/rh< e'Jh
PZe BjhA fe nekb g[oy dk fJ; d/ f;o s/ fwjoK Gfonk jZE ;h. go
fJj ;kok tkfenk eokwks BjhA ;h, eokwks tork Io{o gqshs j' fojk
;h. gzi e[ ;kb dh T[wo s'A jh oDihs f;zx dh ;ohoe ns/ wkBf;e
fsnkoh tk;s/ f;nkD/ T[;skdk B{z skfJBks eo fdZsk frnk ;h. ;ko/
T[fus Yzr tos/ s/ eJh^eJh xzN/, PPso ftfdnk f;ykJh iKdh ;h.
y[oke d/ Bkb^Bkb ;ohoe nfGnk; tofiP tZb T[u/uk fXnkB fdZsk
iKdk ;h. jw T[wo w[zfvnK dhnK N'bhnK pDk e/ coih w[ekpb/ eotkJ/
iKd/ ;B. iok e[ tZvk j'D s/, fgsk ;H wjK f;zx ;uw[u pzd/ cZNV j[d
z ,/
wod/ fvZrd/, jfEnko fGVd/ ftykT[D bJh izr d/ w?dkB ftu nkgD/ Bkb
fbikD bZr fgnk ;h. pj[s S'Nh T[wo s'A ;opgZyh Nq/fBzr d/Dh P[o{ ehsh
rJh, sK fes/ ik e/ Pkj w[jzwd tor/ ethnK fbfynk ^
“wjKpbh oDihs f;zx j'fJnk g?dk Bkb I'o d/ w[be fjbkJ/ frnk.
e[b{ eKrVk ekpb s/ uhB skJhA f;Zek nkgD/ Bkw ubkfJ frnk.”
oDihs f;zx ;skoK e[ ;kb dk rZGo{ ;h id'A bkj"o fty/ ;zwD
p[oi d/ n?B ;kjwD/ j/mK g[Zie/ nekb^nekb d/ i?ekoK bkT[D pknd,
P/o roi Bkb fJj nkfynk ;h “UJ/ npdkbh (nfjwdPkj) d/ g'so/, i/
;{owk j? sK pkjo fBeb s?B{z uVQs f;zx dk g'sok d' jZE eoB bJh tzrko
gk fojk j?.” Pkj iwkB vodk pkjo Bk nkfJnk s/ oks d/ jB/o/ ftu
S[ge/ d"V frnk, ekpb ik e/ ;kj fbnk. T[Bh ;kb dh T[wo ftu oDihs
f;zx B/ bkj"o fiZs e/ ykb;/ dk e/;oh Mzvk M[bk fdZsk ;h.
oDihs f;zx S/t/A wjhB/ fdtkbh^ft;kyh B{z y[ZbQ/ w/fbnK ftu'A
:'rsk t/y e/ nkgDh c"i bJh B"itkBK dh u'D efonk eodk ;h. fJ;

(48)
tkoh Gh gfjbK tKr oDihs f;zx T[FZu/ EK s/ fpokiwkB j' e/, rZGo{nK d/
izrh eosp t/y fojk ;h fe tkoh nkT[D s/ fJZe nsh c[oshbk rZGo{ x'V/
B{z ;ogN d'VKfdnK fpibh dh s/ih tKr w?dkB ftu nkfJnk. gfjbK
ehsh fsnkoh w[skpe nkgd/ B/i/ Bkb IwhB ftu rZfvnk febk g[ZfNnk s/
;ogZN nZr/ bzx frnk. ;kfonK skVhnK wkoe/ T[;dh j"A;bk ncikJh
ehsh. fco T[;B/ sbtkopkih d/ j?okBh iBe eosp ftykJ/, y{p tkjtk
yZNh. sho dk fBPkBk c[zvDk s/ w[rdo u[ZeDk Gh T[;d/ P"e dk nzr ;B.
wjkoki/ dk T[; tZb ftP/aP fXnkB frnk, feT[Afe fJj rZGo{ fiE/ nfs
c[oshbk, s/r, sho dk XBh ;h, T[E/ T[wo gZy'A jkbh nBdkVQhnk pkbe jh
BIo nkT[Adk ;h. oDihs f;zx B/ fJ;B{z e'b ;Zde/ ;kpkP fdZsh, fJZe ;"
o[gfJnk Brd fJBkw d/ e/ g[ZfSnk, “B"itkBK ` s/o/ eospK s''A pj[s y[P
jK eh Bkw j? s/ok<” ih ;oeko ` w?B{z joh f;zx efjzd/ B/. go jI{o ni/
w/o/ e[ZM eosp ftykT[D/ pkeh jB, feogk eoe/ w?B{z fJ; tZv/ nykV/ ftu
e[;sh bVB dk w"ek fdZsk ikt/, nkgDk e'Jh Gh Bkwh gfjbtkB eZY'.
jK^jK feT[A BjhA nkT[ pJh w/o/ wZyDk d/ gkfbU, fJZe :'Xk nkT[ s/
ftykT[ nkgDh skes. Bkwh gfjbtkBK ftu'A fJZe nZr/ tfXnk eZgV/
T[sko/ fBok ;kjB gqshs j' fojk ;h. fJXo joh f;zx B/ id'A eZgV/ bkj/
t/yD tkb/ ewkJ/ j'J/ wip{s iZ;/ B{z t/yd/ jh ofj rJ/. w[zfvnk feT[
jZvhnK GBkT[D bZrk j?A d"V ikj w/o/ ;kjwfDU, go nzdo'A fJ; j'Djko
rZGo{ d/ v"b/ s/ Sksh tZb sZe G? Ghs j' fojk ;h. fJPkok j'fJnk, d't/A
r[ZEw^r[ZEk j'J/, gsk Gh Bk bZrk fe ed'A joh f;zx T[; GbtkB B{z fus
eoe/ Sksh s/ uVQ p?mk ;h. ;kfonK joh f;zx B{z dkd fdZsh s/ w'Nk
gfjbtkB BhthA gkJh g?o x;hNdk nykV/ s'A go/ ik p?mk. joh f;zx
roithA ntkI ftu p'fbnk “fJeZbk GbtkB w/o/ nZr/ e'Jh BjhA nV
;e/rk, fJ; bJh e'Jh d' GbtkB fJeZm/ nkT[ fiBQK p{ohnK dk d[ZX
ghskHHH.” e[ZM x[;o^w[;o j'Jh, wjkoki/ B/ fJPkok ehsk, jkEhnK torh
vhb v"b tkb/ d' GbtkB joh f;zx Bk fGV gJ/. fJj nb{nK rZGo{ sK
fBok skes dk s{ckB ;h fi; tZb XkJh eoe/ g?Adk T[;d/ g?o T[yV iKd/

(49)
s/ MZN d{i/ B{z nk dp'udk. b'eh w{zj ftu T[rbK gk oj/ ;B. wjkokik
oDihs f;zx j?okB j'fJnk fJZe NZe t/yh ik fojk ;h. fe;/ B/ GhV ftu'A
i?ekok SZfvnk p'b/ ;' fBjkbHH n'j t/y' d't/A GbtkB nykVk SZve/ d"V oj/
jB, UJ/ joh f;zx fiZs frnk, fJeZbk d' B{z jok frnk, pJh fJj w[zvk j?
e'Jh pbk j?< joh f;zx nk rZGo{nk w?A pj[s y[P jK s/o/ s/ ` wjkoki/ B/
j";bk ncikJh ehsh. “;oeko ni/ w/oh s;Zbh BjhA j'Jh, s[;hA gfjbK
bZ;h ghD/ GV'b/ fij/ w/o/ ;kjwD/ G/i fdZs/. jI{o j[D gzi ikfDnk B{z fJe'
tkoh eZY' ;kjt/ wZE/, fiBQK wK dk d[ZX ghsk j't/. joh f;zx g[Zsok` jzeko
BjhA eohdk j[zdk ;Zu^w[Zu w?A s/oh skes ns/ c[osh s'A pj[s y[P jK j[D
ofjD d/. wjkoki/ B/ ;bkj fdZsh. BjhA ;oeko` jzeko e'Jh BjhA, r[o{ s/
Go';k s/ nkgDh skes s/ ftPtk; j?, s[;hA d/o Bk eo', w/o/ nowkB g{o/
eo fdT[. S/sh G/i' nkgD/ gzi GbtkBHHH.”
;kok w/bk fJ;/ EK swkPk t/yD bJh ;kj o'eh fpZN^fpZN fJ;
n;hw skes d/ wkbe joh f;zx tZb t/y fojk ;h. fJsB/ ftu gob/ e'B/
s'A gzi rZGo{ fJZe^fJZe eoe/ nZr/ tX/. eZgV/ T[skofdnK t/yD tkb/
T[dk;hBsk ftu rZbK eoB bZr/ ^ “bU pJh joh f;zx j[D BjhA puD
bZrk, feZE/ fJeZbh fizd feE/ gzi ;{ow/ ekjdk w[ekpbk j?. ;oeko B{z
ukjhdk j? fJj e[Psh Bk j'D d/t/. BjhA joh f;zx dh jZvh gZ;bh fJZe j'
ikt/rh.” fJsB/ ftu joh f;zx w[V s'A skikdw j' u[Zfenk ;h, wB nzdo
bVB d/ dkT[g/u ;'u u[Zfenk ;h. T[jBK gziK ftu'A fJZe nZr/ tXfdnK r[Z;/
ftu Gpfenk ^ pZu{ ` wzik wzrtk b? nZi N[o e/ nykV/ ftu'A pkjo BjhA
ik ;e/Ark.” T[;dh I[pkB ftu'A fJj p'b fBebfdnK jh joh f;zx uhs/
tKr Skb wko e/ T[;dh rodB s/ nfijk fgnk fe T[;d/ j'P r[w
z j' rJ/.
j'o d' iD/ nZr/ tZX/ sK joh f;zx MekBh d/ e/ fJZe tZb T[Zuk T[Sb e/ Sksh
ftu d[bZsh eZY wkoh s/ T[j u"ckb ik fvZrk. shi/ B{z bZe'A cVe/ nfijh
G[nkNDh fdZsh fe go/ trkj wkfonk. ofjzd/ d' nZr/ sK tX oj/ ;B, go
nzdo'A ezp rJ/. joh f;zx B/ fJZe B{z fpibh dh s/ih Bkb nfijk X'ph
gNek wkfonk fe T[j w[V T[mD i'rk Bk fojk. gzitK joh f;zx B{z nkgD/

(50)
tZb s/ih Bkb nkT[AfdnK t/ye/ gfjbK jh w/wD/ tKr fwnKedk j'fJnk
ikB puk e/ nfijk BZf;nk fe eZgV/ u[ZeD Gh Bk nkfJnk joh f;zx
g;hB/ ftu B[ZuV fojk ;h, ;oho ftu'A uzfrnkV/ fBeb oj/ ;B, v"b/ coe
oj/ ;B. nkb/^d[nkb/ t/fynk ;koh GhV v"o^G'o j'Jh gZEo tKr nfjb
t/y ojh ;h. joh f;zx pZpo P/o tKr rofink ` j? e'Jh wkJh dk bkb`
fjzws j? fe;/ ftu d' jZE eoB dhHHH< p'b/ ;' fBjkb, ;fs ;qh nekb.
;kok w/bk r{zi T[FZfmnk t/yD tkfbnK joh f;zx s'A o[fgnK dh pkoP eo
fdZsh. fi; e'b p'M ftu i' e[ZM ;h T[jh joh f;zx nZr/ ;[ZN fdZsk.
wjkokik oDihs f;zx nkgD/ fNekD/ s'A T[sfonk.b'ehA fgSKj jNd/ rJ/,
fwZNh Bkb bZE^gZE joh f;zx B{z ;oeko B/ x[ZNe/ ebkt/ ftu b? fbnk.
wZEk u[zfwnk fgnko n;h; fdZsh, thj jIko o[gJ/ dk jho/ ifVnk jko,
nkgD/ rb'A ftu'A T[sko e/, joh f;zx d/ rb ftu gk fdZsk. g[Zsok ` w?A
pj[s y[P jK s/oh ;{owrsh s'A, nZi s'A s{z w/ok fBZih gfjo/dko j't/Krk s/
oh B"eoh nZi s'A gZeh. ikj nkgDh wK B{z, fgT[ B{z y[;^-\poh d/j, Bkb/
w/o/ tb'A T[jBK B{z r[o |fsj p[bkJh, XzB jB T[j fijBK dk nfijk j'Djko
;{owk g[Zso j?.
fJ; tkoh ;ko/ w/b/ ftu joh f;zx dhnK X[zwK ;B, ;kfonK dh
BIo dk skok pD frnk ;h. xo xo ik e/ ;kfonK y[zYK s/ fJeZmK ftu
joh f;zx dh ;{owrsh d/ ;'fjb/ rkJ/. e'Jh nky/ “T[; ftu P/o torh
c[osh j? s/ d{ik nky/ go skes T[; ftu jkEh fizBh j?. T[fJ G'fbU fJZe
jkEh fizBh BjhA, bZrd? T[j sK eJh ;ko/ jkEhnK dh skes ;zGkbh
fcod?”. s/ joh f;zx B/ nkgD/ xo ik wK B{z x[ZN rZbtZeVh gkJh s/ u[Zee/
eJh G[nkNDhnK d/ fdZshnK “t/ g[Zs ` n?t/A Bk w/ohnK jZvhnK eVek
d/thA, pZ; eo w/ok pZuk. wK B{z ;kjwD/ ybko e/ fJBkw ftu fwfbnk jko
nkgD/ rb'A T[skoe/ wK d/ rb ftu gk fdZsk.” j?A n?Bk ;'jDk jko< dZ;
g[Zs feE'A u[Ze fbnkfJnk j?A fJj ehwsh jko< i/ fe;/ B{z gsk bZr frnk
sK ;oeko B{z \po j' rJhHHH< U w/oh fgnkoh wK fJ; jko dk ;koh
d[Bhnk B{z gsk j?, ;oeko B{z Gh gsk j?. fJj jko sK w?B{z y[d ;oeko B/

(51)
fJBkw ftu fdZsk j?. w?A T[E/ gzi^gzi GbtkBK B{z fuZs eo fdZsk. ;oeko
B/ y[P j' e/ fJj jko Gh fdZsk j? s/ w?B{z nkgDh c"i ftu Gosh eo fbnk
j?. joh f;zx fJe' ;kj/ efj frnk. ;Zu ` w?A ;Zde/ w/o/ bkvb/, w?A tkoh
;fsr[o{ s?B{z bzwh T[wo d/t/ i[r^i[r iht/A. fbnk Bh e[VhJ/ w/o/ bkb dk
w{zj fwZmk eokT[. ;ohe/ ftu \po eo fdT[, oksh ;ko/ ob e/ \[PhnK
wBktKr/. j|s/ Go ukn wbko g{o/ eoe/ fJj rZGo{ wjkoki/ dh c"i dk
f;gkjh pD frnk. uVQdh itkBh wIp{s GotK i[Z;k ;kY/ S/ c[ZN eZd
doPBh rZGo{ B{z t/y e/ G[Zy bfjzdh. e[ZM fdBK dh f;Zfynk s'A pknd
wjkoki/ dh fBZih N[eVh dk w?Apo pDk fdZsk frnk. wjkokik fPeko B{z
iKdk x'V/ s/ ;tko j[zdk ;zrh n|;o Gh x'fVnK s/ j[zd/, go fJjBK Bt/A
Gosh j'J/ f;gkjhnK B{z ;kok fdB x'fVnK pokpo g?db d"VBk j[zdk ;h.
wjhfBnK s/ ;kbk pZXh fJj nfGnk; ikoh ofjzdk. fJZe fdB izrb ftu
oDihs f;zx fPeko bJh frnk. ;zxD/ izrb ftu'A P/o dh Gpe ;[DkJh
fdZsh ;h T[Xo B{z nZr/ tXdk frnk. e[ZM MkVhnK gko eoe/ bzfxnK sK
nZr/ pZpo P/o pVeK wko fojk ;h. P/o B/ tzrko gkJh s/ fJXo'A joh f;zx
Gpfenk. d't/A fJZe d{i/ dh skes s/ fJokd/ dk ikfJik b?D bZr/. P/o B/
I'odko djkV wkoh, izrb r{zi T[Zfmnk, gP{^gzSh BZ;/. joh f;zx p/ y"|
nZr tX fojk ;h, P/o nkgD/ dkn dh T[vhe ftu ;h. oDihs f;zx B/
;ko/ ;kEhnK B{z o[eD dk fJPkok ehsk. \[d fJsBk B/V/ nk e/ o[e frnk
fe ;kok fdqP uzrh soQK t/y ;e/. P/o Gpfenk gzi/ Szv/ s/ joh f;zx s/
Xktk p'b fdZsk. fJ; :'X/ B/ nfijk dkn y/fYnK fe P/o d/ MgND s/ T[;
d/ d't/A nrb/ gzi/ nfij/ wip{sh Bb geVe/ wo'Vk fdZsk fe P/o T[bNe/
EZb/ ik fgnk. fJj ;{owk f;ZXk P/o dh fjZe s/ ik p?mk jE"fVnK tor/
x;[zBk d/ tko eofdnK T[;dhnK jZvhnK eVek fdZshnK. P/o B/ ;koh
skes i[Nke/ fGnkBesk Gfonk ipkVk y'fbQnk. joh f;zx dh rodB B{z
geV b?D bZrk ;h fe pjkdo B/ T[go'^j/m'A d't/A jZEK Bkb d't/A ipkV/ ;ezi/
tKr ieV bJ/. fJZe g?o Bkb T[;dh ewo B{z BZfgnk. d't/A v'fbnK dh
jkEh fijh skes Bkb pZpo P/o d/ ipkV/ nfij/ fyZu/ fe gbK ftu jh P/

(52)
o dh fxr p[ZM rJh. joh f;zx B/ nfijk I'odko MNek wkfonk fe P/o
d/ ipkV/ yZdo d/ eZgV/ tKr bho'^bho eo fdZs/. Xosh gZNh rJh r[pko
T[fvnk g;hB/ ns/ \{B Bkb bZE^gZE ;{owk P/o B{z nkyoh ;kj b?Ad/ t/y
fojk ;h. oDihs f;zx nZr/ tfXnk x'V/ s'A T[sfonk, fJ; e"w d/ nBw'b
jho/ B{z Xkn e/ rbtZeVh ftu b? fbnk. fiZs dk nkekP r{zikT{ i?ekok
bkfJnk pj[s ehwsh jko nkgD/ rb ftu T[sko e/ joh f;zx d/ rb ftu
;ik fdZsk. n?bkB ehsk frnk fe nZi s'A joh f;zx f;gkjh BjhA ;odko
(ewKvo) j't/rk. fJ;d/ Bkw Bkb “Bbtk” fbfynk p'fbnk ikt/rk.
g[okDe eEk w[skpe fJZe oki/ B/ P/o wkfonk ;h, T[;B{z BZb fejk frnk.
bkj"o ftu g[ZiD s/ ;odko dk ;BwkB ehsk frnk, Pfjo tk;hnK B{z
pZpo P/o ftykfJnk frnk s/ ;koh j'Jh phsh ;[DkJh rJh. fi; B/
;[fDnk nP^nP eo T[fmnk. xo^xo joh f;zx dhnK rZbK j'D bZrhnK.
fJ; tes joh f;zx e/tb 18 e[ ;kb dk w[ZS^c[ZN rZGo{ ;h.
gkme iB' ` iok fJ; pjkdoh dh PkBdko rkEk B{z w[V s'A ;'u'
ftuko'. jkEh tork skesto, P/o tork c[oshbk, nB/e jfEnkoK B{z
f;yobh jZd sZe tosD dk wkfjo, gzi^gzi GbtkBK B{z gbK ftu fwZNh
xZN/ o'b d/D tkbk, pZpo P/o B{z fpBK jfEnko s'A ipkV/ s'A d'ckV eo d/
D tkbk, fJj wK dk bkvbk fe; fwZNh dk pfDnk j'fJnk ;h< fe; T[wo
s'A fJ;dh f;ybkJh P[o{ ehsh rJh ;h. mhe j? eJh pyfPPK nekb g[oy
tb'A Gh j[zdhnK jB. go T[Zu gkJ/ dh ;w/A f;o fdZsh rJh f;ybkJh dk
nkgDk ftP/aP :'rdkB j'fJnk eodk j?. joh f;zx dh f;Zfynk gzi S/
;kb dh T[wo s'A jh nkozG eotk fdZsh rJh ;h. f;nkD/ wksk^gsk ikDd/
jB fe pZu/ B{z fej' fijh \[oke ns/ tksktoD gqdkB ehsk ikt/. f;nkD/
T[;skd :'r ;w/A s/ f;Zfynk d/D dh fIzw/tkoh fBGkT[Ad/ jB sK jh ;H joh
f;zx tor/ fJfsjk; d/ jho/ g?dk j'fJnk eod/ jB. fijBK dh nZi sZe
gmkDhnK d/ wBK s/ dfjPs j? “u[g Pk johnk oKrb/” pZuk u[Zg eo, joh
f;zx Bbtk nk ikt/rk.

(53)
Gkos d/ dZyDh ;{fpnK ftu Bku ebk B{z pj[s T[uk n;EkB gqkgs
j?. jo wksk^fgsk pkbVh T[wo/ p/NhnK B{z Bku f;ZyD tk;s/ uzr/ ;e{bK
ftu dk\b eokT[Adk j?. i[nkBh ftu g[ZiD s'A gfjbK jh bVehnK nZShnK
\k;hnK BosehnK pD u[ZehnK j[zdhnK jB. bVeh dh wzrDh tes bVe/
tkb/ fJj Io{o g[ZSd/ jB fe bVeh fBos ebk ftu fezBh e[ wkjo j?< i/
rkT[D iK ;ki tikT[D Gh ikDdh j't/ sK ;'B/ s/ ;[jkrk. fJ;/ pugB dh
f;Zfynk ekoB ;koh fcbw fJzv;Nohi ftu dZyDh phphnK w'joh o'b
ndk eo ojhnK jB. pZfunK B{z :'r ;w/A s/ pDd/ o[M/t/A ftu Bk gkfJnk
ikt/ sK i[nkBh ftu ntZP GNe ikt/rk. e[okj/ fgnk i[nkB spek fiE/
y[d popkd j[zdk j? T[E/ ;wki B{z Gh tZvk xkNk j[zdk j?. fit/A jVQ dk gkDh
nEkj spkjh eo fdnk eodk j?. go fJ; p/ekp{ j' e/ tr oj/ gkDh B{z
f;nkDg Bkb pzB wko fbnk ikt/, BfjoK eZYhnK ikD, v?w pDkJ/ ikD,
sK fJjh gkDh s/ fpibh wB[Zysk bJh nDfrDs eki ;ztkodk j?. y/sK
ftu c;bK bfjokT[AdhnK jB. ekoykB/ uZbd/ jB, xo o"PB j[zd/ jB.
popkdh s'A puhdk j? npkdh dk pj[s ckfJdk j[zdk j?. B"itkB f;ZyDk
ukj[zd/ jB, go ;kv/ gqpzXe ns/ w[yh T[BQK tk;s/ e'Jh ;koEe ekoi
nkozG jh BjhA eo ;e/. ;q'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh nzfwqs;o ns/
fdZbh f;Zy r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh nopK o[gJ/ d/ pZiN ftu'A Xow gquko
tk;s/ Gh e'Jh ftP/aP :'rdkB BjhA gk ;ehnK. Xow ekoiK dk g?;k
okiBhsh d/ fuZeV ftu o'fVQnK ik fojk j?. Xow gqukoe fsnko eoB
tk;s/ e'Jh ;e{b ekbi BjhA fiE'A uzrh d[fBnkth ftfdnk ;"fynK jh fwb
;e/. y/vK tZb pZfunK B{z T[sPkjs$Nq/fBzr tk;s/ e'Jh gqpzX BjhA, fJ;/
bJh edh w'joh j[zdk gzikp y/vK ftu g{oh soQK gSV frnk j?. fijV/
f;Zy pZu/ y/vK ftu iKd/ Gh jB, T[j T[fus ;zGkb Bk j'D ekoB gfsZs j'
iKd/ jB. nKXok gqd/P ezfgT{No f;Zfynk ftu d[Bhnk dk okj d;/ok
pfDnk j?. ;kv/ u"XohnK fJXo x/;btZN e/ tes r[Iko fdZsk. gzikp
ftu p/o[Irkoh j?, BP/ jB, Go{D jZfsnk j?. go gzikp d/ wZ[dJh nytkD
tkb/ rcbs dh BhAd ftu ;[Zs/ j'J/ jB.

(54)
j'o e'Jh ukok BjhA fojk, nkyoh sobk j? fe nkgD/ nZyhnK d/
sko/ j'Djko g[ZsoK$XhnK dh y[d ;zGkb f;Zfynk dk gqpzX eo'. fJjd/
tk;s/ wksk^fgsk B{z e[ZM f;nkDg e[ZM fsnkr eoBk gt/rk. nkg y[d
BfPnK s'A gq/jirkoh eoBh j't/rh. ;t/o/ Pkw pZfunK B{z e'b fpmk e/
r[opkDh dk gkm eoBk gt/rk. xZN'^xZN n?stko tkb/ fdB gfotko
;w/s fi; r[o{ xo ftu eEk ehosB j[zdk j't/ T[E/ doPBK B{z ikDk j't/rk.
;kb S/ wjhB/ fgS'A r[od[nkfonK dh gfotko ;w/s :ksok dk e'Jh ;wK
eZYDk gt/rk. xo ftu Xkofwe g[;seK^g'EhnK dh bkfJpq/oh j'Dh nsh
Io{oh j?. fJfsjk; pko/ uzrhnK feskpK pZfunK d/ wkBf;e gZXo dhnK
nkvhU^thvhU e?;NK s/ g[;seK Gh Io{oh j'D. wktK B{z fpT{Nh gkoboK
s/ feZNh gkoNhnK s'A nkgd/ nkg B{z o'e e/ pZfunK Bkb tZX s'A tZX ;wK
fpskT[Dk j'tr
/ k. oks ;w/A ;kok gfotko e'fPP eoe/ ykDk fJeZfmnK ykt/.
e[ZM ;wK ftuko tNKdok Io{o ehsk ikt/. pZfunK d/ ;tkbK d/ itkp fdZs/
ikD. i/ pZu/ d/o Bkb xo nkT[Ad/ jB sK ekoBK dh uzrh soQK gVskb
ehsh ikt/. fBwosk Bkb pZu/ B{z ftPtk; ftu b? e/ sebh| iK xo d/oh
Bkb nkT[D dk ekoB bZfGnk ikt/. ;G s'A uzr/ ofjpo pZu/ bJh wksk^fgsk
j'fJnk eod/ jB. go pV/ d[Zy Bkb fbyDk g? fojk j? fe nkw wksk^fgsk
d/ e?Ag bkJ/ ikD f;Zfynk fdZsh ikt/. uzrk T[;skd sK gP{ gzShnK B[z
f;Zfynk d/ e/ j?okB eo d/D tkb/ ezw eotk b?Adk j?. ;oe; ftu eohp
;G B/ t/fynk j't/rk fe Gkoh Goew skes dk gjkV jkEh f;Zfynk gqkgs
eoe/ fet/A eosZp ftykT[Adk j?. foe;k ubkT[AfdnK Gh t/fynk ik ;edk
j? jkEh B{z. fozr wk;No d/ fJPkfonK s/ BZudk j'fJnk ;/ao fezB/ ;ko/ y/
v ftyk fdzdk j?. e[Zs/ x'V/ foZS s's/ pZeo/ u{j/ fpZbhnK sZe Gh f;ykJ/ s'A
f;Zy iKd/ jB. Go/ fJeZmK ftu nkgDh ebk gqdoPBh eod/ jB. fet/A
Gbk< mhe ;w/A ;[bM/ j'J/ fozr wk;No B/ f;ybkJh fdZsh s/ gP{ gzSh Gh
ebkeko pD rJ/. ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ fJ; ;wki ftu nB/e gqeko
e'fPPK eoe/ ;[Xko fbnKd/, e[okj/ gJ/ b'eK B{z mhe okj/ gkfJnk. ny"sh
i'rhnK, ;kXK^;zfBnk;hnK, gzfvsK, w"bkfDnK, feoshnK, d[ekBdkoK

(55)
ftu'A u[D e/ xV sok;e/, Bt/A ;wki (f;Zy ws) dh f;oiDk ehsh. wkB'
e{V/ d/ Y/o ftu'A YZm/^yzvoK T[go BthA ;'jDh fJwkos pDk e/ ofjD i'rh
pDk fdZsh. fJ; ftrV/ ;wki ftu'A jh goT[geko, tzv SeD, fsnkrh,
jmh, sgh, ;{ow/ s/ Pjhd g?dk ehs/. ftdtkBK d/ ekcb/ g?dk j' rJ/, fJj
fet/A ;zGt j' frnk< ;fsr[o{ ih dh ;{M^p{M tkbh :'r f;Zfynk ekoB.
wK dh wwsk s/ fgsk dh f;nkDg pZfunK dh fIzdrh ftu eokwksh
PeshnK Go ;ed/ jB. fJPe wikih dhnK ejkDhnK ftu fIeo j? fe
oKMk jho B{z gqkgs eoB ykso, T[;d/ fgsk dhnK d; pkoK ;kb wZMK^rktK
;zGkbdk fojk. wiB{z bzw/ ;w/A sZe y{j r/Vdk fojk feT[Afe wkP{ek B/
nkfynk ;h y{j r/V gkDh ghDK j?. T[j gkDh dhnK d' x[ZNK ghe/ ubh rJh
;kbK pZXh tkg; Bk gosh. wiB{z jo o'I ;t/o s'A Pkw sZe y{j r/Vdk
fojk PkfJd edh fco ‘T[j’ nk ikt/. ;Z;h EbK ftu ;V w'Jh. cojkd
;hoh bJh gzdoK ;kb gjkV eZNe/ Bfjo pDkT[Adk fojk, fwoik ;kfjpK
nZXtkN/ okj ftu esb eo fdZs/ rJ/HHH. fJj fJZe iB{B ;h fJjBK
B"itkBK d/ f;o B{z ufVQnk j'fJnk. fJZe fBZih ;kXkoD d[fBnkth fgnko.
fJ; ftu d/P e"w, Xow iK wB[Zysk dk e'Jh fjZs BjhA ;h. nfijk fJPe
dk G{s uko fdBK bJh itkBh s/ jkth j' ikfJnk eodk j? ;w/s G/v d/.
fJ; s'A nrb/ok T[u
Z k wjkB Nhuk i/ B"itkBK d/ ;Bw[y
Z oZfynk jh Bk ikt/,
fIzdrh dh ehws rZGo{nK^w[fNnkoK B{z ;wMkJh jh Bk ikt/, T[jBK tb'A
ehs/ ikD tkb/ pekfJnk gJ/ ezwK pko/ T[sPkj jh Bk ehsk ikt/, fco
e[okj/ BjhA g?Dr/ sK j'o eh eoBr/< wksk^fgsk dk e/tb pZu/ izwDk jh
ekch BjhA j?. fJj sK gP{^gzSh Gh izwd/ nk oj/ jB. t/yDk fJj j? fe
wksk^fgsk pZfunK B{z fej' fij/ ;zu/ ftu Ykbd/ jB, fe; soQK dh xkVs
xVQe/ fezB/ B/e fJB;kB pDkT[Ad/ jB. f;Zy fJfsjk; dh fJZe pj[s
eo[DkwJh rkEk wjkokDh fizd e"o (;g[sBh wjkokik oDihs f;zx) s/
pkbe wjkokik dbhg f;zx dh o"ArN/ yV/ eo d/D tkbh j?. fet/A fJZe wK
dh X[o nkswK ftu'A fBebh j{e nkgD/ e[okj/ gJ/ j'J/ g[Zso dbhg f;zx B{z
tkg; w'V fbnkT[Adh j?.

(56)
wkou 30^1849 ftu gzikp T[s/ nzro/IK dk epIk j' frnk.
dbhg f;zx i' fJ; tes d; ;kb e[ZM wjhfBnK dk jh ;h. o;wh fijh
okirZdh s'A T[sko fdZsk. wjkokDh fizd e"o B[z nbZr :{HghH ftu u[Bko
dh ;\s e?d ftu pzd eo fdZsk. dbhg f;zx B{z nzro/I n"osK dh
;ogq;sh nXhB fJzrb?Av fbikfJnk frnk. eJh ;kb dh G?Vh f;Zfynk s'A
pknd dbhg f;zx d/ e/; esb eo fdZs/ rJ/, T[;B{z fJ;kJh pDk fbnk.
e[ZM ;w/A pknd r'oh bVeh Bkb jh T[;dk ftnkj eo fdZsk frnk. jo
;kfiP tos e/ T[;B{z gzikp tZb'A p/\po oZfynk frnk, r[owfs s'A s'fVnk
frnk. nkgD/ wkbeK d/ eoV/ j[ e wK ekoB dbhg f;z x B{ z
sVgfdnK^ftbgefdnK fdb s/ gZEo oZye/ nkgD/ ;'jD/ ri ri bzw/ e/;
wjkokDh fteN'ohnk B{z G/N eoB/ gJ/. T[j nzdo'A N[ZN frnk$fjZb frnk,
fIzadrh B{z XZek fdzdk fojk. nzro/IK d/ ofjw ns/ g?BPB s/ fiT[Adk
fojk. fJXo wjkokDh fIzd e"o G/; tNk e/ u[Bko d/ feb/Q ftu'A BZ; rJh.
eJh fdBK d/ izrbh okjK B{z uhodh, G[ZyD GkDh, jkb'A p/jkb cN/ eZgV/,
g?o s/ ;oho ezfvnK MkVhnK Bkb bj{ b[jkB j' u[Ze/ ;B. o'Adh B{z e'Jh
Xotk; d/D tkbk Gh BjhA ;h. eJh fdBK d/ d[ydkJh ;|o s'A pknd B/
gkb d/ oki/ B{z ik p/Bsh ehsh. nkgDh s/ f;Zy oki dh j'Jh pshsh dZ;h,
g[Zso B{z fwbD dh bkb;k iskJh s/ wZdd eoB bJh nkfynk. fBgkb d/
oki/ B/ r[Iko/ bkfJe oew gotkB eo fdZsh, fJZe uzrk wekB d/ fdZsk
gzi uko B"eo^B"eokDhnK dk gqpzX eo fdZsk. fJ; tes fizdK dh
fIzdrh dk fJe' wZe;d pkeh ofj frnk ;h g[Zso dbhg B{z fwbDk. T[j
feBQK^feBQK d[ZyK d/ dfonk gko eodh ojh iK jzM{nK d/ dfonk tjkT[Adh
ojh. ;[Ze e/ fgzIo pD rJh, fdB^oks o'Adh dhnK nZyK iKdhnK ojhnK,
go ni/ Gh dbhg B{z fwbD dh nk; pkeh ;h. eohp d; ;kb phs rJ/,
nzrkoK s/ N[ofdnK, \{B d/ nZEo{ tjkT[AfdnK, fco fes/ dbhg f;zx B{z
\po fwbh fe wK ni/ ihts j?. T[;B/ Gkos nkT[D dh nkfrnk wzrh.
;\s gfjo/ j/m ;w[zdoh ijki ftu ;tko j', eJh fdBK d/ ;|o wro'A
ebeZs/ nkfJnk. fJE/ g[Zie/ wK tZb fuZmh fbyh, ;/tkdko G/i/, fe wK B{z

(57)
eZbes/ b? nkT[. ;/te B/gkb ik g[fink, wjkokDh fizd e"o B{z d; ;kb
s'A tZX ;w/A d/ pknd fJZe mzvh gkT[D dk p[Zbk nkfJnk gqshs j'fJnk. B/
gkb d/ oki/ dh nkfrnk s'A fpBK pkjo ikD s/ gkpzdh ;h.nkfrnk bJh
gZso fbfynk, y[d ik jkIo j'Jh. B/gkbh oki/ B{z youk fdzfdnK pVh
n"y wfj;{; j' ojh ;h, T[; B/ s[ozs ikD dh wBI{oh sK d/ fdZsh go Bkb
jh fJj Gh nky fdZsk fe tkg; B/gkb dk\b j'D dh nkfrnk BjhA j't/rh.
d[pkok e'Jh you/ BjhA fdZs/ ikDr/. ;kohnK PosK dk e"VK x[N
Z Goe/,
vzr'oh jZE ftu b? e/, nkJ/ ;/te d/ Bkb B/gkb B{z nkyoh nbftdk nky
e/ N[o gJh. wzibK s?j eodh ebeZs/ T[; j'Nb ftu fvrdh^Yfjzdh g[Zi
rJh fiE/ dbhg f;zx mfjfonk j'fJnk ;h. ;'uK^;'u ojh j? fe w/ok
bkvbk dbhg gsk BjhA fezBk e[ T[uk bzwk itkB j' frnk j't/rk. fej'
fijh Peb^;{os, vhb^v"b j't/rh. w?A sK fBwkDh nZyK Bkb t/y Gh BjhA
;eKrh, fet/A gsk bZr/rk fej' fijk j?< ;'uK ;'udh dbhg f;zx d/ ewo/
ftu g[uk fdZsh rJh. nZr'A dbhg f;zx Xkn e/ rb B{z fuzpV frnk.
wK^wK w/oh fgnkoh wKHHH. nZr'A IpkB B/ ;kE Bk fdZsk, d't/A wK^g[Zs fezBh
d/o sZe iko' iko o'Ad/ oj/. e'Jh u[Zg eokT[D tkbk Gh BjhA ;h. nZyK
ftu'A jzM{nK dh MVh w[eD dk BK BjhA b? ojh ;h. ekch d/o phsD s'A
pknd wK fizd e"o B/ j"bh^j"bh dbhg dh fgZm s/ jZE c/fonk. T[jdk
GotK i[Z;k N'jD dh e'fPP ehsh. fco ezpd/ jZEK B{z T[FZgo T[mkT[Dk
ukfjnk sK fe t/y ;e/ dkjVh^e/; j?r/ e/ BjhA, xpok e/ fco jZE j/mK
eo b?Adh, wBk ` i/ e/; Bk j'J/ fco fet/A puKrh. t/y sK ;edh BjhA
N'jDk jh gt/rk. fdb seVk eoe/ w{zj sZe jZE b? rJh fujo/ s/ dkjVh
BjhA ;h. wB v'fbnk f;o sZe jZE g[Zfink, ezpdhnK T[rbK w;hA T[go
rJhnK. bzw/ e/; i{Vk d;sko e[M Gh Bk jZE bZfrnk. xpokJh fdb
v'fbnk. Xkn wkoe/ IwhB s/ p?m rJh. ftbedh j'Jh ;koh skes
fJeZmh eoe/ p'bh “t/ b'e'` w?A nzBQh shthA Bkb feT[A mZmk eoB bZr/ j',
s[jkB{z oZp dh wko gt/, fJj w/ok g[Zso dbhg BjhA j?. feT[A X'yk eo oj/
j', w/o/ e'b e'Jh XzB gdkoE BjhA j? eh b[ZN'r/ w?E'A.”

(58)
dbhg f;zx vfvnk fgnk, p[ZehA o'Adk wK d/ rb B{z fuzpV frnk s/
p'fbnk, “w?A s/ok dbhg jK w/oh wK w?A s/ok g[Zso dbhg, :ehB eo w/o/
s/. w?B{z r[o{ dh e;w, w?A M{m BjhA p'bdk w?A jh s/ok p/Nk jK”.
wjkokDh fizdk p'bh, oki Gkr y[Z;k, s\s ski y[Z;k, s/ ;[jkr y[Z;k,
fizd ikB y[Z;h.
P/o, yVe y[Z;k, B"Bfjb y[Z;k, s/ gqskg y[Z;k, nDy nkB y[Z;h.
Pkjh s/i y[;
Z k, o'jp dknp y[;
Z k, p/Pe
Z fJZIs th w/oh BkdkB y[;
Z h.
i/eo frbk nkfJnk sK w?Bz{ nZi nkfJnk, id'A t/yh dPw/P dh PkB y[;
Z h.
fco eh Peb pDk bJh j? s{z< feZE/ B/ s/o/ ;'jD/ bzw/ o/Pwh e/;,
feE/ j? s/oh Pkjh d;sko< feE/ rtk fbnk ;kok ;o{g<
fit/A s{z nDfrDs d[ZyK d/ ;w[zdoK ftu r's/ yKdh ojh w?B{z Gh ;[Zy dk
;kj BjhA nkfJnk. w/o/ s/ p/nzs dpkT[ gkJ/ rJ/. bkbu fdZs/ rJ/, vokt/
fdZs/ rJ/. w?A feZvk e[ ;K id'A s?E'A ftS'V fdZsk frnk ;h. :kd eo wK
f;oc ;kY/ d; ;kb dk nzRkDk pkb ;K. w?A fJBQK r'o/ b'eK d/ ofjw' eow
s/ jh fdB fpskJ/ B/. fJBQK w/o/ e/; eNtkJ/ jh BjhA ;r'A eZN/ j'J/ e/;
okDh fteN'ohnK B{z s'jc/ d/ s"o s/ G/N eotkJ/ rJ/. wK w?B{z pkbgD ftu
jh fJ;kJh pDk fbnk frnk. w?A p/pZ; ;K.
g[Zs dbhg w/ok ;kok e[ZM o[V frnk, oki frnk s\s ski frnk,
Pkjh mkm frnk, febQ/, c"iK rJhnK. w/ok gzikp frnk, e'j/B{o frnk.
t/ g[Zso w/oh fJZIs nkpo{ rJh, nZyK dh i's Gh ubh rJh. eh fJ;/
gjkV tor/ d[Zy B{z d/yD tk;s/ jh ni/ sZe ihts ;K fe nkgD/ dbhg B{z
fJ; soQK t/yKrh. jkJ/ ;fsr[o{ ihU` j[D w?A jko rJh, w?B{z nkgD/ uoBK
ftu ;wK b?.
wksk dh i[pkB o[e rJh, dbhg f;zx B/ fjbkJh gkDh w{zj B{z
bkfJnk, id'A iok tZb f;o j'Jh sK p'fbnk “w/oh fgnkoh wK w?B{z p\;
d/` w?A ;fsr[o{ B{z jkIo^BkIo ikD s/o/ uoBK ftu jkIo j' e/ gqD eodk
jK fe w?A s/ok r[nkuk s\s ski, ;'jDk oki s/ e'fjB{o sK tkg; BjhA
fbnk ;edk, go ;fsr[o{ ih dh pyfPP “f;Zyh” Io{o XkoB eo btKrk.

(59)
fizBh S/sh j' ;fenk “yzv/ eh gkj[b” gqkgs eo btKrk. “wK B{z e[ZM
Xotk; fwfbnk, fgnko Bkb wZEk u[zfwnk, w[ZV Sksh Bkb bkfJnk.
“i[r^i[r iht/A g[Zso wK dh nkyoh ;ZXo S/sh g{oh eohA, w?A woB s'A
gfjbK fJZe tkoh s?B{z Io{o f;zx o{g ftu t/yDk ukj[zdh jK. fe fit/A
w/o/ xo f;Zyh nk ojh j? w/oh nZyK dh i's Gh gos nkt/rh.<”
wjkokDh fizd e"o dbhg f;zx d/ Bkb jh fJzrb?Av g[Zi rJh. go
ikbw r'oh ;oeko B/ d'tK B{z fJeZm/ Bk ofjD fdZsk. gzdoK fdBK wro'A
fJZe fdB fwbD dh nkfrnk fdZsh rJh. e[ZM jh ;w/A pknd fizd e"o B{z
nkyoh ;Zdk nk frnk. fJj nkye/ ;z;ko s'A ftdk j' rJh fe g[Zso w/o/
;oho B{z fJ; ikbw d/P ftu b/y/ Bk bkthA. i/ j' ;e/ sK w/o/ f;o d/
;kJhA, s/o/ fgsk “P/o^J/^gzikp” dh wVQh e'b w/ok ;;eko eohA. r'fonK
dbhg f;zx B{z gzikp ikD dh fJIkIs Bk fdZsh. T[j wK dh bkP b? e/
pzpJh nkfJnk, fJE'A Bkf;e g[Zfink. fJE/ Bkf;e fty/ jh r'dktoh d/
ezY/ wK dk ;;eko eoe/ tkg; fJzrb?Av gos frnk. wK B{z fdZs/ puB
w[skpe ;wK nkT[D s/ yzv/ eh gkj[b b? Peb'^;{os gZy'A f;Zyh pkD/ ftu
gqt/P eo frnk Bkb jh r[opkDh dk nfXn?B gkm P[o{ eo fdZsk.
T[gobh ;koh tkosk fbyD dk wd;d fJjh j? fe wK dk fgnko
nkswk ftu'A fBebh gq/w ftXh j{e, gZEo fdbK B{z fgxbk fdnk eodh j?
e/; eNtk u[Ze/ f;Zyh B{z ft;ko u[Ze/, fJ;kJh ws XkoB eo u[Ze/, gzikp'A
d{o f;Zy GoktK s'A d{o ik u[Ze/ dbhg f;zx B{z wK d/ nzdo'A fBeb/ ;Zu/
fgnko B/ w[V f;zx ;ik fdZsk. eh nZi dhnK wktK nkgD/ pZfunK bJh
e'Jh ni/jh gq/oBk ;o's wK s'A f;Zfynk b? ;eDrhnK< i/ ;Zuw[Zu jh f;Zyh
Bkb fgnko j?, i/ nkgD/ pZfunK dk GftZy o"PB ukj[zd/ j' sK wksktK B{z
yk; fXnkB d/Dk gt/rk, sK jh pZu/ r[o{ xo tZb, f;Zyh tZb tkg; gos
;eDr/.

(60)
;fsr[o{ ih dh gftZso pkDh ftu'A wksk fgsk d/ coiK pko/ e[ZM
gowkDL^
g{sk wksk eh nk;h;..
fBwy Bk fp;oT[ s[w eT[ jfo jfo ;dk Gij[ irdh;.. (gzBk^496)
ihts ihts ihts ojj[.. okw o;kfJD[ fBs T[fm ghtj[.. (gzBk^1133)
Gij[ r'fpzd G{fb ws ikj[.. wkB; ek J/jh bkj[.. (gzBk^1159)
ekj/ g{s Mros jT[ ;zfr pkg..
fiB e/ iD/ pvho/ s[w jT[ fsB f;T[ Mros gkg.. (gzBk ^ 1200)
;s;zrfs ;fsr[o uN;kb j? fis[ jfo r[D f;yk..
XzB[ XzB[ ;[ o;Bk XzB[ eo XzB[ ;[ gkXk ;fsr[o{ fis[ fwfb jfo b/yk fbyk.. (gzBk^1316)
w/o/ okw jw pkfoe jfo gqG[ e/ j? fJnkD/..
XzB[ XzB[ r[o{ r[o{ ;fsr[o[ gkXk fifB jfo T[gd/;[ d/ ehJ/ f;nkD/.. (gzBk^168)
XzB[ iBBh fifB ikfJnk XzB[ fgsk goXkB[..
;fsr[o[ ;/ft ;[y[ gkfJnk ftuj[ rfJnk r[wkB[.. (gzBk 32)
pkb fpt;Ek pkfoe[ nzX.. Gfo i'pfB bkrk d[orzX..
fsqshn fpt;Ek f;zu/ wkfJ.. fpofX GfJnk S'fv ufbU gS[skfJ..
fuozekb gkJh d[bG d/j.. Bkw fpj{Dh j'Jh y/j..
g;{ go/s w[rX s/ p[oh.. fs;fj Bk p[M? fifB J/j f;oh.. (gzBk 890)
pkto/ s/ frnkB phuko[ B gkfJnk.. fpoEk iBw[ rtkfJnk.. (gzBk 793)
;k p[fX dhi? fis[ ft;ofj Bkjh.. ;k wfs dhi? fis[ s[X[ fXnkJh.. (gzBk 100)
r[o ;kyh nzsfo ikrh.. sk uzub wfs fsnkrh..
r[o ;kyh ek T[ihnkok.. sk fwfNnk ;rb nzXkok.. (gzBk 599)
nzX/ nebh pkjo/ w{oy nzX frnkB[..
BkBe Bdoh pkjo/ epfj Bk gktfj wkB[.. (gzBk 789)
nebh ;kfjp[ ;/thn? nebh gkJhn? wkB[..
nebh gfVQ e? p[Mhn? nebh ehu? dkB[..
BkBe[ nky? okj[ J/j[ j'fo rbK ;?skB[.. (gzBk^1245)

[[[[

(61)
pkpk fcfo we/ rfJnkHHHH
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih J/Phnk d/ ftu nB/e EktK s/ rJ/, nkgD/
T[FZu/^;[Zu/ thukoK dh rfjoh Skg b'e wBK s/ nzfes eod/ rJ/. ;z;ko s/
nkT[Dk jh T[BQK dh fJZe tZvh eokwks ;h. i' T[gd/P T[BQK B/ ehs/ T[j r[o{
rqzE ;kfjp ftu ;[GkfJwkB jB. fJBQK s'A fJbktk i' thuko tNKdo/,
;fsr[o{ ih B/ ehs/, ;[nkbK d/ i[nkp fdZs/, T[j ;kv/ sZe BjhA g[Zi/.
;fsr[o{ ih dh pkDh s/ nXkos, iK GkJh r[odk; ih dhnK tkoK d/ ukBD
ftu, pj[s ;kohnK ;kyhnK Gh fwbdhnK jB, i' ehwsh \IkBk jB.
fJBQK T[FZsw feosK s'A fJbktk pj[s g"okDe nzP, i' fjzd{ ;kfjs ftu,
nkw iB ;w{j dh i[pkB s/ ufVQnk j'fJn j?, T[j Gh f;Zy ;kfjs ftu
eJh o{gK ftu gquZbs j' frnk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih B{z pj[s T[Zuk, pj[s
Pesh;kbh ns/ eokwksh wjKg[oy f;ZX eoB tk;s/ gokG"se ejkDhnK
Gh ;pzXs eo fdZshnK rJhnK jB. nZi d/ ;w/A fJj eEk ejkDhnK nkw
fJB;kB B{z eh f;Zfynk fdzdhnK jB, fJj ftuko eoB dh Io{os j?.
nDfrDs eokwksh ejkDhnK ftu'A fJZe j? “wZek x[wkT[D dh
;kyh”. fit/A ;fsr[o{ ih fjzd{ shoEK s/ rJ/, i'rhnK ;fBnk;hnK e'b
rJ/, bzek, fBgkb, fsZps, uhB, o{; sZe rJ/, fe; tk;s/< jZe^;Zu dk
;[B/jk, Goksoh Gkt, tzv SeDk s/ fJZe' y[dk B{z wzBDk. fit/A fe ne;o
j'fJnk eodk j?, wjKg[oyK tZb'A fdZs/ T[gd/P ;wK gk e/ fgSKj ofj iKd/
jB, nkgD/ tZb'A (nkw ;/teK tZb'A) xVhnK ejkDhnK nZr/ fBeb iKdhnK
jB. PoXkb{ ;/teK B/ J/E/ th “fcfonk wZek ebk fdykoh”, gzesh dk
;jkok b? e/ wZek Pfjo x[zwdk fpnkB eo fdZsk. id'A fe fe;/ ;EkB dk
x[zwDk ;zGt BjhA j?. i/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ eokwksh Pesh Bkb Pfjo

(62)
x[w
z kT[Dk ;h, sK jIkoK whbK dk ;|o, d' YkJh ;kb dk n"yk ;wK, nB/e
okjK dhnK n"eVK ftjkMD dh eh b'V ;h< feT[Afe eokwksh Pesh
tose/ sK eoskog[o'A jh wZek x[wk fdzd/ sK fInkdk p/jso ;h. pkpk ih
B/ sK w"bkfDnK s'A u'NK^;ZNK Gh podkPs ehshnK, “ihtfD wkoh bZs d/,
fejVk ;[sk e[co e[ckoh<” bZs s'A geV e/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z x;hfNnk
frnk, ekco nkfd Gh nytkfJnk. i/ fe;/ nb"fee Pesh okjhA wZek
x[zw ;edk ;h sK u'NK fe; ekoB ykDhnK gJhnK< x;hfNnk ikDk fe;
ekoB gqtkB ehsk< ekco nkfd Gh feT[A nytkfJnk, e'Jh P"Ae ;h fJ;
soQK ngwkB eokT[D dk<
gfjbK fJj ftuko eoBh pj[s Io{oh j? fe nop^nwhoks d/P
ftu, fJZe pj[s wjZstg{oB Pfjo, fi;dk Bkw wZek j?. fJ; wZe/ Pfjo
ftu fJZe w[;bwkBK dk ;G s'A gftZso Xow n;EkB j?, fi;dk Bkw j?
“eknpk”. fJ; eknp/ d/ nzdo fJZe r'bkJh ftu fsnko ehsh “vkN”
j? T[;B{z wfjokp nkyd/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih wZe/ Pfjo rJ/, eknpk Xow;EkB
ftu g[Zi/, oks ;w/A wfjokp tZb (vkN) g?o eoe/ b/N rJ/. fJZe w[;bwkB
;/te B/ fJ; Xkofwe ntZfrnk ekoB ;fsr[o{ ih B{z Gkoh u'N wkoh
(ihtfD dk noE u'N j?, wjkB e'P GkJh ekBQ f;zx BkGk, gzBk^527) fco
“Nzr'A gefV x;hfNnk, fcfonk wZek ebk fdykoh..” (32$1) j[D d[pkok
ftuko eohJ/l ;fsr[o{ ih Xow n;EkB eknp/ ftu b/N rJ/, wfjokp
(gftZso vkN) tZb g?o eo bJ/. id' u'N wkoh rJh s/ NzrK s'A cV e/
pkpk ih B{z x;hfNnk frnk sK ;kok wZek (Pfjo) x[zwD bZr fgnk s/ ;ko/
w[;bwkBK B/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/ uoBK s/ Bw;eko ehsh, feT[A< fJj e"se
t/ye/. nZr/ GkJh r[odk; ih gfjbh tko dh u"Ash BzH gT[Vh ftu fbyd/
jB, fe ;fsr[o{ ih B/ wZe/ ftu nkgD/ uoBK dh i[Zsh (yVKt) fBPkBh
tk;s/ fNek fdZsh. go eh w[;bwkB b'e nkgD/ ;G s'A gftZso ;EkB
ftu i[Zsh oZyD dh fJIkis d/Dr/< Gkt/A T[j fe;/ Gh wjKg[oy dh feT[A Bk
j't/< n;b ftu eT[A; dk noE i[Zsh BjhA j?, fJ;d/ noE g?oOuoB Gh
ehs/ ik ;ed/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ wZe/ fty/ uoB gkJ/. wfjokp (vkN)

(63)
tZb. GkJh r[odk; ih fJ;/ tko dh 37thA gT[Vh ftu fJj Gh c[owkB
eod/ jB “rV prdkd[ fBtkfJ e? wek wdhBk ;G/ fBtkfJnkHHH” d/t dkB'
okef; d?s ;G, fufs r[gfs ;fG uoBh bkfJnk..
fJzdqk;fD ngSok, okr okrBh wzrb rkfJnk..
GfJnk nBzd irs[ ftfu, efb skoB r[o{ BkBe nkfJnk..
fjzd{ w[;bwkD fBtkfJnk.. 37$1
wZek, wdhBk s/ prdkd (fJoke dh okiXkBh) B{z fBtk fdZsk< eh
fJj Pfjo Bht/A j' rJ/ iK ;fsr[o{ ih dh ftuko^uouk ;dek fJZE'A d/ b'e
M[Ze e/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z BwPekoK eoB bZr gJ/< d/ts/, dkB', okeP,
fuso^r[gs ;ko/ uoBhA gJ/, go fet/A fJj sK ;ko/ ekbgfBe jB<
fJzdo, gohnK, okr s/ okrDhnK B/ Gh ;fsr[o{ ih dh tfvnkJh d/ rhs
rkJ/. go fet/A< fJj Gh ekbgfBe jB< ;kok ;z;ko nBzd Bkb Go
frnk, go eh T[; s'A pknd r[o{ ;kfjpkB B{z w[;hpsK BjhA MZbDhnK
gJhnK< i/ nBzd jh g;o frnk j? fco f;ZyK B{z izr feT[A bVB/ gJ/<
fJj fbysK Gkt noEK ftu b?DhnK g?DrhnK, f;ZX/ Ppd noE BjhA ehs/
ik ;eDr/. nB/e EkJhA j'o Gh Gkt noE jh eoB/ g?Ad/ jB. fJ;/ soQK
r[opkDh ftu Gh pj[s EkJhA Gkt noE eoB/ g?Ad/ jB.
nkT[ j[D n;b w[Zd/ tZb goshJ/, ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih p/nzs
n"eVK MZb e/ wZe/ rJ/, eh wZek x[wkT[D bJh, iK T[;s'A tv/o/ j'o e'Jh
we;d ;h< Gkos s/ bzw/ ;w/A s'A nop tZb'A jwb/ j' oj/ ;B. fit/A f;Zy
PoXkb{, e'Jh ekoi nkozG eoB s'A gfjbK, r[od[nko/ nodk; eod/
jB. e[ZM fJZe gj[zu tkb/ f;Zy tZv/ fJfsjk;e n;EkBK (nzfwqs;o nkfd)
s/ ik jkIo j[zd/ jB s/ i'dVh eokT[Ad/ jB. ekoi dh g{oDsk iK ;|bsk
s'A pknd fco XzBtkd fjZs r[od[nko/ Bw;eko eod/ jB. p; J/;/ soQK
w[;bwkB b'e Gh e'Jh ezw P[o{ eoB s'A gfjbK, y[dk nZr/ d[nk (nodk;)
eod/ jB. gj[zu tkb/ tZv/ w[;bwkB wZe/ eknp/ ftu w[yh w"bthA s'A
nodk; eokT[Ad/ ;B. Gkos ftu nk e/ nEkj I[bw eod/ ;B. fJE'A
wDKw{zjh ;'Bk uKdh b[ZNd/ ;B, esb' rkos eod/ ;B, n"osK dhnK fJZIsK

(64)
o'bd/ ;B. p/nzs ;[zdo bVehnK B{z pzBQ e/ nkgD/ Bkb b? iKd/ ;B. T[;
b[ZN d/ wkb ftua pj[s ;kok XB ns/ itkB bVehnK w"bthnK B{z nogD
eod/ ;B ns/ w"bth ih \[dktzd nZr/ j'o uVQdh ebk dh d[nk eod/ ;B.
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ Gkos d/P dh d[ors j'Jh \[d t/yh. ;ko/ d/P
ftu uZeo bkfJnk, b'eK dh e[obkjN ;[Dh$t/yh. fJBQK Ikbw b[N/fonK B{z
wZe/$eknp/ tzb'A Xowh j'D dk M{mk f\skp Gh gqkgs ;h. ;fsr[o{ ih B/
eknp/ ftu wfjokp tZb g?o g;ko e/ i' e"se toskfJnk, T[; Bkb ;ko/
b'eK dk fXnkB nkgD/ tZb fyZu fbnk. w"bth b'e ftuko eoBh wzB rJ/.
fBPfus ehs/ fdB T[E'A d/ w[yh ;/tkdko fJeZm/ j' rJ/, s/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z
nkdo Bkb p[bk e/ nkgD/ ftuko gqrN eoB bJh fejk. ;fsr[o{ ih B/
g{oh p/pkeh Bkb, fjzd';skB ftu w[;bwkB XkVthnK tZb'Al ehs/ nEkj
i[bwK dh dk;skB fJBQK d/ ;Bw[Zy oZyh. ftbed/ pZu/, ftobkg eodhnK
phphnK, sVgd/ wksk fgsk, T[ZiV u[Ze/ gfotko, fwZNh ftu fwbkJ/ Xow
n;EkB, fJB;kBK Bkb gP{nK Bkb'A G?Vk ftjko, i' XkVthnK tZb'A ehsk
iKdk ;h, T[j ;kfonK ;kjwD/ fpnkB ehsk. w"bth BhthnK gkJh fJekro
fuZs ;[Dd/ oj/. nZr'A ;fsr[o{ ih nkyD bZr/ “w"bth ih` T[BQK b[N/fonK i'
ehsk T[j sK d[ydkJh j?? jh, go i' I[bw s[;hA ewk oj/ j', T[j fJBQK s'A
fes/ tZvk j?. fco w[;bwkBK d/ gftZso n;EkB eknp/ ftu p?m e/ I[bw<
\[dk B{z eh itkp fdUr/< w[jzwd ;kfjp s[jkvh fet/A rtkjh d/Dr/, eh
d'i\ dh nZr ftu BjhA ;kV/ ikT[r/<” w"bth u"Ae rJ/, r[Z;/ ftu w[Zyh B/
nkfynk “go BkBe ih n;hA d'iy dh nZr ftu fBogokX feT[A ;VKr/<”
;fsr[o{ ih U;/ soQK PKs fuZs p'b/l “id'A XkVthnK dhnK c"iK fjzd tZb
e{u eodhnK jB, sK eh gfjbK s[jkv/ e'b'A ;cbsk tk;s/ s[;hA e[ZM G/Nk
b? e/ T[BQK dh ;|bsk bJh y[adk nZr/ d[nk BjhA eod/< eod/ j' Bk< i/
eksbK B{z esb s/ b[ZN wko eoB s'A gfjbK s[;hA ;|bsk bJh eknp/ ftu
fBtkid/ j', nfsnzs xBkT[D/ I[bw eoe/ id'A tkg; nkT[Ad/ jB s/ fco
e[ZM fSbVK tZN/ T[BQK bJh \[dk nZr/ d[nk eod/ j', w[;bwkBK d/ ;G s'A
gftZso n;EkB eknp/ ftu. eh fJ; soQK d[nk eoB Bkb T[j ;ko/ gkg

(65)
eow jZe (g[zB^ikfJi) pD rJ/< s[jkv/ n;hotkd ekoB T[BQK d/ j"A;b/
tZX iKd/ jB. T[j XkVth nZr'A j'o I[bw eod/ jB. gkg dh yZNh ftu'A
e[ZM fjZ;k s[jkB{z d/ fdzd/ jB, s[;hA y[P j' e/ fco rbs d[nktK d/Jh ik oj/
j'. eh \[dk d/ do s/ fJj nodk;K ep{b g?DrhnK< fJ; gftZso n;EkB
B{z s[;hA ebzes sK BjhA eo oj/< eh s[;hA ;ZuhA Xowh g[oy j'< eknp/ d/
tZv/ g[ikoh tZv/ Xowh b'eHHH<
p; eo' BkBe ih, p; eo'. ;kE'A j'o BjhA ;[fDnk iKdk, pj[s j'
frnk, s[;hA ;kvh ;[Zsh nkswk B{z Mzi'Ve/ irk fdZsk j?. XzB j' s[;hA, XzB
s[jkv/ ftuko. n;hA \[dk B{z jkIo BkIo ikD e/ gqD eod/ jK edh Gh
nfij/ ezwK tkfbnK dh, vke{nK b[N/fonK dh, eksbK XkVthnK dh,
nodk; BjhA eoKr/. T[BKQ dk fdZsk j'fJnk XB gdkoE gqtkB BjhA eoKr/.
fJ; wjZstg{oB bzwh ftuko s'A pknd ;fsr[o{ ih wdhB/ rJ/,
T[E/ Gh jZe ;Zu dk T[gd/P fdZsk. tkg;h s/ nB/e EktK s'A j[zfdnK
j'fJnk, prdkd nk gXko/. fJE/ Gh T[Zsw T[gd/P d/ e/ ;jh ihtB ;/X
pyPh. fJ; s'A pknd ;ko/ ;p{s sK Gkt/A gqkgs BjhA jB, go fJZe rZb
ftPtk; Bkb nkyh ik ;edh j? fe w[;bwkB XkVthnK B{z eknp/ dh
;ogq;sh, Gkt Xkowe Ssoh fwbDh pzd j' rJh. XkVth b'e i' woih
eod/, go T[BQK B{z eknp/ tZb'A nPhotkd gqkgs j'D/ pzd j' rJh. Gkt/A T[;
s'A pknd fjzd ftu b[ZNK^y'jK, esb'^rkos j'Jh, go eknp/ dk d\b pzd
j' frnk. fJ; dk gZek ;p{s j? fJzd{ G{PB p?Boih, pzrkbh fJfsjk;eko
tZb'A fbyh fJj fbys “id'A n"ozrI/p fjzd ftu ehs/ I[bwK ekoB
pj[s pdBkw j' frnk s/ gq/PkB ofjD bZrk sK T[;B/ g"D/ ;Zs bZy
o[gfJnk, ehwsh p;so, jho/ itkjoks nkfd wZe/$eknp/ d/ tZv/
w"bthnK bJh, ns/ Xow ekoiK bJh G/i/. \[dktzs nZr/ d[nk eoB
dh p/Bsh ehsh. ;/teK B/ ;kok ;kwkB eknp/ ik nogD ehsk. gsk
bZrD s/ fe fJj ;G' s'jc/ n"ozrI/p tZb'A nkJ/ jB, T[; ;ko/
nfsnzs ehwsh ;wkB ns/ tZvh oew B{z eknp/ d/ w"bthnK fJj
nkye/ fcNeko fdZsk L fJ; nogD ehs/ ;wkB ftu p/d'P/ b'eK d/

(66)
j"e/ s/ pd^d[nktK jB, fJ; I'o Ipo Bkb fJeZm/ ehs/ XB ftu'A
e[ZM G/NK eknp/ ftu nogD eoB Bkb jZe jbkb BjhA pD ikDh.fJ;
bJh fJ; B{z tkg; b? ikT[. n"orI/p B{z ej' fe T[j }ohpK^fBskfDnK
s/ I[bw eoB/ pzd eo d/t/, \[dk d/ do s/ T[; B{z sK jh wkD
fwb/rk.” T[; fdB s'A pknd n"ozrI/p wkBf;e s"o s/ fvZr fgnk,
nsh gq/PkB ofjD bZrk.
Gkt/A pj[s d/o pknd jh ;jhA go r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih tZb'A eknp/
d/ w"bthnK B{z yohnK^yohnK i' ;[DkJhnK ;B T[j ozr fbnkJhnK.
;fsr[o{ ih e/tb wZek x[wkT[D BjhA ;h rJ/ ;r'A T[j fiE/ Gh rJ/ G[Zb/ b'eK
d/ fdb' fdwk} x[wk fdnk eod/ ;B. GNe/ j'J/ ji{wK B{z e[okj/ gJ/
XowhnK B{z f;ZX/ okj gk fdnk eod/ ;B. wZek x[wkT[Dk r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
ih bJh Io{oh BjhA ;h, ;r'A fiZE'A gkg dh izM fBZs uVQe/ nkT[Adh ;h, T[;
I[bwh okj B{z ;dk bJh pzd eoBk Io{oh ;h. nkgD/ gftZso T[gd/P okjhA
Gh s/ jfEnkoK dh Pesh tos e/ Gh. pknd ftu ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB s/
f;ZyK B/ Pesh tose/ I'o^I[bw B{z mZfbnk. ekP ` fe n;hA wZe/$eknp/
d/ x[wkD d/ ;jh noE ;wM ;ehJ/.

[[[[

(67)
fJFe jeheh tkbk gzikp fe; okj<
g[oksB ;fwnK ftu ftZfdnk gqkgsh tk;s/ ;e{b ekbiK dh nDj'Ad
ekoB tX/o/ fJB;kB nZyo frnkB s'A ;ZyD/ jh ;B. nkw s"o s/ w;idK
Bkb wdoZ;/, wzdoK Bkb gkmPkbk s/ r[odtkfonK Bkb GkJh ;kfjp
r[ow[yh nZyo frnkB s/ r[opkDh ;zEk fdnk eod/ ;B. gquZbs otkfJsK
w[skpe eEk eoBh s/ ehosB dh f;Zfynk Gh fdZsh iKdh ;h. npkdh d/
tkX/ Bkb, ns/ wB[Zyh u/sBk d/ ftek; Bkb, fiE/ j'o nB/e spdhbhnK
nkJhnK T[E/ ftZfdnk gVQB gVQkT[D d/ YzrK ftu Gh tZvk gqhtosB nkfJnk.
fJ; ftek; eow B{z nzrq/ih oki ;w/A tZvk j[zrkok fwfbnk. fjzd{nK
w[;bwkBK B/ eJh EkJhA BthB YzrK d/ ;e{b ekbi ukb{ ehs/, fiE/ T[jBK
d/ pZu/ ftZfdnk gqkgs eoe/ ;w/A d/ jkDh pD ;eD. Skg/ykB/ dh nkwd B/
g[;seK SgD ftu s/ih fbnKdh. nypko ukb{ j'D bZr/. f;ZyK ftub/
u/szB tor B/ nkgD/ pZfunK B{z ;opgZyh ftZfdnk d/D tk;s/ ;'uDk nkozG
ehsk. go f;ZyK dh e'Jh e/Adoh iE/pzdh Bk j'D eoe/ fJj ekoi e[M
f;obZE :'fXnK B{z r[o{ dk UN nk;ok b? e/ fJeZfbnK jh P[o{ eoBk
fgnk. fJ; okj d/ gKXhnK B{z wzfib/A we;{d s/ g[ZiD s'A o'eD bJh pj[s/
“nkgfDnK” B/ jh okjK ftu ezv/ fybko/. Gkt/A g?o bj{ b[jkD j'J/,
d[PtkohnK Bkb nkYk bkfJnk Bzr/ XV bVfdnK f;de f;oV s'A v'b/ Bk,
PoXktkB f;ZyK tZb'A fwb/ j[zrko/ ;dek pj[s ;ko/ ;e{b ukb{ eoB ftu
ekw:kph fwbh. fJ;/ xkbDk dk nkyoh fwZmk cb ;h ykb;k ekbi
nzfwqs;o. Gkt/A fjzd{ bhvoK dh u[ZeDk ftu nk e/ f;Zy rbsh eo p?m/,
gzikp d/ r'o/ rtoBo B/ ekbi B{z f;Zy :{Bhtof;Nh dk doik d/D nkT[Dk
;h. e[M f;o fco/ f;Zy bhvoK, ns/ nkw w[zvhjo B/, T[; fto[ZX

(68)
Bkno/pkIh eoB, ns/ nkT[D dk fto'X eoB dh mkD bJh. rtoBo B/
nkT[Dk oZd eo fdZsk, GhVK w{oysk ftu y[PhnK wBkT[D bZrhnK, go
fJ; T[iZvg[D/ dh ;ik f;Zy gzE nZi sZe G'rdk nk fojk j? feT[Afe f;Zy
:{Bhtof;Nh dk “roGgks” j' frnk ;h. nk fojk w[Zy wfjwkB fgqz;
ukob; f;ZXk bkj"o ubk frnk. ekbi d/ fgqz;hgb tkdB B/ n;shck d/
fdZsk. fJj :{Bhtof;Nh nbhrVQ g[Zi rJh w[;bwkBK e'b.
fJjBK fdBK ftu fiE/ s/ih Bkb nzrq/ih ftZfdnk ns/ gZSwh ;fGnsk
jo n?o/ r?o/ B{z p{o d/ bZv{nK tKr, nkgD/ tZb nkT[D dhnK ;?BsK wko
ojh ;h, T[E/ jh gq'L r[ow[y f;zx ns/ T[jBK d/ ;zrh ;kEhnK, ;z;koh
ftZfdnk d/ Bkb fBozekoh ftZfdnk c?bkT[D dk pkBD{z pzBQD dk sjZJhnk eo
fbnk. ;zB 1885 d/ brgr f;zx ;Gk bfjo d/ fJ; w'Yh B/, r"ofwzN
ekbi bj"o ftu phHJ/H sZe gzikph wkfXnw okjhA ftZfdnk gqkgsh dk
o;sk y[btk fdZsk. fco fJjBK Xkowe ftZfdnk dh gVQkJh bJh nrbk
edw g[ZfNnk. r'oh ;oeko s'A frnkBh dh gVQkJh bJh gqtkBrh gqkgs
eo bJh. “frnkBh” Ppd nkw s"o s/ Xkofwe fposh tkb/ f;ZyK bJh
tofsnk iKdk ;h. r[owfs frnkB tZb'A Gkt/A T[j e'o/ jh feT[A Bk j'D.
fJ;/ frnkBh Bkw j/m gq'L r[ow[y f;zx B/ B"itkBK bJh, Xkofwe ftZfdnk
dk ;b/p; pDk e/, ;oeko s'A gotkB eotk fbnk. fJ; ftu f;Zy
fJfsjk;, r[opkDh ;zEk, noE ftnkfynk, ehosB s'A fJbktk f;Zy
fcbk;ch, GkJh r[odk; ih, ns/ j'o r[ows ;kfjs gVQkfJnk ikD bZrk.
T[jBK dh T[FZsw xkbDk ns/ pj[gZyh :'rsk ;dek T[jBK B{z ps"o nfXnkge
gVQkT[D dh ;/tk s/ Gh bk fdZsk frnk. fJjBK d/ gVQkJ/ ftfdnkoEh ;Zu
w[Zu jh frnkBh ih (frnkBtkB) pD e/ nB/e y/soK ftu w'joh o'b ndk
eoB bZr/. T[jBK ;fwnK ftu frnkBh ih nytkDk cyo dk tkfJ; pD
frnk ;h. fiE/ r[ows ;kfjs ftu “GkJh” Ppd nsh wkD ;fseko
tkbk j'fJnk eodk ;h, fJ;/ soQK nkgD/ Bkw Bkb frnkBh bkT[Dk wkD dk
gqtkBk (swrk) ;wfMnk ikD bZrk. frnkBhnK dhnK nr'A Ne;kbk ubD
bZrhnK. fJj ;zsg[D/ tkbk S{s o'r sK fpbe[b nkX[fBe fpwkoh j?. f;ZyK

(69)
d/ g[oksB ;fwnK ftu jh BjhA toswkB ;w/A ftu Gh gqtkfDs r[ow[yh
ftP/PD “frnkBh” ns/ “GkJh” jh wzB/ iKd/ jB. fJ; wkbk d/ wDfenK
ftu'A GkJh oDXho f;zx, GkJh tho f;zx GkJh ekjB f;zx s/ GkJh i'X
f;zx d/ Bkw fIeo:'r jB. fco frnkBh frnkB f;zx, frnkBh jikok
f;zx (tho f;zx d/ fgsk ih) frnkBh roik f;zx. v/fonK Ne;kbK d/
w[yh Gh frnkBh jh nytkfJnk eod/ ;B. :'rsk nB[;ko f;Zy ;wki
ns/ wB[Zysk dh ;/tk ftu fjZ;k gkT[Ad/ oj/ fJj ;/tkdko.
;w/A B/ eotN pdbh 47 dh d/P tzv j'Jh, Bt/A j[ewokB rZdhnK
wZb p?m/. BtK fJfsjk; fbfynk ikD bZrk, ;e{bK ekbiK dhnK gkm
g[;seK d/ nfXnkJ/ pdb/ ikD bZr/. j"bh^j"bh frnkBh d/ ftP/ ftu'A
xNdk^xNdk r[ows pko/ e/tb fJZe g/go ofj frnk, pkeh ;G T[vk
fdZsk frnk. fJ; dh EK nkfJnk Bktb, BkNe, eftsk, fJeKrh,
ftneshrs ihtBhnK. fJE/ jh pZ; j' iKdh sK PkfJd nZXk e[ frnkBh
pu ofjzdk. wbhBsk Goh ;'u T[ZGoe/ T[d'A ;kjwD/ nkD BZuh id'A jho
oKMk, ;Z;h g[B{z, fwoik ;kfjpK tor/ fJPe wikih tor/ bZuo ;kfjs B{z
frnkBh ;b/p; ik nfByVtK nzr pDk fdZsk frnk. iok fgZSb Mks
wko', nZXh ;dh s'A gkm g[;seK ftu ;kv/ pZu/ fJjBK b'coK d/ wbhB
ihtB B{z “rfjokJh Bkb” gVQd/ nk oj/ jB. xo'A eZfYnk fByZN{ oKMk,
jho d/ xo wZMK B{z gZm/ gkT[Adk, y/sK ftu xkj ukodk, d[ZX u'Adk r'jk e{Vk
j{zMdk j?, pkoK ;kb sZe. go fe; foPs/ nXhB< xo ftu gP{ ;KGD
tkb/ gkbhnK ;hohnK tor/ B"i[nkB B{z jho, u{ohnK e[ZN e/ ytkT[Adh j?,
fe; foPs/ nXhB< neb d/ nzfBQnK wksk fgsk B{z i/ e'Jh Pow BjhA ;h
sK eh ;kok Pohek ephbk, foPs/dko Gh J/v/ BfyZX ;B fe ;kfonK dh
I[pkB mkeh rJh< fco oKMk jho B{z T[; d/ ;j[o/ xo'A T[Xkb e/ b? iKdk j?,
fJj fejVk izr fiZs fbnk T[;B/< jho B/ wksk fgsk ns/ ;j[o/ gqtko d/
f;o ;[nkj sK gkJh jh ;h, eh nkgDk w{zj Gh ekbk BjhA ehsk< xo
t;kfJnk T[; B/ nkgDk<
;Z;h EbK ftu ;V woh tes f;o g[B{z Bk pj[fVnk. id'A tkg;

(70)
gofsnk sK ;Z;h dh w"s dh ypo ;[D e/ y[d Gh ;z;ko s'A e{u eo frnk.
;z;ko B{z eh d/ e/ frnk< y[de[Ph dk okj< fwoik, ;kfjpK B{z n?B T[;
tes T[Xkb e/ b? iKdk j?, id'A T[; B{z ftnkj[D tk;s/ poks Y[Zeh j'Jh
;h. gqtkoK ns/ ;wki dh fJZSk s'A ftgohs ehsk nfijk ekok eh nZi
e'Jh ;zx'A EZb/ T[sko ;edk j?< eh T[; B/ pjkdoh dk ekoi ehsk ;h< j'o
f;sw t/y' ` i/ fe;/ dh eztkoh Xh T[Xkb e/ b? jh d"fVnk j?, sK nfijk
w{oy fwoi/ s'A fpBK PkfJd jh feXo/ fwb/ fijVk okj ftu bzwhnK skD
e/ ;"A ikt/. fe;/ izrb p/b/ ftu b[edk, nkgD/ xo g[Zidk, fe;/ dk fwzBs
sobk eoe/ ikB py;h bJh tk;sk gkT[AdkHHH. go “fwoik tZfYnk j/mK
izv d/HH fwoik pKM GoktK wkfon?”HHH. feT[A fJj wzd eos{s GoktK B{z
ephb/ B{z, g[ZS e/ ehsh ;h< eh fwoik iZN s/ ;kfjpK iZNh dhnK fJj'
eos{sK gVQkT[D i'rhnK ofj rJhnK< wjhtkb ;"dkro d/ o{g ftu s[Zb/
x[fwnko s'A fwZNh d/ ;'jD/ GKv/ wfjzr/ Gkn yqhd e/ ;;s/ Gk t/udk j?. S/
wjhfBnK ftu ;koh oew b[Nk fdZsh. fco ;'jDh d/ fgT[ Bkb GKv/ Egdk
j? y's/ ukodk j?, ;'jDh B{z fgnko ghAxk M[NkT[Adk j?. gsk bZrD s'A
wjhtkb B{z s[Zbk x[fwnko ;'jDh dk fgT[ XZe/ wkoe/ xo'A eZY fdzdk j?.
;'jDh dk MZNgN, w[zvk t/y e/ ftnkj eo fdzdk j?. ftukok wjhAtkb
dfonk d/ feBko/, ;'jDh d/ ;"jo/ fgzv B/V/, eZyK ekfBnK dh M[Zrh gk e/
p?m frnk. ;j[o/ gqtko B{z drk d/ e/ nZXh oks fJj “j'Djko f;nkDh
e[Vh” nkPe B{z fwbD iKdh ojh. wjhtkb dfonk gko eoe/ fJ; B{z nk
fwbdk. ftukok tysK wkfonk wZShnK cV yk e/ vzr NgkT[Adk. e[M wZSh
d/ N[eV/ ;'jDh B{z ytkT[Adk. fe;/ fdB wZShnK Bk fwbhnK sK bk;kBh
ekoBkwk fJ; j'Djko B"itkB B/ eo ftykfJnk. nkgD/ gZN dk wk; eZNe/
G[zB e/ ;'jDh B{z y[nk fdZsk. gsk bZrD s/ wkP{ek iko' iko o'Jh. nr'A
bJh dfonk gko wjhtkb BjhA eo/rk ;'jDh xV/ s/ s?o e/ dfonk gko
eo/rh. xo gsk bZr frnk, “gkgD BBkD” B/ xVk pdb e/ gZe/ dh EK,
eZuk oZy fdZsk. ;'jDh eZu/ Bkb jh fmZb gJh s/ vZ[p w'Jh. fJ; B{z
pukT[Adk wjhtkb v[p
Z wfonk. tkj fenk bk;kBh ekoBkwk eo ftykfJnk.

(71)
;z;ko d/ Bhw gkrb w[zv/ e[VhnK bJh “ukBD w[Bkok” jB. nfij/ w[zv/
e[VhnK<
iok nkgD/ gqtkoK$;wki tZb Mksh wko' ` eh wksk fgsk nkgDhnK
e[nko ezieK B{z jho tork gkg eow eoB s/ y[P j'Dr/< eh nkgDhnK
p/NhnK d/ Bkw “jho” oZyD dh i[nos eo ;eDr/< fco eh ;Z;h torh
nkg j[doh bVeh Ugo/ pzfdnK fgZS/ fit/A tk;BK ftu nzBQh j' e/ BZ;h, s/
nkgDh ikB rtk p?mh, T[; tKr nkgDhnK XhnK B{z y[Zb y/YD d/Dr/<
firo d/ N[efVnK B{z wko{EbK ftu o[bD d/Dr/< nZi d/ wksk fgsk
nkgDhnK XhnK d/ Bkw ;Z;h oZyD dh fjzws ftykT[Dr/< ;kfjpK n?B
c/fonK tes, gfjbK xVh ;ehw w[skpe, d' gqtkoK, d' fgzvK d/ BZe tZYe/,
fwoi/ dh pZeh s/ p?me/ T[vkoh wko rJh. fco eh gqtkoK B{z ;j[o/ g/fenK
B{z, ukjhdk ;h fe T[; B{z tZv/ fJeZm ftu fJ; “pjkdoh” bJh ;BwkBs
eod/< eh nZi wK pkg ezfBnktK d/ Bkw ;kfjpK oZyD dh fgos gkT[Dr/<
fJ; tZr dh tZSh ;'jDh, pkehnK tKr wBnkJhnK eodh, xo
T[ikVd/ y[d v[Zp woh, s/ fgS/ d' gqtkoK B{z y{j yks/ ;[ZN rJh. fpbe[b
fJ;/ soQK j? oKM/ dh ekor[ikoh, eh nkgD/ ekfenK B{z oKM/ tKr b'eK
dhnK wZMK ukoB, y[obhnK ftu b/ND, pkoK ;kb sZe p/rkB/ xoK ftu
XZe/ ykD tk;s/ wksk fgsk G/iD bJh ;fjws j'Dr/< eh nkgD/ g[ZsoK d/
Bkw oKM/ oZfynk eoBr/< j? nfijh fjzws< g[B{z fJZe nwho s/ n:kP
B"itkB ;h. nkgDh d"bs d/ pb ;Z;h Bkb w"i w;sh eoB T[gozs, tkg;
nkgD/ ;kEhnK ;w/s d/P gos frnk ;h. eh nZi Gh pj[s ;ko/ “eke/”
fJjh toskok BjhA eod/< fco d[fynkohnK XhnK d/ wkg/ fJjBK ntkok
w[zfvnK d/ r[DrkB eod/ jB iK T[wo Go sVgd/ j'J/ fJjBK d/ ehs/
ekfonK s/ wD wD jzM{ e/od/ jB<
don;b ekoBK dk ekoB fJj j? fe ;kv/ nkr{ BjhA ukj[zd/ fe
fJE'A dk B"itkB frnkBtkB j't/. pjkdo j't/, fJwkBdko j't/, T[u/
fJybky tkbk j't/ feT[Afe T[jBK B{z f;o| t'NK gkT[D tkbhnK t'N$G/vK
ukjhdhnK jB, pZ;. fgSb/ ;w/A ftu fJjBK nkPeh d/ feZf;nK pko/ eJh

(72)
fcbwK pD u[ehnK jB. g[;seK ftu ps"o ;b/p; fJjBK B{z Pkwb ehsk
ik uZ[fenk j?. w/fbnK fJeZmK ftu fJjBK d/ rhs rkJ/ iKd/ jB. p'bukb
ftu fJjBK d/ fJPe B{z ;Zuk fJPe efj e/ tfvnkfJnk iKdk j?. “gzikph
;fGnsk dh n;bh s;tho fJjBK gq/w ejkDhnK ftu jh j?” dk okr pko
pko nbkfgnk iKdk j?. j'o sK j'o fJjBK B"itkBK B/ Ehf;; fby/ jB,
s/ eJhnK B/ tZvh xkbDk Bkb fJjBK ftfPnK s/ gh^n?uHvhH dhnK
fvrohnK M'bh g[nk e/ ftdtsk dk ski f;o s/ oZfynk j?. eJh tkoh
;N/iK s/ ;[DkfJnk iKdk j?, “gzikp dh Xosh r[o{nK ghoK ;zsK cehoK dh
Xosh j?”. go ikgdk n?T[A j? fe fJj b[Zfunk, bczfrnK, u'oK, mZrK,
pdwkPK dh Xosh j?, feT[Afe Xkowe g[oyK dk T[gd/P sK Xow n;EkB
dh T[Zuh fJwkos d/ nzdo jh dw s'V fdzdk j?. gzikp d/ t;Bhe fwoi/
B{z izv j/m tYhAdk ;[D e/ jT[e/ b?Ad/ jB, fJjBK B{z pzdk f;zx pjkdo, nsh
PeshPkbh s/ nZyV je{ws Bkb NZeo b?D T[gozs f;de s/ ofjzfdnK pzd
pzd eNkT[Adk BIo BjhA nkT[Adk. oKM/ tork rGo{ wZMK ukodk gzikphnK
bJh so; dk gkso j?, Btkp eg{o f;zx ;qH iZ;k f;zx nkjb{tkbhnk
jikoK npbktK B{z gkwoK d/ y{Bh gzfinK ftu'A w[es eotk e/ fJZIs Bkb
xo'A xohA g[ukT[Ad/ edh BjhA fdZ;d/. fJE/ g[B{z tor/ X'y/pkI bJh fdbK
ftu EK j?, GkJh wBh f;zx tor/ goT[gekohnK bJh e'Jh EK BjhA. fJE/
MBk ftu wjhtkb d/ v[Zp woB dk pj[s rw j?, go ;sb[i d/ ezY/ f;zxK
;{ofwnK tZb'A so/ y{B d/ dfonk u/s/ ftu jh BjhA nkJ/. ;qH Pkw f;zx
nNkohtkb/ tork :'Xk Gh ftZ;o frnk eh fJ;/ Bhu fposh dk Bkw jh
gzikphns sK BjhA j?<
fJE/ jho, ;Z;h, ;'jDh s/ ;kfjpK gzikphnK d/ fdb' fdwkr s/
SkJhnK j'JhnK jB. fJ;/ bJh fJE/ fJ;/ fe;w dhnK fcbwK s/ e?;NK
bZyK b'e ;[Dd/ t/yd/ jB. go eh no;h o{j p/p/ BkBeh ih, ;fsr[o{
BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ G?D ih Bkb ;kvk e'Jh Bksk j?< wksk yhth ih, phph
GkBh ih B{z gzikph ikDd/ jB< wksk rzrk ih wksk r[ioh ih, fezB/ e[ :kd
jB< wksk Gkr e"o ih, fdb d/ fe; ykB/ ftu jB< fijBK wktK B/

(73)
pZfunK d/ N[eV/ eotk e/ M'bhnK ftu g[nkJ/, ;tk ;tk wD gh;Dk
ghf;nk, edh :kd nkJhnK T[j wktK< ;odkoBh ;dk e"o dh ;{owrsh,
wjkokDh fizd e"o dh f;nkDgHHH nkX[fBe ;w/A sZe, :kd j? ;G e[M
gzikphnK B{z< ;kvhnK ;oekoK s/ :{Bhtof;NhnK “nkPeK” s/ jh y'i
eodhnK ofjDrhnK, fJjBK B{z jh e'wb wB, ftfdnkoEhnK d/ nzdo
m';dhnK ikDrhnK iK edh joh f;zx Bbtk, Pkw f;zx nNkohtkbk,
nekbh c{bk f;zx, GkJh wjkoki f;zx, ;qH uso f;zx, ;qH P/o f;zx pko/
Gh edh y'i eokT[DrhnK< fJ; Xosh d/ jkewK B{z (;w/s f;ZyK d/)
nkPeK dh pj[sh fceo j?, ftuko/ fezB/ n"y/ j'J/, fe;/ B/ xo Bk t;kfJnk,
fe;/ B/ izi poks Bkb Y[ek Bk ehsk. fe;/ d/ xo fBZek fBnkDk Bk
izfwnk. ekP fJj pZu/ izwd/ gkbd/, b{D s/b d/ Gkn dk gsk bZr iKdk.
p/o[irkoh B/ ;zxh BZgh j[zdh, ;kok fJ;ae dk G{s T[v ikDk ;h. ekP fe
;jh wkjfBnK ftu B"itkB frnkBh pD ;eD. c"i ftu f;Zy Xkowe
w[yh dh :'rsk “frnkBh” jh j?. nkPeK B{z gVQ e/ pfDnk “frnkBh”
fej' fijk Xow T[gd/P eo ;e/rk< ;'funk j? edh ;kv/ fe;/ nkr{ B/<
1H frnkBhnK B/ ;G ;u[ j? ;u ;'Mh j'Jh..
T[fJ G[bkfJ B fe;? d/ G[bBh ;u[ ikDfB ;'Jh. (42)
2H frnkBh j'fJ ;[ u/szB j'fJ nfrnkBh nzX[ ewkfJ (556)
3H g/ys ukys ejhns nzXk ;[Bhns ;[Bhn? Bkjh..
fBefN t;s[ eT[ ikD/ d{o/ gkgh gkg ewkjh.. (741)
4H frnkB[ fXnkB[ ;G[ r[o s/ j'Jh.. ;kuh ojs ;kuk wfB ;'Jh..
wBw[y eEBh j? go[ ojs B j'Jh.. Bktj[ G{b/ EkT[ B e'Jh. (831)

[[[[

(74)
f;Zy B"itkBK dk GftZy nkofEe gZy

;z;koh iht bJh gqw[Zy iIpk j? nkgDh ikB dh ;bkwsh. sB


wfjc{i j' ikD dh s;Zbh s'A pknd gfjbh b'V j? ;oho bJh G'iB. nZr'A
\[oke g?dktoh bJh b'VhAd/ o[Irko gZyh ;kXB. G[Zy/ g/N tkb/ fe;/
ftnesh B{z ;/tk iK f;woB eoB bJh efjDk fJZe wIke s'A tZX e[M
BjhA. ;z;koh b'VK iK nkoEe gZy B{z ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ edh Gh
nDr"fbnK BjhA ehsk. r[o{ xoK Bkb bzro ;dk s'A uZbd/ nk oj/ jB.
fiE/ jo nkJ/ gqkDh dh ;ohoe b'V g{oh ehsh iKdh j?. gqPkfd SeD s'A
pknd jh nkswe fsqgsh dh rZb N[odh j?. wkoe; B/ sK nkofEesk B{z
jh fizdrh d/ jo gfjb{ s/ Gko{ dZf;nk j?. fJB;kBh fJZIs nkpo{,
;ohoe fdZy ns/ szdo[;sh, wkBf;e pDso, ofjD^;fjD dk Yzr, fe;/
Bk fe;/ o{g ftu nkofEesk Bkb ik i[Vdk j?. nkofEesk feos Bkb
v{zxk ;pzX oZydh j?. fJ;/ bJh ;fsr[[o{ ih B/ “Xow dh feos eoB s/”
pj[s I'o fdZsk j?. Xow dh feos dk ;pzX nZr'A nfXnksfwesk Bkb
fJZe fwZe j'fJnk gqshs j[zdk j?. id'A f;Zy ;zrsK d/ Bkw ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB
tZb'A fby/ j[ewBkw/ gVQhd/ jB, T[BQK ftu Xow T[gd/P d/ Bkb fJj
fbfynk Gh fwbdk j? ^ “r[o[ r[o{ igDk, ;op ;zrs o[Irko pj[s
j't/rk. r[o{ oky/rk, o[Irko eh ekJh ewh Bkjh j't/rh.”
ftfrnkB tZb'A fBZs BthnK wPhBK dh ekY eoe/, fJe' wPhB Bkb
pj[s ;ko/ nkdwhnK tkbk ezw eo fdZsk iKdk j?. fJ; p/^o[Irkoh ftu
tkXk sK j't/rk jh, go id'A ;oekoK Gh B"itkBK d/ GftZy gqsh bkgqtkj
j'D, sd'A ;fEsh j'o rzGho pD iKdh j?. ;oekoh y/so dhnK B"eohnK
ftu o[Irko d/ w"e/ BKj d/ pokpo j'D eoe/, f;Zy rZGo{nK B{z nkgDk

(75)
GftZy nzXeko ftu v[Zfpnk gqshs j[zdk j?. fIzdrh p'Mb fijh ns/ ci{b
fdZ;D bZr g?Adh j?. fJ; i[nkBh dh nZEoh T[wo/ dfonktK dk w[jkD w'V
d/D dh, fjwkbk B{z uho ;[ZND dh, Xosh B{z gbN d/D dh, n;wkB ftu
NkehnK bk d/D dh Pesh mkmK wko ojh j[zdh j?. e'Jh T[fus nrtkJh Bk
fwbD eoe/ ;koh ;woZEk xZN/ o[b iKdh j?. nfij/ wk:{;h d/ nkbw ftu
v[Zfpnk B"itkB, nkgDk Gh s/ ;wki dk Gh, pj[s B[e;kB eo fdzdk
j?.nfij/ jkbks dk d[ydkJh Bshik f;Zy ;wki uzrh soQK t/y u[Zfenk j?.
gfssg[D/ dh bfjo uZb g?D dk fJZe ekoB fJj Gh j? fe f;Zy B"itkB uko/
gkf;UA jko N[N
Z u[fenk j?, fBokP j?. nfijh nzXeko Goh ns/ nfB;ussk
dh jkbs ftu'A T[GkoB bJh, B"itkBK B{z j";bk s/ o[Irko w[jZJhnk
eotkT[D bJh, e[ZM ;[Mkn ;zrsK s/ gqpzXeK d/ ;Bw[Zy oZyD dh e'fPP eo
fojk jK. ;woEktkBK dk, gzE ftu e'Jh s'Nk BjhA j?. e[ZM ndko/ uZb Gh
oj/ jB, j'o tZvk jzGbk wkoB dh Io{os j?. nkgD/ XzBGkr ;wMKrk
nro fe;/ r[of;Zy iK f;Zy ;z;EktK B{z e[ZM eoB dh gq/oBk fwb ;e/.
1H ;e{b^ekbi L f;Zy gzE e'b ;fsr[o{ ih d/ Bkw s/ uZbD tkb/ ;e{b
ekbiK dk e'Jh P[wko BjhA. fJBQK ftu ftneshrs Gh jB ns/ ;z;EktK
tZb'A ubkJ/ ikD tkb/ Gh jB. pj[s xZN ;e{b^ekbi jB, fiE/ ;z;koh
(;oekoh) ftZfdnk d/D d/ Bkb^Bkb Xkofwe ftZfdnk Gh fdZsh ik ojh
j't/. pkjo ;e{b d/ w[Zy r/N s/ p'ov r[o{ d/ Bkw tkbk bZrk j't/rk. nzdo
f;Zyh (r[owfs) dh gVQkJh e'fPP eoB s/ Gh BIohA BjhA gt/rh. f;Zyh
wkj"b, t/; G{;k, e[ZM Gh BjhA fwb/rk. pZfunK d/ wksk^fgsk fJ; y[;
cfjwh ftu jB fe pZu/ f;ZyK d/ ;e{b ftu gVQ oj/ jB, sK r[owfs d/
XkoBh j'Jh j'Dr/. go f;Zyh tkbh sK jtk sZe nzdo BjhA ik ;edh
feT[Afe Nhfuzr ;Nk| \[d r[owfs s'A e'jK d{o j?. j[D fJ; dk d{ik gZy
ftukohJ/L^ nro fJBQK ;e{bK ftu ftXh g{ote r[owfs dh ftZfdnk
gVQkJh ikt/ sK seohpB d;^e[ jIko Xkofwe nfXnkge fJBQK EktK s/
fB:[es ehs/ ik ;ed/ jB. T[j p/o[Irko bVe/ bVehnK, \[d Xow dh
ftfdnk gVQBr/, e[doshA jh T[j f;Zyh n;{bK ftu gogZe nzfwqsXkoh Gh

(76)
pD ikDr/. nZr'A ;e{bK^ekbiK okjhA ns/ y[ZbQhnK ;N/iK s/ eEk okjhA
nB/eK B{z f;Zyh dkfJo/ ftu fbnkT[D dk ekoB pDBr/. nkgDh T[Zu
ftfdnk, fJj r[ow[yh ihtB okjhA ftfdnkoEhnK B{z id'A gftZso r[opkDh
s/ bk;kBh fJfsjk; gVQkT[Dr/ sK f;Zy gzE ftu p/^P[wko tkXk j't/rk.
;w/A^;w/A pZfunK B{z j'o :ksoktK d/ Bkb^Bkb Xkfowe ;EkBK dh :ksok
Gh eotkJh ikt/. Xkofwe e?Ag bk e/ ;[bM/ j'J/ f;Zy ftdtkBK s'A ;"yh
GkPk ftu b?euo eotkJ/ ikD. Io{oh B[esk fJjh j? fe Xkofwe Nhuo
dh fB:[esh tes e'Jh fPcko;h ftnesh Bk oZfynk ikt/. g{oh goy
gVu'b s'A pknd, uzrh }[iko/ bkfJe sBykj fdZsh ikt/, sK fe T[j
fB;fuzs j' e/ nkgD/ fIzw/ bZrh ;/tk eo ;e/. fJ; soQK dk f;;Nw
fsnko eo b?D Bkb fJj Nhuo \[d Gh f;Zyh n;{bK d/ XkoBh pD/ ofjDr/,
ns/ nZr'A pj[s ;kohnK ;zrsK B{z Xow tZb gq/os eoBr/. fJj ekoi nZr/
s'A nZr/ uZbdk ikt/rk.
2H feZsk^w[yh e'o;L T[go tofDs nkw ;e{bK^ekbiK ftu ;o;oh
fijh Mksh wkoB s'A pknd feZsk w[yh ;z;EktK pko/ Gh E'Vh fijh ftuko
eo bJhJ/. ;zB 1892 ftu nzfwqs;o ;kfjp fty/, bzwh ;'u^ftuko s'A
pknd “ykb;k ekbi” dh BhAj oZyh ;h. fJ; ekbi B/ pj[s ;ko/
B"itkBK B{z g?oK s/ yV/ j'D ftu wdd ehsh. P[o{ d/ ;kbk ftu f;Zyh dk
;'jDk wkj"b Gh pfDnk fojk. ;wK gk e/ fJj PkBkwZsk \kb;k ekbi Gh
fJZe nkw ekbi pD frnk, f;oc ;oekoh ekbiHHH. ek|h ;wK gfjbK
gzEe g?;/ Bkb b[fXnkD/ fty/ fJzfiBfozr ekbi y'fbQnk frnk ;h. fJj
ekbi Gh B"itkBK ftu f;Zyh dh ;fgoN GoB s'A n;woZE jh fojk j?.
e'Jh fIeo:'r ekoi, f;Zyh ;o{g ftu tkXk eoB tk;s/ fJj ekbi BjhA eo
;fenk pkeh ekbiK ns/ feZsk w[yh ;z;EktK dk Gh brGr fJjh jkb j?.
f;Zy w[yhnK B{z ;'u^ftuko eoe/ ;w/A d/ jkDh, fBo'b fBZih y/so
tkb/, feZsk^w[yh ;e{b^ekbi y'bD
Q / ukjhd/ jB. fJBQK ndkfonK B{z ;oekoh
d\b nzdkih s'A puke/ oZfynk ikt/. fJBQK EktK s/ f;Zy B"itkBK B{z
nkX[fBe Yzr sohfenK tkbh feZsk^w[yh T[FZsw f;ybkJh fdZsh ikt/.

(77)
gzikp d/ pj[s ;ko/ B"itkB, nKXok^gqd/P ns/ eoBkNek ftu nfij/ ezw
f;ZyD iKd/ jB. fiZE/ T[BQK dh eJh r[Dk tZX \ou j[zdk j?, j'o eJh soQK
dhnK w[PebK nbZr. i/ gzikp ftu T[; fe;w dh f;ybkJh dk gqpzX eo
fdZsk ikt/ sK fJj pj[s tZvh gqkgsh j' ;edh j?. p/rkB/ jZEK tZb t/yD
dh Ekt/A, foPtsK s/ f;ckoPK Bkb B"eohnK bZGD dh Ekt/A, T[j nkgD/
fBZih Xzd/ eod/ j'J/ ;t?wkD dh o'Nh yk ;ed/ jB. o[Irko dh wIp{oh
ekoB T[j f;Zyh s'A bKG/ BjhA ikDr/. nZr/ j'o pj[s ;ko/ ;zrhnK B{z Gh
fJ; gk;/ gq/fos eoBr/. fJ; soQK d/ gqpzX ftu Nq/fBzr ;?ANo ukb{ eo
d/D Bkb p/nzs B"itkB, p/o[Irkoh ns/ }ohph dh bkjDs s'A pu ;ed/
jB. y/sh nZi^eZbQ bkj/tzdk feZsk BjhA fojk. wPhBh :[Zr ekoB ;kfonK
B{z wId{oh Gh BjhA bZGDh. y/sh s/ wId{oh dh ;\s fwjBs pzd/ dk ;howk
gh iKdh j?, }ohph fco Gh d{o BjhA j[zdh. wB[Zy gP{nK tork ihtB
fpskT[D bJh wIp{o j' iKdk j?. nfijh dodBke dPk ftu fe;/ ftnesh
dk f;Zyh ;o{g ftu fNe/ ofjDk n;zGt jh j' ;edk j?. i/ ;kv/ gzEe
w[yhnK B/ fJ; gkk;/ c"oh fXnkB BK fdZsk sK pj[s d/o j' u[Zeh j't/rh.
3H gzikp n?Av f;zX p?AeL pj[s ;wK gfjbK bzwh ;'u^ftuko s'A
pknd f;Zy gzE d/ f;nkD/ r[of;ZyK B/ r[o{ gzE d/ g?;/ Bkb, gzikp n?Av
f;zX p?Ae y'fbQnk ;h. Pq'wDh r[od[nkok ew/Nh B/ fJ; B{z gZe/ g?AohA eoB
tk;s/ fJZe eo'V o[fgnk iwQk eotkfJnk ;h. uzr/ gqpzXeK dh nrtkJh
ftu, ;|bsk dhnK wzIbK wkodh rJh. fJ; p?Ae ftu f;Zy B"itkBK B{z
o[Irko d/D dk T[gokbk ehsk frnk. Pos oZyh rJh fe f;Zyh ;o{g tkb/
B"itkBK B{z jh B"eoh fdZsh ikt/rh. fJj fJZe uzrk T[gokbk ;h. go e/tb
f;Zyh ;o{g dh jh Pos oZyh rJh ;h, gzi pkDhnK I[pkBh :kd j'D,
nzfwqsXkoh j'Dk, r[owfs s'A ikDeko j'D dh e'Jh Pos Bk oZyh rJh.
Bshi/ ti'A r[owfs s'A e'jK d{o, Bk;fse b'e Gh dkVh^e/; oZy e/ p?Ae
ftu B"eohnK b?D ftu ekw:kp j' rJ/. fiBQK GktBktK B{z ;Bw[y oZy e/,
fJj ndkok P[o{ j'fJnk ;h, T[j XohnK jh ofj rJhnK. nZi^eZbQ sK
fJj p?Ae Gh Gkos ;oeko d/ gqpzX ftu ik u[Zfenk j?, p; fJZe nkw
;oekoh ndkok jh pD frnk j?.

(78)
4H fwPBoh ekbiK dh b'VL \kb;k gzE B{z pj[s ;[bM/ j'J/, nkgk
;wogD GktBk tkb/, fwPBoh bVe/^bVehnK dh nsh Io{os j?, i'
r[ o pkDh dhnK pkohehnK B{ z uz r h soQ K ;wMd/ j' D . fJfsjk;,
r[owfs^fcbk;ch, r[opkDh dh ftukoXkok, nBwshnK pko/ ikDekoh
oZyd/ j'D. d/P^ftd/P d/ jo r[od[nko/ ftu fJ; gZXo d/ Nq/Av ihtB tkb/
r[of;y B"itkBK dk fB:[es eoBk jh e"wh uVQdh ebk dk fuzB j?. go
fJ; b?tb d/ fwPBoh fsnko eoB tk;s/ f;ZyK e'b T[Zu gkJ/ dk, gquko
b'VK B{z g{fonK eoB tkbk, fJZe Gh ekbi BjhA j?. c"oh s"o s/ fIbQk ;do
w[ekwK s/, nfij/ ekbi y'bQ/ ikD/ ukjhd/ jB. fiBQK ftu eEk, ehosB,
fJfsjk;, f;Zy Xow f|bk;ch ;w/s d{i/ XowK dk s[bBkswe nfXn?B,
f;Zy ;kfjs dh y'i nkfd dh v{zxh gVQkJh eotkJh ikt/. fszB wjhB/, d'
;kb, gzi^;kb, iK tZX ;w/A d/ f;Zfynk e'o; ukb{ ehs/ ikD. jo
r[od[nko/ ftu gkmh, eEk^tkue, ehosBhJ/ fJBQK ekbiK ftu'A jh bJ/
ikD. gzikp s'A pkjo tZ;d/ f;ZyK dhnK GkPkJh b'VK B{z w[Zy oZye/,
gqukoeK B{z T[;/ sohe/ fsnko ehsk ikt/. ftd/PK tk;s/ T[Zu ftfdnk tkb/
r[owfs ftu fBg[zB fJzNoB?PBb GkPktK ftu wkfjo, fwPBoh fsnko
ehs/ ikD. fJ; soQK d/P^ftd/P ftu, f;Zyh Xow gquko dh fJZe bfjo
uZb ;edh j?. fJBQK ekbiK ftu gVQkT[D tkb/ nfXnkge ns/ gVQ e/
fBeb/ fwPBoh, r[o{ BkBe ftukoXkok d/ ;z;ko ftu vze/ tik ;ed/ jB.
fJ; soQK f;ZX/ s"o s/ eohp fJZe bZy B"itkBK B{z o[Irko Gh fwb/rk s/
f;Zyh ihtB Gh. nfij/ f;Zfynk :kcsk fwPBoh ;zrsK B{z sZs r[owfs sK
;otD eotkT[Dr/ jh, pbfe ;ko/ r[oXkwK B{z jh fwPBoh ;?ANoK dk o{g
d/ d/Dr/. fiE/ Gh ikDr/, r[owfs dh ftfrnkB ftXh Bkb rZb eoBr/.
;qh nekb s\s ;kfjp dh wfo:kdk bkr{ eotkT[Dr/. fJ; soQK f;Zy gzE
dh fdB d[rDh s/ oks u"r[Dh soZeh j't/rh. fJj gqukoe ;zrsK dhnK
y[PhnK gqkgs eoBr/, fJ; bJh g?;/ dh ewh BjhA nkt/rh, ;r'A r[o{ xoK
dh nkwdB pj[s tZX ikt/rh.

(79)
5H r[od[nkfonK Bkb bkfJpo/ohnK dh ;EkgBkL fiZE/ fes/ f;Zy ik
e/ tZ;/ jB, T[BQK S/sh s'A S/sh r[o ;zrsK d/ i[VB tk;s/ r[od[nko/ T[;ko/
jB. pj[s ;ko/ r[o{ xo fJfsjk;e jB s/ e[ZM fJZe fJfsjk;e Bk j' e/
Gh tZvh wjkBsk tkb/ jB. fJBQK r[o{ xoK Bkb nro f;Zy Xow pko/
u'DthnK g[;seK dhnK bkfJpo/ohnK ;Ekgs eo fdZshnK ikD sK, fJE'A
;zrsK pj[s T[FZsw ;/X b? ;edhnK jB. r[opkDh dh noE ftnkfynk
pko/ Nhe/ j'D, d{i/ XowK pko/ s[bBkswe feskpK j'D. ;ko/ uzr/ o;kb/ s/
n\pko Gh wzrkJ/ ikD. e'Jh ftnesh fe;/ pjkB/ nkt/, go r[o{ xo Bkb
i[fVnk oj/. fit/A ngokXh b'e g[fb; EkD/ dk Bkw ;[DfdnK jh xpok
iKd/ jB. fJ; soQK pj[s/ b'e r[o{ xo ftu dk\b j'D s'A ezBh esokT[Ad/
jB. T[BQK dh fdbu;gh dk ;kwkB r[o{ xo ftu j't/rk, sK T[j r[o{ xo
Bkb brkU oZyDr/. id'A r[od[nko/ ub/ jh rJ/ sK nZr'A Nq/Av fwPBoh
fgnko Gfonk toskU eoBr/, eEk, ehosB j' fojk j't/rk. e[dosh
rZb j?, e'Jh Bk e'Jh f;Zfynk b? e/ w[VBr/. fJ; soQK dhnK bkfJpo/ohnK
dh ;EkgBk j'D d/ feskpK dh yqhd tX/rh. fJ; Bkb b/fyeK, gqekPeK,
SkgeK ;G B{z T[sPkj fwb/rk. feskpK s/ uzr/ fwPBoh jh n;b ftu
ykb;k gzE ftu u/sBk g?dk eo ;ed/ jB. wkBf;e gZXo T[Zuk j' ikD
Bkb f;Zy ;wki fIzdrh d/ jo \/so ftu ftek; eo/rk. ;ko/ soQK d/
‘ykb;k wkouK’ Bkb'A T[FZsw “\kb;k wkou” j't/rk.
6H gkoN^NkJhw fwPBohL f;ZyK dhnK fIzwt
/ ko iZEp
/ d
z hnK B{z nr/sh
;ehw fsnko eoBh ukjhdh j?, fe tZvhnK ebk;K d/ ftfdnkoEhnK B{z
bzwhnK S[ZNhnK j'D s/, ;"^;" (iK tZX^xZN) bVe/^bVehnK Bkb okpsk
pDk e/, T[BQK B{z E'V/Q ;w/A dh r[owfs f;Zfynk d/ e/, chbv ftu T[skfonk
ikt/. r[owfs d/ w[Yb/ ns/ Io{oh wkD Go/ B[es/ Skge/, S'N/^S'N/ g?AcfbNK
d/ p?r Goe/, fJBQK ftfdnkoEhnK B{z tZX s'A tZX fJbkfenK ftu G/fink
ikt/. fJj g{oh f;de fdbh Bkb xo^xo ik e/ fgnko ngDZs Bkb
;kfjs tzvD. fJBQK ftu eJh pZu/ fpBK e[ZM fbnk Gh ;/tk GktBk Bkb ezw
eoBr/. b'VtzdK B{z e[ZM e[ ;/tk cb fdZsk ikt/. fJj \[d Gh r[owfs

(80)
fbNo/uo gVQBr/, nZr'A nDfrDs B{z r[owfs Bkb i'VBr/. T[BQK dh S[ZNh
dk ezw dk ;wK ;ekoEk j't/rk. gzE bJh tZvh tkX/ dh rZb j't/rh.
7H nkvhU^thvhU e?;NKL ;kv/ fgzvK d/ b'eK dk pj[s ;wK ftnoE
ftu ubk ik fojk j?. fBr{DhnK rZbK ekoB MrV/ j' iKd/ jB. jo T[wo
d/ ftnesh BfPnK ftu ihtB popkd eo oj/ jB. nB/e fe;w d/
fteko, uzrh ;/X Bk fwbD ekoB, fizadrh B{z nzXeko tZb bJh ik oj/
jB. ;[bM/ j'J/ ebkekoK B{z :'r w[nktik d/ e/ f;Zy Xow pko/ nkvhU^thvhU
e?;NK fsnko eotkJhnK ikD. T[FZu e'Nh d/ ethnK dhnK eftsktK B{z
f;nkD/ rkfJeK s'A rtkfJnk ikt/. f;Zyh d/ ;jh sZE g/P ehs/ ikD.
thvhU fcbwK ftu f;oeZYthnK fJfsjk;e MkehnK ftykJhnK ikD.
f;Zy ;o{g tkb/ ekbekoK B{z T[sPkjs ehsk ikt/. ;kok \'i ekoi b'eK
sZe g[ZiD s'A gfjbK fJZe nkjbk f;Zy ;ekboK d/ g?Bb B{z ftyk e/,
b'VhAdhnK ;'XK eo b?DhnK Io{oh j'D. f;ZyK dk n;bh feodko, ;z;ko
d/ b'eK ;kjwD/ fbnKdk ikt/. f;ZyK fto[ZX xVhnK rJhnk p/^f;o g?o
ejkDhnK dk pk^dbhb T[FZso fdZsk ikt/. d/P dh nkIkdh bJh f;ZyK tZb'A
ehshnK e[opkBhnK, w[rbK tes I[bwh oki dhnK iVQK T[ykVB tk;s/
ehs/ wjkB ekoBkw/, BhftnK fBwkfDnK s/ fJ;soh iksh B{z pokpo yVQ/
eoB bJh i' e[ZM ehsk, fJB;kBhns fto[ZX ehs/ ik oj/ gkg eowK B{z
fit/A mZb gkJh, Gkos G{wh B{z ;jh wkjfBnK ftu fit/A gftZso ehskHHH.
fJj ;kok e[ZM pV/ c\o Bkb e?;NK okjhA b'eK ;kjwD/ oZfynk ikt/. fJBQK
nkvhU^thvhU e?;NK dhnK bkfJpo/ohnK r[od[nkfonK d/ Bkb ;Ekgs
ehshnK ikD. fiE'A ;"fynK gqkgs eoe/ jo e'Jh t/y/^;[D/ f;Zy fto;/ B{z
gSkD/, f;Zyh dh uVQdh ebk j't/. fJ; sohe/ Gh nDfrDs b'eK B{z o[Irko
gqkgs j't/rk. Bkb/ g[zB Bkb/ cbhnK.
8H e'^ngo/fNt ;N'o L ;ko/ ;z;ko ftu f;Zy c?b/ j'J/ jB. tZ;
bZrd/ r[og[op tZv/ g?wkB/ s/ wBkJ/ iKd/ jB. r[og[opK tes sK bzro
uZbd/ jh jB, ;r'A pj[s ;ko/ r[o{ xoK ftu sK ;dk jh bzro uZbd/ jB.
i/ fJZe ;kb ftu e[b
Z r[og[opK s/ ehsk frnk \ou fJeZmk i'V fbnk ikt/,

(81)
;kb ftu nkw uZbD tkb/ bzro Gh Pkwb eo bJ/ ikD sK eo'VK o[gJ/
BjhA, frDsh nopK ftu g[Zi ikt/rh. gqpzXeK B{z ukjhdk j? fe nkg;h
;KM gk e/ e'^ngo/fNt ;N'o r[o{ xoK Bkb ukb{ eo fdZs/ ikD. wzvhnK
ftu'A ;w/A f;o tXhnk nBki^dkbK ;;s/ Gkn yqhd e/, iwQk eo bJhnK
ikD. j'o b'VhAdk ;wkB Gh E'e Gkn s/ pIko ftu'A yqhd fbnk ikt/.
fJBQK jh e'^ngo/fNt ;N'oK s'A ;ko/ r[o{ xoK bJh ;wkB w[jZJhnk
eotkfJnk ikt/. fJE'A uhIK ;k|^;[EohnK Gh fwbDrhnK ns/ xZN
ehws Gh gt/rh. eo'VK o[gJ/ dh ;bkBk pus j' ;edh j?. pj[s ;ko/
b'eK B{z f;ZX/^nf;ZX/ s"o s/ o[Irko gqkgs j't/rk. fJBQK ;N'oK s'A j'o
b'Vtzd b'e Gh nkgDh g;zd dhnK uhIK yqhd e/ fbik ;ed/ jB.
9H y/vK pko/ ftGkr L fJ; rZb s'A jh jo e'Jh Gbh GKs ikD{ j? fe
f;Zy B"itkB nkgD/ pkj{pb s/, j";b/ ftu, ;z;ko d/ f;o eZYt/A EK yb'sk
j'fJnk j?. okiBhsh dh }zdh ;'u sfjs Gkos ;oeko y/vK ftu f;ZyK B{z
T[fus ;EkB BjhA fdzdh. ftrV/ jkbks ftu fizB/ e[ f;ZyK B{z nZr/ ikD dk
w"ek fwbdk j? T[j MZN dkVh^e/; eNtk fdzd/ jB. ;z;ko dhnK y/v
iE/pzdhnK f;ZyK d/ eekoK B{z gqtkB BjhA eodhnK. fJBQK d/ jZe ftu
Gkos ;oeko B/ edh nktkI BjhA T[mkJh. f;Zy B"itkB uko/ pzfBU fxo/
j'J/, f;Zyh tZb'A w{zj c/o b?Ad/ jB. Pq'wDh ew/Nh B{z fJZe y/v^ftGkr
;Ekgs eoB ftu d/oh BjhA eoBh ukjhdh. pugB s'A jh pZfunK B{z y/vK
tkb/ gk;/ o[fus ehsk ikt/. tXhnk \[oke ns/ :'r f;ybkJh dk gqpX
z j't.
/
;z;ko dhnK tZy'^tZy NhwK Bkb d';skBk \/v w[ekpb/ eotkJ/ ikD. eJh
i/s{ NhwK ;z;ko gZXo dhnK Gh f;Zy fsnko eo ;ed/ jB. c[ZNpkb,
tkbhpkb, jkeh, epZvh, e[Psh nkfd sK gzikp dhnK \k; y/vK jB. fJ;
soQK f;Zy rZGo{nK ftu BtK T[sPkj ikr/rk. T[j f;Zy j'D s/ wkD wfj;{;
eoBr/. \kb;k gzE ns/ d/P B{z uko uzB bkT[Dr/. ftekoK s'A puDr/, s/
gzE dh uVQdh ebk j't/rh.
10H pZfunK bJh f;Zfynk e/AdoL pj[sh tkoh nkw wkJh^GkJh
wjhB/ e[ wro'A iK fe;/ yk; r[og[op s/ jh r[o{ xo c/ok gkT[Ad/ jB. T[j

(82)
Gh pj[s/ e/tb PoXk tZ; jh iKd/ jB, feT[Afe nZr/ fdb fyutK gq'rokw
sK j[zdk jh BjhA. wksk^fgsk Bkb rJ/ pZu/ sK wkB" nkgD/ nkg B{z p[oh
soQK c;/ wfj;{; eod/ jB. pZfunK dh fdbu;gh dk e/Ado r[od[nko/
ftu eVkj gqPkd jh j[zdk j?, s/ tZfvnK dh fdbu;gh dk e/Ado bzro, s/
p;. i/ ;kv/ gqpzXeK B/ nkT[D tkb/ ;w/A ftu BthA gBhoh B{z r[o{ BkBe ih
d/ uoBK Bkb i'Ve/ oZyDk j? sK T[BQK d/ g;zdhdk gq'rokw r[o{ xoK ftu
ukb{ eoB/ jh g?Dr/. pZfunK d/ y/avD bJh r[o{ xoK d/ Bkb gkoe fsnko
eoB/ jh g?Dr/. eJh soQK dhnK y/vK dk ;wkB Gh oZyDk pDdk j?. f;Zyh
feodko B{z ekfJw ns/ j'o fdbeP YzrK Bkb g/P eoB tkb/ n\pko
o;kb/ wzrtkTD/ Io{oh jB. i/ pZfunK B{z y[Ph d/D tkbk e'Jh ;kwkB r[o{
xo fty/ BjhA j't/rk sK pZu/ fe;/ ehws s/ Xow tkb/ gk;/ BjhA nk ;eDr/
. ehosB, eEk sK tZfvnK B{z Gh xZN jh ;wM nkT[Adh j?, Gbk pZfunK B{z
fet/A ;wM nk ;edh j?. T[BQK d/ wkBf;e gZXo tkb/ gq'rokw fsnko eoB/
nsh Io{oh jB.
gzEe ekoi p/nzs jB, ;/tk dk dkfJok ftPkb j?. f;ZyK e'b g?;/
dh e'Jh E[V BjhA j?. B"itkBK dk \{B pj[s i'Phbk j[zdk j?. i/ fJBQK
B"fBjkbK B{z, :'r ;/X s/ f;Zfynk Bk fdZsh rJh, sK ;kv/ ;kfonK bJh fJj
nksw xks torh rZb j't/rh. o[Irko d/ ;kXB bZGD/ g?Dr/, B"itkBK B{z
;jh ;/X d/D tk;s/ ndko/ y''bQD/ g?Dr/. nkgDh ;G s'A tZvh g{zih (pZfunK)
B{z ;zGkbDk tZfvnk dk gqEw fJybkeh coi j?. fi; ndko/ ftu B"eoh
eoBh j't/, T[; dhnK PosK wzBDhnK jh g?AdhnK jB. e[dosh j? fe
nfij/ EktK s/ B"eoh b?D bJh f;Zyh fsnkrDh g? iKdh j?. jo fJZe
r[od[nkok nkoEe gZy'A ewI'o gzi^gzi pZfunK dh gVQkJh dh fIzw/tkoh
u[Ze/. ewI'o gfotkoK dh :'r ;jkfJsk eo/. i/ ;Zuw[Zu jh gzE dh uVQdh
ebk b'ud/ jK, sK fpnkBK Bkb iK e/tb fceowzdh gqrN eoB Bkb, e[ZM
BjhA ;ztoBk. nwbh s"o s/ e'Jh m'; ekoi eoB/ g?Dr/. e/tb X{znKXko
GkPDk Bkb ws/ gk; eoB Bkb, GhVK fJeZmhnK eo b?D Bkb,
\kb;k wkouK Bkb, i/bQ Go' w'ou/ bk d/D Bkb e[ZM BjhA pDBk.

(83)
;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ nwbh s"o s/ tv/o/ ekoi ehs/. eo'VK B{z f;Zyh wzvb
ftu fbnKdk. Ikbw ;oekoK Bkb bzwhnK izrK bVhnK, wB[Zysk d/ Gb/
tkb/ nDfrDs ekoi ehs/. n;hA ;ko/ ;kXB ns/ PKsh tkb/ ;w/A ftu Gh
iZE/pzde s"o s/ tv/o/ gzEe ekoi BjhA eo ;e/. d{o^nzd/Ph tkbk, gzEe
Gb/ tkbk, e'Jh Gh ekoi T[bheD s'A n;woE jK. wkB' s/bh d/ pbd tKr
;|o sK pj[s ehsk, EZe e/ u{o^u{o j' rJ/ go g[Zi/ fes/ Gh BjhA, wzfIb
dk e'Jh Ej[ gsk BjhA. nZyK s/ nfrnkBsk ns/ \[droih dh w'Nh gZNh
i[ pZMh j'Jh j?. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ uoBK ftu d't/A jZE i'Ve/ p/Bsh j? fe fiBQK
d/ jZE skes p\Ph j?, T[BQK B{z e[ZM gzEe ekoi eoB dh ;{M^p{M ns/
;woZEk p\fPP eoB. wkor ftykb d/D, ;kvk b'e^gqb'e ;[j/bk j'
ikt/rk.
fcfo fcfo ckjh ck;? eT{nk.. fco fcfo gS[skBk np fenk j{nk..
ckEk u' u[r? Bjh p[M?.. ;fsr[o{ fwb? s nkyh ;{M/.. (935)

[[[[

(84)
ikjok eokwks
n;hA nkw ezw ekih ;z;koh b'e T[gihtek ewkT[D tk;s/, brksko
fwjBs wid{oh eod/ nk oj/ jK. ;kv/ e'b fe;/ dh ;/tk eoB dk tes
BjhA. fe;/ dh dZ[y sebhc ;[D e/ wdd eoB dk ;wK BjhA. eZgV/ bhV/
d/ e/ fe;/ dk sB YeD dk B/e fJokdk BjhA. go i/ e'Jh pj[s tZvh oew
wzr bt/ sK< ;kvk xo i/ e'Jh d;tzX o{g ftu jh b?Dk ukj/ sK ;koh
iwhB i' n"fynK j' e/, eoVh fwjBs eoe/ n;K pDkJh j?, T[jh ;kE'A wzr
bt/ sK ;kv/ wB s/ eh r[io/rh< eh n;hA ngDk ;kok e[M fe;/ j'o d/
jtkb/ eo fdnKr/< go fdb s/ jZE oZye/ fJZe tkoh fco ;'uhJ/ ` i/ e'Jh
;kv/ firo d/ N[eV/ bkvK Bkb gkb/, GftZy dk nk;ok p[Ykg/ dh vzr'oh,
;kv/ g[Zso dh e'Jh e[opkBh wzr bt/ sK ` n;hA rP yk e/ fvr gtKr/.
e[opkBh wzrD tkb/ dh Peb sZe t/yDh g;zd BjhA eoKr/. i/ ;kvk jh
f;o e'Jh b?Dk ukj/ fco sK wkB' ;kv/ bJh gob' jh nk rJh ;wM'. ikB
pVh fgnkoh j?, woB feBko/ fgnk fJB;kB Gh nkyoh ;[nk;K sZe
fizdrh fiT[D dh bkb;k oZydk j?. j[D w[V s'A fgS'eV ftu Mks wkohJ/.
;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ f;ZyK e'b'A i' b?Dk ukfjnk T[jh nogD ehsk frnk.
ykb;/ dh ;zg{oDsk tes d;w gks;kj ji{o B/ j'o pj[s e[M f;Zy ;/teK
s'A doPBh G/N ti'A fbnk, s/ nzs f;o dh nB'yh wzr oZy fdZsh. fJZe d'
fszB HHHHs/ tkoh tkoh gzi B"itkB gzi G{se ;oho dk fiT[D w'j fsnkr
e/ w"s B{z rbteVh gkT[D bJh fsnko yV/ ;B ^
sB[ wB[ XB[ jfo nkr? okfynk..
BkBe ej? wjk o; ukfynk.. (w^1^1242)
ih jK fJj ;h ikjok eokwks.

(85)
pj[s fgZS/ tZb ;[osh fposh b? ikJhJ/ sK gsk brdk j? fe jikoK
;kb gfjbK gZSwh J/Phnk d/ fe;/ n;EkB s'A nkohnB N'b/ TFZ[m/. wko'
wko eod/ spkjh wukT[Ad/ Gkos ftu dkyb j'J/. Gkos dh g[oksB
;ZfGnsk, g[okDk Xow, wB[Zysk dhnK ;G ehwsh :kdK fwZNh ftu fwbk
fdZshnK. BthA nkohnB iK pqkjwDh ;'u jko/ j'J/ ihts b'eK s/ m'; fdZsh
rJh. fszB e[ jiko ;kb gfjbK :[{BkB fBtk;h f;ezdo B/ Gkos s/ Xktk
p'b fdZsk. T[FZsoh Gkos d/ tZv/ fjZ;/ B{z ;kV c{e s/ b[ZN e/ tkg; gos
frnk. bzw/ no;/ sZe nzdo{Bh rVpV ubdh ojh. pqkjwDh ;'u B/ iks
gksh tzvhnK, w{osh g{ik, ntskotkd, shoE oND s/ gfotkfoe fizdrh
d/ fsnkr tor/ ;zebg d/; tk;hnK d/ nzdo m'; fdZs/. s/ b'eh fJZe
T[gokwsk tkbh, ewi'o ifjBhns tkbh, r?o fIzw/tkoh tkbh fIzdrh
fiT[D bZr/. nfij/ jkbks dk ckfJdk T[mkT[D bJh 712 Jh;th ftu fJZe
w[;bwkB XkVth 500 ;kEh b? e/ Gkos ftu nk Xwfenk. fpBk o'e N'e
T[j wjhfBnK pZXh, ;'Bk uKdh jho/ w'sh, o{g s/ i'pB p/y"c j' e/ bZ[Ndk
fojk. T{m yZuoK y's/, ;kwkB Bkb bZde/ wkbk wkb j' e/ tkg; gos
frnk. fe;/ B/ T[; nZr/ nZy u[Ze e/ BK t/fynk.
p; fco eh ;h nop w[beK B{z gsk bZr frnk fe Gkos B{z id'A ih
ukj/ fpBK vo G? s'A b[ZfNnk ik ;edk j?. e/tb 500 vke{ eo'VK s/ Gko{
jB, eo'VK ftu fJzBh i[noZs BjhA fe T[j 500 dk okj o'e ;eD, b[ZfNnk
ik fojk d/P, XhnK dh fJZis puk ;eD. w[jzwd r"oh, wfjw{d rIBth,
pkpo, wzr'b gmkD, r[bkw tz;h, w[rb HHHH. nDfrDs XkVthnK d/P B{z
g?oK j/m wX'fbnk. fe;/ ftu ;kj ;s Bk fojk fe w[ekpbk eo ;e/. ;r'A
ftbed/ w[;{wK B{z SZv e/, iko' iko o'AdhnK pj{ p/NhnK B{z Sv e/, sB d/
eZgV/ sZe fsnkr e/ “Grsh sgZf;nk eoB” gjkVK izrbK dhnK y[ZvK
ftu ik b[e/. “f;X Sfg p?m/ gopsh.” gZSw ftu'A T[FZm/ fJZe' bbeko/ Bkb
;kok Gkos Eo Eo ezpD bZr iKdk ;h.
“fco T[mh nkfyo ;dkn s"jhd eh gzikp ;/.
fjzd e' fJZe wofd ekwb B/ irkfJnk ykp ;/” (fJepkb)

(86)
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih w?dkB ftu fBZso/. T[jBK ngDh eoKshekoh
ftukoXkok B{z ekw:kph Bkb gqukfonk s/ nZr/ N'fonk. r[o{ BkBe fJBebkp
dh f;yobh eVh ;h d;w gks;kj ji{o.
ngDhnK wB dhnK nZyK nZr/ Be;k c?bk bJhJ/ uwe"o ;kfjp dh
eZuh rVh dk. nBzdg[o ;kkfjp fty/ eohp nZm wjhB/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z
ngDh oZfynk bJh izr bVBh gJh. d;zpo 1705 B{z nBzdg[o Sv e/ ub
gJ/ nDikD/ okjK tZb. ;o;k s/ fco xw;kD dh izr j'Jh, nB/e
PjhdhnK. e'Nbk fBjzr fty/ GZm/ ftu eZgV/ ;[ek e/ ;oho fBZx/ ehs/, i'
gqkgs j'fJnk o[Zyk ;[Zyk Se e/ ik g[i/ eZuh rVh uwe"o ;kfjp ftu.
;fsr[o{ ih. d' tv/ ;kfjpIkd/ s/ gzi fgnko/ HHHHe[b frDsh u[skbh.
pkeh PjhdhnK gk rJ/, e[M wko{ jZfbnK ftu ftZSV rJ/. pkeh pu/ e[M
fpwko jB, G[Zy/ jB, iywh jB, ;ohoe b'VK tkb/ ;kwkB s'A Gh ;ZyD/
jB. izr bVB tk;s/ pV/ ;kXkoD fij/ jfEnko jB. g/N g{osh tk;s/
o;d dh nDj'Ad j?. x'V/ ;kfonK e'b Bjh jB, i' jB G[Zy Bkb ewi'o
j' u[e/ jB. pkjo'A e'Jh ;jkfJsk nkT[D dh nk; BjhA. d[PwD dk
pfxnkV db B'u ykD tk;s/ XkJh eodk nk fojk j?. fgzvK dhnK
w[;bwkB tkjoK B/, EK EK ;fsr[o{ ih B{z nZr/ tXD s'A o'e gkJh. go
;fsr[o{ d/ bkvb/ wB eoe/ g{oh uVQdh ebk ftu jB. fJ; bk;kBh fdqP
B{z :'rh nZbk :ko yK fJT[A fpnkB eodk j? ^
“fi; dw j{J/ uwe"o w/A f;zx'A e/ T[sko/.
M[bkJ/ j{J/ P/o E/ ;G r?i e/ wko/.
nKy' ;/ fBeb oj/ E/ db/o'A e/ Poko/.
;fsr[o e/ f;tk n"o rIpBke E/ ;ko/.
efjs/ E/ fJikis Bjh j? jw/ oD eh.
fwZNh sZe T[Vk ;es/ j?A d[;wD e/ uwB eh”.
fJj e'Jh wip{s febk Bjh ;h. e/tb fJZe uzr/ fiwhAdko dk pkjo
tkbk y[Zbk xo ;h. fi; B{z d[nkb/ ezX eoe/ trfbnk j'fJnk ;h. e[M
ewfonK s'A fJbktk fJZe S'Nk fijk u[pkok Gh ;h. p; fJjh ;h ;fsr[o{

(87)
ih bJh w'ou/pzdh dk ;kwkB. s/ pkjo nDfrDs c"iK, efjzd/ ejkT[Ad/
siop/ eko ykBdkBh bVke{ ioB?b. ykD ghD dh e'Jh s'N BjhA. izrh
;kwkB n;bk pko{d d/ nEkj Gzvko w"i{d jB. je{ws tZb'A jo ;w/A j'o
;jkfJsk g[Zi ojh j?. fgzvK ftu'A b[ZN wko eoe/ c"i nkgDhnK b'VK dh
g{osh ;fji/ jh eo ;edh j?. jkEh, x'V/, s'gykBk, izp{o/, ofjeb/, sho
sbtko HHHJ/Phnk dh tZvh skes dk skidko n"ozri/p fi; dh ;ogq;sh
eo fojk ;h. w[ekpbk nkN/ ns/ b{D fizBk Gh BjhA. go ;fsr[o{ ih
jfEnko ;[ZN e/ jko wzBD bJh edkg fsnko BjhA. f;ZyK d/ j";b/ p[bzd
jB. ;kfjpIkd/ izr ftu e[Zd g?D bJh T[sktb/ jB.
fi; fdB s'A ;fsr[o{ ih r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh rZdh s/ fpokiwkB
j'J/ jB, gkgh N'fbnK B/ ;dk jh w[PebK yVhnK ehshnK. gfjbK fgsk
ih dh Pjhdh. GzrkDh dk izr, Bkd"D dk izr. uwe"o fty/ jh fJZe
gfjbK j'Jh izr. nBzdg[o fty/ eJh izrK. wksk ih s/ S'N/ bkbK dk
ftS'Vk. ;fseko:'r wksktK dk e'Jh Ej[ gsk Bjh s/ nZi fco BtK y{Bh
fJwfsjkB. eth nZbk :ko yK :'rh dh IpkBh ^
fe; ;po ;/ jo J/e eVh s{B/ T[mkJh.
fe; ;po ;/ jo u'N eb/i/ g/ j? ykJh.
tkbd e' eNkfJnk eGh n"bkd eNkJh.
eh fceo w/ cke'A w/A jiko'A ;/ bVkJh.
fi; oD w/ bVk p/;o' ;kwkB bVk s{z.
;" f;zx bhJ/ bky'A g/ ik gVk s{z.
ft;Eko G? ekoD fJ; nB'yh izr dk ;kok jkb fbyDk ;zGt BjhA
j?. e'Jh nZm f;zxK dk iEk ;kXkoD fij/ jfEnkoK Bkb fsnko j' e/ bZyK
d[;wDK Bkb w[ekpb/ tk;s/ rVQh ftu'A i?eko/ rikT[Adk pkjo nkT[Adk j?,
pj[s ;ko/ gkwoK B{z ;dk dh BhAd ;[bk e/ y[d Pjhd j' iKdk j?. fco gzi
f;ZyK dk iEk ;/oK tKr roidk p/y"c pkjo fBebdk j?. bkPK d/ ;ZEo
ftSk e/ y[d b/y/ bZr iKdk j?. fJZe j'o iEk fsnko j' e/ N[oB brk sK
fJjBK bJh x'V/ BjhA jB. fJj g?db jh p'b/ ;' fBjkb d/ i?eko/ rikT[Ad/

(88)
d[PwD s/ ik gJ/. ;fsr[o{ ih i'Phb/ i?ekfonK Bkb, ns/ P{ed/ nu[Ze
shoK Bkb, fJjBK iK pkiK dh ;jkfJsk eod/ oj/. nmZsh P{ow/ f;zx d'
tZv/ pjkdo ;kfjpIkd/^ pkpk nihs f;zx, pkpk i[Mko f;zx, fJ; “f;ZyK
dh eopbK” ftu Pjhdh gk rJ/. oks ;w/A ;fsr[o{ ih fszB f;ZyK ;w/s
pu e/ ;jh ;bkws pkjo ub/ rJ/.
j[D d[pkok T[j Be;k nZyK nZr/ fbnkU. w[jzwd fpB ek;w 712
Jh;th ftu 500 XkVthnk Bkb, eo'VK fjdtk;hnK B{z b[ZN e/ fpBk vo G?,
;jh ;bkws tkg; ubk frnk ;h. fjzd dh b[ZN dk okj gZXok eo frnk
;h. fJ; uwe"o dh izr ftu pkjo bZyK c"iK tZb'A gkfJnk frnk x/ok,
wko{ jfEnko, tZvh je{ws HHHH. d{i/ gk;/ iywh, fpwko, G[Zy/ fgnk;/,
EZe/ j'J/, fpBk izrh ;kwkB s'A e/tb 43 f;zx ;{ow/ ns/ ;fsr[o{ ih. r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp dh p/i'V T[FZsw ftukoXkok B/ wB[Zysk ftu i' eoKshekoh
gbNk fbnKdk, fJj T[;dk gosZy fJwfsjkB ;h. pkjo v/ok iwkJh p?m/
y{zyko d[PwD B/, ikB pyP d/D d/ bkbu ;[ZN/. tZv/ nj[d/ d/D dhnK
g/;e;K ehshnK. s;hj/ d/ e/ sVck sVck, esb eo d/D dhnK GpehnK
Gh SZvhnK. go r[o{ e/ to';kJ/ fjwkbk gops tKr nv'b vN/ oj/.
fJjBK ;GBK ftu'A e'Jh fJZe Gh ngD/ nehd/ s'A BK fEVfenk BK v'fbnk.
b'eh fBZehnK s/ wkw{bh eokwksK dh v"Avh fgZNd/ ofjzd/ jB. ;kXK pkfpnK
nZr/ BZe orVd/ jB, ny/ fJ; pkpk ih B/ nw eh Yw eh eokwks ftyk
fdZsh. n;hA ehfVnK tKr iwhB s/ ohAr e/ uZbD tkb/ b'e, p/i'V eokwksK
B{z t/yD s'A n;woE oj/ jK. e/tb 500 XkVth byK eo'VK B{z g?oK j/m
fbskV e/ ;[ZN iKd/ ;B, go fJj uwe"o dh izr rtkj j?, bZyK dfozd/ ob
e/ Gh ukbhnK s'A jfEnko BK ;[Ntk ;e/ JhB BK wBtk ;e/. wB[Zysk d/
;'uD Yzr ftu, pkj{ pb ftu, ;fsr[o{ ih B/ T[j skes Go fdZsh, d[BhnK
B/ w{zj ftu T[rbK gk bJhnK. d[PwDK B/ Gh s'pk ehsh. edh ;'funk Gh
BjhA ;h fe fJB;kB r[o{ dh f;Zfynk b? e/, fJzBk fBoG? :'Xk th pD ;edk
j?. bZyK Bkb ;kjt/A wZE/ bV ;edk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ fJZe fJPko/ s'A
Xow :Z[X d/ ukn ftu, ;oho b/y/ bkT[Dk y[;fe;wsh ;wM ;edk j?.

(89)
fJ; bk;kBh ikjok eokwks B{z jkbh pj[^frDsh b'eK ;wfMnk Bjh,
fBZehnK eokwksK ftu jh nNe rJ/. fJZe eth s'A ;[D'.
s/ok f;zx ;[w/o dk o{g Xoe/, fiZE/ yVk j'fJnk T[E'A jZfbnk Bk.
s/oh fuVh B/ pkiK B[{z tys gkJ/, w;s jkEhnK dk ukok uZfbnk Bk.
s/oh s/r B/ fiBQK B{z fgT[Ad bkJh, p{jk w"s dk T[jBK B/ wZfbnk Bk.
Nb rJh iwkB/ dh eko ;koh s/ok sho fBPkfBUA NZfbnk Bk.
s/o/ f;zxK B/ ;dk bJh pzd ehs/ uVQe/ ekp[b ezXko s'A nkT[D tkb/.
s?E'A gfjbK BjhA iZr s/ ;[D/ t/y/ g[Zso tko e/ P[eo wBkT[D tkb/.
ih jK fJjh ;h ikjok eokwks.
nZbk :ko yK :'rh ih dhnK fJ; goEkJ/ e[M gzeshnK gV' ^
f:j t'j ik j? ijK ukbh; sB ;ajhd j[J/.
fyskp/ ;otoh f;zx' B/ ;o eNk e/ bhJ/.
fdbkJh gzE e' ;opkihUA ;/ f;odkoh,
pokfJ e"w f:j o[sp/ bj{ pjk e/ bhJ/.
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
p; J/e fjzdw/A shoE j? :ksok e/ bhJ/.
eNkJ/ pkg B/ pZu/ ijK y[dk e/ bhJ/.
uwe j? fwjo eh uwe"o s/o/ Io'A w/A,
:jhA ;/ pBe/ f;sko/ rJ/ nk;wK e/ bhJ/.

[[[[

(90)
r[opkDh ftu g"okDe eEktK
f;Zy gzE nekbh pkDh, X[o eh pkDh B{z “Ppd o{g ftu” fIzdrh dk
;'wk,“r[o{” ;theko eodk nk fojk j?. fJj' j[ew ;fsr[{o ;kfjp ih dk
j?. wB nzdo tkfjd gqw/Po tZb'A nkt/; j'Jh pkDh B{z wB[Zysk d/ efbnkD
fjZs, nro ;KGDk j't/ sK fJ;B{z nZyoK dk o{g d/Dk gt/rk. nZyo Gh T[j
fbyD/ j[zd/ jB, fiBQK okjhA fbyh rJh ftuko, pj[s/ b'eK B{z ;"fynK ;wM
nkT[Adh oj/. ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp gzikp ftu gqrN/, tZv/ j'J/ gqtkB uVQ/.
e[dosh ;h fe T[jBK dh wK p'bh gzikph jh j't/. fi; tksktoB ns/ iB
;w{j ftu wB[Zy pj[sk ;wK fpskT[Adk j?, T[;dh pDso, feZsk, Xow, oki
;wki ftu ofjzfdnK pkohehnK B{z Gbh GKs ;wM ;edk j?. r[o{ ;kfjp
ih B/ nkgD/ ftuko gqrN eoB s'A gfjbK ;ko/ gqubs XowK dk rfjokJh
Bkb nfXn?B ehsk. fJ;/ ekoB T[jBK dh ouBk ftu'A ;[Zs/^f;ZX g[oksB
gqubs eEktK d/ jtkb/ nkw fwb iKd/ jB. ;fsr[o[{ ih d/ ftuko
eoKshekoh ;B BthB ;B, go b'ehA sK T[j ;B i' ;dhnK s'A fJZe' ;zu/
ftu Yb/ (pqkjwDh ftuko) ihtB fiT[ oj/ ;B, s/ p[oh soQK wkBf;e yV's
dk fPeko j' u[Ze/ ;B. ftukoK dk g"dk sK BtK ;h, go fwZNh jtk gkDh
sK T[jh g[okD/ ;B. nfijh i[rs ngDkT[Dh ntZPe ;h, fe fJj BtK
bkfJnk ftukoK dk p{Nk, w[oMk Bk ikt/, ;[Ze Bk ikt/, ;r'A s/Ih Bkb tX/
c[Zb/. ;z;koh iht fJ; o[Zy dh mzYh SK wkBD, fwZm/ cb yktD.
oZph B{o, frnkB d/ ;kro, eoKshekoh, fBoG? :'X,/ wjkB goT[gekoh
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ nekb g[oy tZb'A nbjkwh (X[o eh pkDh)
ftukoK B{z ;"yh p'bh ftu iB ;w{zj sZe g[ukD tk;s/ nB/e Yzr tos/.
id'A y/sh eoB tkb/ fe;kBK B{z ;zp'XB j'fJ sK c[owkfJnk^

(91)
“wB[ jkbh feo;kDh eoDh, ;ow[ gkDh sB[ y/s[”.. (595)
fJ; pzd ftu fe;kBh feZs/ Bkb ;pzXs, T[dkjoDK fdZshnK rJhnK
jB. nZr/ pqkjwD B{z T[;dh o'IkBk ihtB fefonk ftu'A gowkD d/ e/
;wMk oj/ jB^
“;kb rqkw fpg g{fi wBktj[, ;[feqs s[b;h wkbk”.. (1171)
id'A i'rhnK Bkb ftuko uouk eod/ jB sd'A T[jBK dh p'bh tosd/
jB^“w[zdk ;zs'y[ ;ow[ gs[ M'bh fXnkB eh eofj fpG{fs”.(ig[) T[FZgo
tofDs r[opkDh N{eK e/tb T[dkjoDK wJh yk; ftP/ t;s{ tkbh ;fEsh
ftu T[ukoB ehshnk rJhnK jB sK fe ;pzXs ftnesh, iZE/pzdh iK
;wki B{z T[;/ dh p'bh ftu T[gd/P fdZsk ik ;e/. fJzB fpzB fJ;/ soK jh
r[opkDh ftu g"okfDe eEktK d/ jtkb/ fdZs/ rJ/ jB. fJj eEktK fjzd{
;wki ftu pj[s gqubs ;B. fJjBK dh bzwh ftnkfynk dh Io{os BjhA
;h. fJjBK d/ okjhA ;fsr[o{ ih B/, fjzd{ iB ;w{zj B{z nkgDh rZb ;"fynK
jh ;wMk fdZsh^ c[owkB t/y'^
joJ/ Bw;s/ joJ/ Bwj.. jfo jfo eos BjhA d[y[ iwj.. ojkT[..
jfo joBky; jo/ gokB.. ni?wb ehU p?e[zmfj EkB..
;{nk gVkts rfBek soh.. ;' jfo B?Bj[ eh g{soh..
jfo jfo eos g{sBk soh.. pkb xksBh egNfj Goh..
f;woB dq'gd ;[s T[Xoh.. rT{sw ;sh f;bk fB;soh..
e/;h ez; wEB[ fifB ehnk.. ihn dkB[ ekbh eT[ dhnk..
gqDt? Bkwk n?;' joh.. ik;[ igs G? ngdk Noh.. (874)
fJjBK jtkfbnK okjhA Bkwd/t ih ;wMkT[Ad/ jB, fe j/ GkJh ` i/
s[;hA fJj ;theko eod/ j' fe joh Bkw igfdnK, fB;skok j' ikfJnk
eodk j?, sK fco nZi Gh T[; gqw/Po B{z :kd ftu t;kU. w/oh Bkwd/t
dh d[fpXk nkfd T[; d/ f;woB ehfsnK d{o j' rJh j?. T[FZgo fdZs/ jtkb/
e/tb ;wMkT[D fjZs jB, fJj gkso Xosh T[go edh gqrN j'J/ Gh jB
fe BjhA e'Jh BjhA ikDdk. fit/A fJj ejkDhnK gquZbs jB, fJ; soQK
tkgoBhnK Bk w[wfeB jB. fco ;fsr[o{ ih B/ sK pkDh ftZu gP{nK

(92)
gzShnK d/ jtkb/ Gh fdZs/ jB. eh ;fsr[o{ ih ikBtoK bJh T[gd/P eoB
nkJ/ ;B< tke jB^
“ s{z ;[fD joDk ekfbnk eh tkVhJ/ oksk okw.. (437)
ekbh e'fJb s{z fes r[B ekbh.. (794)
dkdo, (vZv{) s{z epfj B ikBf; o/.. (990)
Gtok c{fb Gtzfsnk d[y[ nfs Gkoh okw.. (438)
wS[bh ftS[Bh, B?D o[zBh, ikb[ pfXe gkfJnk.. (438)
fwm? wy[ w[nk, feT[ bJ/ T[vkoh..
j;sh rofs GfJnk, feT[A sohn? skoh..” (460)
;fsr[o{ ih d/ gktB T[gd/P wB[Zy wkso d/ efbnkD bJh jB, BK
fe gP{nK gzShnK bJh. ikBtoK e'b wB[Zyh p'bh B{z ;wMD dh ;{M BjhA
j[zdh. s'sk nkfde wB[Zy d/ f;ykJ/ e[M ;hws fij/ tke jh p'b ;edk j?,
finkdk BjhA. T[;B{z p'b/ rJ/ tkeK d/ noEK pko/ e'Jh ;{M BjhA j[zdh.
Iok ;'u'. nro nZi edh r[odtko/ ;zrs ftu eK e[Zs/, T{m, jkEh, x'V/,
fjoB, vZv{, wZShnK nzdo nk ikD sK fJB;kB T[E/ p?m ;eDr/< fJj
ikBto y[d uzrh soQK pzBQD s'A fpBK, fNe e/ p?m ;eDr/< ikBtoK tkbh
EK B{z r[odtkok nky ;eKr/< eh nfij/ EktK ftu r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dk
gqek; ehsk ik ;edk j?< itkp j't/rk, jofrI BjhA.
fJjBK eEK ejkDhnK B{z fjzd{ ;wki ftu gfVnk fbfynk u/szB
tor y[d wzBD s'A fJBekoh j?. fi; soQK d/ gokG"fse tosko/ g/P eod/
gkso fJjBK eEktK ftu BIo nkT[Ad/ jB, T[j fe;/ ;{os ftu nwbh
ihtB nzdo BjhA xN ;ed/. fi; ;ZfGnsk ftu ;fsr[o{ ih ftuo/ T[;
d/ nkb/ d[nkfbU T[jBK B/ jh gowkD BjhA fdZs/ ;r'A d[BhnK ftu jo
ftnesh, eth, ;kfjseko, fJt/A jh eodk j?. jo wB[Zy fJ;/ soQK
nkgDh p'bukb ftu jo o'i, nykD, w[jkto/, b'e'eshnK, gqfeosh
tosko/ nkfd dh y[Zbh tos'A eodk j?. fJ; ftu e'Jh d'P BjhA j?, pZ;
fJ; B{z ;wMD dh e'fPP eoBh j? fe fJjBK dh tos'A feBK noEK ftu
ehsh rJh j?. Gkos d/ fJ; fyZs/ gzikp ftu, gghj/ dk ufjeDk, e'fJbK

(93)
dk rkT[Dk, vZv{nK dh rV?A^rV?A, w'oK dh o[D M[D, skfonK dk fNwfNwkT[Dk,
o[ZsK dk pdbDkHHHHH fezBk ;[zdo ;zrhse wkj"b g?dk eodk j?. fJjBK
;ze/sK dk r[opkDh ftu nDfrDs tkoh jtkbk fdZsk frnk j?. :'oghB
w[beK tkfbnK B{z, fJjBK f;zpbK dh ;wM BjhA nk ;edh. T[E/ Bk e'fJbK
jB Bk vZv{, BK uzd sko/ fd;d/ jB Bk nzfwqs t/bk. BK pko; dk ukT[, BK
w'ok dhnK g?bK jB, fJ;/ bJh fbysK ftu Gh BjhA jB. gzikp d/
pfPzfdnK B{z fJjBK dh ftnkfynk eoe/ ;wMkT[D dh b'V BjhA, ;[Zs/^f;ZX
;wM nk iKd/ jB.
pqkjwDh rzqEK ftu gkoiks, ebg o[Zy, gko; tZNh, ekwX/B dk
fieo pj[s EkJhA fwbdk j?. fJj uhiK nkw Gkosh b'eK dh ipkB s/
y/YdhnK t/yhnK ik ;edhnK jB. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJjBK dh pj[s EkJhA
tos'A ehsh j?, gVQ e/ fJT[A gqshs j'D bZr g?Adk j? fe PkfJd fJj e'Jh
tk;sfte uhiK j'DrhnK. n;bhns fJj j? fe fJjBK dh feXo/ j'Ad
BjhA j?, e/tb ebgBk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJjBK dh tos'A pkDh ftu eJh
EkJhA ehsh j?, b/feB y[d jh ;wMk Gh fdZsk j? fe n;b ftu gqwkswk s/
T[;dk Bkw jh gkoiks, gko; wDh iK ekwX/B j?. fJ; goEkJ/ r[opkDh
gowkD t/y'^
r[o[ shoE[, r[[o[ gkoiks[” r[[o[ wB;k g{oDjko[.. (52)
“gkoiks[” xfo nKrfB w/o? g[jg gsq ss vkbk.. (503)
GkJh o/, ;zs iBk eh o/D[..
;zs ;Gk r[[o[ gkJhn?, w[efs gdkoE[ “X/D[”.. (18)
“gkoiks[” fJj[ jfo e' Bkw..
“ekwX/B” jfo jfo r[D rkw.. (265)
fpoy izfwU j? “gkoiks”.. c{b bZr/ cb osB GKfs.. (1180)
T[Zgo fby/ r[opkDh tkeK ftu ekwX/B nkfd B{z fBo;ze'u tofsnk
frnk j?. j{pj{ ;theko Bk eoe/ Bt/A noEK ftu tos'A ehsh rJh j?.
;fsr[o{ ns/ gqw;/ o dk Bkw jh ekwX/B gkoiks j?, j'o e'Jh uhI BjhA j?.
fJ;/ ;'jD/ nzdkI ftu nkgDh fizdrh d/ ;'w/, tkfjr[o{$ ;fsr[o{
pko/ Gh f;zpbK d[nkok ;wMkT[D dk isB ehsk frnk j?. fiBK t;sK dh

(94)
;kvh fizdrh ftu nkw tos'A j?, T[jBK d/ gqwkD tos/ jB. r[o c[owkB
t/y'^
r[o[ gT[Vh, p/Vh r[o{, r[o[ s[bjk, jfo BkT[A..
r[o[ ;o[ ;kro[, p'fjE', r[[o[ shoE[, dohnkT[.. (17)
r[o[ dksk, r[o[ fjt? xo[, r[o[ dhge, fsj b'fJ.. (137)
r[od/t shoE[ nzfwqs[ ;o'to[ r[o frnkB[ wiB[ ngzqgok..(250)
nZr'A n;hA gqwkswk d/ e[M BktK pko/ ftuko eo oj/ jK. n;b sZs ;ko
sK fJj j? T[j nBkwh j?, sK T[; dk Bkw fet/A oZfynk ik ;edk j?<
f;q;Nh pDh B{z nopK ;kb r[io u[Ze/ jB, oZp ih T[;s'A Gh gfjbK d/ jB.
fco wB[Zy dh eh gkfJnk j? fe T[; dk Bkw eoD eo/. n;b ftu T[;dk
e'Jh Bkw BjhA j?. i' Bkw n;hA oZy/ j'J/ jB, T[j iK s/ ftP/PDh jB, iK
feosw jB. Gkt gqwkswk d/ r[DK ns/ ezwK s/ nXkos Bkw jB.
fJ;kJh, w[;bwkBK nkgD/ sohe/, :j{dh, gko;h, p[ZX, i?B, fjzd{, f;Zy,
;kfonK tZb'A, nkgDh fJZSk w[skpe, BkweoD ehsk frnk j?. ;fsr[o{
noiD ;kfjp oZp d/, fjzd{ w[;bwkBK tkb/ nB/eK Bkw fbye/, nzs ftu
c?;bk ;[Dk fdzd/ jB fe T[;dk e'Jh Bkw BjhA j?. p; T[j ;ukJh dk
w[iZ;wk j?, ;s j?, ;s Bkw j?. tke jB^
nu[s gkopqjw gow/;o nzsikwh.. wX[;{dB dkw'dq ;[nkwh..
foyh e/; r'toXB Xkoh w[obh wB'jo jfo ozrk.. HHHHHHHHHHHHH
feosw Bkw eE/ s//o/ fijpk.. ;fsBkw[ s/ok gok g{opbk..
ej[ BkBe Grs gJ/ ;oDkJh d/j[ do;[ wfB ozr[ brk..(1083)
fJ; bzw/ Ppd ftu fJZe ;" s'A tZX BktK dk fIeo j?, nzs ftu
;fsr[o{ ih c[owkB eo oj/ jB, fe s/ok e'Jh Bkw BjhA. “;fs Bkw” s{z
;s j?A, ;ukJh s/ nXkos j?HHHHHHHHHH s/ p;.
fJ;/ soQK fjzd{ d/tfsnK Bkb i'VhnK gokG"se ejkDhnK s'A goGkts
j' e/ f;Zy b/yeK B/ Gh T[j eokwksh ejkDhnK r[o{ ;kfjpkB Bkb i'V
fdZshnK jB. Gkt/A fJjBK eEktK okjhA b/ye ;fsr[o{ ih B{z wjkB PeshPkbh
ftykDk ukj[zd/ jB. go fJ; soQK ehfsnK fizdrh dh n;bhns r[zw iKdh
j?. g"okDe eEk w[skpe jB{wkB ;{oi B{z w{zj ftu gk e/ fBrb iKdk j?.

(95)
fjwkbk gops B{z u[Ze fbiKdk j?. nr;s w[Bh fe;/ rZb'A Boki j' e/ ;ko/
;w[zdoK dk gkDh gh iKdk j?. id'A fdb ehsk fgPkp okjhA pkjo eZY fdzdk
j?. okyP ns/ d/ts/ (ny"sh) ;w[zdo foVeD bJh fJeZm/ j'J/. pkPe
Bkr dk B/sok pDkfJnk. fjwkbk gops B{z wXkDh pDkfJnk. eZS{e[zw/ dh
y'goh s/ fNekfJnk frnk. fco ;w[zdo ftu'A u"dk osB eZY/ rJ/. e[M
okyP Xosh B{z u[Ze e/ BZ; rJ/, d/tfsnK tkg; fbnKdh. fJjBK gksoK
d/ r?o e[dosh sohe/ iBw ns/ r?o e[dosh ezw, nkw gVQB ;[DB B{z
fwbd/ jB. i/ eokwks okjhA ;fsr[o[{ ih B{z tZvk eoB dh e'fPP ehsh
ikt/rh sK fJjBK d/ ny"sh wjKg[oyK Bkb'A r[o{ ih B{z eJh r[Dk tZvhnK
eokwksK eod/ ftykT[Dk gt/rk. fJjBK GktBktK nXhB jh f;Zy ;/teK
tZb'A ;fsr[o{ ih dhnK ;kyhnK ftu eokwksh nzP dkyb eo fdZsk frnk
j?. i/ eokwksK Bkb ftrV/ ekoi j' ;ed/ j[zd/ sK ;fsr[o{ ih B{z emB
fwjBs eoB dh eh b'V ;h< ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gekoK B{z iB ;w{zj dh
fizdrh d/ B/V/ ofjD fdZsk ikt/. toBk fjzd{ d/tfsnK tkbh jkbs ;fsr[o{
dh j' ikt/rh. e/tb g{iDi'r t;s{ HHHHHHHHHHH sZs;ko ysw j' ikt/rk.
fJ;/ goEkJ/ GkJh r[odk; nkgdhnK tkoK ftu fJZe EK ;wMkT[Ad/
jB ^
1H ;fsr[o[ g{ok ;kj j? fsqGtD ir[ fs;dk tDikok..HHHH
gkfoiks by pkr ftfu, ekwX/D[ d/ tr jikoK..
bywhnK by r'bhnK, gko; d/ gops[ ngkok..
by nzfwqs by fJdq b?, j[fJ ;e? fSVefB dopkok..
;{oi uzd uokr by, fofX f;fX fBfX E'jb nzpkok..tko^26^22
2H fBjub ;uk sys[ nfpub oki B jb? jfbnk..
;u ;pd[ r[fo ;T[fgnk ;u Ne;kbj[ f;ek ufbnk..
f;X BkE ntsko ;G jE i'fV e? j'fJnk yfbnk..
;uk j[ew[ ;[ nNb[ B Nfbnk.. tko^24^8

[[[[

(96)
Boe ;[or eh j?<
wBZ[ysk d/ ;Zu/ ofjpo, wjkB goT[gekoh, Gow Bk;e, ;Zu eh
pkDh T[ukoB eoB tkb/ ;ko/ pzXBK s'A wB[Zysk B{z w[es eo d/D dh i[rsh
ikBD tkb/, ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ nekbh pkDh d[nkok ;Zu Xow dk
T[gd/P fdZsk. ;fsr[o{ ih dh fweBk sh;h ;y;hns d[nkok b'ehA Gow
ikb ftu'A XVkXV fBebD bZr/. fiBQK b[N/fonK B/ Xow dk u'bk gfjB e/,
Xow dh nkV ftu, G'b/ Gkb/ ftneshnK B{z ;dhnK s'A b[ZfNnk sK j? jh
;h, ;r'A frnkB, ftfdnk jk;b eoe/ nZr/ tXD s'A ;ko/ gkg eoe/ Gh
o'fenk. T[j fet/A podkPs eo b?Ad/, fe jo fJB;kB ngDh j'Dh dk
wkbe y[d pD ikt/< r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh pkDh gVQe/ gow/Po Bkb f;ZXk
okpsk ekfJw eo bt/ < i/ fes/ fJjBK e'jb{ d/ pbd pD/ b'eK dhnK
nZyK s'A, nfrnBsk dh gZNh T[so rJh, sK fJj ;kvh r[bkwh eoBh Gh
pzd eo d/Dr/. sK s/ PkfJd i[zw/tkohnK dk e'jb{ fes/ ;kB{z jh fyZuDk Bk
g? ikt/. ngDh n?P gq;sh ekfJw oZyD bJh, w[csy'o/ ukbke b'eK B/,
fJB;kB B{z r[bkwh ftu ieVB bJh, T[; B{z y"cIdk eoe/, y{B g;hB/
tkbh ewkJh jVZg eo bJh, nDfrDs spkje[zB sohe/ j'Ad ftu fbnKd/.
fJjBK Bk:kp B[yf;nK ftu'A fJZe, eo{osk dh f;yo, “Boe ;[or” dh
ebgBk Gh ;h.
g"okDe eEk ejkDhnK ftu, fi; ;[or dh wBw'je ;[zdosk
fpnkB ehsh rJh j?, T[; dk ;zy/g ;ko fJ; soQK j? ^ gfjb'A sK fJj gsk
j't/ fe fjzd{ rqzEK ftubk ;[or, fjwkbk dhnK u'NhnK s/ ;fEs j?.
bZS/dko Ppdktbh ftu fbfynk frnk j?, fe fe;/ T[u/ wzvb ftu fJZe
nkbhPkB irQk j?. T[; ftu dkyb j'D bJh pj[s emB gqhfynK B{z

(97)
;cbsk ;fjs gko eoBk g?Adk j?. T[E/ g[ZiD s'A gfjbK fIzdrh ftu ehs/
dkB g[zB dk b/yk i'yk oZp d/ fj;kpdkB “fuZso r[gs” fog'N g/P eod/
jB. fog'N gVQB s'A pkd Xowoki ;pzXs gqkDh B{z ;[or ftu dkyb j'D
dh fJIkis sK d/ fdzdk j?, go Bkb jh ofjD dh ;wK ;hwk fBPfus eo
fdzdk j?. ny/ wB[Zy d/ ehs/ dkB g[zB d/ tZN/ ftu fJZe fdB, fJZe wjhBk,
fJZe ;kb, iK tZX xZN dh gqtkBrh fwbdh j?. fwE/ ;w/A s'A pkd wB[Zy B{z
;[or ftu'A eZY fdZsk iKdk j?. ebgs ;[or b'e ftu, e'Jh ftnesh
T[gihtek bJh ezw BjhA eodk. fJZe' T[FZsw ezw j?, n:kPh, ftbk;sk,
n?P gq;sh. feT[Afe ;[or dk okik fJzdo d/t f;o/ dk ftbk;h do;kfJnk
j?. fJzdo d/ f;zxk;B B{z nsh y{p;{os d;fdnK fpnkB ehsk frnk j? fe
fJE/ fpokiwkB, fJzdo d[nkb/ wBw'je ;ki tid/ jB. fJso c[b/b d/
c[jko/ uZb oj/ jB. nXBzrhnk y{p;{os n"osK (gohnK) fJzdo d[nkb/
M[owN gkJh oZydhnK jB. Bku ebk ftu gqphB ngSoktK, ftbk;sk
tkb/ jktGkt eodhnK, nZXeZi/ rdokJ/ i'pB ftu w;s, eb'bK eodhnK
EZedhnK jh BjhA. fJzdo d/t ns/ j'o ;zrh d/thnK d/ts/, eJh eJh xV/
Pokp (;'wo;) d/ gh iKd/ jB. fi; B{z pDkT[D dh ftXh d/tfsnK d/ ;/te
jh ikDd/ jB, i' pj[s jh y{Pp{dko ns/ nBzds eoB tkbh j?. Pokp d/
Bkb ykD tk;s/ d/tfsnK d/ wB GkT[Adh t;s{ j?, rktK pbdK dk nB/e
gqeko dk fsnko ehsk frnk ;[nkdbk wk;. oZie/ veko wkoB s'A pkd
fco d/thnK d/ts/ i{nk Gh y/vd/ jB. Xowoki (<) dk g[Zso :[fXPNo
wjKGkos eEk ftu i{nk y/vdk do;kfJnk j?, fi; ftu oki Gkr, s/
;w/s gsBh d'qgdh d/, ;G e[M jko iKdk j?. T[FZgo tofDs wBw'je
BIko/ B{z wfj;{; eoe/ jh wB nzdo MoBkNK c[ZND brdhnK jB. ;[or
d/ BIko/ gVQ ;[De/, jo fJZe fJB;kB dk wB fe;/ Gh ehws s/, fJ; ;[or
ftu gj[zuD bJh ftnke[b j' iKdk j?. pj[sh ehws T[sko e/ Xosh s/ pD/
nfij/ ;[or (Bku xo gZp ebZp) dk ;[y b'ehA wkDB dk isB Gh eod/ jB.
nfijk ;[jktDk ;[or gqkgs eoBk e'Jh ;"yh y/v BjhA j?. i/ jo
n?o/ r?o/ dh gjz[u T[E/ j' rJh, fco T[j ;[or fet/A ofj ;e/rk< fJ;

(98)
;[gfBnK dh y{p;{os d[BhnK ftu g[ZiD tk;s/ dkB gqw[y ;kXB gqukfonk
frnk. rohpK e'b dkB eoB bJh XB gdkoE sK e'Jh j[zdk BjhA, fco
T[j dkB fe; t;s{ dk eo/< xpokT[D dh Io{os BjhA j?, T[j ngDh
itkB ns/ ;'jDh gsBh B{z, rfjD/ egV/ Bkb ;ik ;ztko e/, fsnko eoe/
fwZE/ fdB Xow wzdo (<) ftu g[Zi e/ ngDh noXnzrh (ihtB ;kED) B{z
pqkjwD g[ikoh d/ nogD eo d/t/. Bkb :Ek Pes ;'Bk uKdh, p;so
nBki Gh ftXh g{ote dkB eo/. nfijk wjKdkB ehfsnK ;[or dh
fJZSk oZyD tkb/ b'eK dh ;{uh ftu, gqkDh dk Bkw fby fbnk iKdk j?.
;kfJd Bzpo bZr jh ikt/. ngDh pkoK ;kb s'A xZN T[wo dh p/Nh (ezfBnK
dkB fJ;/ gkg eow ftu'A gorN j'fJnk j?) Gh pqkjwD g[ikoh B{z nogD
ehsh ik ;edh j?. d/t dk;hnK, okw iDhnK, i'rDhnK, fJ;/ gqEk dk
fJZe e'Mk o{g jB.
i' b'e fJ; soQK d/ dkB BjhA eo ;eDr/ T[jBK bJh ;[or
ftu g[ZiD dk okj nsh fpyVk s/ em'o j?. i/ T[j ;[or dh fJZSk oZyd/
jB, sK eJh iBwK sZe tos oZyD/, shoE fJPBkB eoB/, ;kX{nK pqkjwDK
dh g{oh sB d/jh Bkb jo sok ;/tk eoBh. X{DhnK skgDhnK, ibXko/
eoB/, ubhj/ eZND/, w'BXko b?Dk, ;oho d/ nzr sZe eNtk d/D/ HHHHHH.
;dhnK sZe nB/e ePN G'rd/ ofjD s'A pkd PkfJd edh ;[or ftu ikD
dk ;pZp pD jh ikt/. jK nwhoK bJh ;[or g[ZiD dk okj e[M ;[ykbk j?.
T[j e/tb dkB d/ pb, ;[or gqkgs eo ;ed/ jB. f;o/ d/ nwhoK
(okfinK) bJh nPt w/X :Zr (x'V/ dh e[opkBh) rT{ w/X :Zr, wB[P w/X
:Zr, ;kfonK dk wk; fozBQ e/, gek e/ wzsoK d[nkok gftZso eoe/, ;G B/
ykDk j[zdk j?. :Zr dk ;wK fBPfus eoBk pqkjwD dh woih s/ fBoGo j?.
;ko/ ;w/A d"okB dkB eoh ikDk j[zdk j?. ;zg{oDsk tes oki/ s'A i' uhI Gh
pqkjwD g[ikoh wzr bt/ T[j d/Dh Io{oh j?. g[Zsoh, gsBh s/ oki sZe Gh
dkB eo d//t/. i/ g[ikoh ukj/ sK n;hw ;w/A sZe okik r[bkw pD e/ T[;
dh ;/tk eodk oj/. fco Gh eh gsk ;[or dk wkbe fJzdo s[jkB{z T[E/
g[ZiD d/t/ fe Bk< T[j o[ektNK Gh sK pj[s yVQhnK eodk j?. i/ e'Jh j'o

(99)
ftnesh T[E/ g[Zi e/ oki dk wkbe pD frnk, sK fJzdo B{z sK nkgDk
f;zxk;D s/ oki ;[y fsnkrDk g? ikJ/rk. fJ; bJh T[j fe;/ dk :Zr
;zg{oD j'D jh BjhA fdzdk.
fJZe j'o bki[nkp BePk ;[or d/ okj dh dZ; gkT[Adk gqshs j[zdk
j?. fJB;kB izrbK ftu, gjkVK dhnK r[cktK ftu, poc bZdhnK T[FZuhnK
u'NhnK s/, wko{ o/s EbK ftu, nB/e iBwK sZe, jikoK ;kb fpBK e[M
ykfXnK nyzv sgZf;nk eoBh. fJZe bZs d/ Gko yb'Dk, g[Zm/ bNeDk,
gkDh ftu yb's/ ofjDk, ;oho B{z ;[ek e/ fgzio pDk b?Dk. iK fco oktD
tKr ngDk jh f;o eZN e/ d/ts/ nZr/ G/N eoBk, f;th oki/ tKr, pki o{g
ftu nkJ/ GrtkB B{z ngDk ;kok sB eZN eZN e/ y[nk d/Dk. fpeowkihs
oki/ tKr s/b d/ eVkj/ ftu ngD/ ;oho B{z o'IkBk sb e/ d/ts/ B{z y[nKd/
ikDkHHHHHH. j' ;edk j? edh ;[or g[ZiD dh okjdkoh fwb jh ikt/.
feT[Afe fJjBK okjK ftu Gh nZr/ pj[s n"yhnK xkNhnK jB. sg eod/
ftPtkfwZso dh sgZf;nk Gzr eoB tk;s/ fJzdo B/ w'jDhnK ekwDhnK
G/i fdZshnK. T[jBK ngD/ o{g ns/ i'pB dh Pesh Bkb jw/PK jh foPhnK
dh ;wkXh Gzr ehsh j?. s/ Grs ;[or ;[y s'A tzfus j' iKdk j?. fJjBK
ngSoktK ftu'A T[xVt/A Bkw jBl ozGk, T[otPh, w/Bek nkfd. fJjBK
gohnK B/ ;[or bJh sgZf;nk eo oj/, nB/e ;kX{nK dhnK p/VhnK
wzMXko ftu v'phnK. i/ e'Jh jmh ;kX{ iK dkBh okik fJjBK ekwDhnK
d[nkok ekp{ ftu Bk nkt/, sK fJzdo d/t ih ngD/ tv/ Gok ftPB{z dh
;jkfJsk gqkgs eod/ jB. ftPB{z Sb egN Bkb ;G e[M wbhnk w/N
eotk fdzdk j?. mhe jh sK j?, e"D okik ngDk ;[Zy nkokw, wkB
tfvnkJh, ski sys, bZyK fwor B?DhnK, ;[orgohnK B{z fsnkrDk
ukj/rk< feT[A fe;/ B{z ngDk ;[nkwh pDkJ/rk, s/ y[d r[bkwh ;theko
eo/rk< n;zGt. n;zGt
j[D Iok BhM bk e/ d{ik gZy ftuko'. dkB g[zB d/ ipod;s gquko
gqGkt ;dek pqkjwD iksh dk fJ;/ Xosh wksb'e ftu ;[or pfDnk
j'fJnk j?. g[ikoh Pq/Dh jikoK ;kb s'A jEhA feos eoB B{z fsbKibh d/

(100)
u[Zeh j?, go ;ko/ feosh b'eK s'A tZX nkokw Goh fIzdrh pshs eo ojh
j?. pqkjwD B/ edh dkB g[zB BjhA ehsk, sgZf;nk BjhA ehsh, shoE pos
BjhA ehs/, :Zr BjhA ehs/. fco fJjBK B{z edh fe;/ g[ZSD dh fjzws BjhA
ehsh fe s[;hA nkgD/ bJh ;[or ikD dk gqpzX feT[A BjhA eo oj/< iK fco
b'eK dh neb B{z fizdo/ tZi/ j'J/ jB, i' ;'ud/ jh BjhA. Gbk ;'u' pqkjwD
g[ikoh feT[A tkX{ e;N MZbD, id'A fe ;ko/ ;[or tkb/ ;[Zy fJE/ jh gqkgs
jB. Bkb/ g[ikoh sK uzrh soQK ikDdk j? fe fJj skDk pkDk fJZe Sbktk
j?, G'b/ Gkb/ b'eK dh feos B{z b[ZN e/ n?P eoB bJh.
d{i/ pzB/ fi; ftnesh B/ :Zr, dkB, sgZf;nk nkfd BjhA ehsh
T[j x'o gkgh j?. ;[or pko/ sK T[j wB ftu fynkb sZe Bk fbnkt/. jK
e[zGh Boe d/ fGnkBe ;ik e/Ado, s;hj/ d/D tkb/ iwoki d/ nB/e B"eo,
T[; dk fJzsIko eo oj/ jB. fJjBK BoeK dk pko pko jo o'i u/sk
eokfJnk iKdk j?. nzs ewi'o wB tkbk wBZ[y ftnke[b j'fJnk pqkjwD
g[ikoh d/ uoBhA Yfj g?Adk j?. “ d/tsk ih ` i' e[M w/o/ e'b j?, ;G b?
bt', go w?B{z e[zGh Boe s'A puk bU. “ u[ok;h bZy i{BK s'A eZY bt' , eb
i[r d/ eb/PK s'A T[Gko bt' ”. gzfvs ih w[;eok e/ g?oK T[FZgo fvZr/ ;/te
d/ f;o s/ jZE c/od/ j'J/ wX[o nktkI ftu p'bd/ jB, “ p/Nk e'Jh fceo
Bk eo, s/o/ ;ko/ d[y eb/P w?A nkgD/ f;o b? btKrk. fit/A n;hA nkyhJ/
T[t/A eodk ikthAHHHHH”. fco eh ;h r[bkwh P[o{ j' rJh. G'bk fJB;kB
Xosh s/ jh, fJ;/ iBw ftu, Boe torh fizdrh pshs eoB bZr fgnk.
j'o tZvk f;sw t/y', n"osK B{z ;[or ftu ikD dh nkw jkbsK ftu
nkfrnk BjhA j?. IwhB, xo, XhnK g[ZsoK s/ fJ;soh dk jZe BjhA j?,
fJ; bJh T[j dkB Gh BjhA eo ;edh. T[j gsh dh fJZe yqhdh j'Jh t;s{
tKr j?. n"os Grsh sgZf;nk Gh BjhA eo ;edhHHHHH. iK s/ shthA
pqkjwD g[ikoh dh jtP g{oh eoB tk;s/ j?, iK gsh d/ woB s/ T[; Bkb
wo (;sh) ;edh j?. i/ edh shthA pqkjwD d/ xz[wD x/o ftu'A fBeb e/,
ebgs ;[or ftu ubh Gh ikt/ sK fJzdo d/ nykV/ dh fJZe Bkuh (t/Ptk)
jh pD ;e/rh. foPhnK, w[BhnK, d/tfsnK dh jtP g[{osh bJh fJZe

(101)
fyv"Dk wkso jh j't/rh. i? irdzp/.
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ;Zu/ gkfsPkj ih B/, nkfrnkBsk d/ fJ;
nzB/Q y{j ftu fvZrD s'A pukT[D bJh, r[opkDh d[nkok ;kvk okj o"PB eo
fdZsk. frnkB d/ B/so py; fdZs/. Xow d/ Bkw s/ ehs/ ik oj/ nB/e gkg
eowK B{z iBsk dh eufjoh ftu Bzfrnk eo fdZsk. b'ehA woB T[gozs
u"ok;h bZy i{BK s'A w[esh ns/ ;[or dh bkb;k oZyd/ ;B. Boe x'o d/
dZ[yK dk Bkw ;[D e/ jh ezpDh fSV iKdh ;h. goT[gekoh ;fsr[o{ ih B/
gfjbk ekoi nkozfGnk fe wB[Zysk B{z ihtB ftu gkJ/ rJ/ nDfrDs
pzXBK s'A w[es eoBk j?. woB s'A wro'A fwbD tkbh w[esh pko/ fco ;'u
btKr/, ihtB w[es j'Dk pj[s Io{oh j?. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ o{g ftu
fJZe wjkB ukBD w[Bkok iK bkJhN jkT{;, wB[ysk d/ ;BwZ[y go'; fdZsk.
nkT[ iok ;fseko ;fjs nZyK y'jb e/, PoXk GktBk Bkb ihtB w[es
wB[Zy pko/ r[opkDh s'A g[ZS t/yhJ/L^
1H ihtB w[efs iK Ppd ;[DkJ/.. ;uh ojs ;uk ;[y gkJ/..
;[ydksk d[y[ w/ND jkok.. nto[ B ;{Mf; phih ekok.. 1342
2H ihts gktj[ w'y d[nko.. nBGT[ ;pd[ ss[ fBi ;ko..343
3H w{J/ w{J/ iT[ w[efs d/ j[r/ w[efs B ikB? e'fJbk.. 1292
4H fi;[ Bkw[ fod? ;' ihtB w[esk.. 1156
5H ;' w[esk ;z;kfo fi r[fo T[gd/f;nk..
fs; eh rJh pbkfJ fwN/ nzd/f;nk.. 519
6H BkBe ;fsr[fo G/fNn? g{oh j't/ i[rfs..
j;zfdnk y/bzfdnk g?Bzfdnk yktzfdnk ftu/ j't? w[efs..522
T[Zgo tofDs gowkDK s'A fJbktk fJ; goEkfJ j'o pj[s Ppd
w"i{d jB. ft;Eko G? ekoB ;ze'u eoBk fgnk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;gPN
s"o s/ T[gd/P eoe/, ;ko/ BoeK nkfd d/ vo Gow, wBK ftu'A eZY ;Z[ND
bJh nkfynk j?. r[opkDh dh nrtkJh gqkgs eoe/, ;ziw tkbh, ftekoK
s'A ofjs fIzdrh pshs eoBh, tkfjr[o{ B{z ;dk u/s/ oZyDk, r[DK Bkb
Gog{o j' ikDk, fJjh n;b w[esh j?. pqkjwD tZb'A bZ[N y;[ZN tkbhnK

(102)
nB/e pzdPK , eoweKvh p/VhnK, r[opkDh dh tdkDh u'N B/ ueBk u{o
eo fdZshnK jB. ;ko/ gkgK g[zBK d/ Gko f;ZyK d/ wBK s'A T[sko e/, j"b/
cZ[b pDk fdZsk j?. fJj sK ;h ;zy/g ;ko r[owfs ftu ihtB w[es dk.
j[D e[M nZr'A ftuko eo t/yhJ/ fe r[opkDh gkg g[zB pko/ fJ; d/ w{b
;o's t/dK pko/, eh nrtkJh pyPdh j?, ns/ Boe ;[or pko/ eh ;/X
fdzdh j? <
eEk ejkDh p/dh nkDh gkg[ g[zB phokr[..
d/d/ b?Dk b? b? d/Dk Bofe ;[ofr ntsko.. (1243)
Gkt nfijhnK eEk ejkDhnK dh xkVs t/dK okjhA xVh s/ goukoh
rJh j? fe gkg fet/A bZrdk j?, T[; gkg B{z T[skoB d/ eh ;kXB jB. dkB
d/Dk fJZe fXo B/ s/ b?Dk d{ih fXo (g[ikoh) B/. Boe ;[or dk ;zebg
ns/ ntskotkd dk w{b ;o's t/d jh jB.
p/d eh g[soh f;zfwqfs GkJh.. ;Keb i/toh b? j? nkJh.. (329)
Gkt t/dK dk jh ;kozP f;woshnK ftu fpnkfBnk frnk j?.
wB[Zyh ;wki B{z nBzs pzXB o{g p/VhnK ftu ieV fdZsk frnk j?. T[go'A
co/p fJj ehsk ik fojk j? fe fJj eoweKv, pzXB o{gh p/VhnK BjhA
jB, ;r'A fJj sK ;[zdo ehwsh rfjD/ i/toks jB, fJjBK B{z fgnko eoBk
uzr/ ikDBk. pzXBK s'A w[es eoBk jh r[opkDh dk wZ[y gq:'iB j?.
g"okDe eEktK ftu fijBK d/tfsnK dh g{ik eoBh dZ;h rJh j?
T[j sK y[d jh ebgs jB ns/ ihtB okj s'A GNe/ j'J/ jB. fijBK
d/tfsnK B{z ;[or d/ wkbe dZf;nk frnk j?, T[j sK y[d jh bZyK gkg
eod/ gosZy BIo nkT[Ad/ jB. nfij/ d/th d/tfsnK B{z r[opkDh ftu
fes/ Gh ;fseko BjhA fdZsk frnk. jK fJjBK tZb'A ehshnK wzd eos{sK
d; e/ wB[Zy B{z ;[u/s pj[s tkoh ehsk frnk j? sK fe nkw wB[Zy fJjBK
dh w{oysk Goh p/^wkfjBh g{ik s'A pu ;e/. ;[or dk okik fJzdo B{z
fwfEnk frnk j?, B/so y'jb e/ fXnkB Bkb t/y', fJzdo pko/ ;fsr[o{
pkpk ih eh dorkjh c[owkB G/i oj/ jBL^

(103)
1H ;jz;o dkB[ d/fJ fzJzdo[ o' nkfJnk..
go;[okw o't/ xo nkfJnk.. 953
Gkt pdekoh eoB pdb/ fJzdo B{z PowBke ;Ik fwbh s/ T[j
fes/ w{zj ftykD i'rk Bk fojk .
2H r"sw[ sgk njfbnk fJ;soh fs;[ d/fy fJzdq b'GkfJnk..
;j; ;oho fujB Gr j{J/ sk wfB gS'skfJnk.. 1244
fJzdo B/ ;kfi; ou e/ r"sw Bkwh ;kX{ dh gsBh njfbnk Bkb
gkg eow ehsk. gsk brD s/ r"sw B/ nfijk PowBke ;okg fdZsk fe
fJzdo ;dk bJh ftbeD, sVgD bJh wip{o j' frnk.
n;b ftu ;wki B{z y"cidk eoB tk;s/ fJjBK ebgs ejkDhnK
okjhA fJZe fGnkBesk Go/ tksktoD dh f;oiDk ehsh rJh. fJj ;EkBe
jkbks w[skpe ns/ Xkowe (<) uso ubke w[yhnK dh wkBf;e pDso
w[skpe jh ;zGt ;h. nop d/PK ftu nfs doi/ dh b{j d/D tkbh X[Zg
toQdh j?. o/s Eb GZm tKr sgD bZrd/ jB. gkDh dh pj[s ewh j?.
o'ikBk dh toQdh e[dosh rowh d/ ;skJ/ nop w[beK d/ Xkowe w[yhnK
B/, gkg eow eoB tkfbnK bJh “d'iy dh nZr ftu ;VBk” ;G s'A
fGnkBe ;ik fwE fdZsh. gfjbK jh sgP rowh d/ d[yh ehs/ ftnesh B{z
nZr e'b p?mD bJh nkfynk ikt/, T[j sK ftbe T[m/rk. T[; dh ftnke[bsk
;hwk gko eo ikt/rh. fJ;/ bJh T[jBK ftu pb ojh nZr dk G?, ngD/
b'eK nr/ fbnk oZfynk. G'b/ b'eK B/ fJ; fGnkBesk nZr/ f;o fBtk
fdZsk. nZi T[j b'e d'iy dh nZr dk Bkw ;[DfdnK jh Eo Eo ezpD bZr
g?Ad/ jB.
d{;o/ pzB/ dh skeh y'jb e/ Gh t/y bJhJ/ fe ;kwh XowK ftu
;[or fe; soQK dk j?. fjzd{nK tZb'A ebg/ rJ/ ;[or Bkb'A pj[s fInkdk
fGzBsk BjhA j?. f;oc fJzdo d/tsk ftu'A rkfJp eo fdZsk frnk j?, pkeh
;G e[M pfjPs ns/ ;[or ftu ;KMk jh Bio nkT[Adk j?. Gb/ w[;bwkBK
d/ ;[nkrs ns/ ;/tk tk;s/ pfjPs ftu j{oK (nfs j[;hB n"osK) fJzsIko
eo ojhnK jB. nzr{oK ns/ yi{oK dh pj[s tXhnk Pokp ghD B{z

(104)
fwb/rh. ;[jktD/ c[ZbK bZd/ pkr, s/ mzY/ gkDh d/ tr oj/ MoB/HHHH nfijk
jh j'o eJh e[M. fJ; dh fto'Xsk eofdnK fJZe w[;bwkB PkfJo fbydk
j?L^
izBs w/ ikeo sj{oB ghT[r/, :jK ghBk feT[A r[Bkj j' frnk<
tjK j{oA/ fwbB/ ek j? j[ew oZph, :jK feT[A iBkj ek r[Bkj j' frnk<
fJ;bkwh irs ftu fJZe wksk okphnk j'Jh ;h. pj[s jh ;{MtkB
ns/ db/o n"os ;h fJj. nkgD/ T[gd/PK Go/ e"seK d[nkok fJ;B/,
nDfrDs b'eK B{z ;'Mh pyPh. fJZe fdB wksk okphnk, i[w/ dh fBtki
gVQB bJh fJeZm/ j'J/, w[;bwkBK e'b nuBu/sh w;fid ftu ik g[Zih.
fJ; d/ fJZe jZE ftu gkDh dh Goh j'Jh pkbNh, d{i/ jZE ftu nZr dhnK
bkNK SZvdh tZvh bZeVh. t/yD tkb/ ;ko/ xpok rJ/, fJZXo T[ZXo BZ;/.
wksk ih B/ roithA nktki ftu ;kfonK B{z “o[eD bJh fejk.” fXnkB
Bkb ;[D bT[, w?A s[jkB{z uzrh soQK ikDdh jK. s[;hA y[dk bJh BwkI ndk
eoB BjhA nkT[Ad/, ;r'A d'iy s'A vo e/ ns/ pfjPs d/ bkbu t; BwkI
ndk eod/ j'. xpokT[ Bk nkj i' w/o/ jZE ftu gkDh dh pkbNh j?, fJ;
Bkb w?A d'iy dh nZr p[Mk fdnKrh Bkb jh s[jkvh bkb;k dk e/Ado pD/
pfjPs B{z ;kV e/ ;[nkj eo fdnKrh, fJ; pbdh bZeVh Bkb. s[;hA ;Zu/
BwkIh BjhA j' vog'e ns/ bkbuh j', nfij/ pzd/ Xowh BjhA j' ;ed/HHHH”.
fJ; goEkJ/ fJZe PkfJo dk eEB j? ^
izBs e/ bkbu w/A i' y[dk ek Bkw b/s/ j?A,
t'j fJpkds BjhA wfji J/e sikos j?.
no i' voe/ d'iy ;/ y[dk ek Bkw b/s/ j?A,
;uh pzdrh BjhA p[ifdbkBk fPekfJs j?.(fJepkb)
wB[Zysk d/ ;Zu/ fjs?PhnK B/, nekb g[oy dh fbtbhBsk ftu'A, i'
pyfPPK gqkgs ehshnK T[j b[ek e/ BjhA oZyhnK. fbysh o{g d/ e/, P[ZX
o{g ftu ;kv/ sZe gZ[idhnK eo fdZshnK. id'A Gh n;hA fe;/ w;b/ pko/
d[fpXk ftu j'JhJ/, okj Bk bZGdk j't/, s[ozs ;fsr[o{, ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp
ih s'A ;fseko ;fjs g[ZShJ/. ;Zu/ ;fsr[o{ ihU ` ;kv/ wBK ftu T[Zm oj/

(105)
PzfenK dk fBtkoD eo', sK ;kfjp ih fpBK d/oh s'A i[nkp d/ e/ PzfenK
ftu'A eZY fdzd/ jB. nZi gkfsPkj ih s'A Boe ;[or pko/ jh p/Bsh eo
bJhJ/^
etB[ Boe[ fenk ;[or[ fpukok ;zsB d'T[ okd/..
jw ekj{ eh ekfD B eYs/ ngB/ r[ogo;kd/.. 969
eh Boe s/ eh ftukok ;[or n;K d'tK B{z jh oZdh dh N'eoh ftu
;Z[N fdZsk j?. nekb g[oy dh feogk ;dek j[D n;hA fe;/ pzXB ftu BjhA
jK, bkbu s/ vo w[ek fdZs/ jB.
epho ;[or Boe s/ w? ofjU ;fsr[o e/ go;kfd..
uoB ewb eh wT[i wfj ofjU nzfs no[ nkfd.. 1370
;[or dk wkbe fJzdo sK y[d w?bk wbhB j?, d[PN eowK ftu
rofenk j'fJnk j?,
T[;dh fJzdo g[oh (;[or) fet/A gftZso j' ;edh j?< r[otke jB^
w?bk pqjwk w?bk fJzd[.. oft w?bk w?bk j? uzd[..HHH
w?b/ f;t ;zeok wj/;.. w?b/ f;X ;kfXe no[ G/y..1158
XowK d/ pj[s/ gqukoe (;w/s f;ZyK d/ ) fJ;/ rZb s/ g{ok skD bk
fdzd/ jB, fe fejVk ezw (yk; eo dkB) eoB s/ ;[or gqkgs j't/rk s/
fe; ekoi eoe/, BoeK d/ d[Zy G'rD/ g?Dr/. fJj pqkjwD dh ;dhnK s'A
ubh nk ojh b[N Z Bhsh dk fJZe tZvk ekw:kp jfEnko ;h s/ j?. r[o tke j?^
gkg g[zB sj GJh ejkts.. e'T{ Boe e'T{ ;[or pzSkts..292
ftPB{z GrtkB (<) d/ Bkw j/m fe;/ f;o/ d/ b[N/o/ B/, ro[V g[okD
Bkwh feskp fby e/, Boe dk nfsnzs vokTDk fuZso b'eK ftu ;dhnK
s'A gqukfonk j?. ;[or d/ wBw'jD/ fdqP, bZS/dko Ppdktbh ftu, g/P ehs/
rJ/ jB. Bshi/ d/ s"o s/ fiZE/ fes/ Gh fJj d[PNsk Gfonk gouko
g[Zfink, T[E/ jh G'b/ Gkb/ b'e Boe ;[or d/ uZeoftT{ ftu c;d/ rJ/.
fJ; wko{ jfEnko dh gquko Pesh okjhA, jikoK ;kb s'A wB[Zysk d/
d[PwD, pVh p/ofjwh Bkb ;wki dk y{B ghAd/ nk oj/ jB. fJjBK
ftjbV g[ikohnK dhnK XkVK Sb egN okjhA, r[bSZo/ T[vk ojhnK jB.

(106)
ihts ftneshnK B{z b[ZN e/ fJjBK ;po BjhA ehsk, pbfe wo/ gqkDhnK
Bfws, (T[jBK d/ tk;s/) tXhnk ykD/, ehwsh p;so, wzi/ fp;so/, o[gJ/,
;'Bk uKdh, d[ZX ghD bJh wZMK rkJhnK, uVB bJh x'VhnK ns/ j'o pj[s
e[M G'b/ iiwkBK s'A b[ZNe/ g[o'fjs b'e “T[go G/i oj/ jB”. nZi Gh
nfrnkBsk Goh fJj b[ZN Gkosh ;wki ftu nkw gquZbs j?. ;r'A
wBw[Zysk tkb/ fJj ezw o{g pdb e/ f;ZyK ftu Gh nkw t/yhd/ jB. fi;
p[okJh s'A ;fsr[o{ ih B/ g[eko g[eko e/ tofink ;h, T[jh p[okJh r[odtko/
d/ nzdo, r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ih dh jI{oh ftu, GkJh ih tZb'A nodk; eoe/
r[owfs pDkT[D dh w{oysk ehsh ik ojh j?. i/ r[odtko/ e[M nogD
eoB dh fJZSk jh j't/, sK p/nzs y[PhnK d/ w"e/ nkT[Ad/ jB, sd'A wzi/,
fp;so/ GKv/ wkfJnk fdZsh ik ;edh j?. wo/ gqkDh d/ G'r s/ jh fJj uhiK
r[odtko/ d/DhnK, ro[V g[okD dk pqkjwDh eow eKv ;gZPN Bio nk
iKdk j? f;Zy xoK s/ r[odtkfonK ftu.
r[opkDh B/ tkfjr[o{ dh :kd ftu fizdrh fpskT[AfdnK ;ko/ G?
T[sko fds/. d[y ;[y, fwZNh ;'Bk, fizdrh w"s, T[;ss fBzdk, b'G, w'j
nkfd s'A pj[s T[FZgo T[mk fdZsk ;h. fJ;/ soK Boe ;[or s'A Gh T[FZgo
g[uk fdZsk frnk ;h. r[o tke j?^
;[or Boe nzfwqs fpy[ J/ ;G, fsT[ ezuB no[ g?;k..
T[;sfs fBzdk J/ ;w ike? b'G[ w'j[ c[fB s?;k.. 220
r[of;Zy ;fsr[o{ dh T[FZsw f;Zfynk d[nkok, fJzBk ;fEo s/ nv'b
nt;Ek tkbk pD ikt/, fe tkfjr[o{ ih d/ fJB;kc s/ g{oB Go';k oZy/.
Boe s'A sK voBk jh eh j?, ;r'A ;[or dh fJZSk dk Gh w[ezwb fsnkr eo
d/t/. tke j?^
eJh p?e[zm Bkjh bt? bkr/
w[efs pg[Vh Gh frnkBh fsnkr/.. 1078
tkfjr[o{ uzrh soQK ikDdk j? fe e"D wBZ[y fe; wkB ngwkB dk
jZedko j?. fJB;kBhns d/ d[PwD g[ikohnK B/ fJj gquko g{o/ I'o Bkb
ehsk j'fJnk ;h, fe i' e[M s[jkv/ e'b j? IwhB xo ;w/s gsBh ns/

(107)
XhnK d/. y[d ekPh d/ Xow wzdo (<) fty/ g[Zi e/ PoXk Bkb ;h; M[ek
fdT[ okw Bkw igfdnK nko/ Bkb ;oho d' ckV eotk bt'HHH. s[;hA fpBK
o'e ;[or ikT[r/, ;kvh rozNh j?. fiZE/ fpwkoh pj[s c?bh j't/ t?d vkeNo
dh b'V Gh T[FZE/ jh fInkdk j?. fJ; gkg eow dk j?v e[nkNo ekPh fty/
;h fiZE/ ftXh g{ote g[okDe rzqEK ftu'A gqwkD :kd eotk e/ Bt/A eow
eKvh B"itkB fsnko ehs/ iKd/ ;B. ;ko/ d/P B{z ;dhnK sZe p/ f;o g?o
dhnK ejkDhnK okjhA Xow dk b/pb bk e/ r[wokj ehsk iKdk fojk j?.
fJZE/ dh ;[XkJh tk;s/ oZp ih B/ epho ih B{z, othdk; ih B{z, ekPh ftu
jh g?dk ehsk. fJjBK :'fXnK B/ p/y"c j' e/ Gowikb d/ pyhJ/ T[X/V
fdZs/. bbeko e/ nktki fdZsh ^
ri ;kY/ s? s? X'shnk shjo/ gkfJfB sr..
rbh fiBk igwkbhnK b'N/ jE fBpr..
T[J/ jfo e/ ;zs B nkyhn? pkBko; e/ mr.. 476
eK;h d/ BIdhe wz[r/o d/ n;EkB s/ wjkB goT[gekoh wjkswk
p[ZX ih B/ ;oho fsnkfrnk ;h. p[ZX ih B/ t/dK dh T[FZusk B{z pqkjwD dh
gqXkBrh B{z, ns/ iks gks B{z eokoh u'N wkoh ;h. fJ;/ rZb dk pdbk b?D
tk;s/ fiZE/ wjkswk p[ZX ih B{z j'o YzrK Bkb S[fNnkfJnk frnk, T[FZE/ fJj
Gh e{V gouko ehsk frnk fe i' ftnesh wrjo (wz[r/o) ;oho fsnkrdk
j?, T[j BoeK ftu iKdk j?. fco nB/e iBw y's/ dh i{B g?Adk j?. epho
ih T[wo d/ nkyoh fjZ;/ wz[r/o ik p;/ ns/ n?bkB eo fdZsk fe oZp dk
Grs B/e ihtB pshs eodk, fes/ Gh ;oho fsnkr/ fJZe ;wkB j?. n?
;z;ko d/ b'e' p[o/ ezw eoB tkbk eK;h ftu wo e/ Gh BoeK dk Gkrh
pD/rk. w/o/ tk;s/ d'B'A jh eK;h s/ w[zr/o^pokpo jB.
np ej[ okw etB rfs w'oh..
sihb/ pBko; wfs GJh E'oh.. ojkT[.. 326
;rb iBw fPt g[oh rtkfJnk..
wosh pko wokjfo T[fm nkfJnk..
ek;h wokjfo ;w phukoh..HHH

(108)
epho ih B/ roi e/ n?bkB ehsk “n? pqkjwD s/oh fJ; mZr
ftZfdnk dh nktkI pj[sh d/o r{zidh BjhA ofj ;e/rh. id'A fJ; dk gki
T[xV frnk, fco s/ok s/ s/o/^ fJ; Xow n;EkB dk eh pD/rk< feZE/ w{zj
b[ekT[r/<
eK;h s/ X[fB T[gi? X[fB eK;h ikJh..
eK;h c{Nh gzfvsk X[fB ejk ;wkJh.. 857
;fsr[o{ nwodk; ;kfjp ih B/ T[go'es ftuko dh gq'Vsk eofdnK
fJ; dk pdb Gh ;kv/ ;Bw[Zy oZfynk j?. n? GkJh eK;h ftu T[FZsw
efbnkDekoh T[gd/P BjhA fwbdk. ;fsr[o{ dh ;oB nkt', fJE'A ihtB
iku gqkgs j[zdh j?. tke j?^
Bk eK;h wfs T[gi? Bk eK;h wfs ikfJ..
;fsr[o fwfbn? wfs T[gi? sK fJj ;'Mh gkfJ.. (491)
r[o{ xo d/ T[gd/P ;dek, pqkjwDh Xow n;EkBK s/ f;Zy ikD'
xNd/ rJ/. Bkb jh pqkjwDh ohsK N[ZND bZrhnK. pqkjwD dh T[FZusk dk Gh
G'r g?D bZr fgnk. r[o{ BkBe fBozekoh ih sK fjzd{ wZs d/ feb/ eKPh
ftu, ;zB bk jh nkJ/ ;B. pkd ftu f;Zy gzE d/ ;fseko:'r, X[ozso
ftdtkB, GkJh ;kfjp r[odk; ih Xow gouko eod/, nB/e EktK r[owfs
dk SZNk fdzd/, eKPh ik X[zwK gkJhnK. T[FZE'A d/ gzfvnK B/ fJ; tZX oj/
o[MkB B{z tZvk ysok nB[Gt ehsk. T[jBK ;bkj eoe/, ;G s'A frnkBtkB
gzfvs, fBZfsnk Bzd B{z mZb gkT[D tk;s/, f;ZyK ns/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z “;jh
Xow dh f;Zfynk d/D tk;s/”, g{oh fsnkoh eotk e/ nzfwqs;o G/fink.
fBZfsnk Bzd B/ ;fsr[o{ jfo r'fpzd ;kfjp ih nZr/ p/Bsh ehsh, fe w?A
pj[s ehwsh T[gd/P b? e/ s[jkv/ dopko ftu jkIo j'fJnk jK. n;hA
wfj;{; eod/ jK fe s[jkv/ f;ZyK dk g[oksB rqzEK s'A Xkowe frnkB gqkgs
eoe/ efbnkD j't/. Y'b dk g'b Go/ fJeZm ftu y'jbD tk;s/ gzfvs B{z
jo o'i eEk eoB dh nkfrnk d/ fdZsh. fBfsnkBzd B/ gzdoK e[ fdB
ro[V g[okD dh eEk uzr/ w;kb/ bk e/ ;[DkJh. f;ZX eoB brk fe fJ; rqzE
dh d;h ftXh w[skpe, fefonktK eoB s/, fJB;kB woD T[gozs ;[or

(109)
ftu iKdk j?. T[bN uZbD tkbk BoeK ftu ;Vdk j?. fJZe f;Zy B/ ;tkb
ehsk ^ “ fBfsnk Bzd ih ` ;[or g[ZiD tk;s/ fezB/ fdB wjhB/ brd/
jB<”
fJZe ;kb brdk j?.
go w?A sK nZmK gfjoK (24 xzN/) ftu jh ;[or g[Zi ;edk jK.”
f;Zy B/ s'Vk MkfVnk.
“w?A fJZe gfjo ftu jh ;[or g[iD dh ;wZoEk oZydk jK. fJZe
j'o itkB p'fbnk.
“gzfvs ih ` n;hA ;ko/ ;[orK BoeK B{z v[zx/ N'J/ ftu ;[ZN BZg
fdZsk j?. ;kv/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/ uoB jh ;kv/ tk;s/ ;[orK s'A fpjso jB,
s[;hA ikU, ;kvk ;wK nikJhA Bk r[tkU.
fBfsnk Bzd pVk fSZEk fgnk, nkyD bZrk, “;fsr[o{ ihT[ you
bJh e[M o[g? fdU, w?A nkgD/ itkB p/N/ B{z ekPh G/iDk j?, T[E'A j'o Xow
rqzE b? e/ S/sh w[V nkt/rk. fco w?A ;kfonK dh s;Zbh eotk fdnKrk.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ wkfJnk d/ fdZsh. gzfvs brB PrB wj{os ;'X e/
gZsoh tku e/ ngD/ p/N/ B{z ftdk eoB bZrk. nZr'A y'sk jhArdk ;[D fgnk.
gzfvs B/ p//N/ B{z tkg; w'V fbnk, ny/ PrB p[ok j' frnk. eZbQ ubk
ikthA. ;ko/ f;ZyK T[; dk uzrk wike T[vkfJnk^ n? gzfvs, s/ok sK ngDk
jh, ngD/ rqzEK s/ ftPtkP BjhA. s{z fJZe y's/ d/ nky/ g[Zso B{z tkg; w'V
fbnKdk. fco s/o/ Xow rqzEK Bkb'A, s/o/ bJh y's/ dh nkyh finkdk
wjZstg{oB j'Jh. fJsBh ;koh rZbpks B{z ;[D e/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ GkJh
r[odk; ih B{z nkfrnk ehsh fe s[;hA fBZfsnk B{z ;wMkU, fJj f;Zy j[D
s[jkv/ c?bkJ/ ikb ftu BjhA cZ;D bZr/.
GkJh ;kfjp r[odk; ih B/ fJZe efpZs dh ftnkfynk ;kfonK
;Bw[Zy oZyh^ gzfvs ih. fit/A fJZe ehVh o[y s/ bZr/ cb sZe gZ[iD tk;s/
pj[s j"bh N[odh, d/o ftu gj[zudh j?, go gzSh T[vkoh wko e/ MZN cb
bkr/ ik p?mdk j?. fJZe p?b rZvh bhjK ftu w;hA s[odh j?, x'V/ s/ n;tko
wBZ[y s/Ih Bkb fes/ dh fes/ fBeb iKdk j?. ;oho eoe/ g?db ubDk

(110)
nsh emB j?, nkswk eoe/ fJB;kB nZy gbeko/ ftu d[Bhnk x[zw b?Adk
j?. pZ; fJ;/ soK ;kv/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ feogk eoe/ ;kB{z pj[s nZr/ gj[zuk
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;ed/. s[;hA ikT[ feT[A ;wK nikJhA r[nkT[Ad/ j'. efpZs fJT[A j?^
i?;/ uhANh eqw eqw e? fpoy uV?, gzSh T[fv ikfJ p?;/ fBeN jh cb e?..
i?;/ rkvh ubh iks bheB w?A Xhoi ;?, x'o/ dT[o/ ikfJ pkfJ dkjB/ ;pb e?..
i?;/ e'; Go ub ;ehn? B gkfJfB e/ nkswk us[o ezN [ XkfJ nkt? gb e?..
s?;' b'e p/d G/d frnkB T[BwkB gS, rzw r[ouoB ;oB n;Eb e?..404
rzrk d/ shoE s/ i[V/ tZv/ fJeZm ;kjt/A ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih
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fpfynks j?. ;koh n;bhns Bk ;wM b'eK d/ nZr/ gorN eo fdZsh. n?
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yk; Ekt/A s[jkv/ tv/o/ p?m/ j'J/ jB. Bk jh Xosh s'A G/fink e'Jh gdkoE
T[Zgo ik fojk j?.
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j?, T[;/ ftu fJj ;b'e doi j?^
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nr? t;s[ f;RkDhn? fgsoh u'o eo/fJ..
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BkBe nr? ;' fwb? fi yN/ xkb/ d/fJ..
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okjhA p/nzs b'eK B{z bZ[fNnk ik fojk j?. i/ wzB bJhJ/ fe fJZe u'o ngD/
fgsoK Bfws PokX eotk fojk j?. T[; B/ j'o e'Jh ezw sK eoBk BjhA.
pi[orK gqsh u'oh ehs/ ;kwkB ftu'A jh dkB g[zB eo/rk. u'oh d/ wkb ftu'A
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(111)
bJhJ/ sK T[FZE/ ofj oj/ pI[or B/ nkgD/ xo'A u'oh j'fJnk ;kwkB, MZN
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f;Zfynk d/ oj/ jB. j/ GkJh nZr/ s[jkvhnK G/ihnK e'Jh t;sK BjhA
ikDhnK. s[jkv/ tZb'A ehs/ B/e ezw, ns/ tkfjr[o{ dh ;dk fjod/ ftu
:kd, fJjh Bkb fBG/rh.
eJh jIko ;kb gfjbK gZSwh J/Phnk d/ fe;/ fyZs/ ftu'A gbkfJB
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tk;hnK B{z pVh p/^ofjwh Bkb esb ehsk. ;?AeV/ ;kbK sZe y[{z o/ih j[zdh
ojh, Gkosh ;ZfGnsk g{oh soQK BPN eo fdZsh rJh. fJ; g[okDh (nsh
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wip{o eo fdZsk frnk.
pqkjwDK tZb'A gqukfonk frnk Boe ;[or fJokB d/P ftu nZi
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fJ;/ EK B{z nZieb fJokBhnB g?okvkJhI (;[or) fejk iKdk j?. fJj
irQk d/wKpzd n?bp[oi gops f;zybk ftu j?. ePwho tKr fJj EK nsh
;[zdo owDhe ns/ w";w gZy'A ;dk fyZu dk e/Ado ojh j?. tZv/ nwhoIkd/
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fdZsk frnk. fJokBh ;[or ftu i' wBgoukt/ d/ ;kXB ;B, brGr T[j

(112)
;ko/, fJXob/ rqzEK ftu'A gqrN j' oj/ jB. T[jh Pokp d/ d"o, T[jh Bku
;zrhs, T[jh rdokJ/ i[nkB nZX eZi/ w'jDhnK d/ ;ohoHHHHHHH. E'V/Q c/o
pdb Bkb fJokBh ;[or ns/ Gkosh g"okDe eEktK dk ;[or fJZe d{i/ s'A
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iK g?okvkJhI j?.
fJokB ftu jh d'iy iK Boe Bkw dk n;EkB Gh j?. toswkB
fJokB ftu fJ; dk Bkw n:tos j? (d'iy) fJE/ ;oho b{j d/D tkbh X[Zg
toQdh j?. d{o sZe ghD tkbk gkDh fes/ BjhA fwbdk. jfonkbh dk fBPkB
sZe BjhA. T[ikV phnkpkB uko/ pzB/. ;w/A d/ ikpoK tZb'A ngD/ fto'XhnK
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jfEnkopzd iotkD/ gfjo/dko. e?dhnK B{z sVgkT[D bJh, ;oho d/ nzr
row s/b ftu gkJ/ iKd/. ;oho T[Zs/ T[Zpbdk s/b T[bZd d/Dk, jZE g?o eZN
d/D/, nZyK eZY d/DhnK, ihG eZN d/Dh, ykDk sK fes/ fojk gkDh sZe ghD
bJh Bk d/DkHHHH. fco ftbe oj/ eokj oj/, dw s'V oj/ b'eK B{z t/y e/
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wBkT[DhnK. nfij/ y"cBke s;hj/ MZbfdnK e[M fdBK iK wjhfBnK ftu
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;h. fJjh ;h e[zGh Boe, d'iy iK e[M j'o. nkw fJB;kB fJ; dk Bkw
;[De/ jh ezp TZ[mdk ;h. fJj d'iy Gh nkohnB b'eK dk t/fynk ;[fDnk
;h. fJ;/ Boe B{z pdbt/A o{g ftu pqkjwDh g"okDe rqzEK okjhA Gkosh
;ZfGnsk nzdo m'; fdZsk frnk j?. fJ; dh gfoGkPk iK g/Pekoh ftu
Bkwkso nzso j' ;edk j?. fJ; dk w{b ;'wK iK fgS'eV fJZe' j?.
fco j[D ftukoBk gt/rk fe r[opkDh ftu ;[or iK Boe fe;
soQK dk j?. ;[or T[j ;EkB j? fiZE/ B/e fJB;kB fBtk; eod/ jB.
r[ow[fy iB tkfjr[o{ d/ Bkw ftu ;dk bhB ofjzd/ jB. c[owkB j?^

(113)
p?e[zm Bro[ ijK ;zs tk;k..
gqG uoD ewb fod wkfj fBtk;k.. 742
w[efs G[rfs i[rfs s/oh ;/tk fi;[ s{z nkfg eokfJfj..
sjK p?em z[ ijK ehosB (johi;) s/ok s{z nkg/ ;oXk bkfJfj..749
gktB r[opkDh g[eko e/ nky ojh j?, fe n? GkJh. Boe dk G?
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gow/Po d/ gftZso fJB;kc s/ Go';k BjhA fojk< i/ Go';k j? sK fco
sob/ eoB dh eh Io{os j?< T[; ;Zu/ dopko ftu T[FZuh iks p/wkfjBh
j?. Bk e'Jh foPts iK f;ckoP wzBh ikDh j?. nwho j'Dk Gh fe;/ b/y/
ftu BjhA g?Dk. r[o c[owkB j?^
nr? ikfs B i'o[ j? nr? ihT[ Bt/..
fiB eh b/y? gfs gt? uzr/ ;/Jh e/fJ.. 469
f;Zy bJh r[o{ c[owkD j? fe ihtB B{z B/eh d/ okj N'o b?Dk.
gowkswk B{z ;dk fjod/ ftu t;k e/ oZyDk, oik ftu okih ofjDk, fJjh
w[esh iK p?e[zm j?. tke j?^
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do do;B ek gqhsw[ j't? w[efs p?e[zm eo? fenk.. 360
r[o{ f;Zfynk ftu'A rfjokJh Bkb fJekro fuZs j' e/ e/Adoh Gkt
bZGD dk isB eohJ/, sK gsk bZrdk j? fe nekb g[oy B{z ft;ko d/Dk jh
o'rK f;o o'r j?. nkswe w"s Gh Bkw Bkb'A N[ZN ikD B{z jh nkfynk j?.
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jh dZf;nk j?. e[M r[o tke fJT[A jB^
1H gzEk gq/w B ikDJh G{bh fco? rtkfo..
BkBe jfo fp;okfJe? gkT[d/ Bofe nzXknko.. 1426
2H Bkw[ ft;kfo d'y d[y ;jhn?.. j[ew GfJnk ubDk feT[A ojhn?..
Boe e{g wfj r's/ ykt? fiT[ ib s/ pkjfo whB/ o/.. 1028
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ej[ epho fJj eohn? ekfj.. ;kX ;zrfs p?em z[ ? nkfj.. 326

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;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gekoh f;Zfynk s/ T[gd/P w[skpe ihtB pshs
eoB tkb/ g[oyK B{z cVB nkT[Dk sK fes/ fojk, T[bNk id'A Xow oki (<)
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;kiB fwfbn? ;[y[ gkfJnk. iwd[s w{J/ fpy[ ykJ/.. 55
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fojk j?. r[otke^
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IwhB ns/ j'o ;G e[M i' gZb/ j?, dkB eo d/t/. fco g[ikohnK tZb'A wzso
gVQB T[gqzs okwBkw igdk j'fJnk wB[Zy (Xow rqzEK w[skpe) nkgDk
;oho nko/ Bkb r/bh tKr d'ckV eotk bt/. sK Gh e'Jh gqkgsh BjhA j'
;e/rh, fJj okj jh bZ[N/fonK B/ N'fonk j?. r[otke^
weo gqkfr dkB[ pj[ ehnk ;oho[ dhT[ nX ekfN..
fpB[ jfoBkw e' w[efs B gkt? pj[ ezuB[ dhi? efN efN..986
f;Zy gzE e'b frnkB dk ;{oi Pqh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp nrtkJh tk;s/
;dk nzr ;zr j?. fIzdrh fiT[D dk ;jh Yzr, ftfrnkBe sohe/, ;kv/
;Bw[Zy gorN j?. iBw s'A b? e/ woB sZe nsh ;[ykbk okj ;fsr[o{ ih
B/ pyfPP ehsk j?. nc;'; fe ykb;k gzE fJZehthA ;dh d/ ezfgT[Noh
:[Zr ftu Gh nfrnkBsk d/ jB/o/ ftu GNe fojk j?. feogk d/ dks/
;fsr[o{ ih B/ ftekoK s'A ofjs, r[DK Bkb Gog{o ihtB pDkT[D bJh j[ew
ehsk j?. id'A ihtB r[opkDh gokfJD j' frnk sK Boe dk vo BjhA
oj/rk, ;[or dh fJZSk ysw j' ikt/rh. r[otke^
;{oi feofD fwb/ ib ek ib[ j{nk okw..
i'sh i'fs obh ;zg{oB Ehnk okw.. 846

(115)
;wki B{z bZrhnK nB/e goeko dhnK i'eK B/, G'b/ b'eK dk ;dhnK
s'A y{B ghsk j?. fJjBK nkgDh fJZSk d/ GrtkBK (<) dh f;oiDk ehsh.
ebgs gow/Po B{z gqkgs eoB dhnK bZyK ftXhnK dh xkVs xV e/
gouZbs ehsh. fJ; ;q/Dh d/ wjK BkfJe pqkjwD B/ nkgD/ nkg B{z ;op
PeshwkB, s/ ;opT[u x'fPs ehsk. i/ ukj/ sK go; okw pqkjwD,
yZsohnK dhnK fJZeh eZ[bK dk Bk; eo ;edk j?. i/ ukj/ sK ;[dkw/ d/ o{g
ftu ik e/ Gh feqPB dk oki b? ;edk j?. i/ ukj/ sK johP uzdo oki/ dk
oki dkB ftu b? e/, T[; B{z gotko ;w/s ykbh jZE wfjbK ftu'A XZek d/ e/
eZY ;edk j?. do do dh Ghy wzrD s/ wId{oh eoB bJh wip{o eo
;edk j?. i/ pqkjwD ukj/ sK Xowh oki/ pfb s'A ;kok oki goskg y'j e/
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ftu bZs wko ;edk j?. nZr'A GrtkB ftPB{z B{z Pokg d/ e/ d[y G'rD, okw
uzdo d/ o{g ftu, iBw fdtk ;edk j?. fGqr{ tZb'A wkoh bZs ekoB okw
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fJ; Bk:kp j;sh pqkjwD tZb'A ;dhnK s'A nB/e ftXhnK Bkb wB[ysk B{z
r[wokj ehsk frnk j? s/ b[ZN e/ ykXk Gh frnk j?. fJj i/ ukj/ sK p[ZX wZs
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dk wk; Gh ;[nkd bk bk e/ yKdk fojk j?HHHHHH.
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w?A dkB d/ e/, shoEh fJPBkB eoe/, iK nfij/ c'e/ eoweKv eoe/, so
iktKrk. gow/Po d/ do s/ ;w{bu/ ihtB dh goy j'Dh j?. e/tb goy dh
e;tZNh s/ yo/ T[soB tkb/ gotkB ehs/ ikDr/. y'fNnK B{z yo/ pDkT[D
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tZi ikDr/. fJjBK b'eK B{z Gh nkw fJB;kBK tKr fwjBs wid{oh eoe/,
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jK.
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s/ GowB ikfJ..
nkg v[p/ uj[ p/d wfj u/b/ dhJ/ pjkfJ.. 1369
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okjK ftu GNefdnK B{z rkvh okj/ N'o fdZsk. popkd jz[fdnK B{z ihtB
dkB pyP fdZsk. XzB r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih.

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(117)
r[o[ ;oto[ jw jz; fgnko/
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fpy[ ikfD.. (1331) ;z;ko s'A ftdk j' iKdh j?. c\o i'r wknoe/ wkoB/
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BkBe ;kfjp ih B/, i' bk;kBh g{oB/ gkJ/, i' Bt/A okjK dh fBPkB d/jh
ehsh, wB[Zy B{z feosw g{ik tZb'A j'V e/, fJZe d/ g[ikoh pDkfJnk,
ekfJosk Gfonk Boeh ihtB fiT[D tkfbnK gP{nK tofrnK B{z L^
“P{eo ;[nkB roXp wzikok.. gP{ wb/S Bhu uzvkbk..
r[o s/ w[j[ c/o/ fsB i'fB GtkJhn?..pzXfB pkfXnk nkJhn? ikJhn?..”(832)
B{z ;fsr[o{ ih B/, “ fiB wkD; s/ d/ts/ ehJ/ ” tork nfs fpyVk go
pj[s io{oh ekoi nkozG eo fdZsk. j'o nB/e goT[geko jB ;fsr[o{ ih
d/, go jEb/ b/y ftu e/tb, “ eK fuZN/ j'J/ iK eKtK s'A jz; pD rJ/, iK
fco fgzrb/ (e'jVh ) dk o'r jZfNnk, szd[o;s pfDnk” pko/ r[opkDh dh
nkyoh e;"Nh s/, ;Zu M{m dh goy ehsh ikt/rh.
;Zu dk ;{oi r[opkDh gVQ ftuko e/, nkw wB[Zy frnkB d/ ukBD
Bkb, nkgD/ fdwkr d/ jB/o/ e'B/ o"PB eo fojk ;h. d[BhnK ijkB d/ gkJ/

(118)
pzXB, tfjw Gow, Boe ;[or, dkB g[zB shoE fJPBkB nkfd d/ r[opkDh
o{gh s/r okjhA goyu/ T[FZvd/ ik oj/ ;B. ;dhnK s'A feoshnK dh ewkJh
s/ gbD tkb/ “goihth”, Xow dk u'bk gfjBh p?m/ fPekoh, nkgD/ jbt/
wzv/ B{z S/sh ehs/ fet/A fsnkr d/Ad/< fJjBK ftjbV b[ZN/fonK dhnK XkVK
B/, ebgs ejkDhnK dk ;jkok b? e/, “ebo[ y/s[ b? e{V[ iwkfJnk, ;G
e{V? e/ ybtko/ ” (981) wjKtke w[skpe, r[o{ xoK ftu fBsk gqsh, ;t/o/
Pkw, pVh fBbZisk Bkb, fJjBK w[cs y'fonK B/ M{m ejkDhnK dk gquko
nkozG fdZsk. frnkB d/ ;kro B{z (r[opkDh) X{cK X[yk, NZbhnK tik fuwN/
Y'behnK yVek, i'sK irk, G'r brtk e/ j{pj{ w{osh dh fBnkJh g{ik
i'rk pDk e/ oZy fdZsk. nkw f;Zy B{z r[opkDh s'A s'fVnk frnk. ;{oi
gqekP, r[ofpbk; gksPkjh S/thA (;G s'A BfyZX) s/ ebgs pkb/ tkbh
;kyh Bkb i'VB dk pZio gkg ehsk frnk. fiBQK feskpK ftu, ;fsr[o{
;kfjpkB, GrsK ns/ ihtB tkb/ f;ZyK dh, p/Powh Bkb p/fJZIsh ehsh
rJh ;h, T[jBK feskpK dh gq;z;k j'Jh, r[odtkfonK ftu eEk nkozG
eotkJh rJh. fi; rzdrh Goh ykJh ftu'A, ;fsr[o{ ih B/ wB[Zysk B{z
pkjo eZfYnk ;h, fJjBK gzE d'yh g[ikohnK B/, w[V T[;/ rzdh dbdb ftu
;[ZN fdZsk. fJfsjk;e ns/ tZv/ Bkwh r[odtko/, fJjBK gzE d'yh s/
r[opkDh fto'Xh wBw[Zysk d/ f;o eZYt/A nZv/ pD e/ T[FZGo/ jB.
;fsr[o{ ih dh gktB pkDh d/ j[zfdnK j'o fe;/ ;p{s dh b'V BjhA
j[zdh. ;koh d[BhnK d/ b'e fJZe gk;/ j'D, r[o{ dh pkDh d{i/ gk;/ j't/, sK
;Zuk f;Zy, fpBK d/oh ;fseko ;fjs r[o{ ih d/ fgZS/ j't/rk. go rIp
d/y', fdB fdjkV/ r[opkDh d/ j[ewK dh T[bzxDk eoB tkb/, d[PN eow,
tZv/ r[odtkfonK ftu'A, tZv/ bhvoK s/ iZE/dkoK tZb'A ehs/ eokJ/ ik oj/
jB. jEb/ b/y B{z f;oc dopko ;kfjp d/ ;o'to ftu'A “ ekb/ eK fuZN/ j'
e/ fBeb/” sZe ;hws oZyD dh e'fPP ehsh ikt/rh. fpBK fe;/ gqwkfDe
;p{s ns/ jtkb/ s'A, fJj gqukfonk frnk fe fJZE/ fJZe SZgVh j'fJnk
eodh ;h. T[E/ okw uzdo ns/ ;hsk pDtk; ;w/A nkJ/ dk e[co s'fbnk
frnk. e[M fJZe B/ j'o eJh ;ko/ ghoK cehoK dk nkT[Dk Gh fby

(119)
Xfonk. fco gZNh d/ oki/ (gZNh fJbke/ ftu gVskb eoB s/ nfij/ fe;/
oki/ d/ j'D pko/ ;p{s BjhA fwb/) dhnK ;Zs bVehnK i[nkB j'JhnK. T[;
B/ ;kohnK B{z tkoh tkoh g[ZfSnk^“s[;hA fe; dh fe;ws Bkb o'Nh yKdhnK
j'< ” tZvhnK S/ bVehnK nkfynk, fgsk ih` s[jkvh fe;ws Bkb. S'Nh
B/ rbs itkp d/ fdZsk, ‘ ny/ w?A nkgDh fe;ws dk yk ojh jK. ” okik
;ys BkokI j' frnk. MZNgZN fJZe e'jVh (fgzrbk) bVek bZG e/ nkgDh
bVeh dk ftnkj T[; Bkb eo fdZsk. “t/yK j[D s{z nkgDh fe;ws dh
o'Nh fet/A ykt/rhA < j?A ` jB/o ;kJhA dk.. fJZe wk;{w bVeh tZb'A ;Zu
p'bD s'A, eo'X ftu Go e/, n?vh fGnkBe ;Ik fdZsh < e'Jh fgsk nkgDh
p/Nh dh fizdrh fJ; soQK popkd eo ;edk j?< y?o ` bVek N[o BjhA
;edk ;h, bVeh oiBh B/, fJ; B{z N'eoh ftu gke/, f;o s/ u[Ze fbnk,
s/ Ghy wzr e/ o'Nh ykD bZrh. oki/ dh p/Nh ;[zdo itkB, iwkB/ d/
bczfrnK s/ ;oekoh r[zfvnK, T[jB{z p/fJIs BK ehsk< fco T[j N[odh
j'Jh, nzfwqs;o (sd'A uZe okwdk;) SZgVh d/ feBko/, fgzrb/ tkbh N'eoh
oZy e/, y[d o'Nh wzrD ubh rJh. fgzrb/ B/ t/fynk fe SZgVh ftu ekb/
eK u[ZGh bkT[Ad/ jB, fJPBkB eod/ jB, s/ ;c?d j' e/ pkjo fBebd/ jB.
eJh EkJhA jz; pD e/ T[FZvd/ rJ/ Gh fbfynk fwbdk j?. fJ; s'A gq/os j'
e/ fgzrbk foVdk j'fJnk, SZgVh ftu ik fvZrk. p; fco eh ;h, s[ozs
;oho e[zdB (;'Bk) tork pD frnk szdo[;s. g{oh vhb v"b tkbk ;[DZyk
B"itkB. oiBh B{z N'eoh bkr/ p?mk fwfbnk.
oiBh B/ g[ZfSnk s{z e"D j?A < w/ok gsh (fgzrbk ) feZE/ j?<
“s/ok gsh w?A jh jK, fJ; SZgVh ftu'A, eKtK B{z fuZN/ j[zd/ t/y e/ w?A
Gh u[ZGh wko bJh, s/ B"Apo B"A s/o/ ;kjwD/ yVk jK ”.
BjhA ` s{z M{m p'bdk j?A, oiBh eVeh. B"itkB B/ nkgD/ jZE dk fJZe
nzr{mk, jkbh gfjbK tkbh jkbs ftu oZfynk j'fJnk ;h. T[j gkDh ftu
v'p fdZsk, nZy d/ c'o ftu szdo[;s j' frnk. oiBh s/ B"itkB B/, r[o{
okwdk; ih d/ uoBK s/ wZEk N/fenk. nPhotko b? e/ ub/ rJ/, ;[yh
ihtB pshs eoB bZr/. r[o{ okwdk; ih B/ T[;/ EK s/ ;o'to pDtkfJnk.

(120)
e'jV/ mhe j'D dk todkB fdZsk. sd'A s'A ;kX ;zrs ih, fJE/ nB/eK b'eK
d/ o'r eZN/ ik oj/ jB. feT[Afe wjkoki ih B/, r[opkDh ftu fbfynk
j'fJnk j?, rbs fet/A j' ;edk j?^ “nzfwqs;o[ ;fsr[o[ ;fstkdh fis[
Bks? eT{nk jz;[ j'j?.” fJ; r[o{ gzesh B{z ;[De/ jo f;Zy dh I[pkB o[e
iKdh j?. nkgD/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z rbs fet/A nky/< dk; bzw/ ;w/A sZe fJ;
d[fpXk ns/ gq/PkBh ftu GNedk fojk. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nkg jh ofjws
eoe/, r[opkDh B{z noEK ;w/s gVQB bJh gq/fonk. “eK, eT{nk tkb/, ns/
;o'to tkb/” Ppd B'N eodk frnk. ;ko/ PzfenK dk ;op BkP j'
frnk. fJZe fJZe ;tkb dk i[nkp fwb frnk. nkU nZr/ bVh B{z ubdh
oZyhJ/^
1H gfjbh rZb sK fJj fe nzfwqs;o ;o'to, ;fsr[o{ ih ekoB
;fseko dk gkso pfDnk j? iK fe okw uzdo ;hsk ekoB < iK r[ofpbk;
gkL S/thA g[;se w[skpe ftPB{z ekoB< feT[Afe joh Bkw ftPB{z dk j?,
fJ; soK fJj ftPB{z wzdo j?^ ;ktXkB, j'fPnko. fco wjkBsk fJZE/
gftZso pkDh dh j? iK ;o'to dh < fco gqpzXeK g[ikohnK g?AsVk pdb
fbnk. BjhA ih ;'Gk sK r[opkDh dh jh j?, go d/y' BK brksko pkDh dk
ehosB j'D eoe/, ;o'to wjkB j' frnk. fco r[opkDh dk ehosB gkm
eEk sK j'o Gh nB/e EkJhA j' fojk j?, T[EA' d/ SZgV feT[A gftZso BjhA pD/ <
fJ; B{z ih ;fsr[o{ ih dk todkB i[ fwfbnk j'fJnk j?. nfijhnK jIko
:pbhnK g[ikohnK e'b'A ;[DB B{z fwbdhnK jB. dbhb s/ yok T[soB
fJZe Gh itkp BjhA fwbdk.
okth dfonk dk gkDh, ykb( jz;bh) pDk e/, r[o{ xo d/ gq/wh, ;zs'y
dk; s/ gqhsw dk; B/ ;o'to sZe g[Zidk ehsk ;h. g[oksB ;fwnK ftu
BfjoK BK wkso jh ;B. tkNo toe; (N{NhnK) dk ;tkb jh BjhA ;h.
Bbe/ iK p'o bkT[D/ jkb/ ;'u/ Gh BjhA rJ/ ;B. fJZe' fJZe ;"yk ;kXB ;h
gkDh dhnK b'VK g{ohnK eoB dkl po;ks dk gkDh Bht/A EK (SZgV
;o'to) fJeZmk eoe/ oZy fbnk ikt/. fJPBkB, ghD, eZgV/ X'D s/ gP{nK
bJh fJZE'A jh gkDh tofsnk iKdk ;h. ni/ sZe Gkos d/ eJh wko{Ebh

(121)
fJbkfenK ftu, fJ;/ soQK ehsk iKdk j?. e[M jZd sZe iksgks B{z mZb
gkT[D tk;s/, ;o'toK ezw ehsk. y{j d{ih soihj ;h, feT[Afe fJZNK
gekT[DhnK, b'j/ dhnK fNzvK ns/ y{j r/VB tkbhnK rokohnK pDkT[DhnK,
pj[s n"yk ;h. nZi Gh t/fynk ik ;edk j?, dopko ;kfjp dhnK
goeowK tkbk fjZ;k, pkeh ;EkB Bkb'A BhtK j?. fJj fBotkDsk dk gqshe
BjhA j?, ;r'A Bht/A EK gkDh fJZemk eoB bJh ;h. e/;rVQ (nBzdg[o)
pj[s T[Zuh gjkVh s/ pfDnk j'fJnk j?, fco T[;B{z eh jzeko ftu nkcfonk
wzfBnk ikt/rk< dwdwk (sbtzvh ;kp') T[FZu/ EK r[odtkok ;[GkfJwkB j?.
cfsjrVQ ;kfjp, d[yfBtkoB, gfNnkbk, PhP rzi pzrbk ;kfjp s/ oekp
rzi, fdZbh ;ko/ r[odtko/ T[ZuhnK EktK s/ pD/ j'J/ jB, eh fJj ;ko/ rbs
pD rJ/< fco nzfwqs;o dopko ;kfjp dh fBwosk B{z fet/A mhe f;ZX
ehsk ik ;e/rk. eh fJ; fBwosk d/ gqshe n;EkB ftu ekpi b'e
fBwosk Bkb Gog{o jB< fJ; n;EkB d/ BIdhe s/ik f;zx ;w[zdoh
jkb nzdo ;kb ftu d' tkoh emg[sbhnK dk fxBkT[Dk swkPk j[zdk j?.
fJZe ew/Nh d/ gqXkB dh “bckc/ tkbh u'D. ew/Nh w?Apo gfjbK jh ;ko/
nfXeko ‘ekbh db d/ gqXkB B{z ;"Ag e/, uoBK s/ PhP M[ek e/, tckdkoh
dk neZN ;p{s g/P eo fdzd/ jB.” jkew XVk nb'uBk ;[BD dk nkdh
BjhA j[zdk. r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp dh ji{oh dopko ;kfjp d/ n?B B/V/, “ekrj[
jz; eo/” tkb/ ;o'to d/ ;whg fJj wkB:'r gziK “f;zx ;kfjpkB” d/
;Bw[Zy, fJZe d{i/ dhnK gZrK bkj[zd/, dkVhnK e/; g[ZNd/, Xh^G?D g[Dd/,
;kb ftu d' tkoh t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. Btzpo ftu gqXkBrh s/ wkou ftu
pZiN fJeZm. fJjBK dh fposh jz; BjhA pDh fJjBK d/ wB dk e'jV BjhA
jZfNnk. fJj nZi eb eK BjhA oj/, ftukok eK pVk vog'e j[zdk j?. fJj
b'e “jZe gokfJnk” (r[o{ eh r'be) yk yk e/, fBohnK jkpVhnK j'JhnK
froMK dk o{g XkoB eo u[Ze/ jB. ;o'to d/ fJPBkB B/, fJjBK dk okJh
wkso e[M BjhA ;ztkfonk.
Gkos Go ftu nzdkIB gzdoK bZy dhox (e'jV) o'r tkb/ gqkDh
w"i{d jB. o/vhU, NhHthH s/ nypkoK okjhA, T[jBK sZe ypo feT[A BjhA

(122)
g[ukJh iKdh fe nkU tho', G?D' fJ; gftZso ;o'to ftu fJPBkB eo',
s[jkvk o'r jZN ikD dh gZeh rozNh j?. ypo ezBh g?AfdnK jh fJj b'e
XkJh eod/ j'J/, nzfwqs;o g[ZiDr/. g{oh PoXk Bkb fJPBkB eoBr/.
szd[o;s j' ikD dh ;{os ftu, ;dk bJh r[o{ uoBK d/ G"o/ pD ikDr/.
f;Zy gzE dk Bo'nk nzr pD ikDr/. ;z;ko d/ b'eK B{z e{e e{e e/ dZ;Dr/,
n;hA fJ; eokwksh ;o'to ftu fJPBkB eoe/ B"Apo B"A j' rJ/ jK, pVk
wjkB j? fJj r[o{ do. nkT[A s[;hA Gh fJE'A y[PhnK dhnK M'bhnK Go b?
ikU. ” nrbh wI/dko rZb fJj fe P'wDh ew/Nh tkfbnK, u"E/ gkfsPkj
ih d/ Bkw s/ “r[o{ okw dk; j;gskb s/ ekbi” nzfwqs;o ftu jh eJh
;kbK s'A ubkfJnk j'fJnk j?. i/ e'jV tor/ wko{ o'r ;o'to fJPBkB
Bkb ock j' ;ed/ jB sK pkeh o'r fejV/ pkr dh w{bh jB < j;gskbK
s/ eo'VK o[fgnk feT[A ‘popkd’ ehsk ik fojk j?. fJjh gquko Y'b tik
e/ feT[A BjhA eo fdZsk iKdk fe “;op o'r e nT[yd, ;q'to fJPBkB”.
fJ; fj;kp sK ;ko/ j;gskb pzd j' ikDr/, vkeNo ftuko/ p/oI [ rko HHHHH<
fco fJZe fx;h fgNh p'dh fijh rZb nkyDr/, fJE'A d/ nzB/Q gqpzXe
“ gfjb/ ;w/A ftu e'jVh dk e'jV jZN frnk ;h. nZi eZb sK ed/ edkJhA
e'Jh “uwseko” tkgo iKdk j?. go BjhA fJ; dk wsbp nZieZbQ ;'qto
dh skes xN rJh j? < fco e[co s'bDr/, “T[jBK tesK ftu ekb/ eK
fuZN/ j' rJ/ ;B, e[M e[ jz; Gh pD rJ/ ;B, go j[D BjhA pDd/, iwkBk
i' p[ok nk frnk j?.” feogk eoe/ dZ;' T[jBK fuZN/ eKtK dh T[bkd fuZNh
jh izwh ;h fe ekbh < i/ pZu/ ekb/ izw/ sk feT[A < i/ fuZN/ jh izwd/ ;B,
sd nZi eb T[jBK fuZN/ eKtK d/ doPB feT[A B;hp BjhA j[zd/ < jz; dh
e'Jh B;b nZi sZe feX/o t/yD ftu BjhA nkJh. jK tZvh ;c/d pZsy B{z
jz; (SWAN) wzB fbnk ikt/ sK e'Jh nc;'; BjhA. go fJj gZeh pks
j? fe jz; B[wk pZsy, eK d/ ;q'to fJPBkB s'A gqrN BjhA j'Jh. T[jBK dh
nZi Gh nkgDh fJZe nbZr B;b j?. fJ; ;q'to d/ gkDh B{z PoXk t;,
nzfwqs nky fbnk iKdk j?. eh nzfwqs Bkw eoD Bkb gkDh nzfwqs pD
iKdk j?< ;ko/ Pfjo dk Bkw Gh sK nzfwqs;o jh j?, eh Pfjo ftu'A

(123)
p[okJhnK dk G'r g? fgnk < nkw PfjoK tKr jh u'ohnK, mZrhnK, esb,
foPtsK, pbkseko BP/HHHHHHH. eh j? fJE/ i' tyok j?< dopko ;kfjp
ftu r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp B{z wZEk N/eD ;ko, nZr/ N[oBk g?Adk j?, feT[Afe ;zrs
ftu p?m e/ ehosB ;[BD bJh irk pVh ;hws j?. fgSb/ gk;/ ikJhJ/ sK
fJZE/ cZNh s/ fbfynk fwb/rk ^ “ nzfwqs dk u{bk fgZS/ jZNe/ bt' ih
”. g[ZSD s/ ;/tkdko B/ fJoPkd c[owkfJnk ^ “w{zj ftu'A i{mk j'
u[fenk nzfwqs tkg; Bk fvZr/, toBk ;'qto d/ nzfwqs B{z i{mk eo
d/t/rk ”. g[ZfSnk frnk gJh n"j ;kjwD/ fJ;/ ;q'to ftu i' ;?AeV/
b'e Bjk oj/ jB, T[j nkgD/ i{m/ w{zj, pkjo iwQK eotk nkJ/ jB<
T[j sK nkgD/ g?o Gh ftu v'p oj/ jB. j'o sK j'o iZE/dko ih `
nkgDh “jrDh w[{sDh ” Gh ewb/ b'e nzfwqs ftu v'p oj/ jB, fJj
nzfwqs sd'A GfoPN gbhs BjhA j' iKdk < r[o{ c[owkB j?^
nzX/ nebh pkjo/, w{oy nzX[ frnkB[..
BkBe Bdoh pkjo/, epfj B gktfj wkB[.. (790)
T[J/ GfbU g[oy' ` i' fdwkr tkfjr[o{ ih B/ pyfPnk j?, T[; dh
edh :'r tos'A Gh eo'r/ fe e'ok (nD tofsnk) jh tkg; G/i fdUr/<
okth dfonk pkeh nkw dfonktK tKr, gjkVK ftu'A fBZeb e/, gmkDe'N
s'A T[gob/ gk;/, y[bQ/ w?dkBh fJbke/ ftu nk T[sodk j?. fgZS/ gjkVK ftu
sK iB ihtB BKj d/ pokpo j?, eZuh fwZNh Gh BjhA j?, fJ; bJh gkDh
;tZS ofjzdk j?. fJ; s'A nZr/ ihtB gotkj pj[sk, gP{ gzSh, nkgDhnK
b'VK g{ohnK eod/ jB. dfonk d/ B/V/ t;/ PfjoK, BroK e;fpnK dk
;kok rzdk gkDh, wb w{so, BkbhnK d[nkok dfonktK ftu g?Adk eo fdZsk
iKdk j?. B/V/ bZrhnK c?eNohnK dk wbpk s/ d{fPs gkDh Gh, dfonktK
ftu tjk fdZsk iKdk j?. feBkfonK s/ gP{ uod/ jB, wZMK rktK u[ZGhnK
bkT[AdhnK jB. pj[s ;ko/ gP{ s/ wB[Zy woB s/ ftu o'jV fdZs/ iKd/ jB.
gkDh nzdob/ iht vZv wZS eZS{e[w/, wrowZS nkfd nDfrDs S'N/ tZv/
iht, dfonktK ftu jh iBw b?Ad/ jB, ihtB fefonktK eod/ jB, ftu/
wo iKd/ jB. po;ks ftu T[FZuhnK EktK dk ;kok rzd, e{Vk, euok gkDh

(124)
Bkb o[V e/ dfonk ftu nk g?Adk j?. fJ; dfonkJh gkDh ftu'A dopko
;kfjp bJh gkDh gqkgs ehsk iKdk j?. iok mzY/ fdwkr fco ;kok BePk
nZyK nZr/ fbnkT[ fe fJj gkDh fezBk okjK fezBK jkbksK okjhA nzfwqs;o
gj[zfunk j?. fco fJE/ g[ZifdnK jh fJj “nzfwqs” fet/A pD frnk<
nzfwqs dk nZyoh noE j? “ fi; ib d/ ghD Bkb w"s Bk nkt/”. fJE'A
bZyK b'eK gkDh ghsk j?, eh T[j nwo j' rJ/< ih BjhA T[j ;ko/ Gh w"s
dk rqk; pD/ jB. nZi d/ b'N{ g[ikoh Gh nwo BjhA jB, fe;/ t/b/ Gh c{e
fBeb ;edh j?. fgZS/ fJfsjk; tZb Mksh wko bU. ;q'to dh rZb SZv',
yzv/ eh gkj[b b?D tkb/ Gh ;oho eoe/ nwo BjhA j'J/. gktB r[opkDh
gVQB ftukoB tkb/ Gh, ;dht BjhA iht/. fiBQK ;fseko :'r ;fsg[oyK B/
gktB r[opkDh T[ukoD ehsh ;h, ;oho eoe/ T[j Gh ftdk j' rJ/. T[jBK
y[d jh ;theko ehsk j? pkDh ftu fe GkJh ;oho ;dk BjhA oj/rk ^
epho fJj[ sB[ ikfJrk ;ej[ s b/j[ pj'fo..
BKr/ gktj[ s/ rJ/ fiB e/ bky eo'fo.. (1365)
id'A fJ; ;ZukJh B{z fe;/ Sb co/p Bkb M{mbkfJnk jh BjhA ik
;edk, fe ;oho B/ ;dk fEo BjhA ofjDk, i' iBfwnk j? T[; ;ogo jh
woDk j?. fco okth dfonk dk ;kXkoD gkDh, pk^ok;sk dopko ;kfjp
j' e/ shU ekb nzfwqs BjhA pD iKdk. fJ; tZv/ “nzfwqs e[zv” dh oh;
eofdnK pkDh dk gkm eoB t/b/, B/V/ e?Bh, xVk, b'Nk, p'sbK nkfde
gkDh gk e/ fNek fdZshnK iKdhnK jB. Bkb jh fJZe ;qhcb (Bkohnb) ;qh
rD/P ih dh g{ik tkbk oZy fbnk iKdk j?. fJ; nk; Bkb fe fJ; ftu
r[opkDh gqt/P eo ikt/rh. gkm ;wkgsh s/ gftZso “nzfwqs” Se btKr/.
Bkohnb dh froh yk btKr/. p/Vk gko, b'e gqb'e d/ ;[y, pkDh dk “cb”
fpBK ;[D/ fpBK ;wM/ fe;/ r?ph Pesh Bkb nzdo dkyb j'D dk Gow gkb
b?Ad/ jB , fJj nkfrnkBh PoXkb{. uoB gkj[b d/D tkb/ wjKg[oy,
(n;b ftu wjK w{oy) ;ko/ fco feT[A trdh rzrk ftu u[ZGh Bk bkT[D <
T[j c{eK wko e/, wzso gVQe/, gkDh, sths, nkN/ d/ g/V/ d/ e/ rktK wZMK
s/ PoXktkB phphnK B{z d[ZX g[Zs dhnK dksK dhnK MVhnK bk fdzd/ jB.

(125)
ekP fJj pkp/ P'qwDh ew/Nh d/ ;skJh ;kb oj/ gqXkB r[uoB f;zx N"jVk
B{z fJZe d' g[Zso pyP fdzd/ fi; d/ e'Jh T[bkd BjhA j? ;h. r[o{ BkBe ih
dh tZvh G?D p/p/ BkBeh d/ xo nT[bkd BjhA iBwh, fe;/ ib iK wzso
g[so gqkgsh BjhA j'Jh.
nkU fJj t/yD dh e'fPP eohJ/ fe gktB r[opkDh ftu “nzfwqs”
feBK noEK ftu nkfJnk j?. (r[o{ rqzE e'Pekoh noE ^ ;zgkde vkL
r[ouoB f;zx, gqekPe gzikph :{BhL gfNnkbk, ftu'A)
1H Bkw^ nzfwqs Bkw[ wzfB t;kJ/.. 118
2H r[opkDh ^ ‘nzfwqs’ pkDh ;dk ;bkj/ nzfwqfs nzfwqs[ gktfDnk.. 118
3H p'bDk ^ ‘nzfwqs’ p'b? ;dk w[fy t?Dh.. nzfwqs t/y? goy? ;dk B?Dh.. 118
4H ;fsr[o{ ^ ;fsr[o ftfu ‘nzfwqs’ Bkw[ j? nzfwqs[ ej? ejkJ/.. 1423
5H j[ew^ nwodkf; ‘nzwos’ Ssq r[o okwfj dhnT[.. 1408
6H fdqPNh ^ ‘nzfwqs’ fdqPfN ;zfu ihtkJ/.. 191
7H wZyD ^ o;Bk Bkw igj[ sp wEhn? fJB fpfX ‘nzfwqs’ gktj[.. 728
8H d[ZX^ ;'fJB eN'oh ‘nzfwqs’ Goh.. b/ Bkw/ jfo nkr? Xoh.. 1163
9H ;oho^ ‘nzfwqs’ ekfJnk oj? ;[ykbh pkih fJj[ ;z;ko'.. 154
10H nkfpj:ks^ fMw fMw to;? ‘nzfwqs Xkok’.. 102
11H feogk^ nzdo[ bZGk okw Bkfw ‘nzfwqs’ Bdfo fBjkb[.. 48
12H T{u/ ^ fijt/, ‘nzfwqs‘ jfo r[D rkT[.. 1219
13H fwm/ puB ^ fij gq;kfd p'bfj ‘nzfwqs’ o;Bk.. 269
14H G'iB ^ fij gq;kfd Sshj ‘nzfwqs’ ykfj.. 269
15H ftek; ^ fpy[ ;/ ‘nzfwqs’ GJ/ r[owfs p[fX gkJh..
nej[ gowb[ GJ/ nzsfo tk;Bk t;kJh.. 565
fiBK wB[Zysk d/ d[PwDK B{z p/ohnK (d[y GziBh< ) ;o'toK, o[wkfbnK,
ghjfVnK, eVkj gqPkfd tr?ok s'A uzrh u'yh ewkJh j' iKdh j't/, T[jBK B{z
eh b'V j?, v{zxh y'i eoB bJh, y'gVh B{z tkX{ ePN d/D dh< fe;/ v/o/
ftu wZMK B{z gZm/ gkU, r'jk e{Vk u[Ze', v//o/dko dhnK bZsK pkjtK dh wkfbP
eo', gqPkd/ pDkU s/ ykU. fJ; soQK rVtJh pDe/ ftukofdnK e[M eZuh

(126)
gZeh pkDh f;Zy bT[. tes nkT[D s/ iK s/ v/o/ d/ w[Zyh pD ikT[. iK BtK
v/ok fe;/ ftjbh gJh Pkwbks iwhB t/y e/, j'o BjhA sK ;Ve$Bfjo d/
feBko/, SZgV N'G/ bkr/, Mzvk rZv fdU.
pkpk (r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ih) ih dh ykw'Ph dk Gog{o ckfJdk
T[mkT[fdnK, gqekP fbnk eo'. i/ ezw uZb frnk sK ;koh T[wo bJh
jbtk wzvk tkX{, p/nzs u/b/ u/bhnK d/ tjho ub/ nkT[Dr/. i/ fes/ fe;/
oki;h pzd/ Bkb ;KM g? rJh sK dopko ;kfjp dk rqzEh, j?v rqzEh, iZE/dko
s/ f;zx ;kfjph tkbk pN/ok Gh g?o EZb/ nk ;edk j?. w"iK jh w"iK ;/teK
B{z, e[okj/ gkU, s[jkvh woih. i/ e'Jh f;o fcfonk fsV fcV eo/
“j[ewBkwk” dkr d/ gzE ftu'A eZY wkoB tork ‘T[geko’ eo d/Dk.
fi; gktB Ppd d/ nBoE eoB dk r[Bkj ehsk frnk j?, T[; d/
doPB eo', gJh fet/A eK s'A jz; pfDnk ;h ^
d[owfs GkrjhB wfs che/, Bkw ;[Bs nkt? wfB o'j?..
eT{nk ekr eT[ nzfwqs o;[ gkJhn?, fsqgs? ft;Nk ykfJ w[fy r'j. ? .
nzfwqs;o[ ;fsr[o[ ;fstkdh, fis[ Bks? eT{nk jz;[ j'j?.
BkBe XB[ XzB[ tZv/ tvGkrh, fiBQ r[owfs Bkw[ fod? wb[ X'j.
? . 492
;zy/g ;ko ^ G?Vh ws tkb/, fcek p'bD tkb/, B/eh T[geko dh uzrh
rZb ;[De/ r[Z;/ ftu nk iKd/ jB.
fJj eK fposh tkb/ fJB;kB jB, fit/A eK uzr/ gdkoE SZve/, r'j/
s/ rzdrh yk e/ y[P j[zdk j?. nzfwqs tor/ frnkB, r[DK Bkb Gog{o,
;ZukJh d/ wkor s/ ubD tkb/, ;fsr[o{ ih d/ frnkB ;o'to ftu, eT{nk
fposh wB[Zy i/ nk ikt/ sK eK fposh s'A jz; (Gbh ws) fposh pD ;edh
j?. j/ BkBe` XzBsk :'r jB T[j wB[Zy tZv/ GkrPkbh jB, fiBQK G?Vh wZs
fsnkr e/, ;fsr[o{ ih dh uzrh (nzfwqs torh) ws gqkgs eo bJh. fszBK
B/ r[o{ d/ T[gd/P d[nkok fjod/ nzdo'A ftekoK dh w?b X' e/ pkjo eZY
;[ZNh. fJ; g{o/ Ppd ftu'A fJZe gzesh u[Ze e/ r[ows s'A T[bN noE
eoe/, gquko/ rJ/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih e'Jh G[[b/yk BjhA ofjD d/ oj/, go ;kv/
mZr bkD/ B/ nfij/ M{m p'b e/, G'bhnK ;zrsK B{z y{p b[ZfNnk j? s/ r[wokj

(127)
ehsk j?. feZE/ fj;kp j't/rk fJjBK gzE d'yhnK dk < r[opkDh ftu rZb
;wMkT[D bJh nB/e gP{ gzShnK, ehV/ we"fVnK dk fIeo nkfJnk j?.
go nfijk eK s'A jz; dh eg'b ebgBk fes/ BjhA fwb/rh. nrb/ gzfBnK
s/ r[opkDh ftu eK dk ufoZso tZy' tZy o{gK ftu t/y'.
1H M{m/ eT[ Bkjh gfs BkT[.. epj{ B ;{uk ekbk ekT[A..(839)
M{m/ ftnesh dh ekjdh fJZis < fit/A eK BjhA ;[Xodk ekb/ wB
tkbk Gh nkdsK s'A pkI BjhA nkT[Adk.
2H ir[ eT{nk w[fy u[zu frnkB[.. nzsfo b'G[ M{m[ nfGwkB[..
;z;ko d/ b'e e/tb eK tKr e?A e?A sK eod/ jB, go v{zxk frnkB
e'Jh BjhA j?. nfij/ tkX{ dk p'bD tkb/ nzdo'A b'Gh M{m/ s/ jzekoh jB.
3H fenk jz;[ fenk pr[bk ik eT[ Bdfo eo/fJ..
i' fs;[ Gkt? BkBek ekrT[A jz;[ eo/fJ (91)
gow/;[o fi; s/ fwjotkB j' ikt/ T[j T[FZsw j' iKdk j?. tkfjr{o
feogk eoe/ pr[bk fposh tkb/ s/ eK fposh tkb/ iht B{z jz; fposh tkb/
pDk ;edk j?, (r[o{ dh f;Zfynk gqkgs eoe/)
4H pr[bk ekr Bhu eh ;zrfs ikfJ e[ozr fpy{ w[fy bkJhn?..
BkBe w/fb w/fb gqG ;zrfs fwfb ;zrfs jz;[ eokJhn?..(881)
Bhu fJB;kB fej' fij/ jB< pr[bk fposh tkb/, eK d/ ;[Gk tkb/.
nfij/ Bhu b'eK d/ w/b Bkb, fJjBK tork jh ;[G pD ikt/rk. j/
tkfjr[o{ ih w?B{z gqG{ d/ fgnkfonK dh ;zrs pyP d/thA sK fe T[FZsw g[oyK
dh ;zrs ;dek w?A Gh T[uh p[ZXh tkbk jz; tork pDk iktK.
5H pr[bk ekr B ojJh ;ofto i/ j't? nfs f;nkDk..
UBk foie[ B gkfJU UE? UBk j'o' ykDk.. (956)
fit/A pr[bk s/ eK ;kc ib tkb/ ;o'toK s/ BjhA ofjzd/, feT[Afe T[j
rzdrh ns/ ehV/ ykD d/ nkdh jB i' fe ;o'toK s/ BjhA SZgVhnK s/ fwbd/
jB. fJ; soQK BhthA neb tkb/ b'e, ;fsr[o{ ih dh ns/ Gb/ r[of;ZyK dh
;zrs BjhA eod/. p[fonK e'b jh ik jkio j[zd/ jB.
6H ebo e/oh SgVh eT{nk wfb wfb BkfJ..

(128)
sB[ wB[ w?bk ntr[Dh fuzi[ Goh rzXh nkfJ..
;oto[ jzf; B ikfDnk ekr e[gzyh ;zfr..
;kes f;T[ n?;h gqhfs j? p[Mj[ frnkBh ozfr.. (1411)
fit/A eZbo ftubh rzd/ gkDh tkbh SgVh j't/, eK tork rzdk gzSh
rzd/ gkDh ftu ;kc j'D dh e'fPP eo fojk j't/. fJ; eK dh jkbs fJj
j? fe sB Gh bp/V fbnk, wB' nZr/ jh y'Nk j?. fJjB/ sK wkB' j'o pdp{
gqkgs eo bJh. ;wM' wBw[y fJB;kB, wBw[yK s'A B/eh ns/ r[DtkB pDB
dk Gow gkb fojk j't/. wBw[y B/ jz; tKr fposh Bk pDkJh, ;fsr[o{ d/
frnkB o{g ;o'to dk bkG Bk fbnk. j/ frnkBtkB b'e'` p[o/ wB[ZyK dk
;kE ehfsnK fteko jh gZb/ g?Dr/. fJjBK s'A B/eh BjhA fwbDh.
7H e'fN fpxB fs;[ bkrs/ fi; B' fp;o? BkT[A..
BkBe nBfdB[ fpbgs/ fiT[A ;[zt? xfo ekT[A.. (522)
T[; wB[Zy B{z nDfrDs fteko nk dp'ud/ jB, fi; B{z oZph :kd
ft;o ikt/. j/ BkBe fco jo o'I fJT[A ftobkg eod/ jB, fit/A eK B{z
ykbh xo'A N[Zeo Bk bZG/, pB/o/ p?mk ftbedk j?.
8H Xofs ;[jktVh nkek; ;j[zdk igfdnk jfo BkT[A..
BkBe Bkw ftj{fDnk fsB sB yktfj ekT[A..
gqG{ B{z :kd oZyD tkb/ Gb/ fJB;kBK bJh e'Jh p[ok BjhA j?, T[j
;kfonK B{z fgnko eod/ jB. T[jBK dk ;'u wzvb y[Zbk nkekP tork,
;/tk bJh ;koh Xosh j?. Bkw ns/ r[DK s'A ;ZyD/ wB[ZyK B{z e'Jh fgnko
BjhA eodk. T[jBK B{z nzsw ;w/A e'Jh b/y/ bkT[D tkbk Gh BjhA fwbdk.
fiE/ wo/ d/jh ;Vdh rJh. eKtK nkfd ihtK B/ yk bJh. Gkt nzdo'A
fteko yk iKd/ jB.
9H fcfo fcfo ckjh ck;? eT{nk.. fcfo gS[skBk np fenk j{nk..(935)
ckEk u'r u[r? BjhA p{M?.. ;fsr[o fwb? s nkyh ;{M?..
eK fposh tkbk wB[Zy pko pko rbsh eodk j?. ;wM BjhA j[zdh
go nebwzd j'D dk M{mk Gow gkb b?Adk j?. p; fJ; bJh cf;nk
gSskT[Adk Gh ofjzdk j?, ftekoK B{z SZv Gh BjhA ;edk. ftekoK ftu

(129)
roe j' u[Zfenk j[zdk j?, ni/ Gh wB Gfonk BjhA, ;wM BjhA nkJh.
nro fes/ ;fsr[o{ dh T{uh ws XkoB eo bt/, sK uzrk wzdk ;keko
;gZPN BIo nk ikt/ s/ ftekoK s'A pu ikt/rk.
10H ekrT[A j'fJ B T{ibk b'j/ Bkt B gkfo..
fgow gdkoE[ wzfB b? XzB[ ;ztkoD jko[.. (1090)
j/ GkJh eK ed/ ;c/d BjhA j[zdk, fJ;/ soK eJh tkoh y'Nh p[ZXh tkbk
B/e ;bkj wzBD s'A fJBekoh j' iKdk j?. tkfjr[o{ dk Bkw wzBD Bkb, r[o{
dh ws b?D Bkb pdb ;ehdk j?, T[j ;tkoD tkbk XzB j?.
11H f;y jz; ;otfo fJem/ j'J/, ;fsr[o e? j[ewkt?..
osB gdkoE wkDe ;otfo Gog{o,/ ykfJ yofu oj/ s'fN B nkt?..
;fsr[o{ ih dh f;Zfynk b? e/ uZbD tkb/ jz; ;[Gk tkb/ r[of;Zy ;zrs
ftu i[Vd/ jB. r[o{ dk frnkB o{gh osB gdkoE w'sh, gqkgs eoe/
fjod/ ftu t;kT[Ad/ jB. fJj ;fsr[o{ ih d/ frnkB dh g{zih ed/ w[Zedh
BjhA. bZyK b'eh fJ; gftZso T[gd/P Bkb so rJ/ jB.
12H r[o[ ;oto[ jw jz; fgnko/.. ;kro wfj osB bkb pj[ ;ko/..
w'sh wkDe jhok jfo i;[ rkts wB[ sB[ GhBk j/..(1027)
j/ GkJh ` n;bh ;o'to ^ frnkB dk ;kro ^ ;fsr[o{ j?. fJ;
frnkB B{z gqkgs eoB tkb/ f;Zy jh n;b ftu jz; jB. ‘r[o{ ;kro‘ ftu
pV/ r[D jB, fBwosk Bkb fizB/ ih ukj/, fjod/ o{gh GKv/ ftu gkT[Ad/
ofjDk. w'sh jho/ n;b ftu eh jB< r[o{ dh fdZsh ws T[FZsw ihtB
iku. fJjBK r[DK B{z rkT[AfdnK w/ok nkgDk nkgk B/eh uzfrnkJh tkb/
T[FZsw fJB;kBh r[DK Bkb Gog{o j' iKdk j?. fJ;/ soQK rbs noEK ekoB
nzfwqs;o, ;q'L ew/Nh d/ f;Zy nikfJp xo ftu fJZe ebgs pkpk cohd
ih dk woD feBko/ gJ/ dk fuZso pfDnk t/fynk ik ;edk j?. ;kjwD/ eK
p?mkfJnk j?, pkpk ih fit/A nky oj/ j'D ^ “ eKtK B/ w/ok ;kok wk; yk
fbnk, e/tb jZvhnK ofj rJhnK. j/ ektK w/ohnK d't/A nZyK BK ykthA,
ni/ w?B{z y[dk t/yD dh nk; j? ”.
ekrk eozr Yzv'fbnk,;rbk ykfJnk wk;[..

(130)
fJj d[fJ B?Bk ws S{jT[ fgo d/yD dh nk;.. (1382)
rZb wB[Zy B{z ;wMkT[Dh ;h, jtkb/ nB/e ihtK, gP{nK gzShnK, e[ZfsnK
eKtK, o[ZyK fpoyK, g[oksB GrsK, d/th d/tfsnK d/ fwb ikDr/. ss;ko
fJj fe f;Zy e/tb fJZe nekb g[oy dk g[ikoh j?. i' r[opkDh ftu
fbfynk j?, f;Zy bJh T[jh ;Zu j?. d[BhnK s/ g[ikoh eh efjzd/ jB, fJ;
dh gqtkj BjhA j'Dh ukjhdh.
wfB w?b? ;G[ feS[ w?bk sfB X's/ wB[ jSk B j'fJ..
fJj[ irs[ Gow G[bkfJnk ftobk p{M? e'fJ.. (558)
shoE[ jwok jfo e' Bkw[.. r[fo T[gd/f;nk ss[ frnkB[.. (1142)
ekPh dh Xosh B{z ;dhnK s'A gftZso Xosh j'D dk Y'b
tikfJnk frnk ;h. j'o s/ j'o i/ e'Jh fJB;kB ekPh ftu wo/ sK f;ZXk
;tor b'e ftu dkyb j't/rk. wB w'jDhnK gohnK T[; dk ;[nkrs
eoBrhnK. ;dk Bku rkD/ s/ y[Pp{dko Pokp Bkb wd w;s j'J/ j[;hB
ngZSoktK Bkb ozr obhnK wBkT[Ad/ oj'r/. i/ ;tor dk fNeN S/sh
gqkgs eoBk ukj[zd/ j' sK nkgDk ;kok wkb n;tkp g[Zsoh gsBh, ;G
g[ikoh d/ jtkb/ eo fdT[. g[ikoh ih “gftso wzso” gVQBr/, d' wId{o
eotZso (nkok) fyZuDr/. ;oho d' ckV uhfonk ikt/rk. s[ozs gqkD
gzy/o{ ;tor Xkw g[Zi ikt/rk. p'b G'b/ BkE eh i?.. ;dhnK s'A jh rzrk
d/ gkDh B{z gftZso j'D dh v"Avh fgZNh rJh. iBw b?D tes pZu/ d/ w{zj
ftu rzrk ib gkT[Dk, gftZso eow. ihtB pshs eofdnK eJh gkg
T[skoB bJh rzrk s/ fJPBkB eoBk. pqkjwDK B[z{ w{zj wzfrnk dkB d/Dk,
g?;k ;'Bk p;so, rT{nK, x'V/ s/ i/ j' ;e/ sK itkB gsBh p/Nh Gh dkB
ehsh ik ;edh j?. T[sBk jh tZX cb fwb/rk. fco gqkDh d/ wo/ s'A
T[;dhnK jZvhnK rzrk xkN ftu gkT[DhnK, pj[s ;kok dkB eoBk.
wfonk ftnesh ;tor ftu g[Zi ikt/rk. nzB/ PoXkb{ rzrk feBko/ ik e/
pZfunK, tZfvnK d/ e/; eNtk e/ dkB eoe/ fJPBkB eoBk, gftZso ekoi
;wMd/ ;B. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp B{z g[ZShJ/ eh j[ew eod/ jB^
w{zfv w[zvkfJn? i/ r[o{ gkJhn? jw r[o{ ehBh rzrksk..
fsqGtD skoDjko[ ;[nkwh J/e B u/sf; nzXksk. (wHñ^155)
(131)
n? w{oy b'e' i/ e/; w[Bk d/D Bkb, gow/Po fwbdk j't/ sK w?A rzrk
d/ xkN s/ ik e/ e/; eNtk fdnK. go sob'eh B{z skoD tkbk tkfjr[o{ j?
Bk fe rzrk dk gkDh. s[;hA nfrnkBsk ftu nzB/ b'e e[okj/ g? u[Ze/ j'.
fJzB fpzB fJjh rZb nZi dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o ns/ ;o'to Bkb BZEh
eo fdZsh rJh j?. ny/ r[opkDh d[nkok ;o'to dk gkDh gftZso pD
frnk. fJ;/ bJh fco gkm j' oj/ tes, Bkohnb xVk bzro gq;kfd ;ko/
jh gftZso pD rJ/< sK dZ;' wB[Zy feT[A gftZso BjhA j' oj/, T[jBK d/
nzdo'A fteko feT[A BjhA ysw j' oj/< r[opkDh sK ;gheoK dhnK ezB
gkVthnK nktkiK okjhA jo o'I ;ko/ fgzvK PfjoK ftu ;[DkJh iKdh j?, eh
;[DB tkb/ ;ko/ gftZso j' rJ/< o/vhU sozrK okjhA r[opkDh jtk ftu c?b
iKdh j?, ;?N/bkJhN okjhA NhH thH okjhA d[BhnK Go ftu ;[DkJh d/ ojh
j?. eh ;koh jtk ;koh d[BhnK gftZso j' rJh< ;G p[okJhnK dh iVQ
g[ZNh rJh< gzikp dk f;Zy nytkT[D tkbk spek 90% e/; eNtk uZ[fenk
j?. fJsBk e[ bkDk BfPnK dh y[Zbh tos'A eo fojk j?. tfjw Gow gkyzv
fJjBK “r[o{ fgnko” tkfbnK nzdo Bek BZe Go/ gJ/ jB. nyzv gkmK
;gheoK nkfd B/ b'eK d/ wBK B[z{ gftZso feT[A BjhA ehsk< jK pj[s ;ko/
b'eK dk s'oh c[bek r[opkDh dh nkV ftu y{p ubdk nk fojk j?.
Pq'wDh ew/Nh d/ ;kpek ;eZso r[opuB f;zx puB B/ gzikph fNqfpT{B
fwsh 18H11H03 ftu wbth i[pkB okjhA ;theko ehsk j? fe “;o'to dk
gkDh rzdk j'D eoe/ gfjbK 1980 ftu fcbNo brtkJ/ ;B. god{PD tX
ikD ekoB okth dfonk ftu pj[s ;kohnK c?eNohnK dk wbpk s/ d{fPs
gkDh ;[ZfNnk ik fojk j?. nkpkdh pj[s tX rJh, wPhBoh pj[s nk
rJh. fJ; bJh fcbNo bZr/ j'D d/ pkti{d gkDh ;kc BjhA j' ;fenk.
wkfjo ftneshnK B/ f;ckoP ehsh j? fe j'o uzr/ fcbNo bkJ/ ikD
toBk wjKwkoh c?b ;edh j?. nwohek d/ NqK;g'No GoktK B/ tXhnk
fcbNo yohd e/ fdZs/ jB i' bkJ/ ik oj/ jB.
fJj fcbNo gkDh ;kc eoB bZr gJ/, go ektK s'A jz; pBD dh
co/ph ejkDh dk j[D eh ehsk ikt/rk< BthBheoB< wPhBK fcbNo bkJ/
;o'to dh ;ckJh Gh eokJh. fJ; ;o'to ;ckJh d/ BkNe ftu okiBhsh

(132)
y/bh rJh. n?B u'DK dh sohe B/V/ nkT[D s/ ;kok co/p ehsk frnk sK fe
f;ZyK dhnK GktBktK B[z{ t'N ftu pdfbnk ik ;e/. fJjBK jh fdBK ftu
tkigkJh s/ nvtkBh ih Gh nk “;/tk” ftu Pkwb j'J/. feT[Afe gfjbK
jh fJjBK s'A g[ZS e/ fJj soheK fB;fus ehshnK rJhnK ;B. XzB f;Zyh
XzB ;/tk s/ XzB ;kvk *ekbh bhvo.
rohph ekoB gzikp dk B"itkB do do GNe fojk j?, r[ows s'A
;ZyDk j?, fe;kB y[de[PhnK eo oj/ jB. tkj w/oh e"w d/ wbkj' pfbjko`
s[;hA ;'B/ uKdh d/ s;b/, ejhnK Bkb “eko ;/tk” eo oj/ j'< dopko
;kfjp B{z ;'B/ ftu wVQ oj/ j'< d; eo'V f;ebh fro s/ tDikok f;Zy o'Nh
s'A nks[o j?, sB' Bzrk j?, gkDh f;js ;j{bsK, ykDk, gVQkJh, r[ows dh
ikDekoh, T[jBK sZe e[M Gh ed/ BjhA gj[zfunk s/ s[;hA r[odtkfonK s/
wkopb brtk oj/ j'< “J/H ;hH fcN eotk oj/ j'< o'w ;V fojk j? Bho'
pz;oh tik fojk j?”, fJ;/ B{z BjhA nkyKr/< f;ZyK dh wkBf;e froktN
fJE'A sZe g[Zi rJh j? gfjb'A rzrk dk gkDh xoK ftu ;KG e/ oZfynk iKdk
;h. fco dopko ;kfjp ;o'to dk ib ;KfGnk ikD bZrk s/ j[D eko ;/tk
okjhA ;o'to ftu'A fBebh fwZNh rko B{z xoK ftu ;KG e/ oZfynk ikt/rk.
pj[s ;ko/ PoXkb{ fwZNh xoK B{z fbiKd/ t/y/ rJ/ jB. e[M fJZe fInkdk
PoXktkB fJ; fwZNh B{z gq;kfd ;wM e/ yKd/ Gh j'Dr/. PhP/ d/ wospkBK
ftu fwZNh gk e/ ;?bcK s/ ;ikJh ikt/rh. i/ gftZso r[opkDh B/, r[o{ dh
nkswe ntki B/, X[o eh pkDh B/, s[jkvk e[M BjhA ;ztkfonk sK fwZNh eh
;ztko d/t/rh< fwZNh s/ uoBX{V iK ;o'to ib, fJjh T[FZsw j' frnk< r[o{
fgnko tkfbU ;'u', ftuko' r[opkDh jh wjkB j?. fJ;/ s'A nrtkJh bT[.
ftekoK B{z fsnkr' B/eh tkbk ;[Zuk ihtB pshs eo'. fJj' r[opkDh dk
j[ew j?. r[opkDh B{z noEK ;w/s gVQB dh y/ub eo'.
nkgBVk wB[ t/uhn? f;o[ dhi? Bkb/..
r[ow[fy t;s[ gSkDhn? ngBk xo[ Gkb/.. (420)
r[o eh ;/tk ;' eo/ fi;[ nkfg eokJ/..
BkBe f;o[ d/ S{Nhn? dorj gfs gkJ/.. (421)
[[[[

(133)
*wz r b fe wzso<

fiBQK :'oghB d/PK ftu n;hA ofj oj/ jK, fJjBK d/PK ftu fbyD
p'bD, ftuko gqrN eoB dh w[ezwb nIkdh j?. poskBhnK dh gkobhw?AN
ftu ;Gk d/ ;gheo dh e[o;h s'A T[FZgo fJj nZyo fby' j'J/ jB^ “Gkt/A
w?A s[jkv/ ftukoK Bkb ;fjws Bk Gh j'tK, go w?A s[jkB{z p'bD, ftuko
gqrN eoB dh g{oh nIkdh fdnKrk”. fJZe ;wK ;h pqkjwD B/ Xow d/
Bkw s/ oZi e/ M{m p'fbnk, ekbgfBe eEktK tkb/ rqzEK s/ Xow dk b/pb
bk fdZsk. Xow d/ Bkw s/ b'eK B{z ;dhnK s'A b[ZN e/ ykXk s/ e[okj/ Gh
gkfJnk. iks gksh tzvhnK Xow d/ Bkw s/ gkJhnK. n"os B{z ;ko/ jZeK
s'A tKMh eo fdZsk frnk, Xow d/ Bkw s/. fJ;soh B{z gsh d/ woB s/,
T[; B/ Bkb fuyk ftu ;VB s/ wip{o ehsk frnk, wB[yK dh pbh fdZsh
rJh HHHH;G Xow d/ Bkw s/. T[go'A f;sw iohch fJj gJh fJ; fJB;kBhns
s'A fro/ j'J/ gkg eow d/ fto[ZX fe;/ B{z ipkB y'jbD dh Gh nkfrnk BjhA
;h. prkts eoB tkb/ B{z, e'j e'j e/ esb eo fdZsk iKdk ;h, Xow d/
Bkw s/. pqkjwD dhnK fJjBK wzd fposhnK ekoB Gkos ;'B fuVh,
d[BhnK d/ jwbktoK B/ g?oK ftu o'b fdZsh. fJE/ ijkbs nkT[D dk ekoB
;h fe ftek; d/ ;ko/ okj g[ikoh B/ ngDh fBZih n?P gq;sh tk;s/ okyt/A
oZy bJ/.
Gkt/A pqkjwDh ftukoK dh ofjzd y{zjd ni/ pE/oh pkeh j?, go fJj
Gh ;Zu j? fe nZi y[ZbQ e/ pqkjwDh eo{osk fto[ZX ntkI T[mkJh ik ;edh
! fJj b/y fJzrb?Av d"o/ tes fby e/ T[E'A d/ nypkoK bJh G/fink frnk ;h i'
Skfgnk BjhA frnk. ^ b/ye

(134)
j?. fJXo ykb;k gzE d/ pkBh ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ jo/e fe;w d/
gkyzv fto[ZX i'odko nktki p[bzd ehsh. ihtB e"seK d[nkok, s/ nkgD/
r[opkDh o{gh nw[Zb/ T[gd/PK okjhA, EK EK gkyzv eow d/ goyu/ T[vkJ/.
jkbks dk d[ydkJh gZy fJj j? fe f;Zyh ;o{g XkoB eoe/ nDfrDs
pqkjwDh ;'u tkb/ ftnesh, r[od[nkfonK s/ ekpi j' u[e/ j'J/ jB. fiBQK
B[{z r[opkDh dh e'Jh ;'Mh BjhA, fJfsjk; dh tkech BjhA, f;Zy ofjs
wfonkdk pko/ gsk BjhA, nodk; sZe eoBh nkT[Adh BjhA, T[j b'e
r[odtkfonK d/ (;ko/ fJZe' fij/ BjhA jB) “wkbe” iK eosk Xosk jB.
ofjzdh e;o g{oh eo fdZsh v/o/dkoh, f;;Nw ftu gb/, nXgVQ/, gqukoeK
B/. jo pqkjwDh eow eKv, fpBk fe;/ dbhb s'A, fjZe d/ skD, r[ows dk
b/pb fugek e/, f;Zy ;wki ftu gquZbs eokT[D bJh nZvh u'Nh dk I'o
bkfJnk j'fJnk j?. nZi d/ b/y ftu e/tb “w{b wzso” pko/ dbhbK s/
;p{sK ;fjs ftuko ehsh ikt/rh.
gfjbh rZb fJj fe fJ; dk Bkw fe;/ Gh g[oksB rqzE ftu iK GkJh
;kfjp r[odk; ih dh ouBk ftu “w{b wzso BjhA j?”. fJ; B{z “wzrb”
iK wzrbk eoB” nkfynk frnk j?. fJj r[opkDh d/ T[gd/P s'A gfjbK,
;zy/g o{g ftu gqwkswk dk nsh ;ze'utK Ppd fuZso j?. fJ; ftu
T[gd/P BjhA fdZsk frnk, f;oc nekb g[oy dh j;sh pko/ Gktg{os
;zy/g ikDekoh fdZsh rJh j?. fJ; dk w{b gkm fJj j? ^
Å ;fsBkw eosk g[oy[ fBoGT[ fBot?o[ nekb w{ofs ni{Bh ;?Gz
r[o gq;kfd.. fJ; s'A nZr/ f;ob/y j?.. ig[.. T[; s'A nZr/ j? ig[ih
;kfjp d/ nkozG dk fJZe ;b'e ^ “nkfd ;u[ i[rkfd ;u[.. j? Gh ;u[
BkBe j';h Gh ;u[..ñ.. j[D fJZe fJZe B[es/ B{z r"o Bkb ftukoBk.
T[go tofDs “wzrb” r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih ftu 33 (s/sh) tkoh nkfJnk
j?. fe;/ fJZe Ekt/A Gh Bkb “nkfd ;u[ ”HHHHtkbk ;b'e BjhA j?. gktB
pkDh ftu j'o ;zy/g o{g ftu fJjh “wzrb” nZm tkoh nkfJnk j?, go
fes/ Gh nkfd ;u[ HHHtkbk ;b'e Bkb BjhA j?. fJj wzrb pkeh gktB
pkDh ftu gzi ;" SZph (526) tkoh tofsnk frnk j?, go fe;/ fJZe Ekt/A

(135)
Gh Bkb nkfd ;u[ HHHtkbk ;b'e BjhA j?. r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ih ftu wzrbK
dh tos'A nbZr nbZr o{gK ftu, gzi ;" ;skjm tkoh j'Jh j?. fe;/ EK Gh
Bkb nkfd ;u[ HHHHHtkbk ;b'e fbfynk BjhA fwbdk. fiZE'A fJZe tkoh
fbfynk t/y e/, fjZe d/ skD Bkb, BZEh eoB dh e[u/PNk ehsh rJh j?,
T[E'A dh fbysh pDso t/y' ^ (wzrb s'A pkd) .. ig[..
fJj “ig[” eh ;ze/s eodk j?< fe nr'A ig[ pkDh P[o{ j' ojh j?.
fJj ig[ pkDh dk f;ob/y j?, BjhA sK ig[ pkDh dk f;ob/y jh BjhA
bG/rk. fet/A gsk bZr/rk fe fJ; pkDh dk Bkw eh j?<
nZr'A nkfd ;u[ HHHtkbk Pb'e fby e/ BkBe j';h Gh ;u[ s'A pkd
“..ñ.. d't/A pzB/ d' d' vzvhnK s/ ftueko “J/ek” gkfJnk j'fJnk j?.
wsbp fe fJj fJZe “.. ñ..” ;b'e j?. fJ; s'A nZr/ gT[Vhtko ig[
pkDh P[o{ j[zdh j?^ ;'u? ;'fu B j'tJh HHHHHgT[Vh dh ;zg{oDsk “BkBe
fbfynk Bkfb” s/ j[zdh j?. gT[Vh d/ ;zg{oD j[zfdnK jh frDsh
nze.. ñ.. gkfJnk frnk j?. fJ; s'A ;kc gqrN j? gfjbK “.. ñ..”
frDsh nkJh ;h fJZe ;b'e tk;s/. d{ih tkoh “.. ñ..” fJZe frDsh
nkJh Bzpo fJZe gT[Vh tk;s/. wzrb tk;s/ ;ko/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftu fes/
frDsh BjhA j?. nZr'A gT[VhnK dh frDsh (38) nmZsh sZe ubdh j?.
nyho ftu fco “e/sh S[Nh Bkfb” s'A pkd “.. ñ..” fJZe frDsh gkJh
rJh j?, fe fJj fJZe ;b'e j?. e[b gzi ;" ;skjm tkoh wzrb dh tos'A
eofdnK, ;fsr[o{ Bkb “nkfd ;u[ HHHfbyDk GZ[bd/ rJ/< eh T[jBK e'b
fbyD dh ftjb BjhA ;h< iK eh T[jBK e'b'A f;nkjh ekrI dh ewh nk
rJh ;h< iK eh T[j f;Zy gzE B{z d[fpXk ftu gkT[Dk ukj[zd/ ;B< ih BjhA
` w/o/ ;fsr[o{ gke ihtB tkb/, d{o nzd/P jo soQK dhnK ewhnK s'A
ofjs, oZph r[DK Bkb Gog{o ;B. i' T[jBK fbfynk j? T[; B{z fJzB fpzB
;theko eoBk jh r[ows j?, nkgDh nbg p[ZXh ;fsr[o{ ih s/ E'gDh
wBw[yskJh j?. gzi ;" fSnkjm tkoh wzrb dk i' ;o{g r[od/t ih B/
fsnko ehsk j?, fJj “pj[sh neb tkb/” gqtkB BjhA eod/. go fJZe
tkoh ig[ih dh P[o{nks t/b/ fbfynk ;b'e, fpBK fe;/ soe wzrb Bkb

(136)
BZEh eo oj/ jB. “;fsr[o{ ih Bkb'A fInkdk f;nkD/ HHH”< ;'u'`
eh nkfd ;u[ HHHtkbk ;b'e j'D pko/, e'Jh r[opkDh ftu'A gqwkD
fwbd/ jB< ih jK` ;[ywBh ;kfjp ih dh ;skothA nPNgdh s'A gfjbK,
fJjh ;b'e fbfynk j'fJnk j?, jo e'Jh nkgDhnK nZyK Bkb t/y ;edk
j?. fJpkos j? ^ ;b'e[.. nkfd ;u[ i[rkfd ;u[.. j? fG ;u[ BkBe j';h
fG ;u[.. GZp/ (G) nZyo B{z ig[ih Bkb ;pzXs ;b'e ftu fpjkoh (h) bZrh
j'Jh j?. id'A fe ;[ywBh ;kfjp ftu GZp/ (G) nZyo B{z f;jkoh (f) bZrh
j'Jh j?. pkeh fbysh nZyoK brK ftu e'Jh coe BjhA j?. fJ; d/ noEK
ftu Gh e'Jh nzso BjhA j?. fJ; soQK sK ;'do[ HHHtkbh gT[Vh, ig[ pkDh
ftu tyo/ sohe/ fbyh j?, fJjh gT[Vh ;'do[ ofjok; ftu j'o Yzr Bkb
fbyh j?. go fJ; gT[Vh dh w{b GktBk, noE ftukoK ftu e'Jh nzso
BjhA j?. go fJE/ sK gzuw r[od/t ih B/ G[b/yk ofjD jh BjhA fdZsk, ;kc
fby fdZsk “^;b'e[.. nkfd ;u[ i[rkfd ;u[ ”..HHHj[D i/ e'Jh nZyK s/
gZNh pzB e/ nkyh ikt/ s[;hA ;ko/ rbs j', i/ w?B{z ;{oi BjhA fdZ;dk sK
s[jkB{z Gh BjhA fd;Dk ukjhdk. go ;koh d[BhnK B{z nZyK s/ gZNh pzBD dh
e'Jh wip{oh BjhA j?. fJ; bJh i' fd;Dk ukjhdk j? T[j uzrh soQK fdZ;
fojk j?. nfij/ b'eK d/ fgZS/ edh “nZyK tkb/” BjhA N[fonk eod/.
e[M ftneshnK$iE/pzdhnK tZb'A jbe/ w/b dh dbhb fdZsh iKdh j?
fe pkpk dhg f;zx d/ uZeo T[go wzrb d/ Bkb “nkfd ;u[ HHHH” Gh
fbfynk fwbdk j?, fJ; bJh “j';h Gh ;u[” sZe jh wzrb j?. go :kd
oZyDk, ;kvk r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp j?, pkpk dhg f;zx dk ueo r[o{ BjhA j?.
pkpk dhg f;zx fJZe f;Zy ;h r[o[{ BjhA ;h. Bkb/ T[; ueo T[go sK ig[ih
dhnK e/tb fJZeh (21) gT[VhnK T[FZeohnK$fbyhnK j'JhnK jB. eh
ig[ih dhnK nmZsh (38) gT[VhnK Bk wzB e/ fJZeh gT[VhnK jh wzB
bJhJ/< r[o{ eh gftZso ouBk r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ih Bkb'A pkpk ih dk ueo
fInkdk ftPtkP :'r j'fJnk< fJ;/ soQK dopko ;kfjp ftu dkyb j'D
tes, wzrb s'A pkd Bkb “nkfd ;u[”HHH tkbk ;b'e Gh fbfynk j'fJnk
fwbdk j?. fJ; dh dbhb Gh ftnesh$iE/pzdhnK fdzdhnK jB. go tho'

(137)
dopko ;kfjp dhnK ezXK s/ j'o pj[s e[M fbfynk j'fJnk j?. fesA' e'Jh
Ppd fes'A e'Jh gT[Vh HHH. gzShnK gP{nK dhnK s;thoK Gh tkjhnK
j'JhnK jB, T[jBK pko/ eh ftuko j?< ezXK s/ fbfynk r[o{ gdth B{z gqkgs
BjhA j?.
;qh nekb sys ;kfjp d/ nzdo, ezXK s/ gZe/ ozrK d[nkok wjKGkos
s/ okwkfJD dhnK ejkDhnK B{z do;kT[D tkb/, nB/e fuZso pD/ j'J/ ;B.
i' fe ;kek Bhbk skok t/b/ nekb sys ;kfjp Yfj ikD s/ ysw j' rJ/.
;zB 1906 sZe dopko ;kfjp dhnK gqeowk ftu, fjzd{ d/thnK d/tfsnK
dhnK gZZEo w[{oshnK dh Po/nkw g{ik j[zdh ;h. ;fsekos j;sh GkJh
ekjB f;zx ih BkGk B/, nzfwqs;o d/ fvgNh efwPBo s'A nkfrnk b? e/,
g[fb; c'o; fbnk e/ fJj p[Zs pkjo ;[NtkJ/ ;B. i/ e'Jh b'VhAdk ;p{s
fe;/ ekoB r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftu'A Bk fwb/ sK GkJh r[odk; ih s'A gZ[ShJ/,
GkJh Bzd bkb ih s'A g[ZShJ/, fJj gzE gqtkfDs ftdtkB jB. fJjBK s'A
pkd “f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk, i' gzE gqtkfDs, nekb sys ;kfjp tZb'A
gqtkfDs j?, T[; s'A g[ZShJ/. fco e'Jh Pzek BjhA oj/rh. t?;/ r[o{ rzqE
;kfjp ftu'A ;G e[M gqkgs j?, fco pkjo feT[A GNehJ/< r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp
w[skpe wzrb dk ;jh ;o{g fJj j?^
Æ;fsBkw[ eosk g[oy[ fBoGT[ fBot?o[ nekb w{ofs,
ni{Bh ;?Gz r[o gq;kfd..
nZr/ ig[ih dk f;ob/y j?...ig[.. nZr/ ;b'e j?^
nkfd ;u[ i[rkfd ;u[.. j? Gh ;u[ BkBe j';h Gh ;u[..ñ..
i' ftnesh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp B{z r[o[{ ;theko eodk j? T[; tk;s/ fJj
r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp tkbh ftXh jh wzBD:'r j?. i' fe;/ ftnesh iK v/o/dko
B[{z r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp Bkb'A tZvk wzBh p?mk j?, iK e'Jh iE/pzdh nkgD/ nkg B{z
gzE s/ r[o{ rzqE Bkb'A ;[gohw ;wM ojh j?, T[; pko/ c?;bk ;{MtkB f;ZyK
B/ eoBk j? fe nZr'A jkbks Bkb fet/A BfiZfmnk ikt/< nfij/ b'eK B{z fet/A
BZE gkJh ikt/< wzso pko/ sK j'o pj[s EkJhA eJh o{gK ftu r[opkDh ftu'A
gqkgs j?. gVQ' nZr/ fdZs/ rJ/ gqwkD ^

(138)
(1) r[o ek puB[ ifg wzs[.. J/jk Grfs ;ko ss[.. 895
(2) wB wfj ikfg Grtzs[.. r[o g{o? fJj[ dhB' wzs[.. 896
(3) r[o eh ;[ofs fBefN efo ikB[.. r[o ek ;pfd ;fs efo wkB[.. 897
(4) r[o ek T[gd/;[ ;[Bhi?.. BkBe ;[fy ;jfi ;whi?.. 896
(5) ;u fpB[ ;s[ ;zs'y[ gkt?.. fpB[ r[o w[es B, nkt? ikt?..
w{b wzsq jfo Bkw[ o;kfJD[ ej[ BkBe g{ok gkfJnk.. 1040
(6) phi wzsq ;op e' frnkB[.. uj[ toBk wfj ig? e'T{ Bkw[.. ;[ywBh
(7) wjK wzsq r[o fjod? pf;U nuoi Bkw[ ;[fBT[ oh.. 384
(8) phi wz[sq jfo ehosB[ rkT[.. nkr? fwGh fBEkt? EkT[.. 891
(9) ;u fpB[ ;s[ ;zs'y B gkt?.. fpB[ r[o w[efs B nkt? ikt?..
w{b wzsq[ jfo Bkw[ o;kfJD[ ej[ BkBe g{ok gkfJnk.. 1040
(10) ;[Bs igs jfoBkw i;[ skeh d{fo pbkJh..
wjk wzsq BkBe eE? jfo e/ r[D rkJh.. 814

;koz;L n;b ftu r[o{ dk T[gd/;a iK j[ew ;koh r[opkDh jh w{b wzso,
wjK wzso, r[owzso s/ phi wzso j?. tZy' tZyo/ ;apd wkbk c/oB
bJh iK igD bJh u[DB/ w{oysk j?. fJj w{oysk Ne;kbK s/
v/fonK B/ pj[s c?bkJh j?. r[of;Zy wkJh GkJh ;ktXkB j't',
toBk b[ZN/ ik oj/ j'.

[[[[

(139)
“f;Z y nodk;” ^ ni'e/ gq;zr ftu
f;Zy ;wki ftu ‘nodk;’ gqsh pVh Xkofwe PoXk j?. r[o{ ekb
s'A jh nodk; fe;/ Bk fe;/ o{g ftu j[zdh nkJh j?. f;Zy ftukotkBk B/
‘r[opkDh’ ns/ ‘fJfsjk;’ ƒ tkue/ ‘nodk;’ dk fJe ;o{g fBPfus eo
fdZsk j?, i' fe ;opZs \kb;k tZb'A gqtkfBs ‘f;Zy ofjs wo:kdk’ ftu
nzfes j?. gzEe fJe;kosk ƒ wZd/ BIo oZyfdnK, T[jh nodk; ;kƒ
;kfonK ƒ ;dk eoBh ukjhdh j?. T[AR ;z;ko d/ ;ko/ jh b'e, fe;/ Bk
fe;/ o{g ftu nodk; eod/ jB. fJj jo/e Xow dk nzr ;theko eo
bJh j'Jh j?. jo fJB;kB n"y/ tes nodk; s'A ;jkok b'Vdk j?.
;op^PeshwkB oZp ih nZr/ fBwosk ;fjs, wZdd eoB bJh sobk
eodk j?. nodk; dh b|Ih noE j? L noiOdk;s. fBwosk ;fjs
p/Bsh. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nkgD/ w[ykofpzd s'A T[ukoB ehsh pkDh d[nkok Gh,
;kƒ nodk; eoB dh ftXh ;wMkJh j?. fJE/ thukoB:'r rzGho w;bk
fJj j? fe fit/A jo o'I ;w;s f;Zy ;wki tZb'A p/nzs YzrK, ftXhnK Bkb
nodk; ehsh iKdh j?. go eh fJj ehsh rJh nodk; g{oh Gh j[zdh j? <
nyzv^gkm, ;fji gkmK d/ nDfrDs G'r gkJ/ iKd/ jB. gfotko dh
uVQdh ebk bJh, fgzv dh ;[y^PKsh bJh, t'NK ftu ekw:kph jk;b eoB
bJh, bVeh^bVe/ bJh, nzB^XzB bJhHHH. ns/ j'o nB/e ekwBktK dh
g{osh bJh gkm ehs/ eokJ/ iKd/ jB. fpBk PZe, nodk;K Gh eJh^eJh
tkoh d[jokJhnK iKdhnK jB. eh fJ; soQK wB fJZSs gqkgshnK j'
iKdhnK jB< ;ko/ ftrV/ ekoi ok; j' iKd/ jB< eh r[opkDh e'Jh wzsq
ikg j?< ;dhnK s'A pqkjwDK tZb'A do;kJ/, gquko/, wzsoK, ikgK B/ wB[Zy
wkso dk edh e[M ;ztkfonk Gh j?< d[BhnK ftu tZ;D tkbhnK nB/e

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IkshnK, ephb/ ;wki dk i' ;o{g n;hA nZi t/y oj/ jK, fJj eKfJnk
ebg eh wzsoK, gkmK B/ ehsk j?< fijV/ d/P nZi ftek; dhnK p[bzdhnK
S'j oj/ jB, fiBQK nkgD/ BkrfoeK bJh ;kohnK ;[y ;j{bsK w[jZJhnk
eotk fdZshnK jB. eh T[j wzso^ikgK, gkmK iK nodk;K Bkb ;cbsk
dh f;yo s/ g[Zi/ jB, fe f;nkDg ns/ w/jBs Bkb ekw:kp j'J/ jB< f;Zy
gzE ftu bZyK dh frDsh ftu jo o'I gkm, nodk;K ehshnK$eokJhnK
ik ojhnK jB< f;ZyK dh ni'eh dPk fe;/ ftnkfynk dh w[jski BjhA j?.
T[go tofDs w;fbnK ƒ nzBh PoXk dh tbrD ftu'A fBeb/, frnkB
(r[opkDh) d/ ukBD ftu yb' e/, rzGhosk Bkb ftukoB dh b'V j?.
nfrnkBsk dh fi; x[zwDx/oh ftu'A ;fsr[o{ ih B/, wB[Zysk ƒ
w[es eoB dk T[geko ehsk ;h, f;ZyK` edh T[; pko/ ;'uD dk ePN Gh
ehsk j?< gkm ns/ nodk;K “ftXh g{ote” eotk e/ f;Zy, wBpKSs
gdkoEK s'A tKM/ feT[A ofj iKd/ jB < ekw:kph feT[A jZE BjhA nkT[Adh <
eh r[opkDh ftu e'Jh ewh j? iK nodk; ftu fes/ xkN j?< fes/ fJj sK
BjhA fe f;ZyK B/ okj jh rbs u[D fbnk j't/. feT[Afe fJj sK g{oB Go';k
j? fe gktB r[opkDh ftu e'Jh ewh BjhA j?. nkU` iok mzv/ fdb, fJBQK
ekoBk dh gVu'b eoB dk T[gokbk eohJ/.
wB[Zy wkso dh fJj e[dosh fcsos j? fe T[j fpBK ;oho ƒ
ePN fdZs/, ;w;s gdkoE gqkgs eoBk b'udk j?. ykD^ghD s/ gfjBD s'A
b? e/ fIzdrh dhnK ;ZG' \[PhnK sK G'rDhnK jB, go T[jBK tk;s/ ;oho
ƒ skn BjhA d/Dk ukj[zd/. T[Zdw eoB dh EK nkb; dk fPeko j' iKd/
jB. nkb/^d[nkb/ rj[ Bkb gVu'b eohJ/. ;z;ko d/ pj[ frDsh b'e,
;oho ƒ ePN d/D s'A ;ze'u jh eod/ jB. nfij/ nkb;h pzd/, id'A e[ZM
fjzwsh b'eK ƒ ;[y^;j{bsK wkDd/ t/yd/ jB, ;wki ftu T[BQk dk ;fseko
j[zdk sZed/ jB, sd'A nkgD/ bJh th, fpBk jZE fjbkfJnK ;G/ fBjwsK dh
e{Vh nk; sZed/ jB. fJj nkb;h b'e eJh tkoh ;z;koh frnkB ns/
Xow d/ T[usw n;{bK s'A Gh e'o/ jh t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. nfijh wkBf;e
d[fpXk ftu, y[adroi, b[N/o/ g[ikoh s'A, id'A nrtkJh b'ud/ jB, sd'A

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g[ikoh b'e, fJBQK nBikD, G'b/ PoXkb{nK ƒ g{ik eoB, wzso oND, pkDh
gkm eoB iK nodk; eokT[D dh “B/e ;bkj” fdzd/ jB. ftPtkP
fdtkfJnk iKdk j? fe ;zs ih, pkpk ih tZb'A ehsk frnk ftXh^g{ote
gkm, ikg[ s[jkv/ ;ko/ ePNK ƒ B/;s'^Bkp{d eo d/t/rk. fJ; iBw ftu
jh ;ko/ ;[y BjhA fwbDr/, ;r'A gob'e ftu th ;ko/ ;[y G'rd/ oj'r/. jZv
GzBthA ;\s fwjBs Bkb'A fJj okj ;[ykbk ns/ PkNeZN BIo nkT[Adk j?.
g[ikohnk tZb'A (fJ; g[Ikoh Pq/Dh ftu r[zwokj eoB tkb/ fjzd{, f;Zy,
Jh;kJh, w[;bwkB ;ko/ jh Pkwb jB) “ftXh^g{ote gkm$wzso ikg s/
nodk;” eokT[D dh ;bkj fdZsh iKdh j?. nkgD/ tZb'A ehsh rJh fJ;
“;/tk” dh uzrh w'Nh ch; t;{b bJh iKdh j?. b'Vtzd nBikD PoXkb{
ftnesh, dZ;/ rJ/ ;ko/ \ou/ s/ j'o y/ub, fJ; ftPtkP Bkb MZbdk j? fe
\ou s'A jIkoK r[DK tZX gqkgsh j' ikt/rh. fit/A d[ekBK s'A jo soQK dhnK
t;sK o[gJ/ \ou e/, s[ozs yohdhnK ik ;edhnK jB. fJ;/ soQK gkm,
wzso, ikg, nodk; dk cb Gh yqhd b?D dk e{Vk Gow gkb fbnk iKdk
j?. pkpk ih tZb'A dZ;hnK rJhnK o;wK g{ohnk eoB s/ Gh i/ wB fJZSs
gqkgsh BjhA j'Jh, sK ;pzXs gqkDh$gfotko T[;/ g[ikoh s'A n;cbsk dk
ekoB g[Sdk j?. fco fJj dZf;nk iKdk j? fe s[;hA d;hnK rJhnK
;kohnK o;wK mhe Yzr Bkb BjhA fBGkJhnK. fes/ e'Jh ewh ofj rJh
j?, ub' s[jkv/ tk;s/ d[pkok fJjh ekoi fBGkT[Ad/ jK. \ouk ns/ ;oXk
GktBk ftu e'Jh ewh BjhA ofjDh ukjhdh. iK fco nBikD gfotko fe;/
j'o v/o/ s/, j'o pkp/ d/ uoBK s/, ik ;h; M[ekT[Adk j?, wB'ekwBktK dh
S/sh g{osh dh nk; Bkb. T[; v/o/ s/ Gh fJe pVk ukbke fPekoh u'r
fybko e/, fPeko ƒ ckj[D bJh xks bkJh T[vhe fojk j[zdk j?. fJjh
toskok fe;/ Bk fe;/ o{g ftu ;dhnK s'A s[fonk nk fojk j?.
phs/ jIko e[ ;kb ftu Gkosh izsk iBkodB Bkb i' phsh T[j
e'Jh ebw fpnkB BjhA eo ;edh. fJ; d/P ƒ pVh p/ofjwh Bkb b[ZfNnk
frnk, p/gZs ehsk frnk. ;w{j esbkwk ehshnK rJhnK, d'^d' g?;/ w[b
ftu, fJE'A Ipoh u[Ze e/ b? ikJhnK rJhnK ;[zdohnK, riBh d/ pIkoK

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ftu Bhbkw j[zdhnK ojhnK. wzdo Ykj/ rJ/ “GrtkBK” dhnK w{oshnK
s'VhnK rJhnK. d/P^tk;hnK e'b'A ;G e[M y'j e/, G[Zy/ woB bJh wIp{o
eo fdZsk frnk. d[BhnK d/ fizB/ d/P }[bkw oj/ jB, PkfJd Gkos fJe'
fJZe nfijk d/P j't/rk, fi;B/ ;G s'A bzwk ;wK }[bkwh dk dod jzvkfJnk
j?. nro j'o fgSKj Mksh wkohJ/ sK nkohnB (ftd/PK ftu'A nk e/ tZ;/
b'e) jwbktoK B/ Gkosh w{b ;ZfGnsk ƒ g{oh soQk fwZNh ftu fwbk fdZsk
;h. nkohnk g[ZsoK dk fbfynk “Xow rqzE fort/d” ;p{s tk;s/ g/P
ehsk ik ;edk j?. fi; ftu w{b GkoshnK dk ;otBk; eoB dhnK
rkEktK ft;Eko ;fjs fbyhnk fwbdhnk jB. T[gozs :{BkB s'A nkfJnk
:'Xk, f;ezdo Gh ;G ƒ :kd j't/rk. fJj fXnkB ftu oj/ fe fJ;
d/tfsnK, ntskoK, foPhnK^w[BhnK, ;zsK^GrsK d/ d/P ftu, E'e ftu
Grsh ehsh ik ojh ;h. ubhj/ eZN/ ik oj/ ;B. wzso ikg s/ j'w iZr
pj[s ehs/ ik oj/ ;B. Xow yks/ ftu gP{nK dk jh BjhA, wB[ZyK dk Gh
“pbhdkB” ehsk ik fojk ;h. nB/e sohe/ gZsohnK tku e/, P[G wj{os
eZY/ ik oj/ ;B. i'fsP ns/ N/t/ bkJ/ ik oj/ ;B. wkbktK c/ohnK ik
ojhnK ;B. w{oshnK tkb/ GrtkBK ƒ ;[nkdb/ gdkoEK d/ G'r brtkJ/
ik oj/ ;B. wzdo ftu NZb$;zy r{zIK gk oj/ ;B. fszB ;" nmkjm shoEK
s/ fJPBkB eoe/, gftZsosk gqkgs ehsh ik ojh ;h. g[ikoh b'e fto'XhnK
ƒ ekp{ ftu oZyD tk;s/ ;okg d/ e/ “G;w eo d/D” dk nrBpkD, ;dk
fsnko oZyd/ ;B. PoXk fjs nzB^XB s/ XhnK, nogD eoB tkb/
PoXkb{nK ƒ “todkBk” dhnK SfjpoK bk fdnk eod/ ;BHHH. “wro,
woi pVsk frnk fiT[A^fiT[A dtk eh.”
wjkB goT[gekoh, fJBebkph ;{ow/, tkfjr[o{ ih tZb'A to';kJ/,
T[; dk \k; o{g, ;fsr[o{ BkBe fBozekoh ih Xosh s/ nk gqrN/. T[BQK
;w[Zuh wB[Zysk d/ efbnkD fjZs, v{zxh ;'u ftuko ehsh. ;dhnK dh
}[bkwh rb'A bkT[D tk;s/, nfrnkBsk dh BhAdo ftu'A irkT[D tk;s/,
ewo eZ;/ eo bJ/. }[bkwh oki;h, }[bkwh Xkofwe, }[bkwh ;wkie,
}[bkwh n"os dh. }[bkwh s/sh eq'V d/th^d/tfsnk dh. fiE/ ;fsr[o{ ih

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B/ d/P^ftd/PK ftu ik e/ nkgD/ gftZso puBK okjhA b'eK ƒ jb{fDnk,
Bkb'^Bkb nkgD/ ftukoK ƒ fbysh o{g Gh fdzd/ rJ/. ;fsr[o{ ih Gbh
gqeko ikDd/ ;B, fe nDfrDs p[okJhnK s/ }[bkwhnK dk \kswk wzsoK,
gkmK iK e/tb nodk;K okjhA \sw BjhA ehsk ik ;edk. i/ fe;/ wzso iK
gkm Bkb wB[Zysk dk Gbk j' ;edk j[zdk sK T[j sK ;woZE r[o{ ;B, fJe'
tkoh nzso^fXnkB j' e/, e'Jh wzso gVQ SZvd/. T[gozs fJekro fuZs,
nekb g[oy d/ uoBK ftu, ;opZs d/ Gb/ tkbh tXhnk fijh nodk; eo
d/Ad/. fpBK PZe T[j nZi d/ f;ZyK^;kXK iK ;zsK Bkb'A eq'V doI/ tXhnk
nodk; eoB dh ;woZEk oZyd/ ;B. nZi gVQ/ ik oj/ wzsoK Bkb'A fes/
T[Zsw wzso Gh T[j ikDd/ ;B. T[BQK tZb'A ehsh rJh p/Bsh, nekb g[oy
d/ do s/, S/sh jh gqtkB j' ikDh ;h. fJZe' tkoh r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ;Zu/
gksPkj tZb'A ehsh nodk; d[nkok, ;w;s ;z;ko d/ d[ZyK, eb/PK, ftekoK,
}ohph, }[bkwh nkfd dk ykswk j' ikDk ;h. ;ko/ ;z;ko d/ Bk ;jhA
nkgD/ jw tsBh Gkos G{wh d/ t;BheK d/ d[Zy sK d{o eo fdzd/. T[jBK
ƒ nkgD/ f;ZyK ;/teK Bkb pj[s fgnko ;h, fJBQK d/ ePN Bftsoh tk;s/
jh e'Jh wzso gVQ iKd/, nodk; eo fdzd/HHH.
go BjhA` ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp uzrh soQK ikDd/ ;B fe I[pkBh
iwQK \ou Bkb fJ; G'bh b'ekJh dk e[ZM BjhA ;ztoBk. ;r'A T[BQK bZyK
w[PebK MZb e/ bzw/ g?v/ s?j eoe/ ny"sh eokwksh ;kX{nK ƒ Mzi'V e/
irkfJnk. d/P ftu tkgo ojh d[odPk, spkjh, G[ywoh, I[bw'^f;sw
pko/ ft;Eko Bkb ikDekoh fdZsh. gkyzv eow d[nkok G'b/ b'eK ƒ Bk
b[ZND dh ;'Mh fdZsh. nkgD/ f;ZX/^;kd/ rkvhA^okj pko/, ukBDk gkfJnk.
\[d ;fsr[o{ ih B/ T[gd/P jh BjhA ehsk ;r'A b'e GbkJh bJh m'; nwbh
T[dw nkozG eo fdZs/. gksPkj T[wo Go wB[Zysk d/ ePN fBtkoD fjs
fdB^oks i[N/ oj/. fJ;/ goT[gekoh ekoi ƒ fBozso uZbdk oZyD bJh,
nkgDh EK r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih ƒ fIzw/tkoh ;"Ag rJ/. T[BQK B/ Gh wzso
ikg gkm iK e/tb nodk; d[nkok b'ekJh dk Gbk j'Dk ;theko BjhA
ehsk. ;r'A brksko ;zxoP;hb oj/ *s/ f;Zy bfjo ƒ pj[gZyh frnkB

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p\Pe/ j'o gquzv ehsk. i/ fJe fwzN tk;s/ ;theko eo bJhJ/ fe PKsh
d/ fdBK ftu Gkt/A wzsoK^izsoK dh Io{os BjhA gJh, go r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp nkgD/ gzit/A ;o{g ftu id'A ikpo j[ewokBk dh JhB Bk wzBfdnK,
nB/eK ePN ;oho s/ MZb oj/ ;B. fJe jcsk brksko fdb ezpkT{ s;hj/
d/D s'A pknd Pjhd eo fdZs/ rJ/. T[; n"y/ tes sK e'Jh wzso T[jBK ƒ
gVQ jh d/Dk ukjhdk ;h. eh ;ko/ jhb/ w[Ze ikD s/, nkyoh jfEnko d/ s"o
s/ fe;/ wzso ƒ tofsnk ikDk rbs ;h < eh x'o ;zeN d/ ;w/A, fBozeko
d/ do nodk; okjhA ;jkfJsk wzrDh, fe;/ r[owfs d/ f;XKs dh T[bzxDk
;h< nkyoh nw'x pkD d/ s"o s/ wzso gVQe/ d[PwD dh skes ƒ BPN
BjhA eoBk ukjhdk ;h < S/t/A BkBe (r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp) ih tZb'A d'
sbtkoK XkoB eoBhnK, c"iK, febQ/, x'V/ s'gK nekb s\s ;kfjpHHHH.
eh nodk; iK fe;/ wzso ikg Bkb d[PwD dk wbhnk^w/N BjhA ehsk ik
;edk ;h < fco feT[A < fJsB/ tZv/ I'\w Go/ gqpzX eoB/ fezB/ n"y/, s/
wzso ikg iK nodk; tkbk ekoi nsh ;[y?B. ;"yk okj fsnkr e/,
fpyV/ g?Av/ uZbDk, f;Zy ;/te Pjhd eotkT[D/, nkgDk \k; fNekDk,
nzfwqs;o SZve/, ehosg[o tk; eoBk, fJBQK w[PebK s'A ;fji/ jh pfunk
ik ;edk ;h, wzsoK d[nkok. nkg'^nkgD/ tes, wB[Zysk dk Gbk eofdnK,
;ko/ r[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ wzsoK d[nkok iK fe;/ }?ph Pesh okjhA, d[Zy d{o
eoB dk edh ftPtkP BjhA fdtkfJnk. d;t/A ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nB/eK
w[PebK dk Nkeok ehsk. eohp u"dK \{Bh izrK bVhnK. p/nzs f;Zy
Pjhd j'J/, uko/ ;'jD/ bkb Xow :[ZX ftu e[opkB j'J/. nzs ;w/A nkgDk
nkgk Gh ;fsr[o{ ih B/ b/y/ bk fdZsk. fGnkBe w[;hpsK, d[Zy, G[Zy,
nDfrDs PjhdhnK eh P"Ae g{oB tk;s/ jh ;B< wzso, to, ;okg, ikg
iK nodk; j'o fe; tk;s/ ;KG e/ oZyh j'Jh ;h. w[;hpsK MZbD dh Ekt/A,
eokwksh PeshnK dh tos'A jh eo b?Ad/. go BjhA, nfijk ;fsr[o{ ih B/
e[ZM Bk ehsk. Bk jh f;ZyK ƒ eokwksh PeshnK iK }?ph skesK s/
ftPtkP oZyD dk j[ew ehsk. BKjh fJj j' ;edhnK jB. feT[Afe T[;
;w/A Gh bZyK gkyzvh ;kX eokwksh j'D dk Y'b pj[s T[Zuh tik oj/ ;B.

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go wB[Zy wkso d/ okJh wkso ;zeN ƒ d{o Bk eo ;e/. fJzB^fpzB w"I{dk
;w/A ftu, nfij/ nB/e pfjo{ghJ/ ;kX^;zs, nkgD/ eokwksh j'D dhnK
y{p vhrK wkod/ jB. wB[Zysk dk Gbk eoB s'A fJj ;ko/ jh n;woE
jB. jK i'eK tKr izsk dk \{B ghD' osh Go fMie BjhA eod/.
d;w gksPkj jI{o s'A pkd, BZp/ ;kb sZe, brksko pjkdo f;Zy
;{ofwnK B/ I[bw dk \kswk eoB tk;s/ s/} tkjh, ;h; eNtkJ/, pzd^pzd
i[dk eotkJ/, uoyVhnK s/ uVQ/, f;oK d/ w[Zb gJ/, xo^pko T[iV/, izrbhA
tk; ehsk. nf;j s/ nefj ePN ;jko/. eh fJBQK ;ko/ ehwsh ikBk
e[opkB eoB tkb/, ;h; sbh s/ Xo, w?dkB ftu i{MD tkb/, r[o{ e/ bkbK
ftu'A e'Jh Gh wzso ikg, eokwksh PeshnK iK nodk; okjhA, ekoi
f;ZXh eoBh BjhA ikDdk ;h < i/ w{zj I[pkBh wzso ikg Bkb ekoi ok; j'
;ed/ ;B, fco \{B d/ dfonk soB dh eh Io{os ;h < ;fsr[o{ dh py;h
ofjB[wkJh ftu uZbfdnK, w[rbK dh }[bkwh rb'A T[skoh, sK r'fonK nk
GkoshnK ƒ }[bkw pDk Xfonk. r'oh ;oeko B/ fjzd[;skB ƒ T[AR sK
400 ;kb b[ZfNnk, go f;ZX/ Yzr 200 ;kb uzrh frZdV e[N ehsh. fJBQK
s'A nkIkdh gqkgs eoB bJh Bt/A f;foUA fco d/P gq/wh woihtV/, f;oK d/
eZcD pzB e/, xo'A fBeb gJ/. p/nzs s;hj/ MZb/, ekb e'mVhnK ftu
i[nkBhnK rb rJhnK. ekb/ gkDhnK dh ;Ik eZN e/ e'Jh ftobk jh
tkg; nkfJnk j't/rk. \{B dhnK BdhnK tjk e/, bkPK d/ ;ZEo T[;ko e/,
fco fes/ nkIkdh^okDh d/ doPB B;hp j'J/ ;B. ;ko/ fjzd';skB ftu
;kX{nK, ;zfBnk;hnK, i'rhnK, pqkjwDK, sgZ;thnK dk e'Jh gkoktko
BjhA ;h. go fe;/ wjkswk B/ e'Jh ikd{^wzso Bk SZfvnk, ikg, j'w iZr
Bk ehsk. sK fe fpBK ikB^wkb d/ xkD s'A, fpBk bzwh wko{ izr s'A,
nkokw Bkb nkIkdh^d/th nk Gkr bkT[Adh. f;ZyK ftu Gh pj[s ;ko/
dwri/ wkoB tkb/ ;kX ;zs ;B. nfrnkBh PoXkb{nK ƒ E'e ftu
poesK tzv oj/ ;B. wzsoK^sthsK, XkfrnK, gkmK, nodk;K d[nkok
;zeN w'uB eo oj/ ;B. fJj ;ko/ ‘wjKg[oP’ nkIkdh dh izr ftu fjZ;k
gkT[Ad/ fes/ fuokr b? e/ Gh Y{zfvnK BjhA fwbd/. eohp nmtzik ;kb j'

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rJ/ jB, d/P nkIkd j'J/ ƒ, go ;ko/ w;b/ T[;/ soQK |Bhno Bkr tKr,
w{zj nZvh fGnkBe o{g ftu yV/ jB. }ohph, fpwkoh, nBgVQsk,
foPtsy'oh, ;zgodkfJesk nkfd nB/e w[;hpsK fteokb o{g Xkoh yVhnK
jB. Gkos ftu gzikj bZy ny"sh ;kX wzso ikg, sgZf;nk iK :'r
f;ZXhnK okjhA, nkgD/ gk; n;hw PeshnK j'D dhnK vhrK wkod/ BjhA
EZed/. izsk ƒ r[wokj Gh eod/ jB. s/ T[BQK rohpK dk \{B pVh p/^ofjwh
Bkb Xow dk b/pb bke/ vekod/ jB. fJBQK ;kXK^;zsK B/ fJe Gh w;bk
jZb BjhA ehsk eokfJnk. ;oekoh Ipo d/ fto[ZX edh I[pkB sZe BjhA
y'bQh. b'eK d/ d[Zy xND dh Ekt/A tZXd/ jh ik oj/ jB.
f;Zy ;wki d/ ;Bw[Zy e[ZM ;tkb rzGho u[D"sh tKr dog/P jB.
nro wzso ikg gkm d[nkok, ;kXK ;zsK tZb'A ehshnK nodk;K d[nkok
nZi sZe (fteb'so/ e/; ƒ SZv e/) f;ZyK dk iK wB[Zysk dk e[ZM ;ztfonk
BjhA, (ftrfVnk pj[s j?) fco gqzgoktK iK wfonkdktK dk eh ehsk ikt/
< i/ r[opkDh dk “cb gqkgs” BjhA j[zdk, i/ ftXh g{ote ehsh “nodk;”
;[Dh BjhA iKdh, fco ehsh jh feT[A ikt/ < gkme iB' xpok Bk ikDk,
pj[s seV/ j' e/, fdb s/ gZEo oZye/ rzGhosk Bkb fJBQK ;tkbK d/ i[nkp
bZGD/ g?Dr/. gktB r[opkDh ;fsr[o{ ;kfjp tZb'A ngozgo, gko pqjw
gow/Po ih dk T[usw ;zd/P ;z;ko d/ Gb/ bJh nkt/; j'fJnk j?.
r[opkDh f;Zy d/ ihtB dk ;jkok j?. Ezwh j?, ihtB iku j?, i/ f;Zy
r[opkDh BjhA gVQ/^;wM/rk sK fJ; dh nkswe w"s j' ikt/rh. j'o Gkt/A
i' woih pfDnk fco/, pkDh s'A fpBk f;Zyh nzdo BjhA fNe/rh. Pos fJjh
j? fe i' T[Zsw T[gd/P, ;fsr[o{ ih B/ pyfPP ehs/ jB, T[BQK ƒ gVQBk,
;wMDk f;o^wZE/ ;theko eoBk j?, fpBk fezs{^gqzs{ s'A r[opkDh w[skpe
ihtB Ykb b?Dk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih dk gftso c[owkB j? L^
r[o[ g{ok fi;[ G/fNnk sk e/ ;[fy got/P ]
wB eh wfs fsnkrhn? ;[Dhn? T[gd/;[ ] (gzBk^814)
;fsr[o{ ih c[owkB eod/ jB, j/ GkJh` fi; gqkDh ƒ g{ok ;woZE
r[o{ fwb g?Adk j?, T[j ;[yh fIzdrh pshs eodk j?. T[;d/ fjod/ xo ftu

(147)
g{oB nBzd j[zdk j?. pPos/ T[j nkgDh S'Nh wZs fsnkr d/t/. fJekro
fus r[o{ dk nkfynk ;[D/, fdZs/ rJ/ j[ew w[skpe ekoi nkozG eo d/t/.
nZr/ ;fsr[o{ ih j'o ;wMkT[Ad/ jB L^
n;fEo ojj[, v'bj[ ws epj{, r[o e? pufB nXkfo]
i? i? eko ;rb G{ wzvb, w[y T{ib dopkfo](gzBk^678)
fJ; gktB gzesh ftu ;fsr[o{ ih ;gZPN sohe/ ;wMk oj/ jB
fe nv'b ofj e/, nZr/ tX'. r[o{ d/ frnkB (T[gd/P) ƒ jh fIzdrh dk
nkXko ;theko eo'. fco ;koh Xosh T[Zs/ s[jkvh P'Gk j't/rh. fBozeko
d/ dopko ftu Gh wkD gqkgs eo'r/. nZr/ j'o ;[D' L^
i/s/ ihn fbyh f;oeko] eoDh T[gfo j'tfr ;ko]
j[ew eofj w{oy rtko] (gzBk^1169)
j/ GkJh` ;GBK ihtK d/ f;o tkfjr[o{ ih B/ nkgDk fB:w o{gh
j[ew fby G/fink j?. jo iht d/ ehs/ uzr/^wzd/ ezwK dk b/yk^i'yk
j't/rk. w{oy b'e fBozeko d/ nNZb ekƒB ƒ pdbDk ukj[zd/ jB, go pdb
BjhA ;eDr/. wBwkBhnK eod/ gSskT[Dr/.
;fBwo p/Bsh j? fe fi; sohe/, nZi gkm j' oj/ jB, fJBQK okjhA
e[ZM b'eK ƒ o[Irko fwfbnk sK nkfynk ik ;edk j?, j'o e'Jh nkswk dk
efbnkD j[zdk j't/ iK gzE dh uVQdh ebk j' ojh j't/, nfijk BjhA j?.
g[ikohnK, ;kX{nK^;zsK dhnK e'mhnK, v/o/, ekoK, mkm, u/b/^u/bhnK,
r'rVK, y{p T[;o ojhnK jB. PoXkb{ XB eoe/ Gh, frnkB eoe/ Gh,
ezrkb dk ezrkb jh j?. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp d/ nEkj Gzvko ftu'A fJe Ppd
s/ T[;d/ ;zy/g noE gkmeK d/ ;Bw[y jB L^
s? Bo fenk g[okB[ ;[fB ehBk]
nBgktBh Grfs Bjh T[gih G{y? dkB[ B dhBk ]1] ojkT[]
ekw[ B fp;foU eq'X[ B fp;foU b'G[ B S{fNU d/tk]
go fBzdk w[y s/ Bjh S{Nh fBcb GJh ;G ;/tk]1]
pkN gkfo xo[ w{f; fpokB' g/N[ Go? ngqkXh]
fifj gob'e ikfJ ngehofs ;'Jh nfpfdnk ;kXh]2]

(148)
fjz;k sT[ wB s/ Bjh S{Nh ihn dfJnk Bjh gkbh]
gowkBzd ;kX;zrfs fwfb eEk g[Bhs B ukbh]3](gzBk^1253)
j/ wB[Zy` Xkofwe g[;seK gVQ e/ s{z eh ehsk < s/o/ fjod/ ftu
T[sw r[D g?dk j'D/ ukjhd/ ;B i' BjhA j'J/. e/tb Xkofwe rqzE gVQ^;[D
b?D/, e[ZM fwEhnK o;wK g{ohnK eo b?DhnK jh Xow BjhA j'fJnk eodk.
s/o/ nzdo tkfjr[o{ s/ g{oB Go';/ tkbh PoXk g?dk BjhA j'Jh. G[Zy/ nks[o
b'VtzdK Bkb tzv e/ G'iB Bk Sfenk. ekw tkPBk s/ s{z ezNo'b Bk eo
;fenk. s/o/ nzdo eq'X dh nrBh sK bNkbN pbdh BIo nkT[Adh j?.
b'G tkbh G?Vh fposh s'A s{z S[Nekok BjhA gk ;fenk. jo ;w/A s{z gokJh
fBzdk eodk ofjzdk j?A. fJ; soQK s/o/ ftykt/ tkb/ Xow eowK tkbh ihtB
fefonk p/noE ik ojh j?. s{z okjrhoK ns/ xoK ƒ b[ZND s'A Gh r[o/I
BjhA eodk. fJ; soQK gkg dh ewkJh d[nkok s{z gfotko dh g/N g{osh
eodk j'fJnk tZvk ngokXh pD frnk j?A. s/o/ tZb'A ehs/ rJ/ fJBQK gkg
eowk ekoB, oZph dorko ftu s?ƒ Y'Jh BjhA fwb/rh. G?V/ ezwK s'A pki
nk ikj, s{z sK p/d'fPnK ƒ esb sZe eo fojk j?A. s{z nkgD/ p'bK s/
nkdsK d[nkok d{i/ wB[ZyK ƒ pj[s d[Zy gj[zukT[Adk j?A. ihtK s/ dfJnk iK
fgnko tkbh Gbh ohs s{z ngDkJh BjhA. gowkBzd ih T[sw puBk
d[nkok fIzdrh dk ;jh Yzr ;wMkT[Ad/ jB. j/ GkJh` s{z B/e g[oPK dh
;zrs BjhA eodk, fiZE'A ihtB ;ekoEk eoB tkbh f;Zfynk jk;b j' ;e/.
tkfjr[o{ ih d/ r[DK ƒ ihtB ftu Ykbe/, Bkw ig e/, B/e ezw eofdnK,
ftekoK ƒ fsnkr e/ jh s{z gow/Po d/ do s/ gqtkB j' ;edk j?A. ;z;ko
ftu ;Zuk ;Z[y wkD ;edk j?A. (1253)
nw'be yIkB/, gktB r[opkDh ftu'A fJj j? e/tb fJe Ppd dk
;konz;. fJ; GktBk d/ p/nzs Ppd, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih ftu w"I{d jB.
fJBQK ƒ fJe ;" tkoh gVQ', iK fJe jIko tkoh. e/tb s'sk oNDh^gVQB
wkso^Bkb ekoi BjhA f;X j'Dk. ;r'A n;bhns fJj j? fe fJBQk puBk
d[nkok fdZs/ rJ/ T[gd/P j[ew ƒ fJB^fpB wzB e/, dZ;/ rJ/ ftekoK ƒ
fsnkr e/, gqtkB j'fJnk ik ;edk j?. ihtB ƒ r[DK Bkb Gog{o eoBk

(149)
j?. fJjh j? r[opkDh dk sZs;ko, wBw[ZyK ƒ r[ow[y, ftekohnK ƒ
goT[gekoh, gkyzvhnK ƒ ;Zu/ Xowh pDk e/, ;zs f;gkjh dk fJe' EK ;[w/b
eotk e/, ;'jD/ ;wki dh f;oiDk eoBh.
nZr/ n;hA ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ r[opkDh ftu'A e[ZM j'o b'VhAd/ wZ;fbnK
pko/ fBwosk ;fjs ;tkb g[ZSKr/. feT[Afe ;kvh ws E'Vqh j?, ftfdnk xZN
j?, fIzdrh dk sIopk wkw{bh j?, fIzdrh fiT{D pko/ n;hA BjhA ikDd/. sK
s/ ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ g[ShJ/, ;tkb^g[ZSK eo b?D dk jZe, ;kƒ ;fsr[o{ ih B/
p\fPP ehsk j'fJnk j?. c[owkB j? L^
r[o g{Sj[ s[w- eoj[ phuko[] sK gqG ;ku/ br? fgnko[] (gzBk^1173)
r[fo g{o/ ;u[ efjnk] ;' ;[y[ ;kuk bfjnk] (gzBk^621)
jo gfjb{ pko/ ;[uZih nrtkJh f;Zy B/ ;fsr[o[ rqzE ;kfjp ih s'A
gqkgs eoBh ;h. pV/ nc;'; Bkb fbyDk g? fojk j? fe pj[^frDsh
f;Zy^;wki, r[opkDh d/ ;opd/;h, ;opekbh, ;w[Zuh wkBtsk ƒ rZbtZeVh
ftu b?D tkb/ T[sw T[gd/PK s'A nBikD j?. ;kXK^;zsK s'A, wzsoK, ikgK
d[nkok ekoi f;ZX eotkT[D dh d"V ftu j?. c'eN g{ik^gkmK d/ Bkw j/m,
nkgDk ehwsh ;wK ns/ p/fj;kpk XB, Gzr d/ GkV/ popkd eoh ik fojk
j?. epoK, wVQhnK, c'N'nK iK ny"sh pkfpnK nZr/ fBZs bzwhnK eskoK
BwPekoK eodhnK t/yhnK ik ;edhnK jB. id'A e'Jh d[Zy^;[Zy nk Y[Ze/,
ftykt/ wkso o;w g{osh, r[o{ :kd eo fbnk iKdk j?. toBK BfPnK,
eoweKvK ns/ j'o o[M/ftnK s'A ftjb jh feE/ j? < eJh tkoh sK ;kok
ekoi e/tb nodk; eoe/ g{ok j' frnk wzB fbnk iKdk j?. iok nkgD/
nzdo T[soB dh y/ub eo', fgSb/ ;w/A ƒ nZyK nZr/ fbnkT[. ;tk gzi ;"
;kb ftu i' e[ZM f;Zy gzE B/ gqkgshnK ehshnK jB, xkbDk^xkbhnK jB,
;fsr[o{ ;kfjp ih B/ wknoe/ tkb/ ekoi ehs/ jB, eh T[j ;ko/ nodk;
eofdnK jh nZy^c'o ftu fpBK ;oho ƒ y/ub fdZfsnK g{o/ j' rJ/ ;B<
fJe gk;/ nodk; dh eokwksh Pesh d[nkok, ekoi f;Xh dk, ft;tkP
d[nkfJnk ik fojk j?. d{i/ pzB/ ;w[Zuk f;Zy fJfsjk;, xZb{xkfonK, fBZs
dhnK esbkwk, jkoK^fiZsK Bkb bpo/I j?. d'tk rZbK ftu'A ;Zu eh j?,

(150)
eowksh nodk;K iK ;fsr[o{ ih dh pyPh T[s Z w nrtkJh s/ f;zxK^f;zxDhnK
dhnK ;{owrshnK< iok ;'u'` fco gzEe d[PtkohnK ƒ d{o eoB tk;s/,
;zeN joB tk;s/, nZi nodk;K feT[A Pesh jhD j' rJhnK jB< f;Zy
gZE ftu nkg{z pD/ pqjwfrnkBh, g{oB ;zs, foZXhnK^f;ZXhnK d/ wkbe,
jIkoK gkmK dhnK bVhnK ubkT[D tkb/, s/ wzso wkbk ikg eoB tkb/,
;zsK^;kXK dh frDsh eoBh n"yh j?. fJBQK dhnK PeshnK p/eko feT[A ik
ojhnK jB, e[M ;ztoB dh Ekt/A, f;Zy gzE o;ksb tZb fBxodk ik fojk
j? < w"s f;o s/ e{e ojh j? s/ f;Zy ƒ fpZbh t/ye/ ep{so tKr nZyK whN
b?D dk spkj e[B T[gd/P fdZsk ik fojk j?. f;nkfDnK dk eEB j? fe
id'A G/v^pZeo/ ƒ esbrkj tZb fbikfJnk iKdk j?, sK T[j g?o nVkT[Adk
j?, ftbedk^uhydk j?. w"s s'A puD dh g{oh tkj bkT[Adk j?. go t/y'
tZvk f;sw, f;Zy i?eko/ rikT[Adk, ekcb/ pzB e/, iK sK p/JhwkB oki;h
bhvoK tZb'A fsnko ehsh esbrkj tZb ik fojk j?. iK wzso ikg s/
nodk; eotke/ ck;hA uVQB bJh ;kXK d/ v/fonK tZb jI{w pDk e/
d"fVnk ik fojk j?. nfijh fGnkBe nt;Ek ftu'A, gowkswk dh e'Jh
eokwks jh puk bt/ s/ puk bt/, toBk ;kj;s^jhD j'J/, gzE dk wk;
B'uD bJh G[ZyhnK froMK, M[owN gkJh uko/ pzB/ x/ok xZs u[ZehnK jB.
d[BhnK d/ fiBQK b'eK B/ ;\s xkbDk^xkbhnK B/, ;[Zy nokw s'A
p/^gqtkj j'J/ B/, iE/pzde o{g ftu nZr/ tXD bJh ;koh skes M'e fdZsh
rJh j?, ekw:kphnK T[BQK d/ edwK ftu j[zdhnK B/. pkdPkjs d/ ;'jD/
ski T[BQK d/ ;h; s/ P'Gd/ B/. d[BhnK M[Ze^M[Ze e/ ;bkwK, T[jBK ƒ jh
eodh j?. fJ;kJh b'eK B/ i/ nZXh d[BhnK s/ oki ehsk j?, wZbK wkohnK
jB, e/tb wzso ikg eoe/ BjhA, f;oV^f;de Bkb, izr ftu ;dk i{Md/
oj/. w[;bwkBK B/ jfEnkopzd j' e/ g{o/ j"A;b/ Bkb, fiXo XkJh ehsh,
fiZs d/ Mzv/ rZv fdZs/. d[BhnK dh p/^P[wko d"bs s/ j[;B b[ZNd/ oj/, b'ehA
bzw/ g?^g? vzv'T[sK eod/ oj/. eh fJj ;kohnK ekw:kphnK, wzso ikgK
Bkb M'bh gkJhnK ;B< j[D Gkosh okfInK, ;kXK^;zsK s/ fJE'A d/ b'eK dh
ekor[Ikoh t/y'. fJE/ pV/ wzso ikg, gkm, iZr ehs/ iKd/ ;B. go

(151)
;dhnK sZe }[bkwh d/ ;zrb, rb gJ/ oj/. fe;/ wzso gkm B/ Pesh Bk
ftykJh. fJ; purkBh joes s'A ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/, pj[s
gfjbK d/P tk;hnK ƒ ntrs eotkfJnk ;h. fsnkoh eoB, fjzwsh
pDB, J/esk d/ ;{so ftu go'J/ ikD, tfjwK^GowK s'A puD dh sk}hd
ehsh ;h. go n;hA nZi se fJBQK T[sw T[gd/PK ƒ ;[fDnk^nB;[fDnk
jh eod/ nk oj/ jK. ;fsr[o{ ih dk gktB puB j? L^
e'Nh j{ gho tofi ojkJ/ ik who[ ;[fDnk XkfJnk]
EkB w[ekw ib/ fpi wzdo w[fS w[fS e[fJo o[bkfJnk]
e'Jh w[rb[ B j'nk nzXk feB? B gouk bkfJnk](gzBk^417)
;fsr[o{ ih pVh p/pkeh Bkb ;w/A dk ;Zu/ b'eK d/ ;Bw[y oZy oj/
jB. gJh id'A pkpo Gkos s/ jwbk eoB bJh uVQ fgnk, ;{j/ B/ ;w/A d/
jkewK ƒ jwb/ pko/ \po fdZsh. pikfJ fJ; d/ fe g{oh fdqVsk Bkb, c"ih
fsnkoh ehsh iKdh, Gkosh w[ekwh jkewK, okfinK B/ ghoK^cehoK,
;kX{nK, pqkjwDk ƒ p[bk e/, wkor doPB bJh p/Bsh ehsh. pkpo d/
w[ekpb/ bJh eh Yzr ngDkJ/ ikD, g[ZfSnk. cehoK B/ sths pDk e/
c"ihnK ƒ tzv fdZs/. ftP/P fe;w d/ wzsoK dk ikg eoB bJh fejk. Bkb
jh fejk fe n;hA Gh fJBQK wzsoK dk ikg^gkm eoKr/. ;kvh ;kfonK dh
fJ; wzso Pesh Bkb pkpo dh ;koh c"i, ;kv/ d/P ftu g?o oZyfdnK jh
nzBh j' ikt/rh. s[;hA p; ;kvh eokwksh wzso Pesh s/ Go';k oZy'.
;fsr[o{ ;gZPN g[eko oj/ jB, fe fJBQK wzsoK^ikgK, sthsK Bkb, pkpo
dh c"i dk fJZe Gh f;gkjh nzBk BjhA j'fJnk, fe;/ dk tkb ftzrk BjhA
j'fJnk. ;r'A jwbkto w[rb c"i nZrK bkT[Adh, s'gK, pzd{eK d/ r'b/
toQkT[Adh spkjh wukT[Adh, nZr/ jh nZr/ tXdh ubh nk ojh ;h. fJBQK
fBezw/ Gkosh b'eK d/, fBezw/ ;kXB s/ f;gkjh, bV jh Bk ;e/. nZr/
c[owkB j? L^
w[rb gmkDk GJh bVkJh oD wfj s/r trkJh]
UBh s[ge skfD ubkJh UB-h j;fs fuVkJh] (gzBk^417)
nkgD/ coI fBGkT[D dh EK, oki/^tIho, nwho, u"Xoh,

(152)
;kX{^ceho, eh eo oj/ ;B, ;fsr[o{ ih dh I[pkBh ;[D' L^
nr' d/ i/ u/shn? sK ekfJs[ fwb? ;ikfJ]
;kjK ;[ofs rtkJhnk ozfr swk;? ukfJ] (gzBk^417)
nZr'A izrh fsnkoh e'Jh Bk ehsh. oki wfjbK nzdo jh ;dk
ozr^obhnK ftu wdj'P ofjzd/ ;B. wzsoK d/ ;jko/ izr fisDh e{VhnK
nk;K bkJh p?m/ ;B. N[eV/^N[eV/ j' rJ/, g?oK j/m fbskV fdZs/ rJ/. ;kok
d/P popkd eotk fdZsk. fi; d/P ƒ nkIkd eotkT[D tk;s/ eJh
;dhnK sZe nEkj ePN MZbD/ gJ/. bZyK ikBK b/y/ bZr rJhnK, nB/e
;kXB i[NkT[D/ gJ/, wzsoK s/ Go';k oZyD tkfbnK dh w{oysk ekoB fJj
;G d[Zy G'rD/ gJ/.
nZr/ ;fsr[o{ ih s'A g[ZShJ/, ih` feogk eoe/ ;kƒ Bk^;wMK ƒ
fJj Gh dZ; fdT[ fe fjzws eoBh ukjhdh j? fe BjhA< i' b'e gdkoEK
Bkb wkbwkb fd; oj/ jB, fJj wzso ikgK Bkb nwho j'J/ jB fe T[dw
f;nkDg Bkb< i/ fe;/ ftnesh ƒ T[dw eoB d/ pkti{d ekw:kph Bk
fwbD dk fPetk j? sK fJj Gh ;'uDk gt/rk T[;dk ehsk frnk T[gokbk,
r[owfs i[rs nB[;koh ;h, iK nkgDh j'Sh wZs w[skpe < i' nodk;
okjhA wzfrnk frnk ;h, T[; ftu nzsqht GktBk eh ;h, fej' fijh ;h<
nekb g[oy dh G?^GktBh ftu ofjzfdnK, ;fsr[o{ dh py;h ftXh w[skpe,
f;Zy B/ ;dk fefonkPhb ofjDk j?. nkU` T[dw fjzws eoB pko/ gktB
r[opkDh s'A ;/X bJhJ/ L^
T[dw[ eoj[ tvGkrhj' f;woj[ jfo jfo okfJ]
BkBe fi;[ f;wos ;G ;[y j'tfj d{y[ dod[ Gqw[ ikfJ] (gzBk^456)
j/ GkJh` fjzws eo' tZv/ GkrK tkb/ pD', r[opkDh d[nkok gow/Po
dh :kd ftu i[V'. j/ BkBe fi; tkfjr[o{ d/ :kd ehfsnK, ;ko/ ;[yK dh
gqkgsh j[zdh j?, d[ZyK dk \kswk j' iKdk j?, T[;ƒ edh Bk ft;ko'.
T[dw[ eos ;hsb wB GJ/] wkofr ubs ;rb d[y rJ/] (gzBk^201)
j/ GkJh` fjzws eoe/ r[o{ do;kJ/ okj s/ ub gT[. fJ; soQK
eofdnK wB ;hsb j' iKdk j?. ;ko/ d[yK eb/PK dk ykswk j' iKdk j?.

(153)
T[dw[ ehnk eokfJnk nkozG[ oukfJnk]
Bkw[ ig/ ifg ihtDk r[fo wzsq[ fdqVkfJnk] (gzBk^399)
j/ GkJh` i' T[dw ehsk frnk j?, tkfjr[o{ B/ feogk eoe/ nkg
eotk fbnk j?. gow/Po s/ Go';k oZy e/ ekoi nkozG eo fdZsk j?. nZr'A
w?A ekoi Gh eodk iktKrk ns/ ;dk gowkswk ƒ fjod/ ftu t;k e/
oyKrk.
T[dw[ eo/fdnk ihT[ s{z ewktfdnk ;[y G[zu[]
fXnkfJfdnk s{z gqG{ fwb[ BkBe T[soh fuzs] (gzBk^522)
j/ GkJh` ;dk T[dw eodk ojhA, fjzws eoe/ XB gdkoE ewk
bJhA, ;ohoe b'VK tk;s/ nzB^XB Io{o ewkJhA. nkswk d/ efbnkD
fjs ;fsr[o{ ih dk pyfPnk T[sw frnkB, gqG{ d/ r[D fjod/ ftu t;k
bthA. fJzi eofdnK fuzsktK s'A ybk;h fwb/rh s/ ;[yK dh d"bs Bkb
M'bhnK Go ikDrhnK.
T[dw[ efo jfo ikgDk tvGkrh XB[ ykfN]
;zs;zfr jfo f;woDk wb[ iBw iBw eh ekfN] (gzBk^48)
j/ GkJh` fjzws eoe/ gow/Po dh :kd ftu ;dk i[fVnk oj[. ;G
soQK dhnK fuzsktK s'A S[Nekok fwb ikt/rk. Bkw XB dh yZNh yNdk
othA. ;sr[o{ dh nrtkJh ftu s[ofdnK iBwK^iBwK d/ ftekoK dh w?b
bZE ikt/rh. ihtB gftZso pD ikt/rk. ft;Eko G? ekoD r[opkDh d/ j'o
gowkD d/D s'A ;ze'u ehsk frnk j?. fJ; ftP/ Bkb ;pzXs Ppd pj[s
jB. y[d t/yD dh y/ub eoBh. e[ZM gzB/ fiBQK s/ nfij/ Ppd jB L 99,
137, 305, 381, 705, 798, 927, 1219 ns/ j'o pj[s.
nkU` j[D nodk; pko/ e[ZM uouk eo bJhJ/. fJ; ftu e'Jh PZe
BjhA fe ;kv/ ftdtkB pI[orK B/ nodk; okjhA ;zg{oB f;Zy fJfsjk;
;zGkbD dk gq;z;k:'r isB ehsk j?. nodk; dh P[o{nks ftu tkfjr[o{
ih dh i?eko ehsh rJh j?. n;hA T[;dh nz;^pzP jK fJ; bJh nkgD/
fgsk s/ gkbe dh gq;z;k eoBh, nsh Io{oh j?. i/ tkfjr[o{ ƒ G[Zb rJ/ sK
fco, gP{^gzSh o[Zy pB;gsh iK ftneshnK gZEoK dh g{ik jh eoKr/, i'

(154)
fBjkfJs tofis j?. fJ; s'A pknd d; r[o{ ;kfjpkB ih B/, nkgD/ d;
;o{gK okjhA, brgr 239 ;kb ;ys xkbBktK xkb e/, ;opZs d/ Gb/ fjs
i' rkvh okj T[bhe/, bk;kBh g{oB/ gkJ/, T[BQK ƒ ;wMDk j?. T[BQK gd fuzBQK
s/ s[ofdnK, fIzdrh ƒ ekw:kp pBkT[D bJh ihn ikB Bkb T[dw eoBk
j?. fJ; s'A pknd r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih ƒ BwPeko ehsh rJh j?. nZyo
jB L^ d;K gksPkjhnK dh i's, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ “gkm dhdko” dk
fXnkB Xo e/ p'b' ih` tkfjr[o{. fJ;dk f;Xk fijk Gkt j?, r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp d/ doPB dhdko, gkm d[nkok j'Dk ;thekfonk frnk j?. r[opkDh
ftu i' nBw'b ftuko ;[GkfJwkB jB, T[BQK ƒ gVQBk^;[DBk, PoXk Bkb
fJzB^fpzB ;theko eoBk j?. iBw s'A nkozG eoe/ nzsb/ ;[nk; sZe,
nkgDh ;w[Zuh ihtB fefonk, r[opkDh nB[;ko xVBh^sok;Dh j?. nZr'A
gziK fgnkfonK dk ;fsr[o{ ih s/ f;de, nkgk e[opkB eo d/D dh
;fgoN, fszBK dk uwe"o dh izr ftu ;{owrsh dh f;yo S'j e/ Pjhd
j'dk. gziK ftu'A d' dk ;dk ;fsr[o{ ih d/ nzr^;zr ;/tk ftu ofjDk.
fJBQK bk;kBh :'fXnK tKr T[jh ;fgoN ns/ f;de g?dk eoBk j?, nkgD/
nzdo. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ u"Aj ;kfjpIkfdnK ƒ pkozpko BwPeko, fiBQK S'Nh
T[wo/, tZv/ e"se eo ftykJ/. Gkt/A w?dkB/ izr ftu d[PwD d/ nkj{
bkj[zfdnK Pjhdh gkJh, Gkt/A PkswJh ofjzfdnK ;ojzd ftu, Ikbw d/
f;o j' e/ Pjhdh gkJh. fJBQK fBZehnK fizdK s'A T[sPkj gqkgs eoBk j?.
sK fe ;kv/ nzdo Gh T[BQK torh r?os ns/ ;{owrsh g?dk j' ikt/. fiBQK
ihtB tkb/ f;zxK^f;zxDhnK B/ tkfjr[o{ ih dk Bkw ifgnk, o[yh^fwZ;h
E'VQh ftu'A Gh tzv e/ Sfenk. “ukbh w[es/” fiBQK bZyK ikpoK dk p/y"c
w[ekpbk eofdnK, nkj{ bkj[zfdnK ikBk b/y/ bk fdZshnK. fJBQK ;GBK d/
gkJ/ g{ofBnK s/ uZbD dk T[gokbk eoBk j?. nrb/ g?oQ/ ftu fIeo j'o
iKpki i'fXnK dkl fiBQK f;zxk^f;zxDhnk B/ Xow j/s ;h; fdZs/, pzd^pzd
eNtkJ/, y'gohnK T[sotkJhnK, uoyhnK s/ uVQ/HHH Xow BjhA jkfonk,
f;Zyh f;de e/;K ;[nk;K ;zr fBGkfJnk.” nfij/ pjkdoh d/ T[sw
ekoBkw/ nodk; ftu'A gVQ^;[D e/, nzdo MoBkNk fSV g?D. T[jBK tork

(155)
pjkdoh dk gftZso iIpk wB nzdo eotNk b?D bZr/. bZyK w[;hpsK okj
o'e b?D, d[Zy j't/ ;[y j't/, pkdPkjs dh rZdh s/ p?mhJ/, Gkt/A wkw{bh
fJB;kB j'JhJ/. j/ ;fsr[o{ ihU` s[jkvh pyPh j'Jh f;Zyh dh dks
e/;K^;[nk;K Bkb fBGtKr/. pZ; fwjo Gfonk jZE f;o s/ oZyDk ih, fes/
n;hA v'b BK ikJhJ/.
nrb/ pzd ftu oki;h mkm tkbk, ;opZs d/ Gb/ tkbk, fpBk
fteso/ s'A fJB;kc bJh fdqV ;zebg, gziK s\sK d/ ikj' ibkb ƒ ;h;
M[ek e/ gqDkw ehsh rJh j?. fJBQK gzeshnK ftu ykb;/ ƒ X[o dorkj'A
pkdPkjs dk wkbe j'Dk do;kfJnk frnk j?. ykb;k wB eoe/ Gh
pkdPkj j't/ s/ ;z;koh s"o s/ Gh gqG{ ;Zsk ;zg{oD j't/. n;hA gfjb'A fe;/
;w/A oki d/ wkbe ;K, nZr'A oki/ pDB tk;s/ ;dk u/szB ofjDk j? fjzws
eoBh j?. nZr/^gqEw/ ;opZs ykb;k ih eh nodk; j? ih, ;opZs \kb;k
ih e' tkfjr[o{ tkfjr[o{ tkfjr[o{ fus nkt/, fuZs nktB ek ;dek ;op
;[y j't/HHH. fJj T[sw ftuko nodk; eofdnK T[wV gt/, fe gowkswk
s'A f;oc Bkw dh dks wzrDh j?. d[y ftu, ;[y ftu, ;GBk dk Gbk
wzfrnk frnk j?. d/r s/ s/r ;dk tosD bJh fsnko oj/. Gkt G[Zy/
ifrnk;{ bJh bzro ;dk ubdk oj/. uVQe/ nkT[D tkb/ iotkD/ bJh,
eokok i[nkp d/D tk;s/ s/r j't/ (feogkB) d/ w[m/ s/ jZE j't/. s/o/ ;ki/
fJ; ;'jD/ gzE dh ;dk i? i?eko j't/. s[;hA ;kvh ;jkfJsk eoBh, n;hA
nkgD/ tZb'A e'Jh e;o pkeh BjhA SZvKr/, sB^wB^XB ;G Xow d/ tkoB/
eo fdnKr/. ;fsr[o{ ih fwjo eoBh, sKfe ykb;/ d/ ;dk jh p'b^pkb/
pD/ ofjD.
nrb/ pzd ftu wzr ehsh rJh j? fe f;Zy ƒ f;Zyh ftu j'o
gqgZesk gqkgs j't/. f;Zy :kd oZyD fe e/; r[o{ eh w'jo jB p/w[Zbk s'jck
jB. fJ; ehwsh s'jc/ dh ;dk fjckIs eoBh j?. f;Zyh e/;K^;[nk;K
;zr fBGkT[Dh j?. nZr/ f;Zyh ofjs wzrh rJh j?. ftt/e p[ZX dh :kuBk
ehsh j?, fJe d{i/ s/ ft;tkP eo b?D dh gq/oBk. ;ko/ dkBk s'A ehwsh
dkB, Bkw dkB bJh i'dVh ehsh rJh j?. id'A Ikbw je{wsK tZb'A dopko

(156)
;kfjp nzfwqs;o fty/, f;ZyK d/ fJPBkB s/ gkpzdh bk fdZsh rJh ;h, sd'A
fJj nZyo Gh nodk; ftu Pkwb eo bJ/ rJ/ “;qh nzfwqs;o ih d/
fJPBkB”. gzE tZb'A ;w/A^;w/A gotkB ehshnK u"ehnK, ykb;kJh PkB d/
gqshe fBPkB ;kfjp, gzEe w[yhnK (iE/dkoK) d/ fojkfJPK ns/ dcso,
nkfd i[r'^i[r nNZb ofjD. fJBQK ;G dh uVQdh ebk tk;s/ n;hA gzE dk
nfByVtK nzr pD e/ ojKr/, g{oh f;defdbh Bkb, gzEe ;/tk ;dk eod/
ojKr/.
nodk; d/ nkyoh g?oQ/ ftu f;ZyK ƒ, jzeko ofjs j'D dh :kuBk
ehsh rJh j?. T[u wZs dh wzr ehsh rJh j?. ;qh BBekDk ;kfjp s/ j'o
r[o{ xo, i' gzE s'A ftSV rJ/ jB, fsBQk d/ y[bQ/ dhdko s/ ;/tk ;zGkb gzE
ƒ gqkgs j't/. fJBQk wzrK ƒ ;zg{oB eotkT[D bJh n;hA jo ;zGt isB
eoKr/. jZeK dh gqkgsh bJh i/ b'V gJh sK ;h; sZe Gh tko fdnKr/.
fJe nfijk r[ow[yh i[rs tkbk gqpzX T[;koB dh e'fPP eoKr/ fi;
okjhA, d/P^ftd/P ftub/ ;ko/ r[oXkw, r[DtkB, ftdtkB, r[ow[yh ihtB
tkb/, Gb/ r[of;ZyK dh ;/tk ;zGkb ftu nk ;eD. fJ; ekoi dh ;cbsk
tk;s/ ;dk T[dw;hb ojKr/. j/ fBwkfDnK d/ wkD, fBskfDnK d/ skD,
fBUfNnK dh UN, ;Zu/ fgsk tkfjr[o{ ih, feogk eo' n;hA wkD ofjs jK
s[jkv/ s'A f;tkJ/ e'Jh UN nk;ok BjhA j?. ;koh skes rtk u[Ze/ jK.
wBwsK dh fibD ftu roe j'J/ gJ/ jK. p; s[jkv/ uoBk ftu d'fJ jZE
i'V e/, fBwosk ;fjs p/Bsh j? fe pj[Vh eo', ;kvh v[pfdnK dh pKj
cV'. ;kvhnK G[ZbK pyP b?DhnK, nZr'A okj gkT[Dk ih. BkBe, Bkw uVQdh
ebk, s/o/ GkD/ ;ops dk Gbk. j/ ;fsr[o{ ihU` n;hA ukj[zd/ jK s[jkvh
f;ykJh ftXh, Bkw dh poes d[nkok ;GBk dk Gbk j't/. n;hA Gbk eoB
ftu e'Jh e;o BjhA SZvKr/. p[ok fe;/ dk Gh BjhA eoKr/. s[;hA r[opkDh
d[nkok ;kƒ w{oyK ƒ nrtkJh pyPd/ ofjDk ihT[.
tho'$G?D'` PkBkwZsh nodk; ƒ d[pkok ftuko ;fjs gVQ', f;X/
noE GktK ƒ fJekro fuZs j' e/ ;wMD dh e'fPP eo'. ;koh nodk;
ftu s[jkƒ fJe nZyo Gh nfijk BjhA fwb/rk, fi; ftu ifrnk;{ ƒ fJj

(157)
ft;tkP d[nkfJnk frnk j't/ fe e'Jh nkekP ftu'A }?ph PeshnK gqrN
j' e/, s[jkv/ ;ko/ ekoi, fpBk jZE fjbkJ/ ok; eo d/DrhnK. nfijk e'Jh
bkok BjhA bkfJnk frnk. n;b rZb fJj j? fe :kd ehs/ rJ/ d; r[o{
;kfjpkB ns/ j'o ihtB tkb/ B/e iB, r[ow[y fgnko/, fsBK dh ihtB
P?bh s'A, T{u gkJ/ dh ;{owrsh s'A, T[sPkj s/ gq/oBk b?Dh j?. T[BQK tork
bk;kBh ihtB fiT[D dh e'fPP eod/ ofjDk j?. goT[geko tkbk ihtB
pBkT[D s/ nkgDk fBi dk sK Gbk j'Dk jh j?, ;r'A gzE dh uVQdh ebk ftu
Gh ;kvk :'rdkB nkgD/ nkg g? ikt/rk. ;?eV/ ;kbK s'A nodk;K j'
ojhnK jB. j[D sZe sK ;ko/ ;zeNk dh Bftosh j' ikDh ukjhdh ;h. go
nfijk BjhA j'fJnk. ehs/ rJ/ wzso gkm^ikg gqtkB BjhA j'J/. i/ gqtkB
j'J/ j[zd/ sK, f;zxK d/ p'bpkb/, oki;h ;'Gk, uVQdh ebk, B/e ihtB, j'
ikDk ;h. ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dk gqekP n;EkB jo o'I BBekDk
;t/o/^Pkw bZyK jh r[o{ xoK ftu j' ojhnK nodk;K d[nkok wzrfdnK ƒ
58 ;kb j' rJ/ jB, jkbh sZe ;/tk^;zGkb BjhA fwbh. gzikp nkw eoe/
*s/ f;Zy gzE yk; eoe/ nB/e ;kfiPK Bkb T[ikfVnk ik fojk j?. eJh
fGnkBe esbkwK B;be[;h dh jZd sZe, tkgo u[ehnK jB. nekb s\s
;kfjp dk Yfj^Y/oh eoBk, f;XKsK ƒ wbhnk w/N eoB tk;s/, nB/eK
r[ZM/ tko eoB/, nkw toskok j?. fe; soQK dh nodk; ehfsnK mZb
gt/rh< bZrd/ jZE fJj e"Vk^x[ZN ;kƒ Go jh b?Dk ukjhdk j? fe ;w{j f;Zy
gzE ftu e'Jh ;kX^;zs, pqjw frnkBh, ;qhwkB 108 iK ;qhwkB 1008 fJe
Gh BjhA j?” feT[Afe g{oB wjKg[oy tZb'A ehsh rJh nodk; Io{o g{oh
j[zdh j?” fJjh gquko ehsk frnk j?. i/ nodk;K g{ohnK BjhA j'JhnK, sK
e'Jh wjKg[oy Gh BjhA j?. BjhA sK bzw/ ;w/A s'A fJj GZdo^g[oP b'eK ftu
e{Vk s/ r[wokje[zB gquko eod/ nk oj/ jB fe ihtB tkb/, Bkw o;hJ/,
pqjw frnkBh, g{oB ;zs tZb'A ehsh rJh nodk; ntZP g{oh j[zdh j?,
fBozeko d/ dopko ftu bkIwh ;[Dh iKdh j?. s[ozs jh ;ko/ ftrV/ ekoi
ok; nk iKd/ jB. i/ fes/ wzso gkm ikg, nodk;, nwe/, v/o/ fty/
eotkJ/ ikD sK ;ko/ ftrV/ ezw ok; nk ikD dh gZeh rozNh.

(158)
fgSb/ bzw/ no;/ s'A f;Zy gzE T[Zs/, wBws dh ekbhp'bh jB/oh tr
ojh j?. B"itkB, GftZy nzXeko wJh j'D eoe/, BfPnK ftu roed/ ik
oj/ jB. eoweKvK dk p'bpkbk j?. p/^o[Irkoh f;yoK S'j ojh j?.
gzikp dhnK ;kohnK ikfJI wzrK, fiT[A dhnK fsT[A bNe ojhnK jB.
e/Ado ;oeko f;ZyK dh rZb ;[DB ƒ fsnko BjhA. nekbh oki;h B/sk
GNe u[Ze/ jB. ftekT{ wkb tKr fBih roiK pdb/ ;;s/ fteD bJh
ssgo jB. dopko ;kfjp 84 ftu toskJ/ rJ/ efjo ftu, Btzpo
84 ƒ fdZbh ns/ j'o EktK s/ Ykj/ rJ/ I[bwK ekoB, f;Zy e"w
tb{zXoh rJh j?. fe;/ eksb ƒ ;Ik d/Dh sK d{o dh rZb, gkghnK
tZb'A gSskt/ dk fJe nZyo Gh w{j'A BjhA eZfYnk frnk. T[; s'A
pknd I[bw dh ekbh p'bh oks f;ZyK bJh w[eh BjhA ;h. p/^ofjwh
tkbk \{b dk dfonk 1995 se trdk fojk. e'j^e'j d/ f;Zy B"itkBK
ƒ wkfonk frnk, fPeko ehsk frnk. xo T[ikV/ rJ/, pI[orK dhnK
fJZIsK Po/nkw o'bhnK rJhnK. :shw j' ftbe oj/ pZu/, f;o'A
BzrhnK p/gZs j' u[ZehnK phphnK d/ dodK ftzB/ t?D, tr oj/ jzM{,
gZEo j' rJ/ fdbHHH ;kvhnK w[odk o{jK ƒ Gh b{j oj/ jB. fJBQK
;GBK d[ZyK dh Bftosh tk;s/ e'Jh “g{oB ;zs^wjzs f;Zy ;wki dk
Gbk BjhA eoBk ukj[zd/ < fJ; dk wsbp fe fJj gzE gq;s BjhA jB<
iK fco fJj e"Vk ;u fBo;ze'u ;G ƒ gqtkB eo b?Dk ukjhdk j? fe
fJj ;zs^;kX, gkyzvh jB, gzE dk \{B ghD tkbhnK i'eK jB, wbe
Gkr' iK ;ZiD mZr jB. r[opkDh ftu fpnkB ehs/ ;o{g tkb/ ;zs sK
T[ek jh BjhA jB.
fJj ;zs pkp/ wZM rT{ Bk fwbD s/ gkDh ftu wzso gk ;ed/ jB.
eZNk tZSk fpwko j't/ sK T[;d/ f;o ;[nkj dh g[Vh gk ;ed/ jB. pZuk
fpwko j't/, jZE j"bk eo ;ed/ jB. Poshnk bVek g?dk eoB bJh
gkm^nodk; eo ;ed/ jB. w[eZdfwnK ftu fiZs fdtkT[D d/ bko/ bk
;ed/ jB. fpwkoK ƒ szdo[;sh d/D dk BkNe eo ;ed/ jB. b'eK ƒ
;torK ftu G/iD d/ fNeN tzv, t/u ;ed/ jB. fiT[Ad/ iK wo/ ƒ w[esh

(159)
fdtkT[D dk Y'Ar ou e/, oewK pN'o ;ed/ jB. ;" jZE oZ;k f;o/ s/ rzY,
n;bhns fJj fe fJj gkyzvh b[N/o/ b'e, G'b/ PoXkb{nK ƒ e/tb b[ZN
;ed/ jB, T[BQK dh \{B g;hB/ dh ewkJh jVZg eo ;ed/ jB, T[jBK ƒ
r[wokj eo ;ed/ jB. d{finK dh feos s/ gbD tkb/ goihth jB fJj.
i/ e'Jh }?ph skes fJBQK d/ jZE ftu j[zdh sK pj[s d/o gfjbK f;Zy gzE dh
sedho pdb u[Zeh j[zdh. iK fJT[A efj bJhJ/ fe gzE dh nfijh dodBke
dPk edh j[zdh jh Bk.
i/ r[o{ ;kfjpkB ƒ wB[Zysk d/ Gb/ fjs, fJe soshp (gbkB) pDk
e/ ftXh g{ote ezw eoBk fgnk j?. i/ f;ZyK ƒ ;fsr[o{ ih dh Sso
SkfJnk j/m uZbfdnK ;dk ;zxoPPhb s/ T[dw eoe/, ihn ikB Bkb ezw
eoBk fgnk j?. ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB s'A pknd pkpk pzdk f;zx s/ fw;bK d/
fGnkBe d"o ftu Gh f;ZyK B/ ;{owrsh dhnK f;yoK S'jhnK. n"eVK
w[;hpsK dk, fjZe skDe/ Nkeok ehsk. nBfrDs PjhdhnK gkJhnK. nzs
;cbsk fwbD sZe bVd/ rJ/, nZr/ tZXd/ rJ/. d/P tzv 47 ftu d; bZy
f;Zy, wkJh^GkJh T[ifVnk, d' bZy f;Zy w"s d/ w{zj ftu ik fgnk.
nopK^yopK dh ikfJdkd spkj j'Jh. fJBQK ny"sh eokwksh ;kXK B/,
fJj d[yKs feT[A tkgoB fdZs/ < eh T[BQK ƒ wB[Zysk Bkb, f;Zy gzE Bkb
e'Jh jwdodh BjhA ;h < eh fJBQK d/ wzso gkm, ikg, nodk;K, PeshjhD
j' rJ/ ;B< eh fJBQK dhnk eokwksh PeshnK dh sohe g[Zr u[Zeh ;h< ih
BjhA` Bhw^jehw \sok^J/^ikB. n;hA gkyzvhnK d/ ikb ftu c; e/, Bk
;wM gkyzvh Gh pD/, xo Gh b[NkfJnk, ;ztfonk Gh e[ZM Bk. jK` eokwksK
dh e{Vh nk; oZye/, B[e;kB pj[s eotk fbnk.
j'o t/y', oZph ebkw, ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ gftZso fjod/
ftu'A gqrN j'J/ puBk ƒ ;[D e/ wzBD dh irQk, nZi dk pj[ frDsh f;Zy
nytkT[D tkbk bkDk, edh dopko ;kfjp (nzfwqs;o) d/ ;o'to ƒ nzfwqs
iK w[eshdksk ;wMh p?mk j?. “ekb/ eK fuZN/ j'J/ ;B” gqukfonk ik fojk
j?. i/ sd'A e'jVh dk e'jV o'r d{o j' frnk, sK nZi fjzd';skB d/ bZyK
e'jfVnK dk fJPBkB eotk e/, o'r d{o feT[A BjhA ehsk iKdk. fJ;

(160)
T[geko pdb/ f;Zyh ftu nEkj tkXk j't/rk. ekb/ eK sd'A ;c/d j' rJ/
wzB bJhJ/, sK nZiebQ T[; ;o'to ftu fuZN/ feT[A BjhA j[zd/< iK g[okD/
;w/A ;c?d j' u[Ze/ ektK dh B;b feE/ nb'g j' rJh< fywK eoBK, i/
fjzd{nK d/ shoEK Bkb Sb^egN tkbk eokwksh gquko i'V e/, pqjkwDK
tZb'A ;dhnK sZe b'eK ƒ b[fNnk frnk j?. f;Zy Gh U;/ mZrh dk fPeko j'
u[Ze/ jB. fszB ;" ;Zm shoEK tkb/ d/P Gkos ftu uko/ pzB/ p/JhwkBh,
b[ZNwko, GfoPNkuko, fJB;kB dh fJB;kB s'A Bcos, fcoe{ nZrKHHHH.
rohph nBgVQsk, G[Zywoh fpwkohnKHHH. fJ;/ soQK r[o{ xoK Bkb, ;o'toK
Bkb gokG"fse ejkDhnK i'Ve/, nBikD PoXkb{nK ƒ p/ofjwh Bkb
b[ZfNnk ik fojk j?. gkDh ;ohfoe b'VK tk;s/ j?, wB gkDh Bkb BjhA X'sk
ik ;edk. wB dh w?b r[opkDh ƒ thuko ;fjs gVQ e/, wzB e/ T[soBh
j?. eK fposh tkb/ p[o/ wB[Zy, r[opkDh d[nkok do;kJ/ r[DK ƒ fjod/ ftu
t;k e/ jz; ;[Gkn tkb/, Gb/ fJB;kB pDd/ jB. fJ;d/ Bkb jh j'o
wBw[ysk t/y'` dopko ;kfjp dhnK goeowk ftu fJe p/oh d/ Bkb s\sh
Nzrh j'Jh BIo nkt/rh, “d[y GziBh ;kfjp” eh fJe p/oh tork ;kXkoB
o[Zy, d[ZyK dh fBtosh eo ;edk j?< i/ o[Zy fJsB/ ;woE jB, fco
r[opkDh gVQB dh fejVh Io{os j?< eh wjkB r[o{ ih B/ ;kƒ o[ZyK,
gkDhnK, x'fVnK, w{oshnK, wB[ZyK dk g[ikoh pDkfJnk ;h< i/ fJ;/ soQK
ubdk fojk sK T[j fdB d{o BjhA, id'A r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih ƒ tkX{ ;wM
e/ r[odtkfonK ftu'A gk;/ eo fdZsk ikt/rk.
f;Zyh f;XKsK dhnK iVQK eZND tkb/, nB/e ezw s/i jZEhA, pVh
us[okJh Bkb ehs/ ik oj/ jB. gzEe w[yh, s\sK d/ iE/dko g[ikoh,
Pq'wDh ew/Nh d/ nj[d/dko fit/A e[zG eoDh BhAd ;[Zs/ j'J/ jB. yzv/ pkN/ dh
gkj[b Se e/ gzEe iE/pzdh dk w?Apo pDhdk ;h. gzEe vf;gbB ftu
ihtB pshs eoBk jo f;Zy dk w[ZYbk coi j?. fJE/ sK nzfwqs SeDk Gh
eokwksh gokG"fse pDk fdZsk frnk j?. gzE ftu dk\bk ftXh tkbh,
GktBk nb'g j' rJh j?. id'A nzfwqs Se e/ dZ;hnK rJhnK poesK
ifrnk;{ ƒ BjhA fwbdhnK sK wk:{;h Sk iKdh j?. nzfwqs gqsh wB ftu

(161)
Pze/ s"yb/ T[m yb"Ad/ jB. i' ftPtk; d[nkfJnk frnk ;h T[j g{ok BjhA
j'fJnk. fco pzXBk ftu pZM/ ofjD dh eh Io{os j? < jo/e ;kyh ƒ,
gzEe wfo:kdk ƒ, r[o{ ;kfjpkB d/ T[gd/PK ƒ, r[opkDh ƒ, eokwksh
dbdb ftu roe eo fdZsk frnk j?. n;b nzfwqs ;h r[opkDh, T[;s'A
gqkgs ehsh ihtB iku, r[ow[yh ihtB Gh nzfwqs ;h. r[opkDh s'A ;/X
gqkgs eoB dh Ekt/A, f;Zy p[oh soQK GNeDk ftu g? frnk j?. r[opkDh s'A
Gh eokwksh PeshnK okjhA wZ;b/ jZb eotkT[D d/ rbs okj/ g? frnk.
fJ;/ gktB r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftu s[ofdnK fgSb/ ;fwnK ftu f;Zy
;cbsktK jk;b eod/ oj/. fiE/ r[o{ dh thukoXkok s'A p/w[y j'J/, w{X/
w{zj ik fvZr/. id'A tkg; gos/ r[opkDh ƒ ihtB dk nk;ok pDkfJnk,
ekw:kphnK M'bh ftu nkD gJhnK. wzsoK ikgK Bkb e[ZM BjhA ;ztoBk
fJj rb ;dk :kd oZyDk.
f;odko eg{o f;zx ih B/ nkgDh pj[ uofus g[;se “;kuh
;kyh” d/ gzBk 88 s'A 91 sZe efwT{Bb ntkov, fJzvhnk n?eN 1935,
pko/ ft;Eko Bkb fIeo ehsk j?. fJ;dk f;ZyK Bkb f;ZXk ;zpzX j'D
eoe/, nodk; torh gftZso e;w s'A oki;h nekbh bhvoK dk ;fsr[o{
s'A p/w[y j' ikD eoe/ ftP/P wjZst j?. i[bkJh 1936 ftu f;ZyK B/ fjzd{
iK w[;bwkBK d/ d[p/b pDk d/D tkb/ ekƒB (efwT{Bb ntkov) fto[ZX
;op ;zwsh Bkb wsk gk; ehsk, fe “f;Zy eN e/ wo ikDr/, go
efwT{Bb ntkov ƒ gzikp ftu bkr{ BjhA j'D d/Dr/.” T[BQk fdBK ftu
wk;No skok f;zx ih Pkjdo/ BIopzd ;B. fpBK nkfrnk s'A bkj"o
dk\b j'D dh ;Ik S/ wjhB/ se e?d j' ;edh ;h. fJ; bJh nkgD/
“f;zxkT{g[D/” d/ fpod ƒ gkbd/ j'J/, wk;No ih nkg fJ; wjkokik
oDihs f;zx dh ;wkX tkbh whfNzr s/ bkj"o Bk nkJ/. frnkBh eosko
f;zx d/ jZE fJj fbysh ;[B/jk G/i fdZsk^ “n;hA f;Zy p'Nh^p'Nh eNtk e/
wo iktKr/, go fiT[Ad/ ihn gzikp ftu, efwT{Bb ntkov bkr{ BjhA j'D
fdnKr/.” j/ r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx` (nodk; ftu ej/ rJ/ Ppd) s{z gzE dk
tkbh nytkT[Adk j?A, i/ n;hA efwT{Bb ntkov ƒ o'eD bJh tZvh s'A tZvh

(162)
e[opkBh eoB'A fgSKj jNhJ/, n;hA s/o/ f;Zy BjhA. go i/ s{z ;kvhnK
e[opkBhnK ƒ ;cbsk Bk pyP/, sK s{z gzE dk tkbh BjhA j?A.
f;ZyK B/ nZr/ Gh n"eVK tes r[o{ ;kfjpkB ƒ jkIo^BkIo ikDe/
eJh tko nodk; ehsh ;h. s/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/, :'r ftXh Bkb gzE dh
pj[Vh Gh ehsh ;h. fJ;dh T[xVthA fw;kb gzi cotoh 1762 ƒ e[Zg
o[jhV/ (wb/o e'Nb/ d/ B/V/) bkr/ d/ fGnkBe \{Bh izr s'A pknd, fiE/
brgr shj jIko wkJh^GkJh, f;Zy Pjhd j' rJ/ ;B. EZe/^G[Zy/ s/ i\wh
f;ZyK B/ nodk; ehsh ;h. j/ ;fsr[o{ ihU` ;kvh oZfynk eo', sK fe
n;hA s[jkv/ gktB ;o{g r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh oZfynk eo ;ehJ/. ;kƒ
ikB fgnkoh BjhA j?, ;r'A s[jkv/ T[gd/P o{gh r[opkDh fgnkoh j?, fJ;
bJh S/sh pj[Vh eo'” nZm wjhfBnK d/ E'V/ fij/ ;w/A ftu f;zxk B/ r[o{ s/
Go';k oZye/, w[V skes fJeZmh ehsh s/ 27 nes{po 1762 ƒ d[pkok
nfjwdPkj npdkbh ƒ ik tzrkfonk. nzfwqs;o s'A bkj"o ikD tkb/ okjK
d/ nk;^gk; fJj wko{ izr j'Jh. npdkbh dhnK c"IK p/nzs ikBh^wkbh
B[e;kB eotk e/, w?dkB SZv e/ BZ; T[ZmhnK. GkJh osB f;zx ih Gzr{,
gquhB gzE gqek; ftu fbyd/ jB ^
;qh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx jkE i'V^i'V ej{z,
nkg e/ puB eh gqshs e"D wkB?r'.
oki eo/ ykb;k s' nkeh B oj/rk e'Jh,
y[nko j'fJ fwb?A pu/ PoB i' gSkB?r'.
;' s' ;G mhe j? Bihe np nkJh pks,
fuVhU[A ;/ pki w?A s[VT[A ;ku mkB?r'.
gzE eh iT[ okyh, sT[ rqzE eh oj?rh BkE,
okyh iT[ B gzE eh, rqzE e"D wkB?r'.
fJe tkoh j'o 1764 ftu d;zpo wjhB/ id'A npdkbh f;ZyK s'A
pdbk b?D dh wB;k oZy e/, pj[s tZvk b" bPeo b? e/, f;zxK Bkb d' jZE
eoB tk;s/ gzikp nkfJnk sK ;G s'A gfjbK jwbk T[;B/ dopko ;kfjp
s/ ehsk. pkpk r[op\P f;zx dh ewkB j/m, e/tb 30 e[ f;zx dopko

(163)
;kfjp ih dh ;/tk tk;s/ mfjo/ j'J/ ;B. npdkbh dk spkje[B jZbk
t/ye/, pkpk r[op\P f;zx B/ nodk; eofdnk fJj puB ej/ ^
j? e'T{ f;zx fJ; gzE wMko< bkJ/ ;h; eo/ dorkj g[eko.
jfowzdo e/ phu w/A fJw ehBh nodk;.
f;yh s'V fBGkjhn? ;h; e/;B ;zr ;tk;. (osB f;zx Gzr{)
fJBQK i'dVh ehsh ;h fe ;kvh f;Zyh e/;K ;[nk;K ;zr fBG ikt/.
;fsr[o{ ƒ e'Jh T[bkGk BjhA fdZsk Bk e'Jh tzrko gkJh. ;ko/ f;Zy :'X/
PjhdhnK gk rJ/, f;Zyh e/;K ;[nk;K ;zr fBGk rJ/. w[es;o d/ n;EkB
s/ GkJh rzvk f;zx, GkJh Gkr f;zx, GkJh okJ/ f;zx, GkJh wjK f;zx nkfd
B/ ;fsr[o{ d;w gksPkj ƒ fby fdsk ;h fe “s[jkvh f;Zyh ;kE'A fBGdh
BjhA” go tIho \kB tb'A nukBe j'J/ jwb/ ƒ t/ye/ \{B B/ T[pkbk ykXk,
oD sZs/ ftu jfEnko ;{s e/ i?eko/ rikT[Ad/ e[Zd gJ/. bZrGr ;ko/ jh
d[PwD d/ nkj{^bkT[Ad/, PjhdhnK gk rJ/. nkyoh ;kjK s/ gJ/ i\wh
f;zxK ƒ r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih B/ pyfPP d/ xo nke/ nkyoh fJZSk g[ZSh sK
f;ZyK B/ fBwosk ;fjs p/dktk gkV d/D dh p/Bsh ehsh. j'o e'Jh wzr
BjhA wzrh, p; f;Zyh e/;K ;[nk;K ;zr fBG/.
fJfsjk; d/ gzfBnK s/ fJ; soQK dhnK j'o xNBktK d/ t/ot/ Gh
BIohA g?Ad/ jB. fiE/ f;ZyK fBwosk ;fjs nkfynk “;fsr[o{ ihU` f;Zyh
wkor, nsh fpyVk j?, n;hA fBwkD/ ;z;koh iht f;Zyh fBGkT[D' n;woE
jK. go fJj edh BjhA fejk, ;fsr[o{ ih s[;hA rbs j'. i[bkJh 1936
ftu gfjbh tkoh nfijh tzrko (T[go'es nk u[e/ nB[;ko) f;ZyK d/
tkfjd bhvoK tZb'A, r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih ƒ gkJh rJh. fi; tzrko ftu
;fsr[o{ ih d/ ;otPeshwkB j'D pko/, PoXk dk nGkt ;h. oZph fB:wK
d/ T[bN nodk;, r[o{ ep{b BjhA eodk, fJj r[owfs dk gqwkfDe f;XKs
j?. go rohp fBtki ;fsr[o{ ih B/, f;Zy nkr{nK dh fJj nihp fe;w
dh nodk; ;[Dh. nkgD/ fpod dh bki oZyD fjZs, ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nkgD/
nkg ƒ fJBQK bhvoK d/ ;Bw[y oZfynk. go nc;'; nPoXk rq;s \[d
roi nkr{, ;fsr[o{ ih s'A nkgDhnK oki;h }[bkwh dhnK p/VhnK, Bk

(164)
eNtk ;e/.
rZb fJ; soQK j'Jh fe f;ZyK tZb'A ehsh nodk; ns/ gk; ehs/ rJ/
ws/ dhnK \poK gzikp$Gkos d/ r'o/ rtoBoK okjhA, poskBth gkobhw?AN
sZe g[ihnK sK T[E/ vkYh fuzsk j'Jh. dhox ;'u^ftuko fgZS' ;szpo
1936 ftu, fJj c?;bk ehsk frnk, i/ f;Zy ;Zuh^w[uh efwT{Bb ntkov
fto[X o'; ti'A woB^wkoB s/ nk ikD s/ wko{ dzfrnK ftu e/tb thj pzd/
wko/ ikD sk gzikp ftu'A efwT{Bb ntkov tkg; b? fbnk ikt/. BftUA
f;foUA d[pkok e/tb gzikp d/ f;ZyK, w[;bwkBK, fjzd{nK dh okT[Av N/pb
ekBcoz; fJ; fcoekdkoh ƒ BfiZmD tk;s/, p[bkJh ikt/. fJ; nkd/; ƒ
wZd/ BIo oyfdnK, nes{po 1936 ƒ rtoBo gzikp tZb'A, ;{p/ d/ ;ko/
efwPoK d/ Bkw, r[gs gZso ikoh ehs/ rJ/.” fe nro f;Zy efwT{Bb
ntkov d/ fto[ZX woB wkoB s/ T[so nkT[D sK poskBth ;oeko tZb'A
j[ew tkg; b? fbnk ikt/. “Btzpo 1936 ftu fJj ;koh \po r[gs
sohe/, f;Zy bhvoK sZe gj[zuk fdZsh rJh. go nc;';` f;Zy bhvo,fJ;
t/b/ sZe efwT{Bb ntkov fto[ZX ehsh rJh nodk; G[Zb u[Ze/ ;B. r[o{
tZb'A w[y w'V u[Ze/ ;B. MrVk f;oc fJj ofj frnk ;h, fe gzikp e";b
bJh wk;No skok f;zx d/ pzd/ pj[s u[D/ ikD iK ;z[do f;zx wihmhJ/ d/.
id'A wk;No skok f;zx ƒ ehsh rJh nodk; pko/ ns/ e;wK dk u/sk
eokfJnk frnk, sK wk;No ih dk i[nkp ;h “fJj e;w w?A fJeZb/ B/
BjhA ;h ykXh, ;z[do f;zx wihmhnk Gh Bkb jh ;h”. XzB f;Zyh` fJT[A
f;Zy nkr{nK tZb'A, r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih ƒ gkJh tzrko dk, fBskok j'fJnk.
dzGh s/ ekfJo f;Zy nkr{ d' ijkB d/ tkbh ;fsr[o{ e'b, M{mhnK GpeK
wko e/, pyPPK eotkT[Dk ukjz[d/ ;B”
ufV e? x'VV? e[zd/ geVfj y{zvh dh y/vkoh]
jz;k ;/sh fus[ T[bk;fj e[eV dh T[vkoh] (322)
eh nZi Gh ehshnK eokJhnK ik ojhnK nodk;K pko/ fJjh e"Vk
;Zu bkr{ BjhA j[zdk< feT[Afe f;Zy nodk; eotk e/ rcbs dh BhAd ftu
x{e ;" iKdk j?. iK fco ;woZE r[o{ Bkb e{VhnK PosK bkT[Adk j?. nro

(165)
;fsr[o{ ih w/ok nwek ezw ;ztko d/D sK tZN/ ftu nweh G/N fdnKrk.
i/eo ezw Bk ehsk sK s[jkƒ ;woE r[o{ jh BjhA wzBkrk. w?A s[jkv/ Bkb'A
Bksk s'Ve/, fe;/ j'o v/o/dko dk uoB ;/te pD iktKrk. fJj fbyD bJh
w?A wIp{o jK fe nodk; ns/ r[opkDh gkm dh w{b GktBk ed/ dh nkb'g
j' u[Zeh j?. nkswk d/ ihtB dks/, Bkw nzfwqs pkM'A f;Zy ihtB bZrGr
w[odk bkP dh fBnkJhA j' u[Zfenk j?. fJfsjk; ftu doI cyo:'r f;Zy
feodko phs/ dh ejkDh tKr ft;ko fdZsk frnk j?. fJ;/ bJh pj[s tZvh
frDsh f;Zy spek, fe;/ eokwks dh T[vhe ftu, fe;/ }?ph Pesh dh
nk; ftu, ;kj;s^jhD j'fJnk, yko/ ;w[zdo ftu roe j'D d/ B/V/ j?.
wB eoe/ r[owfs frnkB s'A ;ZyDk sB eoe/ yhD ewI'o j?. Bhw^jehw
v/o/dkoK s'A M[Zrk b[Ntk fojk j?. r[opkDh f;XKsK s'A e'o/, w{VQ, p/JhwkB
oki;h bhvoK tZb'A popkdh dh jB/oh yZv ftu XZfenk ik fojk j?.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ Bkw nzfwqs r[opkDh okjhA f;Zy ƒ pyf;nk ;h, sK fe
fJ;dk ;w[Zuk ihtB nzfwqs^wJh pD ikt/. go pj[frDsh f;ZyK, fJ;
gktB r[opkDh dk T[gd/P nzfwqs ns/ nodk; dh nzsqht wjZssk G[bk e/
w{Vsk dk jh ;p{s fdZsk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih dk fJ; goEkJ/ puB j? L^
eo wfj nzfwqs[ nkfD fB;kfoU] fy;fo rfjU G{w gfo vkfoU](gzBk^389)
gftZso r[opkDh ftu fIzdrh d/ ;otgZyh gfjb{nK pko/ nfwDtk
frnkB w"i{d j?. go f;Zy nfrnkBsk dh r{VQh BhAdo ftu'A ikr/ sK jh
e[ZM ;[DkJh d/t/. ;fsr[o{ ih nkgDk nkgk ;ztkoB dh, r[Dk Bkb Gog{o
eo b?D dh f;Zfynk d/ oj/ jB L^
nkg[ ;tkofj w? fwbfj w? fwfbnk ;[y[ j'fJ]
cohdk i/ s{ w/ok j'fJ ojfj ;G ir[ s/ok j'fJ] (gzBk^1382)
nkT[D tkb/ ;w/A pko/, ;kv/ w[yhnK ed/ e'Jh ;ehw fsnko BjhA
ehsh. f;nkD/ nkr{ ;?eV/ ;kbK tk;s/, bzw/ gbkB fsnko eod/ jB. id'A
f;o g?Adh j? sK e[ZM M[DMDh fijh nkT[Adh j?, pknd ftu fco T[jh
jkbs. r[opkDh dk c[owkD j? L^
o/ w{V/ nB ekj/ esikJh]
;zfr wB'jo nzfwqs s?o/ G{fb G{fb fpy[ ykJh] (1212)

(166)
whAj to;D s'A gfjbK, BdhnK dfonktK ftu p/P[wko gkDh tr
g?D s'A gfjbK, f;nkDk wB[Zy y/s d[nkb/ wIp{s tZNk uVkT[Adk j?. ;wMdko
gfotko xo dh w[ozws ;zGkb eodk j?. i/ b'V g? ikt/ sK p/Vh nkfde dk
gqpzX Gh gfjbK jh eodk j?. id'A gkDh f;o'A bzx ikt/, sd'A e[M BjhA
pDBk. fJE/ Gh fynkb oj/, \sok t/ye/, gfjbK g{oh fsnkoh eoBh j?,
fes/ wzso gkm, ikg, nodk; eoe/ bk^gqtkj j' e/ Bk p?m ikDk.
y/fs fwnkbk T[uhnk xo[ T[uk fBoDkT[]
wjb Grsh xfo ;o? ;iD gkj[fDnkT[] (gzBk^517)
p/Vk pzfX B ;feU pzXB eh t/bk]
Gfo ;oto[ ip T{Sb? sp soD[ d[j/bk] (gzBk^794)
;fsr[o{ fwjo d/ xo nk e/ ;kfonK ƒ nekbh pkDh d/ (r[opkDh)
j[ew ƒ ;wM e/ fJ; nB[;ko nkgDk ihtB Ykb b?D dh ;woEk d/t/.
Bkb jh nodk; eoB dh ftXh ;wMkJ/. d[BhnK f;nkDg Bkb, fwjBs
Bkb, iE/pzd j' e/, d{o^nzd/P w[yhnK dh ofjB[wkJh ftu, pj[s nZr/
fBebdh ik ojh j?. f;Zy gzE, \[droi oki;h B/sktK d/ ekoB, oki d/
;BwkB s'A tkMk j?. gkyzvh Xow d/ u'b/ tkfbnK ekoB Xow tZb'A ykbh j?,
f;Zy e"w. wkbk c/o' wzso gVQ', gkm^ikg eo', nodk;K eotkU, ;ko/
ekoi nkgD/^nkg ok; nk ikDr/.” fJjh gqukfonk ik fojk j?. ;w/A
f;o u"^ezB/ j'D dh b'V j?. toBk pj[s gSV u[Ze/ j'tKr/. ;fsr[o{ ih d/
uoBk ftu i'dVh j?, f;Zy e"w ;BwkB tkbh, frnkB tkbh, fXnkb tkbh,
;zg{oD r[ow[yskJh tkbh, fIzdrh pshs eo ;e/. nkgDh j'Dh frnkB
ns/ fwjBs Bkb ;ztko ;e/.
e'Jh rkt? e' ;[D? e'Jh eo? phuko[]
e' T[gd/;? e' fdqV? fs; ek j'fJnk T[Xko[] (gzBk^300)
d/y" GkJh rQkB eh nkJh nKXh]
;G? T[vkBh Gqw eh NkNh oj? B wkfJnk pKXh] (331)
ekP` f;Zy ;wki r[opkDh ƒ ;wM e/ ihtB ftu Ykb bt/. nzso
nksw/ frnkB dh jB/oh tr gt/. fco tfjwK^GowK s/ ftykt/ tkb/
eoweKvK dk ;ckfJnk j' ikt/.
[[[[
(167)
s/ ;zs Gb/ r[of;y j? HHH.
;z;ko ftu Xkowe P\;hnsK, ;kX{ ;zsK dk, nkw b'eK d/ wBK s/
pVk goGkt pfDnk j'fJnk j[zdk j?. nkw ifrnk;{ d[fBnkth XzfdnK
ftu T[bfMnk j'D eoe/, gqtkfoe ;wkie fIzw/tkohnK fBGkT[D eoe/,
ngD/ nkg B{z cf;nk fijk wfj;{; eodk j?. Xow rqzEK dk v{zxk w[skfbnk
eoBk, ftdtkBK d/ ftuko ;[DB/, iK uzrk ;kfjs gVQBk Gh nkw ftnesh
bJh ;zGt BjhA j?. Gkos dk oki;h szso J/BK fBZxo u[Zfenk j?, T[FZgob/
rfbnkfonK s'A b? e/, j/mb/ wkw{bh w[bkIw sZe (ftob/ B{z Sv e/) jo
e'Jh fGq;Nkuko dh rzrk ftu v[pehnK bk fojk j?. j[D sK fJB;kc dk
wzdo Gkosh ndkbsK Gh fJ; “jwkw” ftu, “ihtB ;cbk” eodhnK
gosZy fd; ojhnK jB. oki;h b[N/fonK tZb'A, ;oekoh w[bkiwK$nc;oK
tZb'A, tehbK ndkbsK tZb'A, g[bh; ns/ vkeNoK tZb'A, fdB fdjkV/ d'jhA
jZEhA ;wki B{z b[ZfNnk ik fojk j?. p/JhwkBhnK eoB tkb/ b[N/o/ Gh
“PKsh” dh Gkb ftu jB, b[ZN dk fPeko j'J/ nkw b'ehA Gh gq/PkB jB.
d't/A fXoK c"oh ;Ksh dh fJZSk Bkb, Xkowe u'fbnK tkb/ b'eK d/ uoBK s/,
ik f;o fNekT[AdhnK jB. nZr/ bzwK u'bk, rZb ftu wkbk, fJZe tZyo/
nzdkI Bkb pzBh d;sko, p?mD bJh ftP/P fe;w d/ nk;D u"ehnK, yk;
r[gs J/H ;hH bZr/ “Grsh n;EkB” ftu, niroh e[zvb wkoh p?m/
“;Jhnkd”, nfij/ fPeko dh p/;poh Bkb T[vhe eofdnK “wzso ikg”
eo oj/ j[zd/ jB.
wB fposh eoe/ e'Jh fJB;kB Xkowe j't/ sK T[;B{z Yzv'ok fgZND
dh b'V BjhA j[zdh. nfijk B/e g[oP, ngD/ fBZs d/ feodko, s/ tos'A
ftjko okjh, Xowh j'D dk ;p{s fdzdk ofjzdk j?. fJj Gbk g[oy ;zgoe

(168)
ftu nkJ/ jo wB[Zy B{z, fteko fsnkr e/, r[DK Bkb Gog{o ihtB fiT{D
dh f;Zfynk d/t/rk. ;wki d/ jo gqkDh wkso dh ;/tk eoe/, dhBK
fBwkfDnK, d[fynkfonK dh ;/tk eoBk, Xow dk ftP/P nzr j'Dk fdqV
eotkJ/rk. go nZi dk “wZmkXh;” (ny"sh ;kX ;zs) xo/b{ jkbks
ekoB, iK wB p[ZXh dh ewI'oh ekoB, ;e{b ftu dkyb Bk j' ;fenk. s/
PkfJd ekbi d/ fe;/ pkjob/ r/N nZr'A Gh BK bzfxnk j't/. fco feZsk
e'Jh f;Zfynk BjhA, g/N g{osh fet/A ehsh ikt/< gqtko d/ w?Apo fByZN{
ftnesh B{z fesBh e[ d/o sZe ;zGkb ;ed/ jB< nDgVQ, p/o[Irko, iwhB
ikfJdks s'A ykbh bVe/ B{z, ngDh p/Nh e'Jh fet/A d/ ;edk j?< ;' nfij/
pj[s/ “;zs ;kX” ne;o SV/ jh ofj iKd/ jB. ftnkj dh T[wo ftjk
u[ZeD s'A pkd “pkb pqjwukoh” j'D dk Y'b tik fdzd/ jB. fJ; woI d/
nB/eK wohi v/fonK, Ne;kbK, fBjzr S"fDnK, ns/ j'o Xow ;EkBK s/
E'e ftu gqkgs j' ;ed/ jB. nkw gqkDh e'b Xow dh ;{M Bjh j[zdh, ikD/
nDikD/ ftu, pj[s ;ko/ BikfJI ezw ehs/, wB s/ pVk tiB nk fgnk.
fizdrh ftu i' ukfjnk ;h, T[j gqkgs Bk j'fJnk, eJh nDfenk;hnK
d[ydkJh xNBktK B/ nkD dp'funk. fco Xowh j'D dk ;oNhfce/N gqkgs
eoB bJh, fJj gq/PkB ftnesh, ;zsK ;kXK d/ uoBK ftu jkio j' e/,
fpBK d/oh s'A ;Ksh$Bkw dh ikuBk eod/ jB. pdb/ ftu ;woZEk w[skpe,
uzrh u'yh wkfJnk, G/N g{ik nogD eod/ jB. fJ; soQK Xow d/ Bkw s/,
Xkowe gfjokt/ ftu, Xow n;EkBK nzdo, Xow rzqEK dh, ngDh roi
bJh, s/ ifrnk;{nK B{z b[ZND bJh Po/nkw tos'A dk pZio gkg eod/ jB.
j? e'Jh nfijk f;obZE ;{owk i' fJ; nXowh tosko/ B{z mZbD bJh, i?
ekok rik e/ w?dkB ftu fBZso ;e/< nc;';, fe nfijk Bk j'D dk w[Zy
ekoB j?, gktB r[opkDh tZb'A nfrnkBsk. g[;seK Bk gVQB dh spkje[B
fposh. fJ;/ bJh pj[ frDsh f;Zy nytkT[D tkb/, epoK, wZmK, wVQhnK,
w{oshnK, Xkr/ sthsK ikd{ wzsoK, MkV c{eK, jE"fbnK G{sK gq/sK tor/
nDfrDs GowK ftu v[Zp/ b'eK dhnK, GhVK do GhVK jo EK t/yhnK ik
;edhnK jB. b[N/o/ Bt/A o{gK s/ Bt/A Yzr sohfenK Bkb b?; j' e/, G'b/

(169)
Gkb/ b'eK B{z b[ZND tk;s/ nkw nZv/ pDkJh p?m/ fd; oj/ jB.
id'A fJZe tkoh wB[y fizdrh d/ okj s'A GNe ikt/, ;w/A f;o T[; B{z
n;bh okj s/ fbnkT[D tkbk, pkpk BkBe ih tZb'A to';kfJnk, goT[gekoh
r[of;y Gh Bk fwb/, fco T[;dk tkg; gosDk Bkw[wfeB fijk j' iKdk
j?. ;r'A fJ; d/ T[bN, T[j e[okj/ fgnk iht, ngD/ T[;/ fes/ ftu, f;o/
dh w[jkos jk;b eoB bJh isB;hb ofjzdk j?. TFZ[go'A x'o fBok;sk dh
rZb fJj fe f;Zy gzE dhnK Pq'wDh nytkT[D tkbhnK iE/pzdhnK, ns/
iE/dko, x{e rcbs dh jB/o e'mh ftu tV, x[okV/ wko oj/ jB. id'A
uko/ gk;/ e'Jh ysok iK o'e N'e Bk j't/, G'bhnK ;zrsK “;[y PKsh” dh
yqhd eoB bJh, fJZe d{i/ s'A nZr/ fBeb ikD bJh ewoe;h fcoB, sd'A
“c;h B{z cNeD eh ”< v/fonK ftu p?m/ pj[frDsh b'eK B/ ngD/ gfjokt/
nkw f;ZyK Bkb'A nbZr fe;w d/ XkoB eo bJ/ jB. ngD/ v/fonK dh
wfonkdk, nkg' ngDh wBwoIh dh j?. fJjBK EKtK s/ r[opkDh d/ noE
ngDh fBih P'Gk tkb/ “x;hN e/” ehs/ iKd/ jB. r[opkDh ouDjko/
wjKg[oyK, d; r[o{ ;fjpkB, iK wjkB ;{ow/ f;ZyK dk fJfsjk;, fJjBK
EktK s/ BjhA ;[DkfJnk iKdk, ngD/ s'A gfjbK j' r[io/ “;zs ih ” d/
“goT[geko” jh ;zrsK B{z ;otD eotkJ/ iKd/ jB. r[opkDh ftu'A e[M
u'DthnK s[eK b? e/, u/fbnK tZb'A ;zs ih dh P'Gk eotkJh iKdh j?. “d/y'
ih` r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih B/ ;[ywBh ;kfjp ftu ;kX ;zs dh pj[s
T[;ss ehsh j?. j'o pj[s EkJhA r[opkDh ftu “;zs” dh tfvnkJh t/yh
ik ;edh j?. T[j pkDh fJjBK g[oyK tk;s/ jh sK T[ukoh rJh j?”. “uko
gdkoE i/ e' wkr?..“;kX” iBk eh ;/tk bkr?..” (;[ywBh)
uoB ;kX e/ X'fJ X'fJ ghT[.. nog ;kX eT[ ngBk ihT[..
;kX eh X{fo eoj[ fJ;BkB.. ;kX T[g { fo ikJhn? e[opkB.. (;[ywBh)
T[FZgo tofDs gzeshnK ns/ fJjBK GktK Bkb fwbdhnK pj[s
;kohnK s[eK (Ppd) r[opkDh ftu'A, tZvh frDsh ftu fwb iKdhnK jB.
j[D ftukoB tkbh rZb fJj j? fe ;fseko:'r ;fsr[o{ ih, ngD/ ;/teK B[z{
;fsr[o{ ik tkfjr[o{ dk gZbk cVB dh Ekt/A, fJjBK ny"sh ;zsK d/ fgZS/ bk

(170)
rJ/ jB< f;ZyK ;/teK dk gko fB;skok eoB bJh, T[jBK e'b :'rsk BjhA
;h< ;fsr[o{ ih f;yK B[z{ fJZe' ;{so (fJZe ftukoXkok) ftu go'Dk uj[zd/
;B, iK jikoK v/o/dkoK d/ g?ohA gkT[Dk ukj[zd/ ;B< fJ; rZb dk fJjBK
;kXK e'b eh ;p{s j?, fe “;kX ;zs ” Ppd nZi tkb/ bkD/ bJh jh
T[ukoB ehsk j'fJnk j?. eh fJjBK ftneshnK dh r[opkDh ftu Bkw
fbye/ tfvnkJh ehsh rJh j?< id'A fJjBK dk Bkw r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftu,
Y{zfvnK BjhA fwbdk, id'A pkDh dh ouBk ehsh rJh j?, sd'A fJjBK dk
Bkw' fBPkB fes/ Bjh ;h. fco wB[ysk iK gzE d/ tv/o/ fjZsK tkbk, fJjBK
fieo:'r ekoi e'Jh BjhA ehsk sK “ngD/ w{zj nkg/ whnK fwZm{” pDB s'A
f;tkJ/ j'o e[M Bio BjhA nkT[Adk. “;zs” Ppd r[opkDh ftu brgr
uko noEK ftu nkfJnk j?. gfjbk nekb g[oy tk;s/, d{ik ;fsr[o{
bJh, shik pkDh ou?sk GrsK wjkg[oyK bJh, u"Ek nkfJnk j?, ;kX ;zrs
iK f;ZyK ;/teK bJh. nkT[ j[D fJZe fJZe B[es/ dh ftuko eohJ/ ^ BzL 1L
“jwo' Gosk pv' fpp/eh, nkg/ ;zs ejkt?.
Uj[ jwko? wkE? ekfJw[ nT[o[ jwo? fBefN B nkt?.. (476)
fJ; Ppd ftu gftZso T[gd/; j? fe ;kvk wkbe (gsh Gosk)
pj[s ;wM tkbk j?, T[j nkg/ jh tZvk “;zs” efjnk ikD :'r j?. id'A
sZe T[j tkfjr[o{ ;zs ;kv/ wZE/ (fjod/) ftu w"i{d j? j'o e'Jh ;kv/ B/V/
BjhA Y[Ze ;edk.
sB[ ‘;zsB’ ek XB[ ‘;zsB’ ek wB[ ‘;zsB’ ek ehnk..
‘;zs’ gq;kfd jfo Bkw[ fXnkfJnk ;op e[;b sp Ehnk.. (610)
fJj ;oho gqwkswk dh pyfPP j?, ;oho dhnK b'VK tk;s/ ;ko/
gdkoE Gh oZp dh d/D jB. fJj wB Gh T[;/ ;zs (tkfjr[o{) B/ pDkfJnk
j?. T[;/ ;zs op dh feogk Bkb T[;dk “Bkw” fXnkfJnk sK ;G ;[Zy
PKsh gqkgs j'Jh. sB wB XB, oZph fgnkfonK dh ;/tk ftu jkIo j?.
2H (;fsr[o{ bJh) frnkB nziB[ r[o dhnk nfrnkB nzX/o fpBk;[..
jfo feogk s/ ‘;zs’ G/fNnk BkBe wfB gork;[.. (;[ywBh 293)
fJ; gktB gzesh ftu c[owkB j? fe frnkB o{gh ;[owk, r[o{ B/

(171)
py; fdZsk, nfrnkBsk dk jB/ok fwN frnk. gow/;o dh feogk Bkb
;zs s/ r[o{ fwb frnk, s/ nzdo frnkB d/ ukBD Bkb Gog{o j' frnk.
fJZe' gzesh ftu ;zs ns/ ;fsr[o{ fJeZmk tofsnk frnk j?.
uoB GJ/ ;zs p'fjEk s/o/ ;kro i/s..
wkor gkJ/ T[fdnkB wfj r[o d;/ G/s.. (910)
fJ; puB okjhA ;fsr[o{ ;wMk oj/ jB fe (;zs) r[o{ d/ uoB
(Bkw) w//o/ bJh p/Vh dh fBnkJh jB, fi; okjhA ;z;ko ;w[zdo sohdk j?.
izrb ftu GNe oj/ B{z ;fsr[o{ B/ okj dZ; fdZsk, wkB' fizdrh dk G/s w?B{z
;wMk fdZsk.
efo feogk ‘;zs’ fwb/ w'fj fsB s/ Xhoi[ gkfJnk..
‘;zsh’ wzs[ dhU w'fj fBoGT[ r[o ek ;pd ewkfJnk.. (205)
w?B{z feogk eoe/ ;zs ns/ r[o{ fwb frnk, T[; B/ w?B{z wkBf;e
fNekT[ fdZsk. ;zs ns/ r[o{ B/ w?B{z Bkw wzso py; fdZsk, w? fBoGT[ j'
frnk, r[o{ d/ Ppd w[skpe ihtB ubD pDk fbnk..
;fsr[fo ;zs[ fwbkfJnk w;sfe Xo e? jE[.. tvk ;kfjp[ r[o{
fwbkfJnk fifB skfonk ;rb irs[.. (958) ;fsr[o{ ih B/ tkfjr[o{
(;zs) B{z fwbtk fdZsk. tvk ;kfjp nekb g[oy r[o{ B/ fwbk fdZsk, i'
;kfonK B{z skoB i'r j?.
3 (pkDh ou?sk GrsK pko/)
Gb' epho dk; dk;B e', T[sw ;?B iB BkJh..
T{u s/ T{u Bkw d/T[ ;wdo;h, oftdk; mke[o pD nkJh..
ihT[ fgzv[ sB XB ‘;kXB’ ek, fJj[ wB ‘;zs’ o/BkJh..
;zs gqskfg Gow ;G Bk;/ BkBe fwb/ r[';kJh.. (1207)
wBw'je puBK okjhA ;fsr[o{ ih feogk eo oj/ jB fe epho pj[s
B/e j?, p/nzs T[Zu/ ihtB d/ pkti{d, ;GBK dk ;/te pD e/ fpuodk j?.
iks dk BkJh, ;?B Grs pj[s T[u/ ihtB tkbk j?, go pVk fBowkD j?.
T[FZfunK s'A Gh T[uk Bkwd/t j?, ;kfonK B{z fJZe' BIo t/ydk j?. oftdk;
pj[s B/e j?, T[FZsw r[DK eoe/ gqw/Po dk fgnkok j?. w/ok ihtB, ;oho,

(172)
XB, ;G e[M fJjBK Gb/ ;zsK s'A e[opkB j?, w/ok wB fJjBK ;zsK d/ uoBK
dh X{Vh j?. fJjBK wjKg[oyK (;zsK) d/ T[Zsw frnkB ;dek wB[ysk GowK
ftu'A fBeb ojh j?. ;[uZih ihtB iku ;dek gqG{ B[z{ gqkgs eo bJhdk j?,
T[; ftu bhB j' ikJhdk j?.
r[o{ okwdk; ih bJh ;zs PpdL^
fij fgys nfs j'fJ oj; wfB,
;'Jh ;zs ;jko[ r[o{ okwdk;[.. (1406)
fiBQK d/ do;B ehfsnk (r[opkDh T[gd/P okjhA) wB fNe iKdk j?,
T[jh j? ;zsK dk ;jkok tZvk ;zs, ;fsr[o{ okw dk; ih.
BzL 4 (;kX ;zrs s/ f;ZyK bJh)
nzso ikwh g[oy fpXks/ ;oXk wB eh g{o/..
BkBe dk;[ fJj? ;[y[ wkr? w'eT[ efo ‘;zsB’ eh X[{o?.. (13)
j/ nzsoikwh tkfjr[o{ w/o/ wB dh PoXk ;fseko, ;zg{oD ngD/ uoDK
Bkb i'Vh oyDh.
w? fBwkDk ;/te fJjh dks wzrdk jK, w?B{z ;kX ;zrs d/ uoBK dh X{Vh
(fBwosk Gkt) pDkJh oZyhA.
fiBh “r[o e/ pufB” nkokfXnk fsB ft;fo rJ/ ;fG d[yk..
s/ ‘;zs’ Gb/ ‘r[of;y’ j? fiB Bkjh fuzs gokJh u[yk.. (588)
fiBQK Gb/ ihtK B/ ;fsr[o{ d/ T[gd/P d[nkok, gqG{ B{z f;wfonk (ihtB
pshs ehsk) T[jBK d/ ;ko/ d[y ysw j' rJ/. T[j ‘;zs’ s/ ‘f;Zy’ (Gkt
f;Zy jh ;zs j?) B/e ihtB tkb/ pD iKd/ jB, ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gd/P Bkb,
oZsh wk;k Gh fuzsk nkfde BjhA ofjzdh.
‘;fsr[o ;zs[’ fwb? ;Kfs gkJhn? febfpy ekN/ ;fG d{fo..
nm;fm shoE wiB[ ehnk ‘;s ;zrfs’ gr BkJ/ X[{fo..(1198)
;fsr[o{ ;zs fwb/ s'A, wkBf;e PKsh gqkgs j[zdh j?, ;ko/ dZ[y eb/P eZN/
iKd/ jB. wkB' nmkjm shoEK dk fJ;BkB j' frnk, id'A ;/tk eofdnK
;zrsK dh uoB X{Vh ;oho TFZ[go g? rJh.

(173)
BzL 5 (;KMk T[gd/P)
XzB[ XzB[ Gkr fsBk ‘Grs’ iBk,
i' jfo Bkwk jfo w[fy ejfsnk..
XzB[ XzB[ Gkr fsBK ‘;zs’ iBk, i' jfo i;[ ;qtDh ;[Dfsnk..
XzB[ XzB[ Gkr fsBK ‘r[ow[yK’, i' r[of;y b? wB fiDfsnk..
;G d{z tv/ Gkr “r[of;yK” e/, i' r[o uoDh f;y gVfsnk..(649)
fJ; gktB Ppd ftu ;fsr[o{, ;zs, ;kX, r[ow[y, Grs, nkfde ;kfonK
dk ;fseko eod/ jB, go sK, i/ eo fJj ;ko/ r[o{ dh f;Zfynk, wB puB
s/ eow eoe/ gotkD eo b?D. b/feB ;kfonK s'A tZv/ Gkr r[of;yK d/
jB, fiBQK B/ nkgk Gkt rtk e/, r[o{ dh PoD ftu (r[o{ nkfrnk ftu)
N[oDk gotkD eo fbnk j?.
;fsr[o{ ih d/ to';kJ/, r[opkDh d/ ftnkfynkeko, GkJh r[odk;
ih, pj[s ;z[do puBK okjhA c[owkB eod/ jB^
gzu pko rzr ikJ/, pko gzu gqkr BkJ/, s?;k g[zB J/e r[of;y e' BtkJ/ ek..
f;y e' fgbkJ/ gkBh, GkT[ efo e[by/s, n;w/X ir cb f;y e' fitkJ/ ek..
i?;/ ;s wzdo ezuB e/ T[;ko dhB/ s?;k g[zB f;y eT[ fJZe ;pd f;ykJ/ ek..
i?;/ ph; pko, doPB ehnk ;kX{ ekj{, s?;k g[B
z f;y eT[, ukg gr ;[nkJ/ ek..(Gkr L 673)
GkJh r[odk; ih ;wMk oj/ jB, eJh tkoh rzrk, eJh tkoh gokr
fJPBkB s'A r[of;Zy B{z BtQK d/Dk pj[s T[FZsw j?. e[o{eP/so fty/ nPt w/t
:Zr dk cb ns/ fJPBkB Bkb'A, r[of;Zy B{z ib SekT[Dk s/ gqPkdk Sek
d/Dk, fes/ tX cbdkfJe j?. i/eo ;Zs wfjb ;'B/ Bkb wVQe/ dkB eo
fdZs/ ikD, fJjBK s'A tX cb f;Zy B{z r[ows dh ;'Mh d/D ftu j?. fit/A
nB/e tkoh, ;kXK ;zsK d/ doPB s/ ;/tk ehsh T[FZsw wzBh iKdh j?, fJ;
s'A Gh finkdk g[zB cb, f;Zy dh ;/tk eoBh, w[Zmh ukgh s/ ;/tk eoBh
nkokw eoB bJh wzik fp;sok d/Dk pj[s uzrk j?. ;' fJ; efpZs okjhA
GkJh r[odk; ih B/, r[of;Zy B{z nfsnzs T{uk wkD fdZsk j?, ;kXK ;zsK B{z
pj[s wkw{bh doik fdZsk j?.
j[D iok e[ fJfsjk; tZb gVu'bthA BIo wko bJhJ/. ;fsr[o{ ;Zu/

(174)
gkfsPkj ih B/, f;Zy gzE iK ykb;k gzE pDkfJnk j?, ;kX gzE iK ;zs gzE
feXo/ BjhA fbfynk fwb/rk. ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih s'A t/yhJ/ sK ;G s'A
gfjb/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/, nfBzB ;kEh f;Zy “GkJh” wodkBk ih ;B. T[jBK
gzikj ;kb s'A tZX ;wK, ;fsr[o{ BkBe fBozekoh ih dh gktB pkDh
rkT[AfdnK, ftuko uouk eofdnK, ;[DfdnK pshs ehsk. t/y', Bk ;zs
pD/ Bk pqjw frnkBh s/ Bk Pqh 108 iK 1008 ;zs pD/. e/tb “GkJh..
GkJh wodkBk ih``` r[o{ ih d/ ;kfjpIkfdnK B{z ;fseko Bkb ‘pkpk’
nkfd jh fejk iKdk j?. ;qh uzd ih B/ Gkt/A nkgDk tZyok fcoek yVk eo
fbnk ;h go T[j Gh ;koh T[wo ‘pkpk’ jh nytkJ/, ‘;zs’ iK ‘pqjw’
frnkBh BjhA. GkJh r[odk; ih i' r[o{pkDh d/ Pq'wDh ftnkfynkeko ;B,
T[jBK edh ‘;zs’ nkfd p/b'V/ PpdK dh tos'A BjhA ehsh. p[ZYk ih e/tb
‘pkpk’ nytkJ/ ‘;zs’ BjhA. GkJh fpXh uzd, GkJh bkb', GkJh fGykoh,
GkJh wshdk;, GkJh ;shdk;, GkJh wBh f;zx HHHHHHHHH. fJj frDsh
nBzs bzwh j?. id'A d;w gksPkj B/ ykb;k ;kiD dk ekoi ehsk, sK gzi/
nkgk tkoB tkb/, GkJh s/ fgnko/, Gkt “fgnko/ GkJh” nytkJ/. ;op
b'j rzqE ftu nzfes j?^ ykb;k w/o' o{g j? yk;.. ykb;/ wfj jT[A eoT[
fBtk;.. ykb;k w/o' w[y j? nzrk.. ykb;/ e/ jT[A;d;d ;zrk. HHHHHHH
sks goi fJj gJh fJj feXo/ fbfynk BjhA fwb/rk gJh “;kX ;zs” w/o'
o{g j? yk;HHHHHHHHH. d;w gkfsPkj jI{o B/ ;oho ;ze'uD tes fco fJjh
j[ew ehsk l “g{ik nekb eh, gouk Ppd ek, dhdko ykb;/ ek”. fes/
BjhA fbfynk dhdko “;zs” dk. pzdk f;zx, ‘;zs’ iK r[o{ pD u[Ze/ fJB;kB
B{z d;w gkfsPkj B/, f;Zy pDkfJnk “pjkdo” pDkfJnk. izrh ioB?b
pDkfJnk, ;zs g[Dk ;kok X' e/ pkjo eZY wkfonk. fw;bK tes “f;zxk
f;zxDhnK B/ Xow j/s ;h; fds/, pzd pzd eNtkJ/, y'gohnK T[sotkJhnK,
uoyhnK s/ uV/, f;Zyh e/;K ;[nk;K ;zr fBGkJh”. fJZe Gh ;kX ;zs
feXo/ fuokr b? e/ Y{zfvnk BjhA bZGdk ;ko/ fw;bK d/ n"y/ d"o ftu.
nodk; d/ fJZe nrb/ pzd ftu fJj puB nzfes jB^ “gqEw/ ;opZs
“ykb;k” ih eh nodk; j? ihHHHHHHHHHH”. nZr/ j'o gV'^ “f;ZyK B{z f;Zyh

(175)
dkB, e/; dkBHHHHHH”. ;" jZE oZ;k f;o/ s/ rzY fe ‘;kXK ;zsK dk’ nodk;
ftu feXo/ fieo BjhA fwbdk. feT[Afe fJj ‘;zs’ o{g gdkoE fGnkBe
d"o ftu g?dk j'D dh i[nZos jh BjhA eo ;fenk. wkB' fJ; soQK GkDk
tkgo frnk fe “ykD ghD B{z pKdoh vzv/ ykD B{z foZS”. iK fJT[A efj
bJhJ/ fe “ykD ghD B{z ;kX bkDk, s/ bVB woB bJh f;Zy”.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ f;ZyK B{z jh d{jok nj[dk pyfPnk j?,“;zs ns/
f;gkjh”. nro f;Zy, d' nj[fdnK ekoB gfjb'A jh T[FZu/ o[sp/ s/ fpokiwkB
j?, sK fJefjo/ gd tkb/ ftnesh nZr/ feT[A M[e/< S'N/ nc;o tZfvnK
nc;oK B[z{ ;b{N wkod/ jB tZv/ S'fNnK B{z BjhA. fJ; fBoD/ w[skpe ;kX
;zs Bkb'A f;Zy dk doik T[FZsw j?, T[j feT[A ;kXK nZr/ M[e/, ;bkwK eo/<
nkw f;Zy ihtB dks py;D tkbh, gftZso r[opkDh B{z ft;ko u[Zfenk j?.
fit/A ehws ndk eoe/ pIko ftu'A ;kohnK b'VhAdhnK t;sK fwb iKdhnK
jB, fst/A jh e[M G/NK g{ik nogD eoe/ “Xow” yqhdD dh fposh g?dk j'
rJh j?. Xow yqhfdnk BjhA ik ;edk, fJj sK ihtB Go ewkfJnk iKdk
j?. ;tZS gftZso ftekoK s'A ofjs fizdrh fiT[Dh j[zdh j?. fgSb/ bzw/
no;/ s'A g[ikoh b'e, fJjh gqukod/ nk oj/ jB, “i/ s[jkv/ s'A e'Jh gkg
r[Bkj j' frnk j?, sK e[M u'Dt/A wzsoK dk ikg eoe/, s/ e[M g[ikoh (;kX
;zs e'Jh Gh j't/) nZr/ G/Nk nogD eoB s'A, s[jkv/ r[Bkj pyP/ ik ;ed/
jB”. fizBh d/o sZe dkB okjhA, gkg w[nkc ehs/ ik ;eD dk ;zebg,
;wki ftu oj/rk, T[d'A sZe brksko gkg io{o j[zd/ ofjDr/. nkw s"o s/
t/yD ftu nkfJnk j? fe ;kXK d/ u/b/ u/bhnK, pj[s eoe/ nwho gqtkoK
ftu'A j[zd/ B/. nwhoh fet/A nkJh< p/pjk g?;k fet/A ewkfJnk fesB/
wk;{wK dk y{B Bu'fVnK, e'Jh ;kX BjhA g[ZS/rk. T[;/ gkg dh yZNh ftu'A
G/Nk b? e/ “eko'pko” tXD dhnK nodk;K, n;h;K fdZshnK iKdhnK jB.
T[;/ d' Bzpo dh ewkJh ftu'A G/NK uVktk gqkgs eoe/ ;zs ih “;[Zy PKsh”
tkbh fizdrh pshs eo oj/ jB. irs skoe pkpk ih sK, GkJh bkb' ih
dh o[Zyh ;[Zyh o'Nh Se ;ed/ jB. wbe Gkr' B{z b'eK d/ tZv/ fJZem ;kjt/,
roithA nktkI ftu nky ;ed/ jB^ “s/o/ fJjBK wkjb g{fVnK ftu,

(176)
SZsh gqeko d/ ;'jD/ gdkoEK ftu w?B{z fJjBK rohpK dk y{B gqsZy fgnk
fd;dk j?. i[bw okjhA wkfJnk fJZeso eoe/, T[; ftu'A e[M fjZ;k ;kXK
B[{z y[nk e/, gkg w[nkc BjhA j' ikD/. fJoPkd j?^
je[ gokfJnk BkBek T[;[ ;{no T[;[ rkfJ..
r[o[ gho[ jkwk sK Go/ ik w[odko[ Bk ykfJ..
rbh fG;fs B ikJhn? S[N? ;u[ ewkfJ..
wkoD gkfj jokw wfj j'fJ jbkb[ B ikfJ.. (141)
BkBe rbh e{VhJh e{V' gb? gkfJ..
;fsr[o{ ih c[owkB eo oj/ jB, j/ wB[Zy (goEkJ/ wbe Gkr')
gokfJnk jZe fjzd{ bJh rT{ d/ wk; s[b j?, w[;bwkB bJh ;{o d/ wk;
tKr (tofis) j?. r[o{ gho Xkowe nkr{ sK s[jkvh ;jkfJsk eoBr/ i/
foPts nkfd (w[odko) dk fsnkr eo'r/. e/tb rZbh pkshA ;tor ftu
BjhA ikfJnk ik ;edk, ;ukJh d/ wkor s/ N[oBk nsh io{oh j?. gokJ/
wkb B{z i' jokw j?, w;kb/ gk e/ fsnko eoB s/ T[j nkgDk jZe (jbkb)
BjhA pD iKdk. go ni d/ pj[s/ ;zs (ftofbnK B[{z SZv e/) y[d jh jokw
dh ewkJh s/ BjhA gb oj/< o'Ih o'Nh bJh e'Jh feos eod/ jB< d{finK
dh ewkJh s/ gbD tkb/, i/ okiBhse b'e pV/ xNhnk jB, ;oekoh
fvT{Nh T[go bZr/ nc;o$ w[bkIw nro foPts y'oh ekoB ewhD/ jB,
sK eh Xow dk u'bk gfjB e/, Xow n;EkB ftu p?m e/, Xow rqzE ftu'A
e[M Ppd$ wzso gVQ e/, G'b/ PoXkb{nK B{z GowK ftu gk e/ y{B ghD tkb/
ny"sh Xowh b'e fet/A uzr/ j'J/<
“Ikjogho irs r[o pkpk” ih B/ f;Zyh dh goy e;tZNh jh fJj
oZyh ;h, “Bkw igDk, Xow dh feos eoBh, tzv e/ SeDk. Bkw dk
wsbp j? r[o{ j[ewK w[skpe fIzdrh j'Dh. jZe jbkb dh feos ewkJh
eoBh, s/ T[; ftu'A b'VtzdK Bkb tzv e/ SeDk. T[gqzs frq;sh j'Dk, fJZe
nekb g[oy B{z wzBDk, e[b wBZ[ysk B{z fJZe' fijk fgnko eoBk, r[o{ s/
Go';k oyDk. pj[frDsh ;kX bkDk, frq;sh ihtB s'A Gr"Vk j' uZ[fenk j?.
gqtko dhnK fizw/tkohnK fBGkT[D s'A n;woE j?. uzrk ykDk, uzrk gfjBDk,

(177)
;ohoe ezw e'Jh eoBk BjhA, fco ekw Pesh f;o B[{z uV/rh. ikfJI
sohe/ ekw fsqgsh Bk j't/, sK BikfJI Yzr tos/ ikDr/. ;z;ko dk e'Jh
gqkDh fJ; s/ ekp{ BjhA gk ;fenk. fJ; goEkJ/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/ nBw'b
puB jB ^
isB eo? fpzd[ fet? B ojkJh.. wB{nk v'b? Boe/ gkJh..
iwg[o pkX' bj? ;ikJh.. 906
fpzd[ B okyfj ish ejktfj.. wkJh wKrs sq? b' Gktfj.. 903
fJ;/ bJh pj[s/ “pkb pqjwukoh” ;zsK d/ v/fonK s'A B"itkB “phphnK”
d/ M[owN ;dk t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. nB/e gqeko d/ “todkB” d/ e/ pkpk ih
PoXkb{nK B{z sko oj/ j[zd/ jB. i/ edh nekb g[oy fJjBK ;kXK d/ nky/
bre/, rbsh eo p?m/, ;GBK B{z g[Zso jh d/D bZr gt/, iok ;'u'. f;q;Nh
dk ;zs[bB ftrV BjhA ikt/rk< T[jBK g[ZsoK dk ftnkj ehjd/ Bkb eo'r/<
fJ; soQK ;wki ftu ftGuko BjhA g;o ikt/rk< nkgD/ fdb B{z j";bk
fdU` pj[s ;ys ns/ eo{o ;Zu ;[BD bJh fsnko j't'`` ;fsr[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih d/ ;fseko:'r g{oB r[of;Zy tZvh G?D, p/p/ BkBe ih dh “e[Zy
joh” BjhA j'Jh. T[jBK dh r'd Xh g[Zso s'A ;ZyDh ofj rJh. T[j y[d
T[sw ihtB tkb/ ;B, irs skoe, oZph B{o, pkpk BkBe T[jBK dk wK
ikfJnk ;ek tho. fco nkgD/ xo g[Zso gqkgsh tk;s/, T[jBK ;fsr[o{ ih
nZr/ g[eko feT[A Bk ehsh< ;fsr[o{ ih p/p/ BkBeh tk;s/, X[o dorkj'A
g[Zso feT[A Bk b? e/ nkJ/< g[ZsoK dh fJZSk eoB tkfbU` eh s[;hA ;wMd/
j' fe e'Jh ftnesh gqw/Po dh fJZSk B[{z pdb d/D dh ;woZEk oZydk j?<
fco jVQ, jB/ohnK, G{ukb, wjKwkohnK, izr :[ZX nkfde ;kXK ;zsK B{z
p/Bsh eoe/ feT[A BjhA o[etk bJ/ iKd/< t?;/ sK b'eh Pow d/ wko/
pj[shnK fPekfJsK doi jh BjhA eokT[Ad/, fizBhnK e[ (10%) doi
j[zdhnK jB T[jBK ekoB d/; ftub/ pj[s ;ko/ ;kX ;zsK fto[ZX w[eZdw/ ub
oj/ jB, eJh ;ko/ i/b dhnK ;bkyK fgS/ pzd nZvhnK orV oj/ jB.
fJ;kJh gkdohnK (gqukoeK) B{z ftnkj eokT[D dh nkfrnk BjhA j?.
tk;BK ftu nzB/ j' e/ i' i' e[eow T[jBK “pkb pqjwukoh” gkdohnK B/

(178)
ehs/, T[jBK B{z gVQ ;[De/ ;[zB j' ikJhdk j?. j'o sK j'o T[jBK S'Nh T[wo
d/ pZu/ pZuhnK Bkb th d[PNeow ehs/. pj[s ;ko/ gkdohnK fto[ZX
ndkbsK ftu w[edw/ uZb/, ;iktk j'JhnK. fgSb/ fdBhA fJ;kJh Xow d/
w[yh (g'g) B/ ;z;ko e'b'A fJjBK gkg eowK bJh w[nkch wzrh j?.
frnkBh fdZs f;zx ih fJZe pV/ ftdtkB g[oy j'J/ ;B. T[j fJZe EK
fbyd/ jB^“w?A ;GBK B{z vze/ eh u'N r?b (g[nkXh p'bh) dZ;Dk ukj[zdk jK
fe ;kv/ xo e/ Bidhe fJZe e[Zsh, jo S/ wjhB/ wro'A gzi S/ pZfunK B{z
iBw d/ fdnk eodh j?. w?A nkw t/fynk j? fe jo S/ wjhB/ pkd ;{ohnK
d; d; pZfunK B{z iBw fdnk eodhnK jB. e[eVhnK jo o'i nKv/ d/Jh
iKdhnK jB. go edh t/fynk j? e'Jh e[Zsh, ;{oh, e[ZeVh, fe;/ ;kX e/
v/o/ g[Zso (pZuk) gqkgs eoB rJh j't/< edh fe;/ B/ Xkrk sths jE"bk
eokfJnk j't/< e[dos e/ fB:wK nB[;ko pZu/ B/ iBw b?Dk j?. go fJj
w/ohnK G?DK p/NhnK fesBhnK Bk ;wM jB, fe v/o/dkoK e/ nZr/ fgZS/
BZudhnK fco ojhnK B/. feZE/ rJh fJjBK eh neb< i/ e'Jh ewi'oh j?
sK vkeNoh fJbki eo'. fJj ;kX e"D j[zd/ j? wz[v/ d/D tkb/< fJjBK e/ sK
nkgD/ e'Jh pZuk BjhA j?. r[o{ d/ f;Zy nytkD tkfbU. i/ r[o{ BkBe d/
uoBK ftu ehsh nodk; gqtkB BjhA j'Jh, i/ d;K gkfsPkjhnK dh i',
g?Ash wjKg[oyK dh gftZso pkDh s'A w[okd g{oh BjhA j'Jh, i/ nekb g[oy
B/ s[jkvh M'bh BjhA Goh, fco d[BhnK ftu'A s[jkB{z fes/ Gh y?o BjhA
gt/rh. fJj v/o/dko r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp Bkb'A nekb g[oy Bkb'A, r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp ih Bkb'A tZv/ BjhA jB. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ftueko e'Jh ftu'bk Gh BjhA
ofjD fdZsk, ;kB{z f;ZX/ tkfjr[o{ uoBK Bkb i'fVnk j?. r[otke jB^
;fsr[o[ dksk okwBkw ek, j'o dksk e'Jh Bkjh..
ihn dkB[ d/fj fsqgsk;/, ;u? Bkfw ;wkjh.. (1258)
nkT[ Iok fJZe j'o B[es/ s/ ftuko eohJ/` p/nzs gktB gzeshnK
ns/ Ppd w"i{d jB, fiBQK ftu fJ; soQK d/ Gkt fby/ j'J/ jBl w/o/ T[go
feogk eo', ;zsK d/ uoBK s/ w/ok f;o fNfenk j't/ B/soK Bkb ;zsK d/
doPB eoK, ;oho s/ ;zsK dh uoB X{V g?Adh j?. j/ gqG{ ih` w/o/ (gzitA/

(179)
BkBe) s[;hA dks/ j', ;zsK dh ;zrs ;dek w/ok T[Xko eo fdT[. r[otke
fJT[A jB^
n?;h feogk w'fj eoj[.. ;zsj uoB jwko' wkEk B?B do; sB X{fo goj[..
BkBe e/ gqG s[w jh dks/ ;zs ;zfr b/ w'fj T[Xoj[.. (828)
Iok ;fsr[o{ ih dh wjkB ;yPhns, goT[geko, frnkB, e[opkBh
tZb fBrkj wko'. T[jBK d/ w[ekpb/ s/ bZyK eo'VK dhnK GhVK Gh BjAhA yb'
;edhnK. r[o{ fgnko tkbk f;Zy, ;" ;" tko ;fsr[o{ nZr/ ;h; M[ekT[[Adk
j?. go jT[w? jzeko ns/ w{oysk dh f;yo t/y'. T[go tofDs gzeshnK
d/ nro nZyoh noE eohJ/ sK ;fsr[o{ ih Bkb x'o nfBnkfJ j't/rk.
s/ ny"sh ‘;zs’ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z nkgD/ g?ohA g?D bJh nky fojk j't/rk.
nfijk gkgh wB[Zy ‘;zs’ sK fes/ fojk, f;Zy Gh BjhA j?. ;r'A r[o{ d'yh j?,
nkgD/ nkg B{z r[o{ Bkb'A tZvk f;ZX eo fojk j?. osk wk;k Gh nfijk
ftnesh ;fseko dk jedko BjhA j?. j'o t/y' ^
jw ;zsB eh o/B[ fgnko/, jw ;zsB eh ;oDk..
;zs jwkoh UN ;skDh ;zs jwkok rfjDk..HHHHHHHH
;zsB f;T[ w/oh b/tk d/th, ;zsB f;T[ fpT[jkok..
;zsB f;T[ jw bkjk ykfNnk jfo Grfs Go/ Gzvkok.. (614)
eh ;fsr[o{ ih ;kX ;zsK dh PoD ftu ofjDk ukj[zd/ jB< ni'e/
;kX fJsB/ T[FZu/ jB fe ;fsr[o{ ih B{z s[ZS ikBD tork, pZio gkg eoe/,
BoeK d/ Gkrhdko pD oj/ jB< gVQ' tke^
;cb w{ofs go;T[ ;zsB eh fJj? fXnkBk XoBk..
GfJU feogkb[ mke[o[ BkBe eT[ gfoU ;kX eh ;oBk.. (531)
fJjBK T[gobhnK gzeshnK ftu ‘;kX ;zs’ Ppd ;fsr[o{ tk;s/ nkfJnk
j?, fe;/ n?o/ r?o/ ;kX tk;s/ BjhA. nkU nZr/ r[o{ ns/ ;kX{ Ppd fJZe'
Ekt/A ‘r[o{’ tk;s/ tos/ t/yhJ/^
! gkopqjw ip GJ/ feqgkb.. sp G/N/ r[o ;kX dfJnkb..(863)
! Gkr[ j'nk r[fo ;zs[ fwbkfJnk.. gqG nfpBk;h xo wfj gkfJnk.. (97)
! fBor[D[ okfy bhnk ;zsB ek ;dek..

(180)
;fsr[fo Ykfe bhnk w'fj gkgh gVdk.. (1117)
! ;zs X{fV gkJhn? tvGkrh.. BkBe r[o G/Ns jfo f;T[ fbt bkrh..(194)
! ‘r[o ek puB ;dk nfpBk;h.. r[o e? puB eNh iw ck;h..
i' ‘r[fo’ dhnk ;' wB e? ekw.. ‘;zs’ ek ehnk ;s efo wkB..(177)
! ‘;kX{ eh wB UN rj[ T[efs f;nkBg fsnkr[..
r[o dhfynk fij wfB p;? BkBe w;sfe Gkr[.. (260)
! “r[o{ ;kX{” nzfwqs, frnkB ;fo BkfJD[..
;fG febfty gkg rJ/ rktkfJD[.. (1134)
! ;pfd B Ghi? ;kesk d[owfs nktB ikB[..
“;kX{ ;fsr[o{” i/ fwb?, sK gkJhn? r[Dh fBXkB[.. (21)
T[go tofDs ;ko/ gowkDK ftu ;kX{ ns/ ;fsr[o{, fJZe' Ekt/A fJZe'
noE ftu nkJ/ jB. Gkt r[o{ jh ;kX{ j?, p; Ppdktbh dk jh nzso j?.
f;Zy gzE B{z i' nekb g[oy pko/ ;'Mh pyf;; ehsh sK ;fsr[o{ B/,
;dhtekb tk;s/ nrtkJh dk ;'wk, P[ZX o{g ftu r[opkDh dh pyfPP
ehsh sK ;fsr[o{ B/, d[y^;[y ftu, nwB s/ izr ftu, Bkw f;woB s/
;/tk ftu, fizdrh d/ jo gfjb{ s/ ihtB fiT[ e/ ftykfJnk sK ;fsr[o{ B/.
pV/ d[y dh pks j? fe nZiebQ eZu/ ihtB tkb/, eZuh ftZfdnk tkb/, eZu/
fgZb/ fdwkr tkb/, eZu/ fgb fgb eodhnK r'rVK tkb/, ;zsrhoh dk b/pb
fugek e/ Pqh 1008 pDe/, nihp' rohp gfjokftnK tkb/ ;fsr[o{ ih dh
wjkB gftZso ;y;hns dh pokpoh eoB dk x'o gkg eo oj/ jB.
f;sw fJj fe nkw PoXkb{, fpBK ;'u/ ;wM/, fJjBK d/ uoBh Y?j fgnk
j?. d; r[o{ ;kfjpkB tes e'Jh ;zs BjhA T[FZfrnk, fi; i[bw fto[ZX
nktkI p[bzd ehsh j't/. fw;bK d/ fGnkBe d"o ftu, ;" ;kb sZe e'Jh
;zs BjhA izw ;fenk. id'A f;ZyK d/ f;oK d/ w[Zb g? u[Ze/ ;B. fPeko ehsk
ik fojk ;h, pzd pzd eZN/ ik oj/ ;B, y'gohnK T[FZso ojhnK ;B, pZfunK
d/ N[eV/ eo, rbK ftu nKdok d/ jko gfjBkJ/ ik oj/ ;B HHHHHHH sd'A e'Jh
;zs BjhA bZGdk. nwB d/ fdB gos/, f;ZyK dk p'b pkbk j'fJnk, ysok
Nb frnk sK ;kX{ ;fBnk;h fBowb/ ;qhuzdhJ/, wjzs, nkde EK EK f;o

(181)
eZYD bZr gJ/. ;zB 1901 s'A gfjbK fBozekoh, BkwXkoh (e{e/) okXk
;[nkwh sK fes/ fes/ fJfsjk; ftu'A bG iKd/ jB, go ;zs e'Jh BjhA.
thjthA ;dh d/ P[o{ j[zfdnk e[M fJZe ‘;zs’ BIo nkJ/, s'oh c[bek fJ;
Yetzi Bkb uzrk ubdk t/y e/ uko/ pzB/, ;zsrhoh d/ nZv/ v/o/, y[zpK tKr
T[ZrD/ P[o{ j' rJ/. j[D sK “;zsK d/ tr fcod/”HHHHHHHH. r[odtkfonK ftu'A
fJ; wjzsg[D/ B{z eZYD tk;s/, r[o{ eh r'be dh d[otos'A o'eD bJh,
wBwsK B{z pkjo yd/VB bJh, r[of;ZyK B/ f;o s/ eZcD pzB e/, p/nzs
e[opkBhnK ehshnK. fJjBK ;{ofwnK d/ nZr/ r'oh ;oeko sK M[e rJh,
go wjzsrhoh f;zxK dk ;kE d/Dk sK dofeBko vNe/ fto'Xh eodh ojh.
d/P dh nkIkdh dh bzwh bVkJh bVh rJh. i/jbK d/ s;hj/, IwhBK dhnK
e[oehnK, Gkoh i[owkB/, nDfrDs PjhdhnK, r[o{ to';kJ/ f;zxK d/ fjZ;/
nkJhnK. ;zsK wjzsK dk feXo/ Bkw' fBPkB BjhA bGdk. ;q'wDh r[odtkok
gqpzXe ew/Nh, r[ows d/ gouko tZb'A w[iowkBk jZd sZe, nt/;bh j'
rJh. e[M ;w/A s'A pkd Xow B{z rzdh okiBhsh B/ nkgDk d[p/b pDk fbnk
j?. f;ZyK B[{z ikrqs eoB tk;s/ e'Jh gkfJdko f;Zy nypko, o;kbk,
fbNo/uo nkfd f;Zy ;zrsK sZe Bk g[ukfJnk frnk. nfrnkBsk t; w[V
w[V T[jBK jh T[iZv bhvoK d/ fgZS/ f;Zy bZr/ oj/. fiBQK B{z f;Zy okiBhsh
tZb'A Bcos j' rJh, Xow r[bkw pfDnk, goshs j'fJnk, r[opkDh dh
;wM Bk nkJh, T[jBK ftu'A e[M okXk ;[nkwhJ/ pD rJ/. e[M fBozekoh
dopkoK dh o"De tXkT[D bZr/. (;w/s tZv/ f;Zy bhvoK d/) e[M ;kXK ;zsK
d/ v/fonK ftu PKsh dh Gkb eoB bZr/. id'A nwho tIho nc;o nkfd,
fJj v/fonK ftu pkfpnK nZr/ ;h; M[ekT[D, fco nkw f;Zy sK fJjBK
nZr/ wkB' bzwk jh g? ikt/rk. p; fco eh ;h, fJjBK v/fonK dh Ekt/A
nkbhPkB pj[wzibhnK e'mhnK T[;oBhnK P[o{ j' rJhnK. bzwhnK wfjzrhnK
ekoK x{eD bZrhnK. u/fbnK dhnK eskoK nZr/ fgS/ ;/tk ftu jkio j'D
bZrhnK. pkfpnK d/ “ftPokw frqj” ns/ “Bkw igD tkbk ;EkB” J/H;hH
dh mzve g[ukT[D bZfrnk. frohnK, pdkw, eki{, fg;sk, ;/p, nzr{o,
pkpk ih d/ ;kd/ fij/ G'iB dk nzr pD rJ/. o/Pwh u'fbnK nzdo E[Zb E[Zb

(182)
eodhnK r'rVK, tZvh nwhoh d/ doPB eotk ojhnK fdZ;D bZrhnK. j'o
Bt/A ;zs, j'o Bt/A v/o/, r[odtko/, fBZs T[;oB bZr gJ/. nkw f;Zy j'o
rohp, tfjwh, eoweKvh BPZJh s/ j'o gfssg[D/ ftu roedk ubk
frnk.
’84 d/ xb{xko/ tes pkpofenK B/ fJjBK ;soK d/ b/ye B{z d/P
Xo'jh e/; gk e/, gzdoK fdBK d/ nDwB[Zyh s;hj/ d/D s'A pkd, nX w'fJnk
eoe/ i/jb dh e'mVh ftu pzd eo fdZsk. fJ;/ soQK d/ BkikfJI e/;K
nXhB j'o Gh pj[s ;ko/ f;Zy wkJh GkJh pzd ehs/ rJ/ ;B. wjhB/ e[ sZe
f;js tZb j' rJh, nzdob/ jkbks pko/ G/s nk frnk, gfjbK tkbk e[M e[
;fjw Gh xN frnk. fwPBoh ;fgoN B/ T[Skbk ykXk, i/jb ;[gov?AN s'A
fJikis b? e/ i/jb nzdob/ S'N/ fij/ r[odtko/ ftu, eEk P[o{ eo fdZsh
rJh. w?A fJj dkjtk sK BjhA eo fojk fe w/oh ehsh rJh r[opkDh eEk
pj[s tXhnk ;h. i/jb ftu sK e?dh g[okD/ g[okD/ oZdh nypko B{z Gh ukn
Bkb gVd/ jB. Bt/A nkJ/ jtkbksh s'A iK w[bkekshnK s'A, pkjo dhnK
ypoK gZpK Gko j' e/ ;[Dd/ jB. fJE/ r[opkDh dh eEk i/jb ftu< s'pk
s'pk, w;hA ;[BDh gqkgs j'Jh ;h. jtkbksh, gZe/ e?dh, ns/ ;kv/ tkb/
“nZstkdh Gok” ;ko/ jh j[zw j[wk e/ nkT[D bZr/. jkb ftu p?mD i'rh EK
Bk ojh, pkjo dohnK ftSD brhnK. gzdoK e[ fdB fJj r[ows dk
;'jDk ozr fyfVnk. fdB/ dk; e'b wfjcb i[VB brh, ;tkb itkp,
r[opkDh P[ZX gkm eoB dhnK ebk;K, ;zrsh fBsB/w nkfd.
fsnkr dh ;kyPks w{os, g{oB pqjw frnkBh Pqh wkB HHHHHHHH ;zs
ih Gh i/jb ftu fJE/ jh pzd ;B. T[jBK d/ u/fbnK B/ ypodko ehsk l
pkpk ih` i/ fJj wBw[y pzdk fJ;/ soQK ;zrsK B{z e[okj/ gkT[Adk fojk, sK
nkgK B{z e"D Bw;ekoK eo{< pkpk ih B/ gfjbk sho dkfrnk, ;[govzN
okjhA, eEk pzd eokT[Dh ukjh. ;cbsk Bk fwbD s/, fJZe fJZe fdB tzv
e/ eEk eoB dh fJikis b? bJh. ;qhwkB ;zs HHHHHHH ih B/ fsnkr dk
ftPk u[De/, r[opkDh ftu'A gqwkD d/ e/, fJj f;ZX ehsk, “fJj wkfJnk,
ekoK e'mhnK g[Zso gsBh, nkfd ;G w'j wkfJnk j?, Sbktk j?, oph okj

(183)
ftu o'e j?”HHHHHHHH. nrb/ fdB dk; B/ gzuw r[od/t ih dk fJZe Ppd
;Bw[y oZy e/ (wKrBk wKrB[ Bhek, jfo i;[ r[o s/ wKrBk^1018) eEk
ftuko ehsh. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ xo iwhB n"bkd gsBh g?;k nkfd fsnkrD
dk e'Jh j[ew BjhA fdZsk. ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB y[d gqtkfoe fizw/tkohnK
pky{ph fBGkT[Ad/ oj/ jB. T[jBK w'j dk fsnkr ehsk ;h, fizw/tkohnK dk
fsnkr BjhA ehsk. f;ZyK B{^ z “fsnkrBk fsnkrB[ Bhek ekw[ eqX
' [ fsnkrBk”
1018 nkfynk j?. fJj pkpk ih fJE/ i/jb ftu Gh fsnkr dh gZNh gVQk
oj/ jB, id'A fe fJZE/ ipoh ;G t;sK dk ;w/s gqtko d/ fsnkr eotk
fdZsk iKdk j?. fijBK ;/teK B{z nzdo pkjo “;zs ih” fsnkr dk T[FZsw
T[gd/P” fdqV eotk oj/ jB, nkU iok T[jBK d/ xo ftu T[vdh fijh
Mksh wko bJhJ/.
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp s/ PoXk oZyD tkb/ pj[ frDsh ;/teK e'b ;e{No
eko BjhA j?, go ;zs ih e'b tZvh eko j?. ;kJhebK s/ ;co eoB tkb/
nkgDk ;kJheb Gh fsnkr d/D s/ pkpk ih nkgDh wfjzrh eko s/ jtk
ftu T[vd/ fcoBk< nkw xoK ftu SZs tkbk gZyK iK w/i s/ oZfynk (N/pb
c?B) gZyk jh w[Peb Bkb B;hp j[zdk j?, pkpk ih d/ “sg n;EkB” iK
ft;okw frqj” fty/ J/H;hH bZr/, fPwb/ torhnK mzYhnK jtktK MZb oj/
j[zd/ jB. nkw b'eK d/ xo fJZe d' ewo/, coP s'A fpBK, r'j/ fbZg/, SZs
ftu'A fwZNh feodh, po;ks ftu nzdo SZgV pD/ j'J/, o;'Jh NkNek X[Zg
ftu wzik N/Yk eoe/, ;ikJh rJh. pkEo{w b?NohB Bkw dh uhi xo ftu'A
Y{zfvnk BjhA fwb/rh. d{i/ pzB/ pkpk ih dk nkbhPkB wfjb, eJh ewo/,
eJh r[;bykB/, vokfJzr o{w s/ j'o gsk BjhA eh eh. ;kXkoB f;Zy nkgD/
SZgoB[wk xo B{z fsnkr d/t/, iK pkpk nkgD/ wfjb B{z fsnkr/< j'o t/y'`
nkw f;Zy, ;kdh fijh dkb ;pih, uZNDh fgnki nkuko Bkb o'Nh yk e/
r[Ikok eo fojk j?. ;zs ih tk;s/ wZyD, gBho, frohnK, eki{, ;/p,
nzr{oHHHHH d[BhnK Go d/ ehwsh ykd gdkoE. nkw f;Zy nkgDk ;[Zek
fNZeV Gh fsnkr d/t/ s/ wjKg[oy ih ehwsh cb s/ w/t/ Gh Bk fsnkrD.
wjKg[oy ih d/ sB s/ PP'Gs jB nkbhPkB o/Pwh p;so, fiBQK dh

(184)
frDsh eoBh Gh ;zGt BjhA j?. nkw g/Av{ f;Zy ;kd/ fij/ e[os/ gikw/ Bkb
sB YefdnK ihtB pshs eo b?Adk j?. fsnkr e[os/ gikw/ tkbk eo/ iK
ehwsh p;soK d/ Y/oK tkbk eo/< nkw ftnesh dk n";s ;ohoe tiB,
;Zm e[ feb' j[zdk j?. eJh tkoh ezw dh p[jsks, y[oke dh ewh ekoD fJj
tiB ysoBke jd sZe xfNnk j[zdk j?. p; pzd/ s'A w;hA fJZe “eK oidk
j?”. fYZv ;[Ze e/ fgSKj ohV dh jZvh B{z ik brdk j?. tkj` tko/ tko/
ikJhJ/ oZp d/ fJB;kc s'A, fJjBK pkfpnK dhnK r'rVK fJZe e[fJzNb s'A b?
e/ v/Y d' e[fJzNb sZe dhnK c[ZbhnK t/yhnK ik ;edhnK jB. e'fPP
eoB s/ Gh ;oho ftu'A e'Jh jZvh BjhA bZG/rh, wk; s/ uoph d/ b/g uVQ/ jh
fd;Dr/. fJZe gk;/ jZvhnK dh w[Zm fJB;kB, y{B uoph BKj d/ pokpo.
fJZe gk;/ y{B uoph, tiB fJzBk fInkdk fe fe;/ tes Gh d"ok g? ;edk
j?. fsnkr fJjBK Gkoh Goew jkEh B[wk r'rVK dk j't/ fe wkw{bh ;ohoK
ftub/ jZv uzw dk< p; nkyoh rb` j[D fpBK d/oh s'A fJE/ rzB/ ghVB
tkbk t/bDk (xbkVh) rZv fbnk ikt/. ;kB{z nkw pzfdnK B{z T[; ftu ghV
$ fBu'V fbnk ikt/. ;kv/ e'b fsnkrD tk;s/ j'o e[M BjhA pfunk. j[D
;kvk y{B eZY e/, fJjBK ;ZiD mZrK B{z pkN/ Go e/ fgnk fdZsk ikt/ sKfe
fJjBK d/ fujo/ s/ j'o bkbh uV ikt/, fJjBK dh s'Ad (r'rV) j'o cZ[b
ikt/. ;kv/ pkb pZu/, gsBh, G?D s/ wK Gh fJjBK d/ jtkb/ eo d/DhnK.
j'o sK ;kv/ e'b fsnkrD bJh pfunk jh e[M BjhA HHHHHHHHHHH”. ;kX
;zrs` i/bQ nzdo p?m/ v/Y v/Y e[fJzNb dhnK r'rVK tkb/ nkg{z pD/ pqjw
frnkBhnK B[z pkjo'A ;zrsK d[ZX, cb, p;so, djhA, wZyD wDk w{jh d/
iKdhnK jB. XzB j? ;/teK dh ;aoXk` go T[j eh ikBD fe fJjBK dhnK
E[Zb E[Zb eodhnK d/jK ftu fJsBk gdkoE ;wk BjhA ;e/rk. wkb;K eoB
tkb/ d' uko u/fbnK s'A fpBK fJj gdkoE fe;/ B[z BjhA toskJ/ iKd/ ;B.
i/jb ftu e'Jh rZb b[ekfJnK BjhA b[edh. fJjBK ‘;zsK’ tZb'A tkX{ cb
d[ZX s/ djhA BkbhnK ftu o[VQdk i/jb ;[govzN ns/ j'o ;ko/ b'eK B{z
ftykfJnk frnk. ;kX nkyD ih djh Bkb e/;h fJ;BkB ehsk ;h. s/
d[X` fJj yokp j' frnk ;h. s/ cb< fJj rZb rJ/ ;B. fJjBK gkghnK

(185)
B/ ;zrsK dh G/N nkw e?dhnK sZe Bk g[ukJh. popkd eo fdZsh. tkj
;Zu/ gkfs;akj s{z n?j' fij/ ;zs pDkJ/ ;B <
fJj gqtuB p'b e/ dk; r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu'A jkbh yVQk
jh j'fJnk ;h fe PKsh ;o{g, fBwosk d/ w[iZ;w/A, fsnkr dh w{osh, g{oB
pqjw frnkBh, ;zs ih d/ B/soK ftu'A bkNK fBebhnK. p'bK B/ nrB pkD
SZv/. ;zs ih d/ gkbs{ ukNV/ w/o/ s/ N[ZN e/ g? rJ/. XZek w[Zeh rkbh rb'u
j'fJnk. w?B{z e[M e[ nfj;k; ;h fe x[;o w[;o j' ojh j? e'Jh GkDk tos
;edk j?. fJsB/ ftu i/jb d/ Bzpodko ftu g? rJ/, d' uko i/jb tkovB
nkJ/, ;kB{z tZy' tZy eo fdZsk frnk. bfjok p/rk fgzv d/ r[of;Zy GkJh
fBowb f;zx s/ wZyD f;zx B/ ns/ e[M j'o B"itkB w/oh jwkfJs s/ nk
vN/. BjhnK tkb/ s'A GkJh rfizdo gkb f;zx s/ gqwihs f;zx B/ pj[s
w[Zds ehsh. i/jb ;[govzN nk gZ[fink, ;w/s tZvh rkod d/. T[;B/ ;wMk
p[Mk e/, nZv' nZv fJwkosK ftu pzd eo fdZsk. id'A ;kvh gkbNh r[odtko/
wZEk N/eD iKdh, sK T[j fXo pzd j[zdh, id'A T[j wZEk N/eD iKd/, sK n;hA
pzd j[zd/. ofjzdk ;wK fJ;/ soQK pshs j'fJnk. fJZe j'o sho dkfrnk ;h
;zsK B/, i/jb tkfbnK e'b u[rbhnK bk e/ ns/ uzrh seVh foPts d/ e/,
w/ok d[pkok g[fb; ohwKv dk tkozN nk frnk. gzdoK e[ fdBK sZe d[pkok
;hH nkJhH J/H ;Nkc ftu s;hj/ MZb/. fJ; EK tkfjr[o{ B/ jZE d/ e/ oZy
fbnk BjhA sK “g[fb; w[ekpbk” sK tZN s/ fgnk ;h. rZb fJ; soK j'Jh
fe fi; g[fb; nc;o B/ w/o/ s/ i/jb ftu jh M{mk e/; gkfJnk ;h.
;[govzN d/ ewo/$dcso ftu jh g[ZSfrZS ehsh ;h. fco eJh tkoh ;hH
nkJhH J/H ;Nkc ftu ik e/ dZ[y fdzdk fojk ;h, e[M jh fdBK d/ nzdo,
ykVe{ :'fXnK B/ T[; gkgh B{z BoeK ftu g[uk fdZsk. fJ; s'A pkd w?B{z
fe;/ e[M BK nkfynk, ;r'A g[fb; tkb/ pj[s jh ;bhe/ Bkb rZb eoB bZr
gJ/. fJ; spdhbh dk w?B{z ekch d/o pkd gsk bZrk. tkg; i/jb ftu
gos e/ Gh w?A wfj;{; ehsk fe i/jb w[bkIwK ns/ nc;oK d/ otJhJ/
ftu Bowh ;h. fJj sK tkfjr[o{ B/ jZE d/ e/ puk fbnk, toBK ;zsK B/ sK
w/o/ s/ goT[geko eoe/ T[go G/iD dk g{ok gqpzX eo fdZsk ;h. f;ZXk

(186)
;Zuyzv dk fNeN.
fJjBK ;zs pkfpnK dh ;oeko/ dopko/ uzrh gj[zu j?, fJjBK okjhA
b'eK d/ ;oekoh r?o ;oekoh ezw ehs/ eokJ/ iKd/ jB. T[gokfbnK B{z
ezw j'D s'A pkd iK gfjbK, i' bZSwh G/ih iKdh j?, T[; ftu'A pkpk ih
ngDk “d;tzX”, gftZso eo ewbK Bkb, wjkoki d/ uoBK B{z S[jk e/ oZy
b?Ad/ jB. uzvhrVQ T[j Pfjo j? fiE/ ekB{zB dh ;ysh Bkb gkbDk jzz[dh
dZ;h iKdh j?. fJ;/ ;fjo ftu wzdo r[odtko/, v/o/, fpBk IwhB yohdD
s'A, fwb fwbk e/ pDkJ/ j'J/ jB. fco j'o t/y' ` r[o{ ;fjpkB Bkb ;pzXs
fJfsjk;e fBPkBhnK$t;sK, fJjBK fwZNh ftu fwbk fdZshnK jB. jo
r[odtkok fJZe' fe;w dk. fJZe r[odtkok t/yD s'A pkd j'o t/yD dh b'V
BjhA ofjzdh. feT[Afe ;ko/ jh fJZe' soK d/ pD/ j'J/ jB fuZNk gZEo,
wkopb, s/ p;. T[iV u[Ze/ gzikp B{z pukT[D tk;s/, fgSb/ xb{xkfonK
ftu wko fdZs/ rJ/ B"itkBK d/ gqtko, pZu/ do do dhnK m'jeoK yKd/ oj/,
d[y G'rd/ oj/, xo Ykj fdZs/ rJ/, IwhBK pzio pD rJhnK, eJh G?DK
gkrb j' rJhnK, pj[s ;ko/ f;Zy B"itkB nZi Gh BikfJi sohe/ ekb
e'mVhnK ftu pzd ehs/ j'J/ jB. edh t/fynk gfVQnk j? fe;/ pqjwfrnkBh
dh gbe fGZih j't/. fe;/ d/ eb/i/ B{z y'j gJh j't/, fe;/ B{z oksh BhAd Bk
nkT[Adh j't/. fJj sK p; Xow T[gd/P eo oj/ jB. wzso ikg eo oj/
jB, ehosB dopko iK gkmK dh bVhnK ubk oj/ jB, iK ubhj/ eZN e/
f;ZyK d/ frqj eZND dh wjkB ;/tk eo oj/ jB. pj[s o[M/t/A jB pkfpnK
B{z. gzikp ftu ;zsK d/ tZr N[o/ fcod/ jB, gzikp d[BhnK dk Bzpo fJZe
;okph ;{pk pD u[fenk j?. ;zsK d/ N'b/ fuwN/ Y'behnK b? e/ fgzv fgzv
fco oj/ jB f;ZyK d/ e/; e/tb 10% pkeh ofj rJ/. nZi f;ZyK dhnK
GhVK tvGkr f;zx d/ v/o/ s/, epoK s/, wVhnK s/, wzdoK ftu, nkw
t/yhnK ik ;edhnK jB. j? e'Jh ;zs nfijk i' frnkB yVr okjhA f;Zy
;zrsK B{z ;s wkor, r[ows rkvh okj tZb w'V e/ fbnk ;e/< p/JhwkB
f;Zy bhvoK dhnK eos{sK BzrhnK eo ;e/. gzikp d/, yk;eo f;ZyK d/
nB/e fprV/ ekoi ok; eotk ;e/<

(187)
fJj ;kXrhoh dh d[ekB pj[s ;ko/ ;kXK B/ e[M nfijh ftXh Bkb
ubkJh j? fe j[D e'Jh ;kX bZygsh BjhA fwb/rk, pj[s/ eo'Vgsh ns/ eJh
fJZe nopK gsh ;zs ;kX fwbDr/. ;zrsK s'A fsnkr eotke/, ngD/ nZr/
wkfJnk d/ nzpko eZm/ eo oj/ jB. fgZS/ fij/ fJZe pkp/ B/ (wkou 2000
ftu) pkpk dfJnk f;zx ;[o f;zx (nzfwqs;o) fpXh uzdhJ/ d/ g[Zso dk
ftnkj. ngD/ bkvb/ g[Zso dk nBzd ekoi “g{oB r[owfonkdk nB[;ko”
eofdnK rohph dkt/ ftu f;oc gzdoK eo'V o[fgnk yofunk ;h. i/
ukj[zd/ sK pkpk ih j'o Gh you eo ;ed/ ;B, go T[j r[o{ wjkoki dh
d;h ;kdrh tkbh jZd gko BjhA eoBh ukj[zd/ ;B. XzB pkpk fpXh uzdhJ/,
pVh feogk j? s[jkv/ s/ bSwh d/th dh. e[M fJZe ;zs ih ngD/ Bkb jh
rZvh ftu dohnK ukdoK, s/ c[Zb jko nkfd Bkb jh b? e/ iKd/ jB. ;zrsK
e'b g[Zi e/ u/b/ ;G e[M ;wMk fdzd/ jB. MNgN, rZvhnK ftu'A eY e/
ukdoK ftSk fdshnK iKdhnK jB, fco pkpk ih nr/ edw oyd/ jB.
Bkb b? e/ nKd/ c[ZbK dh toyk Gh pkpk ih s/ j'D bZr iKdh j?. i?eko/
r{zid/ jB Bkjo/ brd/ jB, ;kok ekoi “g{oB G? GktBh ftu, r[owfonkdk
w[skpe” f;o/ uVkfJnk iKdk j?. nkT[ iok r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih s'A gkyzvh
;zsK pko/ g[ZShJ/^
ofjU ;zs jT[ N'fb ;kX pj[ s/o/ fvm/..
;zfBnk;h sg;hnj w[yj[ J/ gzfvs fwm//..
po;[ J/e[ jT[ fcfoT[ feB? Bj[ gouk bk:T[..
ejfsnj ejsh ;[Dh ojs e' y[;h B nk:T[.. (1396)
noE pV/ ;gPN jB fe bzw/ no;/ s'A n;hA wB[Zysk d/ jwdod,
goT[gekoh ;{ow/ ;zs dh Gkb ftu ;K. pV/ v/o/dko, soK soK dhnK wZsK
s/ wfonkdktK tkb/, nB/e goeko d/ G/yK tkb/ ;zs n;ha goy e/ t/y/.
p; fJZe' rZb jo EK T[xV e/ ;kjwD/ nkJh fe ipkBh ebkwh ;ko/ pV/
“whnK fwZm{ ” pDd/ jB, ngDh B/eh d/ g[b pzBd/ jB. nc;'; fe nwbh
ihtB tZb'A y'yb/ ykbh BIo nkJ/. epho ih pVh eokoh u'N eod/ j'J/
cowkT[Ad/ jB^

(188)
ri ;kY/ s? s? X'shnK fsjo/ gkfJfB sr..
rbh fiBQk igwkbhnK b'N/ jfE fBpr..
T[J/ jfo e/ ;zs B nkyhnfj pBkof; e/ mr..
n?;/ ;zs B w'eT[ Gktfj.. vkbk f;T[ g/vk rNektfj..(476)
;kY/ fszB fszB ri dhnK X'shnK (;[zdo p;so) Xow dk fuzB izi{
rZb gkfJnk j'fJnk, rZbK ftu ehwsh wkbk gk bJh, jZEK ftu uwed/
j'J/ b'N/ (rVtk s/ rVtJh) cV bJ/. eh fJ; soQK dk G/y XkoB eo b?D
Bkb e'Jh ;zs pD iKdk j?< T[j gkyzvh jB oZp ih d/ ;/te Xowh g[oy
BjhA jB. G'b/ b'eK B[z{ b[ZN e/ ykD tkb/ mZr jB. nfij/ X'y/pkiK B[z{ w?A
g;zd BjhA eodk. fijV/ fBs fdB b'eK dh feos ewkJh co/p okjhA b[ZN
e/ yk oj/ jB. fJj p/;po/ e/tb o[Zy Bkb'A s'V e/ cb jh BjhA yKd/, ;r'A
;p{s/ o[ZyK B[z{ fBrb oj/ jB. ;fsr[o{ nwodk; ih dk c[owkB ^
fjod? fiB e? egN j? pkjo' ;zs ejkfj..
fsq;Bk w{fb B u{eJh nzfs rJ/ gS[skfj.. (391)
T[Fg
Z o'A Xowh j'D dk Y"Ar eoB tkb/ nzdo'A egN Bkb Go/ b'e ;zs
nytk oj/ jB. fJj fsq;Bk nrBh ftu roe j'J/ b'e, nzs B[{z ftbed/ j'fJ
ihtB dh pkih ;z;ko s'A jko e/ ikDr/. fJZe g[oksB fbykoh GkJh e'fJo
f;zx ngDh g[;se d/ uoB 87 okjhA, tk;BK ftu v[p/ ;zsK pko/ fbyd/ jB^
frqj frqj g'Eh rzqE fbykoh. g{ik Gys GiB Bfj rqkjh.
jfo f;woB fpB ekw ftekoh. ;zs ejkt? fus go Bkjh.
fJjBK gkyzvh ;kXK B/ nkg' ngD/ v/fonK ftu r[opkDh dhnK
g'EhnK iK ;zg{oD r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp fNekJ/ j'J/ jB. r[opkDh nZr/ nkJh
G/Nk g{ik ;koh veko yKd/ jB oZp d/ Bkw Bkb fJjBK dk e'Jh ;o'eko
Bjh. fdB oks ftekoK ftu roe/ j'J/ jB fJj b'e. ngD/ nkg B{z tZv/
;zs nytk oj/ jB, gokJhnK n"osK fgZS/ bzgN j'J/ t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB.
GkJh r[odk; ih rZb B[z{ j'o ;gZPN eo oj/ jB^
;kXB d[jkfJ e? n;kX ngokX eo?,
T[bNhn? ukb ebh ekb Gqw Gkyhn? (532)

(189)
GkJh r[odk; ih ;wMk oj/ jB fe ;ko/ Yzr sohe/ gfjoktk p'b
ukb ;kXK tkbh eo b?Ad/ jB. b'eh T[go/gD B[z{ gSkD BjhA ;ed/. fco
nfijk ;kX pkDk Xkoe/, fJj n;kX (gkgh) e[eow ewKT[d/ jB. ;koh
ukb jh fJjBK dh T[bNh j' rJh j?. tkfo;Pkj pj[s gs/ dh rZb fbydk
j?, id'A oKM/ dk ;kX pDBk fpnkB eodk j?. oKMk fgzvK ftu j'ek (T[uh
nktki) fdzdk x[zw fojk j?. nkT[ tho' ` w/o/ Bkb nkT[, nkgK ceho
pDhJ/. pVk tXhnk ezw j? fJj, p; b'eK d/ xoK ftu o'NhnK wzr e/
ykDhnK, e'Jh ezw Bk eoBk, Bk jh wZMK ukoBhnK Bk T[jBK dk dZ[X u'Dk.
p; ezB gVtk e/ fgzv/ B[z{ ;[nkj wb b?Dh j?, fco ;ko/ ;z;ko dk r[o{ j'D
dk n?bkB eo d/Jhdk j?. Bk fe;/ xo y/s ftu fdjkVh eoBh, Bk y[d
e'Jh ezw eoBk, Bk o[Irko dk e'Jh fceo eoBk. jK ;kfonK s'A g{ik
eokT[Dh tZv/ BkY{ Pkj tKr nkeV ftu jzeko ftu ihtB pshs eo'. fJj
sK ezw jh pVk tXhnk j?. eftsk fJT[A j? ^
j'ek fco/ d/Adk fgzvK ftu ;ko/ nkT[ fe;/ ceho Gh j'tDk i/.
wzr yktDk ezw Bk w{b eoBk, s/ Bk e[M ukoBk Bk e[M u'tDk i/.
iok ezB gVk ;tkj wbDh, r[o{ ;koV/ irs dk j'tDk i/.
Bk fdjkVh Bk e;p o[irko eoBk,
BkY{ Pkj fco w[cs dk j'tDk i/. (tkfoP Pkj)
r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ih ftu fJ; soK dhnK gzeshnK Ppd jB fiE/
;fsr[o{ ih ngD/ e/;K dk u"o eoe/, ;kX{nK ;zsK f;ZyK d/ uoB MkVB
pko/ fbyd/ jB. eh fJj :'r j? fe ;fsr[o{ ih wjkB T[FZuh gdth tkb/,
ngD/ ;/teK d/ uoB ;h; d/ e/;K Bkb ;kc eoB< eh fJ; soK ;zGt Gh
j?< itkp j't/rk BjhA.
e/; ;zfr dk; gr MkoT[ fJj? wB'oE w'o.. (500)
nrbh s[e ftu ;fsr[o{ ih nsh fBwosk dk ;p{s d/ oj/ jB, fe
w?A ngD/ e/;K dk gZyk fsnko eo btK ;zs B{z jtk MZbK. fco ;zs d/ uoB
ngD/ e/;K Bkb ;kc eoK, ;h; uoBk s/ oZyfdnK, ;zs d/ uoBK dh X{Vh
fujo/ s/ wb btK HHH. T[j fejVk wjkB ;zs j? fi; nZr/ gzuw r[od/t

(190)
;h; M[ek oj/ jB< T[j j? ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp, ns/ gqG{ gqwkswk. tke jB^
e/;k ek efo phiBk ;zs uT[o[ Y[bktT[..
;h; fBjkoT[ uoD sfb X{fo w[fy bktT[..(745)
nZr/ ;fsr[o{ ih j'o c[owkB eod/ jB ^ j/ tkfjr[o{ ` w?A s/o/ ;/teK
s'A ;de/ iktK. T[jBK dh ;/tk w?A ngD/ e/;K dk uT[o pDk e/ uoB
MkVfdnK eoK. T[jBk dh uoB X{Vh wZE/ (w[fy) B{z bKtK.
w/o/ okw ` jfo iB e? jT[ pfb ikJh..
e/;K ek efo uto[ Y[bktk uoDX{fV w[fy bkJh.. (749)
j'o t/y' ^ Njb eoT[ s/o/ dk; eh grMkoT[ pkb..
w;se[ ngBk G/N d/T[ r[B ;[BT[ o;kb..(810)
j/ GkJh ` w?A gqwkswk d/ ;/teK dh ;/tk eodk ojK, fsBK d/ uoB
ngD/ e/;K Bkb ;kc eoK. w?A ngDk f;o T[jBK B{z G/Nk ftu uVk fdnK,
fco T[jBK s'A op d/ Bkw dh wfjwk ;[Dk. r[opkDh ftu fJZe' ftuko B{z
eJh eJh Yzr sohfenK Bkb fpnkB ehsk frnk j?, sK fe rZb o'ue Gh
pDh oj/, jo fJZe d/ ;wM r'uoh Gh oj/.
fJ;/ soK goT[gekoh ;\Phns oZph B{o irs skoe ;fsr[o{
;fjpkB B{z nDfrDs YzrK Bkb wkD fdZsk frnk j?. T[; ftu'A e[M
tzBrhnK r[opkDh ftu'A jkio jB ^
r[o dksk, r[o[ fjt? xo[, r[o[ dhge, fsj b'fJ.. (137)
r[o{ e[zih gkj{ fBtb[ wB[ e'mk sB[ Sfs..
BkBe r[o fpB[ wB ek ske B T[xV? nto[ B e{i z h jfE.. (1237)
r[o p'fjE sko/ Gtgkfo.. r[o ;/tk iw s/ S[Nekfo.. (864)
r[o{ r'fpzd, r'fpzd[ r[o{ j?, BkBe G/d[ Bk GkJh.. (442)
r[o{ gT[Vh, p/Vh r[o{, r[o{ s[bjk, jfo BkT[..
r[o[ ;o[ ;kro[ p'fjE', r[o{ shoE[ dohnkT[.. (17)
r[o dohnkT[ ;dk ib[ fBowb[ ,fwfbnk d[owfs w?b jo?.. (1329)
r[od/t shoE[, nzfwqs[ ;'t
q o, r[o frnkB[ wiB[ ngozgok.. (250)
r[o ;kro[ nzfwqs;o[ i' fJS/ i' cb[ gkJ/.. (1012)

(191)
j'o ft;Eko BK fdzfdnK ;w/ND dh e'fPP eo fojk jK. ;fsr[o{ ih
B{z jh ;kiB, fwZso, fgnkok, ;yk pzXg, gsh, fgsk, Gok, o[y, gkoiks,
ekwX/B, gko;, gops, ;{oi, uzdowk nkfd nB/e ftP/PDk d[nkok
tfvnkJh fdZsh rJh j?. fJ;/ soQK pj[shnK EktK s/ ;zs ;kX Ppd Gh
;fsr[o[ ih bJh jh tofsnk frnk j?. r[o{ B{z “iB” Gh nkfynk j?,
tzBrh t/y' ^
iBw woD d[jj{ wfj Bkjh “iB” goT[gekoh nkJ/.. (749)
XzB[ XzB[ XzB[ “iB[” nkfJnk.. fi;[ gq;kfd ;G[ irs[ sokfJnk..
“iB” nktB ek fJj? ;[nkT[.. “iB” e/ ;zfr fufs nkt? BkT[..
“nkg” w[es[, w[es[ eo? ;z;ko[..
BkBe fs;[ “iB” eT[ ;dk Bw;eko[.. (295)
;koh ftuko dk f;ZNk fJj fe f;Zy tk;s/, e/tb ;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB
f;o dk ski jB. fjod/ o{gh sys d/ pkdPkj jB, pkeh ;ko/ f;ZyK d/
Gok G?DK jB. ;zs ;kX e'Jh ftP/P j;sh fJ; gzE ftu ;theko BjhA
ehsh rJh. id'A ;kok gzE pqkpo j?, fco feT[ e'Jh T{uk j'D dk gkg eo/<
feT[A ngD/ GoktK G?DK s'A g?ohA jZE b[nkt/< feT[A ngDh g{ik eokt/<
gktB r[opkDh g?Ash wjKg[oyK B/ T[ukoD ehsh j?, fsBK B{z pko pko
Bw;eko j?. T[j fejVk ;kX j? fi; B/ pkDh T[ukoB ehsh j?< T[j Gh
wjkB ;fsr[o{ ;kX jh j?. gktB tke jB ^
T[E? nzfwqs tzvhn? ;[yhnk jfo eoD/..
iw e? gzfE B gkJhnfj fcfo Bkjh woD/..
fi; B' nkfJnk gq/w o; fs;? jh ioD/..
“pkDh T[u ofj ;kX iB” nfwT[ ubfj MoD/..
g/fy do;B[ BkBe[ ihftnk wB nzdfo XoD/.. (320)
fJZe tyok tor (;kX ;zs tor) f;ZyK ftu g?dk j' e/ ysoBke
jZd sZe gqc{Zbs j' u[Zfenk j?. i' ;fsr[o{ dh pokpoh eoB dk gkg eow
eodk gqsZy fd; fojk j?. fJjBK B[z{ ;fsr[o{ dh jo fJZe wfonkdk,
ftZ;o u[Zeh j?, nkg' ngDh v/o/dkoh dh nbZr nbZr wfonkdk j?.

(192)
tkfjr[o{ ih eh cfsj dk G'r gk fdZsk frnk j?, r'v/ frZN/ g{iD dh fgos
;[o[ eotk fdZsh rJh j?. i/ ;zrsK B{z r[opkDh dk frnkB t;hj g?wkB/ s/
BK fdZsk frnk sK pj[s B[e;kB j' uZ[fenk j't/rk. fi; dh g{osh j'Dh Bk
w[wfeB j' ikt/rh. fezBk uzrk j't/ fJj ;ko/ gqukoe (;kX bkDk) e/tb
f;Zy pDe/ r[o{ dh pkDh ns/ fJfsjk; dk gquko eoB. nkg' ngD/ v/fonK
ftub/ gfjbK j' r[io/ pkfpnK dhnK eEk ejkDhnK, gkT[D s'A ngD/ nkg
B{z toi b?D. j? e'Jh gzE fgnko tkbk nkr{, i' fJ; fGnkBe dPk sZe
ftrV/ jkbks B{z ;[XkoB tk;s/, ;koEe jzGbk wko/< ;fsr[o{ pj[Vh
eoB.
;fseko :'r r[of;Zy (;uyzvtk;h) ;qH Grs f;zx B/ fJZe pVh
;[zdo eftsk fbyh ;h, i' ;zs f;gkjh gou/ ftu Sgh ;h. T[; eftsk B{z
w[V XzBtkd ;fjs Skg e/ ;kXK ;zsK dhnK tzBrhnK, fe;wK f;Zy ;wki
;Bw[Zy oZy fojk jK ^
;zsK dhnK tzBrhnK
nkj ;zs B/ eb/oK tkb/, T[j ;zs B/ Mzv/oK tkb/
nkj ;zs B/ i"Vk tkb/, T[j ;zs B/ w'VK tkb/
fJe ;zs itdh tkb/, d{i/ ;zs xtdh tkb/
fJe ;zs B/ BkBe;ohJ/, d{i/ ;zs B/ nzp;ohJ/
fJe ;zs B/ i'r/ tkb/, n"j ;zs B/ w'r/ tkb/
fJe ;zs B/ i"jbK tkb/, d{i/ ;zs B/ X"jbK tkb/
fJe ;zs B/ p'jVK tkb/, fJe ;zs B/ M"jVK tkb/
fJe ;zs B/ d[XkXkoh, d{i/ ;zs B/ fJfSnk Xkoh
fJe ;zs B/ shoK tkb/, T[j ;zs B/ ghoK tkb/
pkrK tkb/, fJj ukj tkb/, Skj tkb/, wyDh tkb/, :wDh tkb/,
wB;{oK tkb/, j{oK tkb/, fJj pkpk pB yzv J/, n"j pkpk u"yzvh J/
fJj ;zs ;oktK tkb/, T{B/ tkb/, wBktK tkb/, u{B/ tkb/
fJe pkp/ f;nkV tkb/, d{i/ pkp/ wBtkV tkb/
fJe ;zs B/ ezpbh tkb/, d{i/ ;zs B/ ;zrbh tkb/,

(193)
izvK tkb/, MzvK tkb/, bhoK tkb/, shoK tkb/, g"Dkjkoh, d[XkXkoh,
X{DhnK tkb/, gohnK tkb/, iohnK tkb/, wzsoK tkb/, izsoK tkb/, fJe
pkp/ jE j"bk eod/, fJe pkp/ B/ MkVk eod/,
fJe pkp/ B/ w[zv/ fdzd/, bkbK tkb/, ikbK tkb/, w"shnK tkb/,
i'shnK tkb/, e;'fNnK tkb/, M'fNnK tkb/, vzv/ tkb/, czv/ tkb/, nykV/ tkb/,
p[bko/ tkb/, ekoK tkb/, o'v/ tkb/, e'v/ tkb/. fJe ;zs fBozekoh B/, n;b'
T[j BoeXkoh B/. sgVh tkb/ SgVh tkb/, okXk ;[nkwh, nzsoikwh,
ejkoK tkb/, gjkVK tkb/, joy'tkbhJ/, ;[oy'tkbhJ/, wkbk tkb/, itkbk
tkb/, fezroh tkb/, f;zroh tkb/, ekbK tkb/, SkbK tkb/, fwnkDh tkb/,
bfbnkDh tkb/, NkNK tkb/, SKNk tkb/, c{eK tkb/, Xkr/ eod/, ikr/ eod/
e'Jh ;zs feq;aB Grs j?. e'Jh ;zs okw Grs j?
e'Jh ;zs G{sB/ eY/, e'Jh ;zs gq/s B Sv/
e'Jh ;zs to ;ko/ d/t/, e'Jh gsh^G{sB/ t; eo d/t/
e'Jh ;zs fBoh c{e jh wko/, e'Jh Bkb gkm eokt/
e'Jh foXhnK f;XhnK d/t/, eJh ;kX{ B/ bkT[Ad/ N/t/
eJh ezBK ftu wzso fdzd/, ezBK wbk e[oZo eo/d/A
nyo' fJe frnkB Bk nkt/, fco th g{oB ;zs ejkt/
eJh op Bz{ ezB/ cV b?Ad/, w{zj'A wzvhnK w[okdK d/Ad/
to^;okg uZeoK ftu gk e/, nfBQnK B{z o;sk BtK fdyk e/
nB/e soQK d/ Bkw igk e/, ubhj/ ;zgN gkm eok e/
izso wzso, szsoK d/ Gow ’u gk e/, f;yh B{z ob rv eotk e/,
nfBnK s'A g{ik eot e/, wo:kdk dhnK tzvhnK gk e/
M'b u[eK d/ nZv/ pDk e/, fBZih goG{sK B{z n;wkB uVk e/
op s'A f;Zyh f;de v[bk e/, nkgDh g{ik dk vzek tik e/
nKjd/ f;Zyh ofjD bJhA d/Dh, fJe Ekt/A fJj pfjD BjhA d/Dh
nB/e wsK d/ ;zs B/ ;ko/, v/o/ T[u/ fBnko/ fBnko/
op d/ Bkw s/ wzrD ;ko/, mZrh ’u c;d/ fe;ws wko/
jZE s'A ;o'A iwkT[Ad/ ;ko/, XB d/ j[zd/ tko/ fBnko/

(194)
ebi[rh ;zsK d/ d/y' eko/, nkyD f;Zyh ofjD BjhA d/Dh
i' e'Jh f;Zy fJjBK B{z N'e/, nfrT[A g?Ad/ n"y/ j' e/
;[ywBh ftu'A gVQ ;[DkT[Ad/, ‘;zs’ fBzfdnk s'A r[o{ jNkT[Ad/
p[X{nK B{z Gow ikb ’u gkT[Ad/, gkyzv tkd dh g{i eokT[Ad/
r[o{ d/ Bkw s'A ;aow Bk eod/, ‘;[ywBh’ tos e/ mZrh eod/
g[m/ noE pkDh d/ eo e/, nkyD f;yh ofjD BjhA d/Dh
;u/ o;s/ g?D BjhA d/Dh.

[[[[

(195)
fjod? egN[ w[fy frnkBh
yk; B'N ^ r[o{ xo Bkb ;pzXs jo t;s{ w//o/ bJh yk; nfjwhns
oZydh j?. go r[o{ xoK B{z e{V gquko dk e/Ado pDB s'A o'eD bJh fe;/ Gh
jZd sZe ikD bJh fsnko jK. pj[s gfjbK fJZe S'Nh g[;se PqL wB'jo
f;zx “wkoe'” B/ fbyh ;h, “fuZmhnK fby ;fsr[o tZb gkJhnK”. fJ;
okjhA ftdtkB b/ye B/ f;ZyK ftu nkJh froktN B{z, ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
nZr/, iIpksh oT[A ftu g/P ehsk ;h. fJ; feskp dh G{fwek ftu fJj
nZyo Gh nzfes ;B^ “fJj fuZmhnK w/ok wB goukt/ dk ;kXB BjhA jB,
w/o/ fdb dk nD tfrnk y{B j?. w/o/ dod ekoB nzdo'A T[FZm/ s{ckB d/,
rb/ ftu nNe/ jT[e/ jB`` w/o/ nzdo dk dod, nZyK d/ okjhA tfj ikDk
ukj[zdk j?, p; fJj jB w/ohnK nZyK ftub/, nDtr/ nZEo{ ``` pj[s ;wK
gfjbK, wjkB eth fJepkb B/ fbfynk ;h^ “;ko/ ijK ;/ nZSk fjzd';sK
jwkok”HHH. T[jh fJepkb fJj fbyD bJh id'A wip{o j'fJnk sK e"D
ikD/ fe T[;d/ wB s/ fezBk Gko ;h< T[;B/ y{B d/ jzM{ e/ofdnK id'A fJj
fbfynk^
“w[Zds/A r[ioh fJsBh, ozi' rw ;fjs/ j{J/.
np s'A Pow ;h nksh j?, fJ; tsB e' tsB efjs/ j{J/”.
pZ;` fJ;/ soQK w/oh wkBf;e dPk j?. nkU rZb B{z nZr/ N'ohJ/.
rZb P[o{ eo oj/ jK “nekb sys ;kfjp” s'A. gqwkswk d/ nB/e
BktK dh ebgBk ehsh rJh j?. d[Bhnk d/ Xow w[yhnK B/, nkg' nkgDh
;j{bs bJh, oZp d/ feosw Bkw ns/ ftP/Psk tkb/ Bkw oZy bJ/. Gkt
feos t/y e/ ns/ r[D t/ye/. go oZp dk T[AM e'Jh Bkw BjhA j?. f;ZyK B/
nkgDh Io{os tk;s/ tkfjr[o{, ;fsBkw ns/ nekb g[oy Bkw oZy fbnk.
(196)
oZp fBoneko j?, iBw BjhA b?Adk, edh ;oho BjhA Xkodk. fco eh T[j
“nekb sys” s/ nk e/ edh fpokiwkB j[zdk j?< eh ;koh ekfJBks dk
wkbe oZp, fJZE/ p?m e/ f;qPNh B{z ubkT[Adk j?< id'A fe fJ;/ Xosh T[FZgo
ftuoB tkb/ b'e, oZp B{z nkg' nkgD/ Xow n;EkBK ftu p?mk j'D dk
n?bkB eo oj/ jB. X[o eh pkDh sys pko/ e[ZM j'o dZ; gk ojh j?”^
nkg/ sys[ oukfJT[B[ nkek; gskbk..
j[ew/ Xosh ;kihnB ;uh XowPkbk”.. (785)
nkekP s'A b? e/ gkskb sZe T[;/ ekdo dk wjkB sys j?. fJj ;koh
Xosh T[;dh ;kih, ;Zuh XowPkbk j?. nZr/ ;fsr[o{ ih dZ; oj/ jB, T[j
sys dk wkbe pkdPkj fej' fijk j?<
okiB wfj s{z okik ejhnfj G{wB wfj G{wk..
mke[o wfj s/oh me[okJh e'wB f;fo e'wk.. (507)
j'o t/y'^ tvk s/ok dopko[ ;uk s[X[ sys[..
f;fo ;kjk gkfs;kj[ fBjub[ uT[[o[ Ss[..HHHH
;jh s/ok c[owkB[ feB? B c/ohn?..
ekoD eoD eohw e[dofs s/ohn?.. (964)
d[Bhnk ftu BktK EktK dk e'Jh nzs BjhA, fJB;kBK d/ Bkw jh
nDfrDs jB. jo e'Jh nkgD/ pZu/ dk Bkw oZyD bZfrnk, uzr/ fij/ Bkw
dh u'D eodk j?. eh uzr/ BktK tkb/ fJB;kB, r[DK eoe/ B/e g[oy pD
iKd/ jB< r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih s'A b? e/ d;w gkfsPkj sZe, T[jBK tZb'A i'
roK (Bro) t;kJ/ rJ/, T[jBK dk Bkw eoD goGktPkbh oZfynk frnk.
t?;/ T[j e[M ;w/A pkd, nkw fgzvK tor/ fgzv, nkw ;o'toK tor/ ;o'to,
nkw wB[ZyK tor/ wB[Zy pD rJ/. fw;kb bJh t/y'^ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih
B/ pVh d{o nzd/Ph Bkb eoskog[o (gkfe;skB) t;kfJnk, eh T[j eosko,
oZp dk fgzv ;h$ j?< eh gqwkswk fJZe' fgzv ftu t;dk j?< fJ; s'A pknd
r'fJzdtkb shi/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ t;kfJnk. eh ;uw[Zu T[j n;EkB r'fpzd
(oZp) dk fBtk; j?< sh;o/ gksPkj ih s'A nkfrnk gk e/, r[o{ okwdk; ih
B/ “uZe okw dk;” t;kT[Dk P[o{ ehsk. fJZE/ tkgohnK nB/e fJfsjk;e

(197)
xNBktK ekoB, fJ; ;EkB dh nfjwhns pj[s tX rJh. ;wK gk e/
fJ; dk Bkw “;[Xk;o” Gh gquZbs j'fJnk. nzs ftu nZi eZb ‘nzfwqs;o’
eoe/ ikfDnk iKdk j?. fJj nzfwqs;o Pfjo eh ;uw[Zu “nzfwqs dk e[zv”
j?< eh fJZE/ t;D tkb/ b'e (ekPh d/ gKfvnK tKr) p[okJhnK s'A gke jB<
fJZE/ dzr/, esb, vke/, ftGuko, foPts, rzdrh nkfde BjhA j?< fJZE'A d/
t;Bhe “nwo” j' rJ/ jB, nzfwqs;o Pfjo ftu fBtk; oZyD eoe/<
ub' nzfwqs;o ;o'to tZb nkT[Ad/ jB. eh fJ;dk ib ;uw[Zu “nzfwqs”
pD frnk j?< fJZE/ gkDh ghD tkb/ dh iK fJPBkB eoB tkb/ dh edh w"s
BjhA nkT[Adh< fJZE'A d/ ny"sh ;/tkdko, u"th xzN/ goeowk ftu jh
r[ikoB tkb/, n"r[DK s'A ofjs gke dkwB j' rJ/ jB< nzfwqs (yzv/ dh
gkj[b) SeD tkb/ ;ko/ f;Zy nwo j' rJ/, fco T[jBK B{z edh w"s BjhA
nkT[Adh< ykb;k bep d/ XkoBh, ;uw[Zu ykb;k (fwbktN s'A ofjs ns/
f;ZX/ gow/Po Bkb ;pzXs) pD rJ/ jB< nkgD/ BktK d/ Bkb f;zx Ppd
bkT[D tkb/ ;ko/ P/oK tor/ pjkdo pD rJ/ jB, fe ni/ Gh frZdV
(ekfJo) jh jB< ehosg[o t;D tkfbnK pko/ eh ftuko j?< “nBzdg[o
;kfjp” nBzd dh g[oh pD u[Zeh j?, fe ni/ pDBh pkeh j?< fJZE'A d/
t;BheK d/ ihtB ubD ftu pkeh ;z;koh b'eK Bkb'A, fezBk e[ coe j?<
fJ;/ nzfwqs;o Pfjo ftu gkDh dhnK b'VK g{ohnK eoB fjZs, eZ[M ;o'to
pDkJ/ rJ/ ;B. T[jBK d/ Bkw pj[s ;[zdo jB^ okw;o, ftt/e;o,
eT[b;o, ;zs'y;o. w[Zy ;q'to “nzfwqs;o” d/ feBko/, fi; EK fJZe
g[oksB ;w/A s'A p/oh dk o[Zy w"i{d j?. fJ; EK ;fsr[o[{ noiB ;kfjp
fpokiwkB j' e/, ;/tk eodhnK ;zrsK dh nrtkJh efonk ed/ ;B. fJ;
EK B{z “nm;m shoE” efjzd/ jB, s/ p/oh B{z “d[y GziBh”. j[D fJjBK
;ko/ ;q'toK d/ BktK d/ e/tb nZyoh noE eoe/ t/y'. eh fJj ;'qto s/ p/oh
nkgD/ BktK tkbh ftP/Psk oZyd/ jB< eh r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftu “iE/dko ”
ih fJjBK ;q'toK s/ o[ZyK dh g{ik B{z ikfJI mfjok ;eDr/<
nkU j[D n;b w[Zd/ tZb gosd/ jKl ;ko/ g[oksB rqzEK ftu fJ;
fJwkos B{z “nekb p[zrk” eoe/ fbfynk fwbdk j?. “Pqh r[o{ jfor'fpzd

(198)
;kfjp B/ ;zws 1665 ftu Pqh nzfwqs;o jfowzdo d/ ;kjwD/, fJZe T[FZuk
oki f;zxk;B (Pkjh sys) fsnko eoe/ T[;dk BkT[A “nekb p[zrk”
oZfynk. fi; EK ;t/o/ ns/ ;zR B{z dhtkB brk e/, ;zrsK B{z fBjkb eod/
;B. nekb p[zrk gzEe iZE/pzdh dk e/Ado j?. gzE fJZE/ w[ZY s'A r[ows/
;'Xdk nkfJnk j?. fJj r[odtkok f;ZyK dk gfjbk sys j?. nBzdg[o
ftu T[j ;EkB fiZE/ p?m e/ dPw/P ih B/ B"t/A ;fsr[o{ dk ;z;eko ehsk.
gNB/ nkfd r[odtkfonK ftu Gh fJ; BkT[A d/ p[zr/ jB. (wjkB e'P gzBk
36) sys Bkw tkb/ j'o Gh eJh r[odtko/ jB, yk; eo ehosg[o ns/
dwdw/ ftu, ;fsr[o{ ih d/ p?mD dh u"AehA iK EK. (wjkB e'P gzBk 570)
;fseko Bkb fJ;dk Bkw nZi nekb sys gquZbs j?, go ;kv/ ny"sh
iE/dko nekb sys Bkw ekoB, i'o P'o Bkb fJj gqukoh ik oj/ jB fe
fJjh “nekb g[oy” dk sys j?. eh fBozeko tkfjr[o{ fJZE/ p?m e/
pqfjwzv B{z ubkT[Adk j?< ni'Bh oZp, fe; o{g ftu fJZE/ nkT[Adk j?< fejVh
p'bh p'bdk j?< T[;dh ezw eoB dh ftXh eh j?< fJZE/ p?mk ehjB/ t/fynk
j?< iE/dko ih dZ;Dr/< T[; wjkB sys d/ wkbe, tkfjr[o{ dh n;hw
Pesh pko/ r[opkDh dk gktB c[owkB j?^
vog? Xofs nkek; Bysqk f;fo T{gfo nwo[ eokok..
gT[D[ gkDh p?;zso[ vog?, vog? fJzdq[ ftukok.. (998)
ns/ ^
“gT[D T[gkfJ Xoh ;G Xosh ib nrBh ek pzX[ ehnk..
nzXb
[ / djf;fo w[v
{z [ eNkfJnk oktD wkfo fenk tvk GfJnk..(350)
gfjbK eJh tko Bkdo Pkj, nfjwdPkj npdkbh, ieohnk ykB,
who wzB{ s/ bygs okJ/ tZb'A fJjBK EktK dh p/j[owsh ehsh rJh. eh fJj
pd fwiki gkgh b'e, nekb g[oy Bkb'A tZX skesto ;B< fijBK oZp d/
xo dh p/j[owsh ehsh<
;zB 1984 ftu Gkosh jkewK tZb'A G/ihnK c"ih XkVK B/ fJ; gktB
n;EkB dk p/ofjwh Bkb ngwkB ehsk. N?AeK s'gK Bkb “nekb sys”
B{z Y/oh eo fdZsk frnk. fJ;dk wsbp, fe Gkosh c"i oZp (nekb) Bkb'A

(199)
tZX Pesh oZydh j?, ns/ T[;d/ oki dopko (nekb sys) B{z fwZNh ftu
fwbk ;edh j?. sd'A nekb g[oy fJsBk fBskDk j' frnk ;h fe nkgDk
“xo^f;zxk;B” Y?Ajdk ;Vdk t/y e/, d[PwD B{z ehs/ dh ;Ik Bk d/
;fenk< T[; tes dk “iE/dko’ f;zx ;kfjp” ekfJoK tKr ikB puk e/
d"V frnk. id'A d/P dh gqXkB wzsoh dopko ;kfjp dh popkdh t/yD
nkJh. fco d/P dk okPNogsh wrowZS d/ jzM{ e/oB nkfJnk. wbp/ dk
Y/o pD u[Ze/ nekb sys dk “f;zx ;kfjp” frnkBh feogkb f;zx,
jkewK nZr/ frVrVkT[Ad/ j'J/ pko pko nkyh ik fojk ;h^ “phph ih
(fJzdok rKXh) pj[s gkg j' frnk, s[jkv/ c"ihnK fJZE/ pkjo p{N BjhA
T[sko/. nzdo phVhnK f;roNK ghAd/ oj/, j[D wfonkdk S/sh pjkb
eotkT[HHHHHH”. okPNogsh ih` (i?b f;zx) fJjBK c"ihnK B/ ;q'to ftu'A
wZShnK cV e/ yk bJhnK, tZvk nBoE j' frnk. fJj nzdo Pokp Gh
ghAd/ oj/. feogk eoe/ ,j[D S/sh d/Dh wfonkdk (gkm g{ik ehosB) ukb{
eotk fdUHHHHHH. fJZE/ Ykj/ rJ/ efjo pko/ tfjPh ekfonK pko/, pZu/,
p[ZY/, phphnK s/ ehs/ rJ/ wB[ZysK s'A fro/ j'J/ ekfonK pko/ fJZe nZyo Gh
ipkB s/ Bk fbnk ;e/. fJjh ;B Bk nekb sys s/ ;[P'Gs, oZp dh rZdh
s/ fpokiwkB “f;zx ;kfjp” frnkBh feogkb f;zx ih< nZi d/ iE/dko
sK T[; s'A d' edw nZr/ fBeb/ jh gqshs j' oj/ jB.
eZ[b ekfJBks B{z ouD tkbk, gkbD tkbk, ykswk eoB tkbk, fJZe'
fJZe tkfjd bkPohe gqw/Po j?, T[;dh Pesh n;hw j?. c[owkB j?^
nkg/ ;u ehnk efo i'fV.. nzvi c'fV i'fV ftS'fV..
Xofs nkek;[ ehJ/ p?;D eT[ EkT[.. okfs fdBzs ehJ/ GT[ GkT[..(839)
j/ feogkb{ “ iE/dko” ih` oZp ih dk sys fJZe' j'fJnk eodk j?,
gzi ;Zs BjhA. s[jkv/ nkb/ d[nkb/ j'o uko sys Gh T[;/ “nekb” ih d/
jB< T[jBK sysK s/ rZdhnK wZbh p?m/ Gh T[;/ nekb g[oy d/ Ekg/ j'J/
“f;zx ;kfjp” jB< i' gkyzv toskok r[opkDh s'A T[bN fJjBK EktK s/
g;fonk j'fJnk j?, fco T[j fej' fijk gkyzvh gqwkswk j?< dZ; ;e'r/<
j[ewBkfwnK pko/ Sgh g[;se, “j[ewBkw/ nkd/P ;zd/P” ;zgkde ;qL o{g

(200)
f;zx d/ gzBk 174 j[ewBkwk BzL 103, t/dKsh ihU s[jkvk ikoh ehsk
j'fJnk j?, i' fwsh 29H03H2000 B{z Pqh nekb sys ;kfjp tZb'A “gzE
gqtkfDs gzi f;zx ;kfjpkB ” tZb'A ikoh ehsk frnk T[; dh fbys fJ;
soQK j?L^ (1) ibdh s'A ibdh r[ows ;'u tkb/ wkfjoK dh ew/Nh pDk e/,
sys ;kfjpkB d/ iE/dko ns/ w[Zy rqzEh ;kfjpkB d/ ;/tk fB:w, fB:[esh
bJh :'rsktK, T[jBK dk ekoi y/so, ekoi ftXh, nfXeko ns/
fIzw/tkohnK, ;/tk w[esh nkfd d/ fB:w pDkJ/ ikD. HHHHHHHHH Pqh nekb
sys ;kfjp s'A j[ewBkwk ikoh eoB dh ftXh, ftXkB ;[fBPfus ehsk
ikt/. (2) r[od[nkok n?eN B{z pfDnK g"Dh ;dh j' u[Zeh j?, gzEe b'VK
tk;s/ fJ; ftu ;'X ehsh ikt/. (3) r[od[nkok gqpzX B{z f;nk;s dh
e[Nbsk d/ gqGkt s'A gke oZyD B{z :ehBh pDkfJnk ikt/.” HHHHHHH
gsk BjhA fe; fe;w dh n;hw skes dk wkbe j? nekb g[oy
T[; dh rZdh s/ fGqPN oki;h b'eK tZb'A fpmkfJnk iE/dko. T[go tofDs
“j[ewBkwk” ikoh j'J/ B{z gzi ;kb j' u[Ze/ jB, oZp dk j[ew (f;zx ;kfjp
i' oZp ih dh rZdh s/ ;[GkfJwkB jB) nkgD/ jh xo d/ w?Apo, ;q'wDh
ew/Nh, j?Zv rqzEh, frnkBh g{oB f;zx nkfd wzBD s'A g{oh soQK Bkpo jB.
gzikp'A pkjob/, d't/A sysK d/ iE/dko, nekb sys tZb'A ;dk jh pkrh
jB. ;q'wDh ew/Nh s'A iZE/dko g[ZS fojk j? fe w/o/ nfXeko, ftZfdne
:'rsk bkT[D jNkT[D dk sohek, j[ewBkwk ikoh eoB dk Yzr, ftdtkBK
dh ;bkj Bkb fsnko ehsk ikt/. ;q'wDh ew/Nh d/ nfXekoh ns/ Xow s/
ekpi j' u[Ze/ fGqPN b'e fgSb/ gzi ;kb s'A fJ; j[ew B{z wzBD s'A fJBekoh
jB. “iE/dko” dh fJZis feZE/ ofj rJh< nekb sys tZb'A 1945 ftu
ikoh ehsk j[ewBkwk (f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk) nDfrDs v/o/dko wzBD s'A
fJBekoh jB, y[d dopko ;kfjp ftu ns/ T[;dhnK gqeowk ftu fJj
“j[ewBkwk” BjhA wzfBnk ik fojk. fco fejV/ sys s/ fejV/ iE/dko dh
v"Avh fgZNh ik ojh j?< j[D sK nekb sys ns/ ;q'wDh ew/Nh, ;w/s
dopko ;kfjp nkfd r[odtkfonK d/, e[ZM oki;h b'eK dh ieV ftu j?
fit/A ukj[D tos b?D. T[gobk fposKs pj[s jh d[yh wB Bkb fbfynk

(201)
j?. gzEe dod oZyD tkb/ r[of;Zy', gktB Xow n;EkBK dh d[otos'A
o'e'. ftdtkBK B{z ;BwkB d/Dk P[o{ eo', S/eD d/ j[ewBkw/ tkg; bU.
nkwhB
! fjod? egN[ w[fy frnkBh.. M{m/ ejk fpb'tf; gkBh.. (656)
Xosh T[gfo e'N rV e/sh rJh tikfJ..
! i' n;wkfB wktBh fsB Bfe BEK gkfJ.. (595)
nZieZbQ sK fJj nekbg[oy dh rZdh s/ ;[GkfJwkB wjK;aesh;akbh
“f;zx ;kfjp” f;Zy e"w B[z nkgD/ ekfonK Bkb ngwkBs eotk oj/ jB.
d/; ftd/P ftu fGq;aN sohfenK Bkb p/nzs g?;k fJeZmk eo uZ[e/ jB.
fJj ;w[u/ gzE d/ ;KM/ B[wkfJzd/ Bk j' e/ fJZe XV/ d/, iK fJZe ftnesh d/
, tckdko jB. gzE dh uV dh ebk eoB tk;s/ Bk fJjBK e'b ftZfdnk
s/ frnkB j? BK ;woZEk s/ ;kXB jB. fJ; goEkJ/ GkJh r[odk; ih pVh
;z[do ;/X pyP oj/ jB ^
pkpkD/ xfo ukb j? r[ow[fy rkvh rj[ fBpkjh..
fJZe d'jh Ne;kb fJZe, e[spk sys[ ;uk dorkjh..
r[ow[fy ;[y cb[ dkfd fJbkjh.. gT[Vh^26^31

[[[[

(202)
r[of;yK eh jfo X{fV d/jHHHH
irs efbnkD fjs, ;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB ih B/ gktB pkDh dh ouBk
eftsk d/ nB/e ozrK, tzBrhnK okjhA ehsh j?. eftsk ftu ebgDk
T[vkohnK, iIpksh tbtb/, nbzeko, T[dkjoDK nkfd dh tkose Bkb'A
tX/o/ y[ZbQ j'fJnk eodh j?. i' ekft T[vkohnK eftsk ftu j[zdhnK jB,
T[jBK d/ e/tb nyohA noE BjhA ehs/ ik ;ed/. eftsk ftu nkyhnK
nfs eEBhnK ƒ Gh, ;BwkB dh fBrkj Bkb d/yD dh otkfJs j?.
gkfsPkj ih B/ p/P[wko sohe/ tose/, r[opkDh ƒ o"ue Gh pDkfJnk j?,
:kd eoB:'r Gh, ns/ f;Zfynk dkfJe Gh. n;hA nkw wB[Zy, fBZs fdB
nkgDh p'bukb ftu, nbzekoK, T[dkjoDK dh y[ZbQh tos'A eod/ jK. GkJh
ekjB f;zx ih BkGk wjkB e'P d/ gzBk 86 s/, nbzekoK pko/ fJ; soQK
fbyd/ jB^ “;zfrnk^rfjDk, i/to, G{yD (nbzeko fwfb E?bh j'Jh j?
XBkL wL õ) Ppd ns/ noE d/ toBD eoB dh T[j ohs, i' ekt: dh
P'Gk tXkt/. nbzeko nBzs jB, go w[Zy d' jB^Ppd nbzeko, i' PpdK
ƒ G{fPs eoB, i?;/ fe nB[gqk; nkfd. noE nbzeko, i' noEK ƒ ;'Gk
d/D, i?;/ fe T[gwk o{ge nkfd. i/ Ppd ns/ noE nbzeko d't/A fJZe'
EKt/A gkJ/ ikD, sd T[G:kbzeko ;zfr:k j[zdh j?. GkJh ekjB f;zx ih fJ;/
rqzE d/ gzBk 10 s/ fbyd/ jB^ “T[dkjoD^ ;zfr:k^fdqPNks, fw;kb,
Biho”.
nkT[ j[D r[opkDh ftu'A fdqPNKs t/yhJ/` eh f;ZX/ sohe/ nZyohA
noE eoe/, fe;/ ;koEe Bshi/ s/ g[Zfink ik ;e/rk < xZN wkBf;e gZXo
tkfbnK ƒ sK ;kXkoD fijh eftsk Gh ;wM BjhA nkT[Adh, r[opkDh torh
v{zxh ftuko fet/A wB GKv/ ftu gt/rh <

(203)
“;fsr[o{ nkr? ;h;[ G/N d/T[, i/ ;fsr[o{ ;ku/ Gkt?.
nkg/ dfJnk eoj[ gqG[ dks/ BkBe nzfe ;wkt?]” (1114)
T[go'es Ppd ftu, ;h; G/N uVQkT[D dk j[ew j?, go f;Zy
nytkD tkfbnK ngDk ;h; eZNe/ r[o{ nZr/ G/N ehsk< fJE/ noE j't/rk,
nkgDk nkgk r[o{ j[ewK w[skpe ubkT[Dk. nZr/ j'o t/y'^
w?A ekwfD w/ok ezs[ eosko[] i/jk eokJ/ s/jk eoh ;hrko[] (1128)
fJ; gzesh ftu ;fsr[o{ nkgD/ nkg ƒ n"os j'Dk fby oj/ jB.
s/ nky oj/ jB, w?A n"os, (gsBh) gqw/;o gsh ƒ ohMkT[D tk;s/, T[; d/
wB GkT[Adk ;hArko eo ojh jK. go ;fsr[o{ ih sK g[oy ;B, n"os
BjhA. efjD s'A w[okd fe n;zyK nfij/ gowkD r[opkDh ftu'A gqkgs j'
iKd/ jB. nkT[ j[D “uoBX{Vh” pko/ ftuko eohJ/. uoB X{Vh fBwosk
gqrN eoB dk e/tb fJZe Yzr j?. nyohA noEK Bkb rbs noE j'Dr/.
“uoBX{Vh iK ;kX eh X{V” dk p/Etk gquko nkg{z pD/ ;zsK B/ ehsk j?.
f;ZX/ iK nf;ZX/ Yzr sohe/ ftu, T[j nkgD/ nkg ƒ f;Zy ;zrsK Bkb'A T{u/,
s/ bZrGr ;fsr[o{ ih d/ pqkpo j'D dk e[eow eo oj/ jB. T[jBK B/
;zrsK ƒ frnkB BjhA d/Dk, feT[Afe fJj t;s{ (frnkB) T[jBK e'b j? jh
BjhA. jK nkgDh g{ik fB;zr eotkT[Dh j?, s/ f;ZyK dk (i'eK tKr) y{B Gh
ghDk j?. nro fe;/ “r?ph Pesh” Bkb, f;Zy frnkBtkB j' rJ/, sK ;kXK
;zsK dk ckshnk (nzsw fefonk) ntZP gfVQnk ikt/rk.
;ohoe fJPBkB dk, ;ckJh dk, r[opkDh ftu nB/e tko fIeo
fwbdk j?. “efo fJ;BkB[ f;wfo gqG[ ngBk, wB sB gJ/ no'rk]”
(611) b/feB gkDh gh b?D Bkb, (;w/s uoB X{Vh tkbk gkDh) iK ;oho
dk fJ;BkB eo b?D Bkb, wB s'A ftekoK dh w?b okJh wkso BjhA T[so
;e/rh. Bk jh r[opkDh dk T[sw frnkB w?bk gkDh gh b?D Bkb gqkgs
j't/rk. ;fsr[o{ ih sK c[owkB eo oj/ jB^
wfB i{m?, sfB i{fm j?, fijtk i{mh j'fJ]
w[fy M{m?, M{m p'bDk, feT[A eo ;{uk j'fJ]
fpB[ nG ;pd B wKihn?, ;ku/ s/ ;u[ j'fJ] (55)

(204)
ftekoK ekoB wB i{mk j?, sB i{mk j?, ihG Gh i{mh j?. feT[Afe
ihG Bkb, w{zj Bkb M{m i' p'fbnk frnk j?. r[o{ d/ frnkB o{gh (Ppd)
ib Bkb, wB sB ;kc gftZso j't/rk. ;fsr[o{ ih fBwosk d/ ;'w/,
goT[geko dk w[iZ;wk ;B. T[jBK nkgD/ nkg ƒ pj[s EkJh BhtK,
fBwkDk, gkgh, w{oy, Bhu s/ ehN se fbfynk j?. eh ;fsr[o{ ih nfij/
;B < ih BjhA` T[j wjkB ;B, frnkB dk ;kro ;B, nekP rzrk d/ ;{oi
;B. go nkgD/ nkg ƒ ;zrsK d/ ;/te eoe/ ikDd/ ;B. gktB gzesh d/
doPB eo' ^
w?A pXh ;u Xow;kb j?] r[of;yK b?jdk Gkb e?]
g?o X'tK gyk c/odk, fs; fBt fBt brK gkfJ ihT[] (73)
r[of;Zy ;fsr[o{ ih d/ g;hB/ tkbh EKt/A, nkgDk y{B v'jbD bJh
fsnko ofjzd/ ;B$jB. fJj ftuko ;[gB/ ftu Gh BjhA fbnk ;ed/, fe
;fsr[o{ ih ;kv/ (f;ZyK d/) uoBh bZrD T[jBK s'A ;/tk eotkT[D. ;fsr[o{
ih B/ d; ikw/ XkoB eoe/, wB[yZ sk dh pj[s ;/tk ehsh, PkBdko ehoshwkB
;Ekgs ehs/. T[sw ihtB dk ;z;koh b'eK nZr/, wkvb g/P ehsk.
wB[Zysk dk gftZso r[opkDh ;dk, w"i{dk ;w/A ftu (ns/ Gfty) fJj okj
o[PBkT[Adh oj/rh. r[opkDh dk frnkB, fizw/tko ;z;EktK tZb'A, ftXh
g{ote tzfvnk BjhA frnk. fJ;/ bJh nkw wkJh GkJh, iB ;w{zj
“uoBX{Vh, uoB gkj[b, e[zG nzfwqs, ;q'to ib, u[pZu/ dk w?bk gkDh
gh e/, “iBw ;cbk” eoB dk e{Vk Gow gkb oj/ jB. fJ; dk wsbp
fe r[opkDh ihtB ;/X BjhA d/ ojh, g?o X'fsnK tkbk w?bk gkDh uzrk
brdk j?. ekoB ;kc j? fe nZi se, dopko ;kfjp d/ ;q'to ƒ “nzfwqs”
eoe/ goukfonk frnk j?. ny"sh jfo eh g"Vh s/ cZNh fby e/ bkJh t/yh
ik ;edh j?. fi; s/ fJj nZyo fby/ jB^ “nzfwqs dk u{bQk fgZS/ jN
e/ bt' ih”. r[opkDh dk fJbkjh c[owkB e[M j'o j?, bT[ ;[D'^
“fiB tfvnkJh s/o/ Bkw eh s/ os/ wB wkfj]
BkBe “nzfwqs[ J/e[ j? d{ik nzfwqs Bkfj”] (1238)
i/eo n;hA ;fsr[o{ ih d/ f;Zy jK, sK s/ c?;bk r[opkDh dk nNZb

(205)
j?, i/eo ftneshnK iE/pzdhnK dh f;Zyh j?, sK r[opkDh fgSKj XZe fdZsh
ikt/rh. j'o n;EkBK dh rZb Bk Gh eohJ/, dopko ;kfjp dhnK gqeowK
ftZu jh, fJZe o[Zy (p/oh) d[Zy d{o eoB dh :'rsk gqkgs eoh p?mk j?.
“d[y GziBh” p/oh j?< fe gktB r[opkDh < fco gqeowK ftu nfijk
feT[A < w[Zy ;q'to ftu'A fJPBkB eoe/ “e'jVh dk o'r jfNnk”, goukfonk
ik fojk j?. eh ;Zuw[Zu fJ; soQK j'fJnk j? < eh r[opkDh gVQB eoe/,
;o'to dk gkDh Pesh tkbk pD frnk j?< go nc;';` T[E'A d/
;/tkdkoK$w[bkiwK ftu fBwosk fwmk; B/V/ s/V/ Gh BjhA. i/ fJPBkB
eoe/ ;oho dk e'jV jN ;edk j?, sK Gkos Go ftu'A ;ko/ e'jVhnK dk
fJPBkB fJE/ BjhA eokT[Dk ukjhdk< Grs g{oB f;zx dk fgzrbtkVk
fgSb/ 60 ;kb s'A nzfwqs;o ftu dopko ;kfjp ;q'to d/ B/V/ ;fEs j?.
T[E'A d/ e'jVh s/ fgzrb/ feT[A szdo[;s BjhA j[zd/< r[opkDh e[M j'o T[gd/P
eo ojh j?^ pr[bk ekr Bhu eh ;zrfs, ikfJ e[ozr fpy{ w[fy bkJhn?.
BkBe w/fb w/fb gqG ;zrfs fwb ;zrfs jz;[ eokJhn?] (881)
;fsr[o[ ih B/, pr[bk eK ns/ jz; fposh dk fIeo ehsk j?. go
nZyoh noE eoB tkfbnK “ftdtkBK pqjw frnkBhnK” B/, ektK s'A jz;
pDk e/ T[vk fdZs/. j[D sK jkbs fJE'A se fBZxo u[eh j?, e[M r[odtkfonk
ftu gbk;fNe dhnK E?bhnK ftu gk e/, PoXktkB ;/teK ƒ “uoBX{Vh
dk gq;kfd” toskfJnk ik fojk j?. ;kXK dk i{mk gkDh, i{m/ N[eV/,
gq;kd ;wMe/ ykX/ ghs/ ik oj/ jB. e[M ny"sh ;kX sK pj[s nZr/ fBeb
u[Ze/ jB. nkgDh i{m ;zrs tkb/ ;KM/ bzro ftu fwbk fdzd/ jB. fJPBkB
ehsk w?bk gkDh, eSfjok X'fJnk gkDh, ;/teK ƒ nzfwqs tKr fgbkfJnk
ik fojk j?. iE/dko, rqzEh, ;eZso ns/ j'o bhvo b'e, nkgD/ ;/te f;ZyK
s'A uoBhA$r'vhA jZE brtkT[Ad/ nkw t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. dopko ;kfjp
ftubk pj[sk bkDk ;kXK d/ v/fonK, Ne;kbK ftu'A fJ;/ soQK dh “gVQkJh”
(<) eoe/ nkT[Adk j?. v/fonK tkbh wfonkdk v/fonK tkbk gquko jh
dopko ;kfjp ftu j[zdk j?. fJE'A “f;zx ;kfjp” id'A pkjo dhnK ;N/iK
s/ “Xow gquko” tk;s/ iKd/ jB, fJjBK d/ “ftdtsk Gog{o gqtuB” p;

(206)
;[Dd/ jh ofj ikJhdk j?. fi; nekbh db dk gqXkB, jtB eokt/,
w[eN brkt/, rb ftu wksk dhnK u[zBhnK g[nkt/, ns/ tv/ fJeZmK
ftu “tkfjr[o{ ih ek ykb;k okw ih eh cs/,” nky e/, fcoe{ fjzd{
bhvoK dk nPhotkd b?Dk ukj/, T[; gzE dk e"D okyk < fi; r[odtkok
ew/Nh dk gqXkB ;skJh ;kb se okiBhsh d/ fuZeV ftu rb se
Xf;nk j't/, jikoK bZyK tkoh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu, pVh
p/j:kJh Bkb M{m p'b/, T[; e"w dk oZp okyk. fi; gftso Xow
n;EkB d/ ;/te nDgVQ$nXgVQ j'D, oki;h b'eK dhnK emg[sbhnK pD
ikD, XVkXV wB woIh d/ “j[ewBkw/” ikoh eod/ ofjD f;ZyK ƒ nekb
g[oy d/ g[Zso XhnK nkyD dh Ekt/A, “bte[P” dh nT[bkd rodkBD,
T[j d{bk gzE v[Zfpnk jh ;wM'. “uoBX{Vh” tkbk w;bk sK wkw{bh fijk
j?, pj[s tZv/ w;b/ niro tKr ykb;k gzE ƒ fBrb oj/ jB, go f;ZyK
d/ w[Zyh “u?B dh pz;oh tik oj/ jB.” “uoBX{Vh” Bkb ;pzXs r[opkDh
c[owkD jkio jB, nkU ;zy/g noE ftuko eohJ/ ^
1H XDh ftj{Dh gkN gNzpo Gkjh ;/sh ikb/]
X{Vh ftu b[vdz Vh ;'jK BkBe s? ;fj Bkb/] (1424)
2H r[ow[fy ;yh ;j/bh w/oh, w'eT[ d/tT[ dkB[ jfo gqkB ihtkfJnk..
jw j'tj Bkb/ r'b/ r[of;yK e/, fiBk nBfdB jfo gqG[ g[oy[ fXnkfJnk.. (473)
3H ;fsr[o ;zs[ fwb? ;Kfs gkJhn? febfty d[y ekN/ ;fG d{fo]
nm;fm shoE wiB[ ehnk ;s;zrfs gr BkJ/ X{fo] (1198)
4H ;zs o/B[ fBfs wiB[ eo?] iBw iBw e/ febfpy jo?] (1300)
5H “;zs uoB XoT[A wkE?” uKdBk frqfj j'fJ nzX/o?.. (1301)
6H ;zs X{fo gkJhn? tvGkrh]
BkBe r[o G/Ns jfo f;T[ fbt bkrh] (194)
7H iB gkopqjw ikeh fBowb wfjwk,
iB (r[o{) e/ uoB shoE e'fN rzrk]
iB eh X{fo ehU wiB[ BkBe iBw iBw e/ jo/ ebzrk] (828)
8H w'eT[ Xkfo feqgk irihtB dks/, jfo ;zs grh b/ gkt?]

(207)
jT[ ekNT[ ekfN pkfY f;o okyT[ fis[ BkBe ;zs[ ufV nkt?] (881)
9H ;zs uoD eo ;h;[ Xfo jfo Bkw[ fXnktT[]
;zs iBk eh o/D[ek b? wkE? bktT[] (812)
10H uoB ;kX e/ X'fJ X'fJ ghT[] nog ;kX eT[ ngBk ihT[]
;kX eh X{fo eoj[ fJ;BkB] ;kX T[gfo ikJhn? e[opkB] (;[ywBh)
11H nzso ikwh g[oy fpXks/ ;oXk wB eh g{o/..
BkBe dk; fJj? ;[y wKr? w'eT[ efo “;zsB eh X{o?”. (;'fjbk)
12H n?;h feogk w'fj eoj[..
“;zsj uoB” jwko' wkEk B?B do; “sB X{fo goj[..” (828)
13H X{fo ;zsB eh w;sfe bkfJ]
iBw iBw eh d[owfs wb[ ikfJ] (897)
14H r[o ek Bkw ifgU fdB[ oksh r[o e/ uoB wfB Xkfonk]
r[o eh X{fo eoT[ fBs wiB[ febfty w?b[ T[skfonk] (1218)
15H “r[o ;kX{ nzfwqs, frnkB ;fo” BkfJD]
;fG feb fty gkg rJ/ rktkfJD] (1134)
16H ;'Jh e[uhb[ e[dofs Bjh ikB?]
bhfgn? EkfJ B ;[fu jfo wkB?]
nzso[ w?bk pkjo[ fBs X't]
? ;kuh dorj ngBh gfs y't] ? (1151)
17H ;/ iB ;u/ fBowb/, fiB ;fsr[o Bkfb fgnko[..
;fsr[o{ ek GkDk ewKtd/, fpy[ jT[w? sfi fteko (65)
18H fiT[ ;kp[fB ekgo T{ib j's] Bkw igs ;G[ Gow[ GT[ y's] (914)
19H ;fsr[o j? nzfwqs;o ;kuk, “wB[ Bkt? w?b[ u[ektfDnk..” (113)
20H T[xfo rfJnk i?;k y'Nk Yp{nk, Bdfo ;okck nkfJnk]
nzso ikwh ;G[ feS[ ikB? T[; s/ ejk SgkfJnk] (381)
21H r[of;yh GkDk wzfBnk r[o[ g{ok gko bzxkfJ]
r[of;yK eh jfo X{fV d/fj jw gkgh Gh rfs gkfj]
X[fo w;sfe jfo gqG fbfynk r[o Bkbe fwfbnk nkfJ] (1424)
n;b we;d ;h ;fsr[o{ ih d/ gktB T[gd/P B{z, sB wB eoe/

(208)
gotkB eoBk, T[; w[skpe ihtB pDkT[Dk. ftekoK dk w[ezwb fsnkr
eoBk ;h. j' fojk j? fJj fe pkjoh Xkowe gfjoktk, eoweKv, ;[Zu
fGZN, shoE :ksok, nyzv gkm ehosB (ftykt/ wkso), wkbk wzso, ikg
nkfd. ;fsr[o{ ih sK pyfPP eo oj/ jB^
r[o eh f;y e' ftobk b/t]
? BkBe fi;[ nkfg tfvnkJh d/t]
? (509)
wB eh wfs fsnkrj[ jfo iB, J/jk pks em?Bh]
nBfdB[ jfo jfo Bkw fXnktj[ r[o ;fsr[o eh wfs b?Bh]
(800)
;fsr[o{ ih fJZe f;XKse Ppd okjhA, e[Zb wB[Zysk dh fvT{Nh tzv
eo oj/ jB. fiE/ fes/ e'Jh fJB;kB ezw s/ jkio j't/, T[j gqwkswk ƒ
“;d ;[Ddk ;d t/ydk” ikDe/, nkgDh ;/tk f;de fdbh, fJwkBdkoh
Bkb fBGkt/. fe;kB, d[ekBdko, B"eoh g/;k, Xow T[gd/;e, iZi ns/
d/; dk jkew pkdPkj, ;ko/ jh id'A nkgD/ fizw/ bZrh fvT{Nh oZp ƒ jkIo
BkIo ikDe/ eoBr/ sK fJj ;koh Xosh jh “ Xosh Xow;kb” pD
ikt/rh. uoBX{Vh Bkb sK nZi se e[M BjhA ;ztfonk s/ nZr'A Gh BjhA
;"o/rk.
BkBe u[bhnK ;[uhnK, i/ Gfo ikD? e'fJ]
;[os/ u[bh frnkB eh i'rh ek is[ j'fJ]
pqkjwD u[bh ;zs'y eh, frojh ek ;s[ dkB]
oki/ u[bh fBnkt eh gfVnk ;u[ fXnkB[]
gkDh fus[ B X'gJh, w[fy ghs? fsy ikfJ]
gkDh fgsk irs ek fcfo gkDh ;G[ ykfJ] (1240)
fiBK nzdfo Bkw fBXkB[ j?, r[opkDh thukfo]
fsB e/ w[y ;d T[ib/ fss[ ;u? dopkfo] (1422)
wB w/o/` r[o eh wzfB b? oikfJ]
wB[ sB[ ;hsb[ ;G[ Ehn? Bkfw t;? wfB nkfJ] (37)
uoB X{Vh b?Dh iK u[pZu/ dk w?bk gkDh ghDk, nfrnkBsk dk
;{ue j?. yzv/ eh gj[b gqkgs wkJh GkJh ns/ j'o f;nkD/ wB[Zy, fe;/ dk

(209)
i{mk e[M BjhA yKd/ ghAd/. fco uoB X{Vh iK d[Bhnk Go dh w?b, rzdrh
fuZeV feT[A w{zj ftu gkJhJ/ < w?bk gkDh ghD Bkb fBwosk BjhA nkT[Dh.
fIzdrh dk ukBD, nrtkJh dk ;'wk, d;K gkfsPkjhnK dh i's, i[r' i[r
nNZb, Ppd r[o{, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih jB. jo w;b/ pko/ fJjBK s'A
nrtkJh gqkgs eoBh j?. jo wkJh GkJh f;Zy nytkT[D tkbk, r[opkDh
dk noEK ;w/s gkm Io{o eo/. ;ko/ ;[nkbK d/ i[nkp fwb ikDr/. ;ko/
soQK d/ Pze/, s/ Gow Bk; j' ikDr/. Gkt noEK ftu nky/ rJ/ puB ;wM
nk ikDr/. fco gsk br ikt/rk uoB X{fV feBK noEK ftu nkfJnk j?.

[[[[

(210)
feogkB-rkso/ tkbh <
jkbks dh Bikes ƒ t/yfdnK, ns/ ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/
eoKshekoh ftukoK ƒ gVQfdnK fJfsjk; ftu T[jBK tZb'A ehs/ rJ/ :[Zr
gbNkT[ ekoiK ƒ nzso nksw/ wfj;{; eoe/, pd' pdh ;kfjp ih d/
uoBK ftu ;h; M[e iKdk j?. j/ oZph B{o fBoG? :'X/ s[;hA wjkB j', s[jkvk
;kBh e'Jh BjhA j' ;edk. ;fsr[o{ ih dh P\;hns ƒ ;wMD tkb/
fJfsjk;eko, fJj rb ftPtk; Bkb fby oj/ jB, fe r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
nkgD/ gk; ;t? oZfynk bJh feogkB ntZP oyd/ ;B. frnkBh frnkB
f;zx B/ gzE gqekP rqzE ftu fIeo ehsk j? fe nk;kw d/ fJZe r[odtko/
ftu, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp tZb'A pyfPP ehsk :kdrkoh jfEnko, poSk
;zGkb e/ oZfynk j'fJnk j?. fJ; r[od[tko/ dk Bkw Gh ‘poSk ;kfjp’
fNe frnk j?. r[o{ xo d/ ;fseko/ f;Zy GkJh pbtzv ih B/ ;fsr[o{ nzrd
;kfjp ih ƒ, r[orZdh gqkgs j'D dh xNBk dk ;z[do puBK d[nkok toBD
ehsk j?. fJj gktB p'b r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ gzBk 966 s/ ;[GkfJwkB
jB. fi; ftu GkJh ih fbyd/ jB fe r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/,nkgDh
r[orZdh ;"AgD bfrnK, r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih ƒ PeshPkbh feogkB Gh
nogD ehsh. puB fJT[A jB F
“wfs r[o nksw d/t dh yVfr i'fj goke[fJ ihn d?]”
Gkt/A eJh ;ko/ NhekekoK B/ fJ; gzesh ftu feogk o{gh feogkB,
yVr d/ noE ehs/ jB. go feogk o{gh dh Ekt/A f;X/ jh feogkB noE
eo bJhJ/ sK r[opkDh d/ fe;/ fBnw dh T[bzxDk BjhA j[zdh. fJ; s'A pkd
tkbk fJfsjk; ;kvh, rZb dh I'odko g[PNh eodk j?.
T[j ;wK nfijk ;h fe jfEnkopzd j'Dk wIp{oh pD frnk ;h.
fiE/ iotkD/ wBZ[yK s'A nkgDh oZfynk Io{oh ;h, T[E/ nDfrDs y{zyko
(211)
ikBto Gh B[e;kB g[uk ;ed/ ;B. ;' fJ; ftuko ƒ ;theko eoBk jh
gt/rk, fe gfjb/ gzi r[o{ ftnesh, “yVrXkoh” ;B. Iok ;'u' ` gfjb/
gzi ;fsr[o{ e'Jh jfEnko i/ BjhA oyd/ ;h, sK nuBu/sh r[o{ jfor'fpzd
;kfjp ih ƒ fJj eh ;[ZMh, fe fJZe feogkB BjhA, ;r'A d' XkoB eo
bJhnK < ;ko/ f;ZyK ƒ jfEnkopzd j'D dk nkd/P ;[Dk fdZsk. j'o Gh ;ko/
soQK d/ jfEnko ;fsr[o{ ih B/ izr ftu tos/, i' gqkgs j' ;ed/ ;B.
T[jBK s'A pkd Gkt/A f;ZXh izr je{ws Bkb BjhA j'Jh, go r[o{ ;kfjpkB, iK
f;Zy gzE B/ nkgD/ jfEnkoK dk fsnkr BjhA ehsk ;h. d;w gksPkj ih
B/ jo soQK d/ goubs jfEnko nkgD/ ekoykfBnK (febk b'jrVQ
fty/^nBzdg[o) ftu fsnko eotkJ/. y[d tos/ f;ZyK ƒ tosD dh f;Zfynk
s/ j[ew fdZsk. ;fsr[o{ ih dh bkitkp nrtkJh ftu, f;ZyK B/ id'A w"ek
nkfJnk, Xow d'yhnK d/ uzr/ nkj{ bkj/. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ f;yK ƒ j[ew d/
fdZsk fe “PPso dk ft;kj BjhA eoBk.” xZN' xZN feogkB jo tes
“nzr ;zr” oZyDh. Ppd “nzr ;zr” ƒ r"o Bkb gVQ ftukoBk. fe;/
g[oksB rqzE g'Eh ftu “rkso/” tkbh feogkB fbfynk BjhA fwb/rk. nzr
;zr dk wsbp j? nkgD/ e'b oZyDh. pkpk pzdk f;zx pjkdo ns/ ;kok
fw;bK dk fGnkBe ;wK, nkgDhnK nZyK nZr/ fbnkU. T[; ;" ;kb d/
fbysh fJfsjk; ftu, fe;/ fJZe EK Gh, gkmeK ƒ “rkso/ tkbh feogkB”
dk fIeo BjhA fwb/rk.
wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ ;w/A pj[s ;ko/ otkfJsh jfEnko tos/
rJ/. f;zxK B/ ekp[b sZe ik i?eko/ rikJ/. brGr gzikj ;kb d/ oDihs
f;zx ekb ftu, rkso/ tkbh feogkB d/ doPB BjhA j' ;eDr/. ;zB 1849
dh wBj{; xVh nkD Y[Zeh, “Pkj w[jzwdk fJZe ;oeko pkM'A c"iK fiZs e/
nzs ƒ jkohnK B/.” bkj"o B/V/ fJZe tZv/ w?dkB ftu, r'ok c"i i/s{ j'D dh
;{os ftu s'gK phV e/ pko{d Go e/, fsnko j' yb'sh. jkohnK j'JhnK
f;Zy c"iK ƒ, nzrq/i ewKvo d/ nZr/ nk e/, nkgD/ PPso iwhB s/ oZyD/
g? oj/ ;h. fJZe nXyV T[wo dk f;Zy c"ih nZr/ tfXnk, nkgDh gqkDk s'A
fgnkoh feogkB ƒ uz[fwnk, ;fseko ;fjs wZE/ ƒ S[jkfJnk s/ feogkB

(212)
IwhB s/ oZyfdnK jh ftnke[b j' e/ i'odko Xkn wkoh. Bkb jh T[FZuh
ftbQedh nktkI ftu nkfynk ^“UJ/ oDihs f;nK, ;Zuw[Zu s{z nZi wo
frnk j?.” s/ fJ; d/ B/soK ftu'A esb j'J/ nowkBk dh Xkok tfj s[oh.
fJ; wro'A GkJh wjkoki f;zx B/ Gkt/A jfEnkopzd prkts eoB
dk tZvk isB ehsk, go T[j ;cb Bk j' ;fenk. T[;d/ ;kEhnK ƒ ;ys
;iktK fdshnK rJhnK s/ GkJh ;kfjp ƒ f;zxkg[o e?d eo fdZsk frnk,
fiZE/ T[j gqkD fsnkr rJ/. fJ; s'A pkd f;ZyK B/ feogkB dh tos'A fisBh
e[ ehsh, T[j d{finK dk oki tXkT[D iK gZek eoB bJh ;h, nkgDh y[d
w[yfsnkoh bJh BjhA ;h. BkwXkoh (e{e/) nzrq/Ih efjo s'A fJzB/ ezp rJ/
fe T[jBK ;c/d p;so (nwB dk gqshe) gfjB bJ/. feogkB e/tb i{V/
ftu b[e'D i'rh ofj rJh. tkfjr[o{ igD dh ftXh “dzd MghN e/” nkyD
bJh P[o{ ehsh rJh. d{i/ gk;/ f;yK w'ou/ pV/ bkJ/, wkoK pVhnK ykXhnK,
go IkbwK ƒ edh ofjw Bk nkfJnk. f;Zy feogkB gqkgsh bJh sVgd/
oj/, fBskD/ j'D eoe/ e'Jh g/P Bk rJh. eJh w'ou/ bZr/, fJZe E'VQ fuok
w?rIhB Gh fBefbnk, fi;dk Bkw jh “feogkB pjkdo” ;h. ;zB 1914
ftu ji{o ;kfjp, r[o{ xo d/ ;/tkdkoK tZb'A, f;Zy ntkw bJh c[owkB
eZfYnk frnk fe, “jo f;Zy wkJh GkJh xZN' xZN fJZe c[ZN bzpkJh tkbh
feogkB Io{o oZy/.” nzfwqs;o tkb/ fJ; tes ykw'P oj/. id'A nes{po
1925 ƒ r[odtkok ekƒB gk; ehsk frnk j?, sd'A gfjbh tko f;Zy tk;s/
“rkso/ tkbh feogkB” gfjBD dh Pos bk fdZsh rJh. i/ e'Jh f;Zy
feogkB rkso/ s'A pkjo oZy/rk sK BikfJi jfEnko oZyD$tosD d/ i[ow
tkbk ekƒB tose/ frqcsko ehsk ik ;e/rk.
;zB 1945 ftu id'A f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk ƒ nzsw gqtkBrh fdZsh
rJh sk T[; ftu Gh ;gPN fby fdZsk frnk fe “f;Zy rkso/ tkbh
feogkB oZy/”, go bzpkJh dh e'Jh jZd fBPfus BjhA. j[D r"o eoBk fe
tZvh feogkB rkso/ gkJh BjhA ik ;edh, s/ S'Nh feogkB fe;/ ezw nk
BjhA ;edh. Bk nkgDh oZfynk Bk fe;/ d{i/ dh oZfynk. f;Zy fJzB/ vo
rJ/ je{ws dhnK o'I o'I dhnK ;yshnK s'A, fe nkw iB ;w{zj, wkJh

(213)
GkJh nkyD bZr fgnk^ “feogkB fwnkB ftu'A pkjo BjhA eZYDh, i/ eZY
bJhJ/ sK y{B wzrdh j?. i/ d[PwD dk Bjh sK nkgDk jh y{B bk e/ fJ;
ƒ tkg; fwnkB ftu gkT[.” fJZe j'o rZb Gh ;[DhAdh j? ^“fwnkB ftu'A
feogkB eZYD Bkb pVk Gkoh gkg brdk j?.”
fJjBK gqubs ftukoK dh n;bhns iK fgS'eV fJj j?, fe f;Zy
;w/A dhnK je{wsK s'A brksko wko yKd/, s;hj/ Mbd/, e?dK eZNd/ XZe rJ/
jzG rJ/. w{oy bhvoK ekoB gqkgsh e'Jh BjhA ehsh, f;ZyK ƒ e[ZN pj[s
g[nk fdZsh. f;Zy w[yhnK feogkB rkso/ ftu fcZN eotk fdZsh. rkso/
ftu fszB c[ZNh feogkB oZyDh ;zGt BjhA j?, fJ; bJh S'Nh, j'o S'Nh j[zdh
rJh. r'oh ;oeko B/ s/ pkd ftu ekbh ;oeko B/, ;zftXkB ftu doi
eo fdZsk fe f;Zy “rkso/ feogkB oZy ;edk j?.” rkso/ ftu'A pkjo
n;bk n?eN dh T[bzxDk frDh ikt/rh. fwnkB s'A pkjo sK i/ feogkB
e'Jh eY/rk sK T[;s/ fJokdk esb dk w[edwk Gh pD ;edk j?. fJ;
;oekoh eo'gh s'A puD bJh, fgzvK ftu fejk ikD bZfrnk, fe fwnkB
ftu'A feogkB eZYD dk “gkg” bZrdk j?. n;b ftu “w[eZdwk pD ;edk
j?.”
id'A f;Zy (;w/s tZv/ bhvoK iE/dkoK d/) fe;/ d/;h pd/;h d{s xo
ftu ikt/ sK feogkB T[skoe/ nzdo ikD dh fJikis j?. d/;h pd/Ph
ijkiK dhnK T[vkDk ;w/A, feogkB gfjB e/ ;co eoB dh wBkjh j?.
fJ; Gkos d/P ftu ;L f;woBihs f;zx ƒ, Gkosh gkobhw?AN jkT{;
ftu, dkyb BjhA j'D fdZsk frnk, Gkt/A T[j u[D/ j'J/ w?Apo gkobhw?AN ;B.
j'o t/y' ` eJh fJZe fBjzr f;zxK dhnK iE/pzdhnK, rkso/ feogkB s/
fInkdk i'o BjhA fdzdhnK, go nkgD/ otkfJsh jfEnko fit/A GZbk,
rzvk;k, Ne{nk, e[jkVh iK nfij/ j'o jfEnko Io{o oZydhnK jB. eh
T[j rkso/ tkbh feogkB s'A nDikD jB < ih BjhA, ;r'A T[j jfEnko
“nzr ;zr” oZyD ftu :ehB oyd/ jB, rkso/ ftu BjhA.
f;ZyK d/ fe;/ iE/ tb'A id'A Gh yzv/ eh gkj[b fsnko ehsh iKdh j?,
sd'A fsnko po fsnko S/ f;zxK e'b, fszB c[ZNhnK tZvhnK feogkBK

(214)
j'DhnK Io{oh ;wMhnK iKdhnK jB,go feT[A < id'A fe gkj[b d/D tkb/
f;zxK B/ gfjb'A jh rkso/ S'NhnK feogkBK XkoB ehshnK j[zdhnK jB.
fJ; dk wsbp j? fe g[oksB s/ ;jh n;{b fJjh fszB c[ZNh feogkB tkbk
j?. id'A fes/ Bro ehosB nkfd d/ ;pzX ftu, “gzi fgnko/” nZr/ ub
oj/ j[zd/ jB, sd'A Gh tZvhnK fszB c[ZNhnK feogkBK jZD ftu cVhnK
j[zdhnK jB. eh T[j e/tb ftyktk wkso j?, fe ;jh wfonkdk jh T[j j?<
;'uDk pDdk j?. f;ZyK d/ ;ko/ bhvo$iE/dko fszB c[NhnK feogkBK feT[A
u[Zeh fcod/ jB < eh fJj e/tb ftyktk wkso sK BjhA < fes/ iE/dkoh dk
tkX{ fuzBQ sK BjhA < n;b ftu fJE'A Gh fJjh fBnw ;gPN j' fojk j?,
fe fszB c[ZN tkbh feogkB jh n;b ftu f;Zyh dk fPzrko j?, s/ T[FZsw
jfEnko j?. id'A fe;/ bhvo dk ;fseko eoB bJh rkov nkc nkBo
ehsk iKdk j? sd'A Gh fszB c[ZNh feogkB j[zdh j?. id'A fe;/ tZvh Py;hns
B{z ;fseko tk;s/ feogkB d/JhJ/ sK fszB c[ZN tkbh jh d/Jhdh j?, S'Nh
BjhA.
f;ZyK dhnK ;N/iK s/ nkw ;[DB ƒ fwbdk j?^“;kX ;zrs ih`
fit/A fjzd{ tk;s/ iB/T{ gfjBDk Io{oh j?, fJ;/ soQK f;ZyK tk;s/ feogkB
gfjBDh Io{oh j?. fit/A iB/T{ Xkowe fuzBQ j?, feogkB Gh ;kvk Xkowe
fuzBQ j?.” fXnkB fdT[ ` id'A f;Zy gqukoe f;Zy ;N/iK s/, p/ j:kJh Bkb
y[d jh e{e oj/ j'D fe feogkB PPso Bk j' e/, e/tb Xkowe fuzBQ^fBPkB
j?. fco feogkB fe;/ B/ tZvh feT[A XkoB eoBh$oZyDh j? < fuzBQ sK fij'
fijk woIh j't/, fJzu d' fJzu dk. fgZsb b'j/ ;'B/ gbk;fNe dk, iK bZeVh
ekri dk Gh. f;Zy ;wki feogkBXkoh j? iK fe wB dh M{mh s;Zbh tk;s/
fuzBQXkoh j? < pj[s ;ko/ ;kX pkp/ sK fBZeh feogkB ƒ Gh ed/ d/ fsnkr
u[Ze/ jB. fBPkB (Mzvk) fsnkr fdZsk j? “oki eo/rk ykb;k”, d'fjok SZv
uZ[e/ jB, pkDh ;wM e/ gVQBh Sv u[Ze/ jBHHHH.
gzE d/ wjkB ftdtkB GkJh ekjB f;zx ih BkGk, r[ows wkoszv
d/ gzBk 582 Gkr d{ik s/, feogkB pko/ fJT[A ;/X d/ oj/ jB ^ “T[;
(g[oksB) t/b/ Bkb nZi dk w[ekpbk eoB s/ fuZs ƒ Gkoh y/d j[zdk j?.

(215)
ykb;/ dh T[j sbtko i' t?ohnK d/ c"bkdh etu eZN e/ fgqEth ƒ u[zpB
eodh ;h, nZi dh S'Nh eod dh Peb ftu gbNk yke/, ni/jh y[zYh j'Jh
j?, fe rkio w{bh eND'A Gh w{zj w'Vdh j?. n"o fi; feogkB B/ fgZm ƒ
S{jD' ;"Aj ykXh j'Jh ;h, nZi T[j feogkB fYZbV f;ZyK d/ ezx/ dh fgZm
ftu tV p?mh j?. tkjr[o{ feogk eo/, fe ykb;/ dk fgnkok tke^d/r s/r
cfsj ;G d/ wB ftu tf;nk oj/.”. fJ;/ jh gzB/ s/ c[ZN B'N ftu GkJh
;kfjp ih eftsk fbye/, feogkB dh wfjwk fpnkB eod/ jB. e[M
gzeshnK fJT[ jB^
“pho po ykb;k d[bko/ d;w/; i[e,/ eVSh feogkB s/oh ubsh oj/.”
ns/
“d/r s/r ubsh oj?, bkr? Bfj izrkb.”
ykb;k gzE pj[s e[M rtk uZ[fenk j?, nZr/ Gh rtkJh ik fojk j?.
wjkB r[opkDh fjod/ ftu'A rtk bJh, e/; rtk bJ/, ezxk eVk eZS rtk
bJ/, feogkB Gh rtk bJh. gzEe J/esk ysw j' rJh, nkoEe gZy'A gSV
rJ/, ftfdnk s'A ;ZyD/ ofj rJ/. j? e'Jh gzEe w[yh nytkT[D tkbk gzE
dodh, i' fprVh ƒ ;ztko d/t/ < iKdh f;Zyh ƒ w'V fbnkt/ <
f;ZyK d/ feodko s/ feogkB pko/ frL frnkB f;zx d/ ftuko
gVQ'L^
fcZvk i?;k NN{nk n"o i[bV{ ek ekmh gkfJ,
o;Vh brkw ns/ o;V{ oekp i{.
gkfNnk ;k eSV{ s/ BhbVk ;k ukdo{ j?,
v[Y{ i?;k grV{ pDkfJ f;o ski i{.
N[Nk i?;k s/rV{ s/ bhoV{ fwnkB ik e',
rm;m rksok pDkfJnk ;G ;ki i{.
Bkw s' nekbV{ ;' fco? p[o/ jkbV{ ;',
b{N e{N yktD/ e' vkY/ T[;skd i{.

[[[[

(216)
j[ewBkfwnK pko/ sZE
r[owfs dh ;'Mh oZyD tkb/, fJfsjk; gVQB tkb/ ;[u/s gkme ikDd/
jB fe ;kv/ syasK d/ iE/dkoK dh e'Jh ftZfdne :'rsk nB[;ko nj[d/
BjhA fdZs/ iKd/. Xow y/so ftu fJBQK dh e'Jh wjZstg{oB gqkgsh Gh
BjhA j[zdh gVQ/^fby/ f;Zy B"eoh, ftT[gko iK d[ekBdkoh nkfde tZb ub/
iKd/ jB. pj[s/ foNkfJo pI[or r[od[nkok ew/NhnK s/ ekpi j' iKd/
jB. ofjzd/ p/o[iarko b'e okiBhsh ftu fe;/ th o;s/ dkyab j'D bJh
e'f;aa;a eod/ jB. ;G s'A nyhobk spek Xow n;EkBK dh ;/tk^;zGkb s/
, gkmh, rqzEh, eEk, ehosB eoe/ fBopkj eoB dh e'f;a;a eodk j?.
Paq'wDh ew/Nh ftu f;acko;ah ns/ ih ji{ohJ/ b'eK dh Gowko j?. fi; dh
tZvh f;acko;a j't/ s/ f;o/ dk ukgb{; j't/ Ujh B"eoh ftu fNfenk ofj
;edk j?, soZeh eo ;edk j?. nB/e gqeko oki;h p/JhwkBh ftu roe
j'J/ bhvo syasK d/ iE/dkoK dh fB:[esh eod/ jB. fJj ftuko/ fco
;oe; d/ ikBtoK tKr f;Zyh dh ;N/i s/ jo o'ia swk;ak eoe/ b'eK dk y{p
wB'oziB eod/ jB. p/nzs ezw r[owfs s'A T[bN j' oj/ jB, iE/dko x{e
;[Zs/ ofjDr/. go id'A e'Jh okiBhshtkB fJ;akok eo/ sK tckdkoh b?D
bJh MZN “j[ewBkw/” ikoh eoB bZr g?Ad/ jB. f;odko r[opya;a f;zx
ekbk ncrkBk s/ f;odko i'frzdo f;zx ;g'e;w?B d/ ;pzX ftu th J/jh
e[ZM j'fJnk j?. gzE ftu tkgo ojhnK wBwsK, e[ohshnK dk ;zy/g ;ko
jkiao j? L^
j/mK e[M e[ tzBrh wkso nkg ;G dh ikDekoh bJh N{eK jkiao jB
1H r[o{ ekb ;w/A fe;/ ftnesh fto[ZX ;fsr[o{ ih B/ j[ewBkwk ikoh
BjhA ehsk. fgqEh uzd, ;qh uzd, Xho wb, okw okJ/, ijKrho, ;akj
ijkB ns/ n"ozria/p fto[ZX th BjhA.

(217)
2H gfjbh tko gq'H r[ow[y f;zx B[z (1887) gzE ftu'A S/fenk, 1995
ftu tkg; fbnk.
3H GkJh s/ik f;x G;"V tkb/ B[z d;w rqzE, nodk; pko/ wsG/dK ekoB
1928 B{z S/fenk frnk.
4H i?s' w'ou/ tes (1923) r[ofdnkb f;zx f;ZyK B[z wotk geVtk
fojk ;h, B[z S/fenk frnk.
5H iks^gks fto'Xh j[eBkwk ikoh ehsk frnk 1936 ftu.
6H f;Zy ofjs wo:kdk gzEe GktBk dh soiwkBh eodh j?, ;kohnK
iE/pzdhnK d/ w[yh ;akwb j'J/.
7H fJ; ftu iE/dko w'jD f;zx nekb sys, frH nZSo f;x j?Zv rqzEh
dopko ;kfjp ;akwb j'J/.
8H brgr ;ko/ v/o/dkoK fJ; wo:kdk B{z wzBD s'A fJBeko ehsk. T[BQK
v/o/dkoK B[z ;ik feT[A BjhA fdZsh rJh <
9H nekb syas d/ ;wkBKso nkg'^nkgDhnK wfonkdktK pDk bJhnK.
fco th iE/dko ;[Zs/ oj/ e'Jh ekotkJh Bk ehsh feT[A <
10H 1994 ftu i'XK wB;{oK fty/ BthA f;Zy ofjs wo:kdk fsnko
eoe/ ikoh ehsh rJh. ;opi's f;zx p/dh s/ Ne;kb tkb/ w'joh
;B. e'Jh ekotkJh BjhA ehsh. go feT[A iE/dkoK u[Zg tZNh <
(T[;dh ekgh t/yh ik ;edh j?)
11H Ne;kb tkb/ nkgDhnK feskpK ftu e{V gquko eod/ jB, e'Jh
n?e;aB BjhA feT[A< ;p{s w"i{d jB.
12H thj ;kb s'A Ne;kb tkb/ b'eK B[z r[wokj eo oj/ fe pkpk ioB?b
f;zx ihts j? nkye/ feT[A <
13H e/H ghH n?Z;H frZb ns/ T[;d/ ;kEhnK B{z Ne;kb tkfbnK wfjs/
f;o'g/ fdZs/ d[ZX SekfJnk. e/HghHn?Z;H frZb i' f;ZyK dh B;be[Ph
eob tkbk g[fb; nca;o j?. nekb syas ykw';a feT[A<
14H f;ZyK dh spkjh eoB tkb/, p/nzs f;zx w[Zy wzsqh, e/HghHn?Z;H frZb,
nihs f;zx ;zX{ B[z gzE ftu'A ykoi Bk ehsk frnk feT[A<

(218)
15H GkJh r[od/t f;zx ekT[Ae/ d/ eksbK B{z pkdb B/ ;ik Bk j'D fdZsh
fog'oN dpk bJh. iE/dkoK B/ pkdb fto[X Z ekotkJh feT[A Bk ehsh <
16H i;tzs f;x ykbVk d/ e/; B[z pkdb B/ e'Jh nfjwhns Bk fdZsh
eksb pu rJ/. fJ; e/; pko/ syasK d/ iE/dkoK B[z pkdb s/ dpkU
gkT[Dk ukjhdk ;h go e[ZM Bk ehsk frnk feT[A <
17H p/d'f;ank B[z esb eoB tkb/ g[b;hnK B[z pkdb B/ pukfJnk. iZE/
dko ;[Zs/ oj/. feT[A<
18H i;fN; e[bdhg f;zx tZb'A ekfJw ghgb efw;aB pkdb B/ pzd
eotkfJnk feT[A <
19H nekb syas s/ pfDnk nekbh db s'V e/ pkdb B/ gzikph gkoNh
w'r/ pDk fdZsh feT[A< (1996)
20H 1994 ftu nekbh dbK B{z yasw eoe/ fJZe db pDkfJnk frnk, w/
b Bk j'fJnk. ;r'A GkJh wBihs f;zx iE/dko B[z p/fJZias ehsk
frnk feT[A <
21H 1999 ftu gzEe J/esk tk;s/ pkdb B/ fco j[eBkw/ dh T[bzxDk
ehsh. e'Jh n?e;aB Bk fbnk frnk feT[A <
22H pkdb dh ;oeko d/ tiahoK^u/now?BK B/ fo;ats d/ foekov s'V
fdZs/. iZE/dko x{e ;[Zs/ oj/ feT[A <
23H pbpho f;zx gzB{ ;hBhno whs gqXkB n?Z;HihHghH;hH dh rZvh ftu'A
;aokp fwbDh (:{HghH) feT[A <
24H pkdb B/ uzdok ;[nkwh s'A jtB eokJ/ fsbe brtkJ/, g?ohA fgnk,
w{oshnK g{ihnK. ekotkJh feT[A BjhA ehsh<
25H phph ;[fozdo e"o (gsBh pkdb) nkP{s';a B{owfjbhJ/ d/ g?ohA
gJh. feT[A<
26H eJh nekbh bhvo GfBnko/ tkb/ B[z wZEk N/eD rJ/. feT[A<
27H gzi ;kb d"okB gzikp dh e'Jh wzr Bk wBtkJh, ;G G[bk fdZshnK.
feT[A<
28H fGq;aNkuko d/ d';aK ftu c;e/ gzE yaso/ ftu j? dk j'ek d/ fojk j?,

(219)
iZE/dko ;gZ;aN eoB fe pkdb s/ e/; pDB Bkb gzE yaso/ ftu
fet/A j? <
29H pkdb dh 35 nop o[gJ/ dh ikfJdkd fet/A pDh < iZE/dkoK edh
BjhA g[ZfSnk. feT[A<
30H XBtzs f;zx d/ e/; ftu iE/dko t/dKsh B/ (efEs s"o s/) foPts
b? e/ T[; B[z SZv fdZsk go ndkbs tZb'A ;kX B{z pbkseko/ d/ e/;
ftu d; ;kb e?d j'Jh. d; jiako o[g? i[owkBK j'fJnk.
31H g{oB f;zx tZb'A ft;at f;Zy e"A;b dk yakswk ehsk frnk. feT[A<
32H GkJh wBihs f;zx tZb'A nZi sZe ft;at f;Zy e"A;b dk fj;kp BjhA
fdZsk frnk. feT[A<
33H nBzdg[o ;kfjp tkbk wsk nekbh db B/ feT[A SZfvnk <
g[oksB rqzEK pko/
34H g[oksB fJfsjk;e rqzEK ftu pj[s fwbktN j? ;'XD dk e'Jh T[gokbk
BjhA j?. feT[A<
35H fJ;/ ekoB frH g{oB f;zx f;ZyK B[z bte[;a dh n"bkd efj fojk j?.
T[; B[z o'fenk feT[A BjhA <
36H frH g{oB f;zx B/ BkBe;akjh e?bzvo d' ;kb bJh b/N eotk fdZsk,
fco bkr{ fet/A j'fJnk<
37H phph ikrho e"o, frH e/tb f;zx, GkJh wBihs f;zx fto[ZX g{oB
f;zx tkb/ j[ewBkw/ tkg; fet/A j' rJ/ <
38H g{oB f;zx B[z nekb syas s'A s[ozs jNk e/ dopko ;kfjp dk j?Zv
rqzEh fet/A bk fdZsk frnk <
39H frH g{oB f;zx nZi sZe iZE/dkoK dhnK whfNrK ftu ;akwb feT[A
BjhA j[zdk <
40H nekbh db s/ fJ;/ dk fJZe fjZ;k n?;HihHghH;hH nekb syas B[z
nkgD/ fBZih w[ckd bJh tos oj/ jB, feT[A<
41H n?Z;HihHghH;hH dk gqXkB iK w?Apo oki;h nj[d/ b?Ad/ jB< feT[A<
42H oki;h pzd/ Xkowe pzfdnK dh fB:[esh feT[A eod/ jB<

(220)
43H d;w rqzE pko/ fBoDk eoB bJh iZE/dko B/ n?Z;HihHghH;hH B[z j[ew
fdZsk ;h. gzi ;kb gfjbK go T[jBK e'Jh ekotkJh Bk ehsh. iZE/
dko B/ n?e;aB feT[A Bk fbnk<
44H n?Z;HihHghH;hH d/ j[ew fdZs/ ikD d/ pkti{d iZE/dkoK dh fB:[esh
poyk;srh ns/ ftZfdne :'rsk pko/ fB:w feT[A BjhA pDkJ/ <
45H n?Z;HihHghH;hH tZb'A f;Zyh d/ gquko tk;s/ gzikph, fjzdh s/ nzro/iah
nyapko feT[A BjhA eZfYnk iKdk. ;?N/bkJhN u?Bb feT[A BjhA
bkfJnk iKdk<
46H gfssg[D/ ns/ Bf;anK B{z o'eD bJh n?Z;HihHghH;hH B{z nkd/;a feT[A
BjhA fdZsk iKdk<
47H dopko ;kfjp dh wo:kdk f;Zy ofjs wo:kdk w[skpe feT[A BjhA
j? <
48H dopko ;kfjp ftu phphnK B{z ehosB ns/ ;ckJh ;/tk feT[A BjhA
eoB fdZsh iKdh<
49H iZE/dkoK bJh tZy'^tZyo/ ftf;anK d/ wkjo s/ g{ok ftGkr feT[A BjhA
j?<
50H fdZbh dhnK d[fynkohnK f;Zy phphnK Bkb iZE/dko B/ y[d p[ok
;b{e ehsk feT[A<
51H v/odkoK tZb'A Sg/ r[Ne/, g'EhnK ftu p/nzs wBws j?< gkpzdh feT[A
BjhA bkJh iKdh<
52H eZuhnK XkoBktK bk e/ v/o/dko r[opkDh dk fBokdo eo oj/ jB
feT[A<
53H d;w rqzE, r[o{ rqzE d/ pokpo gqek;a eoB tkfbnK ftoZ[X ekotkJh
feT[A BjhA ehsh < (fJj gkg eoB tkb/ dwdwh Ne;kb wfjsk,
dopko ;kfjp gNBk, s/ fdZbh dk ;kX fto;k f;zx ns/ eJh j'o
jB)
54H f;Zy fJfsjk; d/ ;'w/ b/ye ;'jD f;zx ;hsb (5 Gkr, 1981, bkj"o
p[Ze Pkg b[fXnkDk) fJ; feskp ftu r[ofbpk; gks;akjh 6 pko/

(221)
;ys fNZgDhnK eodk j?, T[; fto[ZX e'Jh ekotkJh BjhA j'Jh
feT[A<
55H 1993 ftu vkH fgnko f;zx dh fttkds g[;se^tk;s/ GkJh wBihs
f;zx iE/dko B/ ftdtkBK dh ew/Nh pDkJh ;h. go t/dKsh B/
ftdtkBK dh ew/Nh feT[A BjhA pDkJh <
56H vkH g;a"oK f;zx eB/vk fBtk;h d/ fttkds Eh;; pko/ vkH yVe
f;zx, r[os/i f;zx s/ r[odo;aB f;zx fYZb'A B[z ;Zd e/ ftuko ehsh
iZE/dko B/, go j[D feT[A BjhA fJ; soQK ehsk frnk <
57H nwoihs f;zx ro/tkb d/ fttkds b/y dh gVu'b tk;s/ :{Bhtof;Nh
d/ ftdtkBK dh ew/Nh pDkJh ;h. vkH r[oBkw e"o gzikph :[BhH vkH
do;aB f;zx gzikp :{BhH vkH pbtzs f;zx r[o{ BkBe d/t :{BhH.
fco t/dKsh B/ nfijk feT[A BjhA ehsk <
58H ;H r[opy;a f;zx ekbk ncrkBk dhnK g[;seK dh goy tk;s/
ftdtkBk dh ew/Nh pDkT[D s'A fJBeko fe; nkXko s/ ehsk frnk <
59H n?Z;HihHghH;hH B/ Bkwid ehs/ ;H r[os/i f;zx id'A 10 wJh B[z
nekb syas g[Zi/ sK iE/dkoK B/ T[jBK ns/ ;kEh ftdtkBK B{z fwbD
s'A fJBeko ehsk feT[A <
60H d; g[;seK ftu'A e/tb S/ bkJhBK fJsokI:'r bZGhnK go gkpzdh
;kohnK feskpK s/ feT[A<
61H e?B/vk fty/ thvhU ekBcoz; eoB bJh y[d jh fejk s/ y[d jh w[Zeo
rJ/ fpBK ekoB dZ;/, go feT[A<
62H r[opya;a f;zx dh f;ekfJs eoB tkfbnK d/ Bkw dh fb;N wzrh
rJh go BjhA fdZsh rJh feT[A <
63H 10^6^2003 B[z ;H r[opya;a f;zx dk g'sok fJzdopho f;zx j'o ;wK
wzrD tk;s/ frnk. iE/dko d/ ghHJ/H B/ fuZmh b? e/ iZE/dko B[z fdZsh
go iE/dko B/ e'Jh rZb Bk ;[Dh. feT[A<
64H ;H r[opya;a f;zx dk f;XKse ekoi GkJh ekBQ f;zx BkGk d/ b?tb
dk j?.ukjhdk sK fJj ;h fe iZE/dko T[BQk Bz{ ;BwkfBs eodk. go

(222)
f;sw Iohch t/y' f;XKseko r[of;Zy B[z fJBkw fwfbnk gzE ftu'A
ykoi. feT[A<
65H iZE/dko t/dKsh dh ;zgkds ehsh g[;se r[ofpbk; gkH6 ftu x'o
ngwkB ;fsr[o{ ih dk. s/ t/dKsh fco Gh ;[Zuk j?. feT[A<
66H ;ko/ iZE/dkoK dh ikfJdkd nro gVskbh ikt/ sK fJXo Gh pj[s
ekby Biao nkt/rh. gVskb feT[A BjhA ehsh iKdh <
67H ;H r[os/i f;zx e'b'A gq'c?;o dh gdth tkg; b?D pko/ fpnkB feT[A
< r[os/i f;zx B/ n?;k e'Jh th p[ok ezw BjhA ehsk, fco T[;
ftdtkB r[of;Zy B[z ngwkBs feT[A ehsk ik fojk j? <
68H iZE/dkoK B[z r[odtkok n?eN e'Jh nfXeko BjhA fdzdk, f;Zy ofjs
wfonkdk w[skpe fJjBK dh e'Jh skes BjhA. gktB r[opkDh fe;/
B[z frnkotK r[o{ BjhA wzBdh. ;fsr[o{ fe;/ ftnesh ft;a/;a B{z
nfij/ tZX nfXeko BjhA d/ e/ rJ/. ;opZs ykb;k tZb'A iE/dkoK
dh u'D BjhA j'Jh. fJj y[d 29H03H2000 ns/ ny"sh j[ewBkw/
ftu ;aq'wDh ew/Nh s'A g[ZS oj/ jB fe ‘;kv/ coia s/ nfXekoK pko/
fB:w pDkJ/ ikD.’ fijV/ y[d jh nDikD jB nkgD/ coiaK s/
nfXeko s'A T[j nfij/ wBwoiah d/ ny"sh j[ewBkw/ fet/A ikoh eo
;ed/ jB< ;q'wDh ew/Nh d/ sBykjdko w[bkIw, nekbh db gqXkB
d/ Gh r[bkw, ;[szso c?;b/ b?D dh I[oZns eo jh BjhA ;ed/. Bk
jh fJjBK e'b r[owfs dh T[FZsw ;{M p{M j?. gzE ;ktXkB j't/, fJj
b'e r[owfs s'A T[bN ekotkJhnK eo oj/ jB, pu'. g[okDh wjzs;akjh
gosZy c[zeko jzeko ojh j?.
! efb eksh oki/ e;kJh Xow[ gzy efo T[vfonk..
e{V[ nwkt; ;u[ uzdowk dh;? Bkjh ej ufVnk..
jT[ Gkfb fte[zBh j'Jh..nzX/o? okj[ Bk e'Jh..
ftfu jT[w? efo d[y[ o'Jh.. ej[ BkBe fefB fpfX rfs j'Jh..(145)

[[[[

(223)
j[ewBkwk - nkX[fBe gq;zr ftu
d[BhnK d/ ;wMdko nkr{nK B/ ;wki B{z ;[ykbk ihtB fpskT[D
tk;s/ b'eK d/ Gb/ fjZs, e[M uzr/ n;{b iK wfonkdktK xVhnK j[zdhnK
jB. ;ko/ b'e fJZe ikps/ ftu pZM/ ihtB pshs eoB, nkg'Xkgh BK c?b
ikt/. fit/A “ ihU s/ fiT[D fdU,” iK “ Bk vo' BK vokU” tor/ ;koEe
Bkjo/ Gh fJ;/ soK dh ;'u ftu'A T[gi/ j'J/ jB. oki eo ojhnK gkoNhnK
iK ;oekoK ekB{zB fsnko eoe/, gkobhw?AN ftu gk; eotkT[AdhnK jB.
T[gqzs fJ; ekB{zB B{z ndkbsK ns/ g[fb; Pesh d[nkok bkr{ eotkT[AdhnK
jB. e'Jh ekB{zB ;w/A dk jkDh Bk oj/, b'eK dhnK T[wzrK s/ yok Bk T[so
fojk j't/, sK ;zftXkB ftu ;'XK Gh ehshnK ik ;edhnK jB. id'A wBZ[yh
;wki xZN fte;s ;B, ;oekoK b'e gZyh Bk j' e/, fgsk g[oyh oki ;B
i' fe fGqPN ns/ ikbw Gh j' ikfJnk eod/ ;B. T[jBK d[ydkJh jkbsK
dk ;koEe pdb g/P ehsk Xowh wjKg[oyK B/. fJjBK w[es nkswktK dh
fgnko Goh gq/oBk, goT[gekoh ihtB, b'G bkbu s'A ofjs ;kdrh tkbk
;[Gk, b'eK B{z ngD/ tZb fyZuD bJh fweBksh; dk ezw eod/ ;B. ngDh
fBrokBh ftu uZbD tkbhnK iZE/pzdhnK tk;s/, Xow r[o{nK B/ Gh e[M
fBnw fsnko ehs/. sK fe nkg j[do/gD B{z o'fenk ik ;e/. i/ oki;h
jkew Ikbw j't/, n"r[D Bkb s{fVnk j't/, sK Xow w[yh b'e Pesh B{z
;[uZih nrtkJh fdzd/ j'J/, i[bw dk fto'X eod/ j'J/ , eJh tko ;Zu jZe
s/ gfjok fdzfdnK, ;oho Gh b/y/ bk iKd/ ;B. b'e d[PwD je{wsK d/
sys/ gbN d/D dk ekoB Gh eJh tkoh Xkowe nkr{ j' fBpVd/ ;B.
f;Zy otkfJsK, fJfsjk; ns/ f;Zy wkBf;esk ftu j[ewBkw/ dh
pVh wjZssk ojh j?. w{b o{g ftu jo f;Zy tk;s/ ;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB tZb'A

(224)
T[ukoh, r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ih ftu ;zGkbh, r[o{ dk T[Zsw doik gqkgs
gftZso r[opkDh jh nw'be “j[ewBkwk j?”. fJ; B{z r[of;Zy B/, fpBK
jhb j[Zis s'A fJzB fpzB f;o wZE/ gqtkB eoBk j?. r[opkDh B/eh s/ ubD
dh jdkfJs eodh j?. ftekoK (ekw, e'qX, b'G, w'j, jzeko, Jhoyk, dt?P
nkfd) s'A pu e/ fIzdrh fiT[D dh skVBk eodh j?. tfjwK GowK, eow
eKvK, iksK r'sK s'A r[opkDh ;ysh Bkb toidh j?. fizdrh Go ;ko/ ezw
tkfjr[o{ B{z jkio Bkio ikDe/, fpBK ftseo/ s'A, ;/tk GktBk Bkb eoB dh
gq/oBk pyPdh j?. XzBsk :'r jB T[j Xowh fiT[V/, i' nkgD/ ;fsr[o{ ih
d/ gktB j[ewBkw/, r[opkDh gVQ$;[D, ;wMe/, T[; nB[;koh B/e, ns/
;ziwh ihtB pshs eod/ jB. Bw;eko j? nfij/ r[ow[Zy iBK B{z fiBK
r[opkDh B{z jh ngD/ ihtB dk ukBD w[Bkok, s/ nk;ok pDkfJnk j?. go
id'A nkb/ d[nkb/ f;Zy ;wki dh ihtB P?bh rj[ Bkb t/yhJ/ sK ;fsr[o{ ih
d/ n;b j[ewBkw/ (r[opkDh) s'A T[bN toskok tos fojk gosZy Bio
nk iKdk j?.
;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB, ngDh nBw'b ouBk, r[opkDh B{z P[ZX o{g ftu
b'ekJh B{z T[geko fjs pyP e/, ;oho eoe/ Gkt/A ub/ rJ/, go T[jBK d/
T[FZsw T[gd/P (j[ew) ;[oZfyns o{g ftu wBZ[y wkso bJh,;dht ekb
tk;s/ w"i{d jB. r[o{ ekb ftu fe;/ gzE d'yh fJB;kB fto[ZX ;fsr[o{ ih
tZb'A edh “j[ewBkwk” ikoh BjhA j'fJnk. jK fJfsjk; ftu doi j? fe
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ tZv/ g[Zso pkpk ;qh uzd B/, ;fsr[o{ nzrd
;kfjp nZr/ M[eD s'A, r[o{ wzBD s'A BKj eoe/ fgsk r[o{ d/ j[ew dh
ntZfrnk ehsh ;h. pkpk ;qh uzd B/ r[owfonkdk s'A T[bN ftnkj BjhA
eotkfJnk. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih tZb'A Xow gquko d"fonK (T[dk;hnK)
;w/A XkoB ehsk gfjoktk ;qh uzd B/ gfjB fbnk. nkgDh r[owfs s'A
tZyoh T[dk;h ;zgodk Gh N'o bJh. fJsBk e[M j'D d/ pkti{d r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih tZb'A, iK T[jBK s'A pkd ftu r[orZdh s/ fpokiwkB ;fsr[o{nK
tZb'A, ;qh uzd d/ fto[ZX gzE ftu'A S/eD dk j[ewBkwk ikoh BjhA ehsk
frnk. ekch d/o pknd ;s/ pbtzv ih B/, fJj io{o fbfynk, fe r[o{

(225)
g[ZsoK B/ j[ew Bk wzfBnk, fdb d/ y'N/, pkrh j' rJ/. gkgK dk Gko f;o
s/ oZy fbnk. gzeshnK jB^
“g[sqh eT[b[ B gkfbU efo ghoj[ ezBQ w[oNhn?..
fdfb y'N? nkeh fcofB, pzfB Gko[ T[ukfJfB SNhn?.. (967)
dks{ ih ns/ dk;{ ih B/ r[orZdh pkpk nwodk; B{z fwbD s/, pj[s
fto'X ehsk. rzd/ puB p'b/ ns/ ;ohoe B[e;kB g[ukD bJh jZE u[Zfenk.
;fsr[o{ nwodk; ih B/ I[pkB s'A e"Vk puB sZe Bk T[ukfonk. ;r'A e[M
;w/A bJh ngD/ iZdh fgzv pk;oe/ fJeKstk; ftu ik fpoki/. dks{ dk;{
fto[ZX e'Jh gzE ftu'A S/eD dk cstk ikoh Bk ehsk. ;fsr[o{ okwdk; ih
d/ tZv/ p/N/, fgqEh uzd B/ r[o{ fgsk d/ j[ewK dh nB/etko T[bzxDk ehsh.
r[o{ rZdh r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih B{z fwbD s/, T[j nZr pp{bk j' T[FZfmnk.
gzuw r[od/t ih B{z je{ws dh wkocs ysw eotkT[D dk f;os'V :sB
ehsk. ;[bjh ykB ns/ phopb B{z, c"i ;w/s nkT[D dk ;Zdk fdZsk sK fe
r[orZdh jfEnkJh ik ;e/. ;zrsK tZb'A d;tzX dh wkfJnk ngD/ J/izNK
okjhA fJeZmh eodk fojk. r[o{ noiB ;kfjp d/ fJeb"s/ p/N/ jfor'fpzd
ih B{z wko d/D bJh, eJh ewhBhnK ukbK ubhnK. XzBsk d/ :'r ;fsr[o{
ih B/ fgqEh d/ fto[ZX e'Jh j[ewBkwk ;kdo Bk ehsk. e"Vk puB sZe Bk
p'fbnk. r[o{ noiB ;kfjp nro ukj[zd/ sK fe;/ f;Zy B{z nky e/, fgqEh
dk c;sk tZY ;ed/ ;B, go nfijk BjhA ehsk frnk. ;fsr[o{ s/r
pjkdo ;kfjp ih s/, Xhowb B/, ;hj/ ;/te okjhA r'bh ubtkJh, i'
;fsr[o{ ih d/ ezB d/ Bkb dh j' e/ d;sko B{z uhodh j'Jh, nZr/ fBeb
rJh. r[o{ xo ftu'A wkb n;pkp b[ZN fbnk frnk. GkJh wZyD Pkj B/
XhowZb s/ ;hjA/ B{z geV ieV e/, ;fsr[o{ ih nZr/ fbnk ;[ZfNnk.
ekotkJh eoB dh nkfrnk wzrh. pyfPzd ;fsr[o{ ih B/ puB T[uko/ ^
“fJBK B{z Sv fdU, w[nkc eo fdU, fisBh d/o fiT[Dr/. gSskt/ d/ jzM{
e/od/ ofjDr/.” w[nkc eo fdZs/ rJ/. fJ; soK pkpk okw okJ/ B/ Gh
rbsh ehsh ;h, go ;fsr[o{ jfo okJ/ ;kfjp ih B/ e'Jh j[ew Bkwk ikoh
Bk ehsk. e/tb fJzBk fejk fe ;kv/ ;kjwD/ Bk nkt/HHHH p;.

(226)
;fsr[o{ r'fpzd f;zx, ;fseko:'r fgsk r[o{ d/ ekfsb, n"ozrI/p
B{z fwbD uZb gJ/. T[j ikDd/ ;B fe wksk ih, uko/ ;kfjpIkd/ ns/ nB/e
f;ZyK dk n"ozrI/p eksb j?, fco fwbD dk ftuko eoB dk okj pzd BjhA
ehsk. fJ; s'A pknd pzdk f;zx pjkdo dk ;wK nkT[Adk j?. fJjBK ysK
dh gqwkfDesk s/ Pzek poeoko j?. feT[Afe pzdk f;zx, y[d d;w gksPkj
ji{o s'A nkd/P gqkgs eoe/, ekoi ftXh T[bhe e/ jh gzikp nkfJnk ;h.
T[; e'b ;fsr[o{ ih d/ fbysh c[owkB ( j[ewBkw/ ) fuzBQ s/ jI{oh f;Zy
w"i{d ;B. r[o{ gdth Gh wksk ih e'b BjhA ;h. wksk ih T[AM Gh je{ws
dh BIopzdh ftu ;B. T[jBK B{z pkjo tkgo oj/ xNBk eow dk e'Jh
fJbw BjhA ;h. fJ;/ bJh fe;/ rbs cfjwh ftu fJj \s fby fdZs/ rJ/
sK e'Jh yk; rZb BjhA. fJj Gh ;zGt j? fe jkewK tZb'A wksk ih dk Bkw
tos e/ pzdk f;zx fto[ZX Bebh \s fby fdZs/ rJ/ j'D. feT[Afe wksk ih
brGr 1745 sZe ihts oj/, go gzikp ftu dkyb Bk j' ;e/, f;ZyK d/
ekcfbnK iK w[yhnK B{z edh Bk fwb ;e/, eh ikDhJ/<
fw;bK tes gzE fto'Xh ns/ r[ows fto'Xh ezwK eoe/ pkpk
tvGkr f;zx^ Bkb'A gzE B/ Bksk s'V fbnk ;h e[M jh ;w//A nzdo T[; B/
G[Zb bJh w[nkch wzr bJh, go T[; d/ ny"sh u/b/ nZi sZe tkg; BjhA
gos/. GkJh ;[Zyk f;zx wkVh ezp'eh tkb/, T[Zgo fJj d'P ;h fe T[; B/ p/Nh
dh jZfsnk ehsh j?. id'A fe T[j f;ZX/ o{g ftu e;{otko BjhA ;h. fco
Gh T[; B/ r[o{ ;BwZ[y j' e/ G[Zb bJh w[nkch wzr bJh s/ nG/d j' frnk.
GkJh iZ;k f;zx okwrVQhnk, ;kEhnK ;w/s ;wK ftuko e/ ibzXo d/
c"idko ndhBk p/r e'b ik B"eo j'fJnk. ;wK nkT[D s/, fJ;B/ Gh
w[nkch wzrh G[Zb pyPtkJh.
T[Zgo tofDs S'NhnK tZvhnK e[M xNBktK xNhnK, b/feB fe;/
f;Zy B{z rbsh eoB s/ gzE ftu'A S/eD tkb/ j[ewBkw/ ikoh eoB s'A ;dk
jh ;ze'u ehsk frnk. nkX[fBe IwkB/ dk ;G s'A gfjbK j[ewBkwk
18^03^1887 ftu g'qL r[ow[Zy f;zx B{z f;Zyh ftu'A ykoi eoB pko/ ikoh
j'fJnk. T[; dk e;{o fJj dZf;nk frnk ;h fe T[j ny"sh r[o{ nzP p/dh

(227)
;'Yh pkfpnK dk ftP/P ;fseko BjhA eodk. iks B{z BjhA wzBdk, fjzd{
d/th d/tfsnK ns/ ntskoK pko/ G?V/ puB p'bdk j?. ;w/A B/ eotN bJh,
108 ;kb pkd, ;szpo 1995 B{z ftPt f;Zy ;zw/bD tes, gq'L r[ow[Zy f;zx
B{z gzE ftu tkg; b?D dk j[ewBkwk ikoh ehsk frnk. fJ; s'A ;kc
Ikfjo j? fe T[j nrKj tX{ r[of;Zy, ny"sh gzE w[yhnK dh izrkbh ;'u
Bkb'A, d{onzd/Ph ftu 108 ;kb nZr/ ;h.
15H11H1920 B{z r[odtkfonK dh ;zGkb tk;s/ fJZe e/Adoh ew/Nh
dk rmB eoB bJh vkLr[opyP f;zx ;/te tZb'A, nekb s\s dh w'jo
tos e/, gzE d/ Bkw ;Zdk gZso o{gh, j[ewBkwk ikoh ehsk frnk.
1923 B{z rzr;o i?s'A fty/ w'ou/ tes gzE fto'Xh ekotkJhnK bJh
GkJh r[ofdnkb f;zx B{z gzE ftu'A S/fenk frnk.
30H05H1924 B{z eosko f;zx p/dh B{z sBykj bkJh rJh. rZdh bk
e/ p?mD ekoB.
09H08H1928 B{z GkJh s/ik f;zx s/ T[; dh gsBh phph fBoziD e"o
G;"V tkfbnK B{z r[opkDh dk ngwkB eoB d/ d'Ph mfjokfJnk frnk.
(n;b ftu gfNnkbk oki tZb'A fJj ekotkJh fBih ekoBk eoe/ eotkJh
rJh)
12H06H1936 B{z ikoh j[ewBkw/ ftu f;Zy bJh, ngD/ Bkw Bkb,
iks r's fbyD dh wBkjh ehsh rJh ns/ BhthnK iksK Bkb fJZe;wkB
pokpo tosD dk nkd/P fdZsk frnk.
10H06H1978 B{z, fBozekoh ;zgodkfJ Bkb'A Bksk s'V b?D pko/
j[ewBkwk ikoh ehsk frnk.
1986 ftu GkJh p{Nk f;zx e/Adoh wzsoh, fBjzr w[yh ;zsk f;zx s/
fdZbh dk fJZe bhvo, oSgkb f;zx B{z gzE fto'Xh ekoBK eoe/ e;{otko
rodkfBnk frnk.
dopko ;kfjp s/ “ ekbh roi Bkwh ” jwbk w[V s'A eotkT[D
pko/, ;[oihs f;zx poBkbk, sZsekbh w[Zy wzsoh B{z sBykj bkJh rJh
1986 ftu.

(228)
1993 ftu gzE fto'Xh s/ r[opkDh fto'Xh fbysK ekoB vkL fgnko
f;zx, vkLgP"ok f;zx s/ nwoihs f;zx rq/tkb B{z sB\kj bkJh rJh.
(fJ; d/ ekoB Gh oki;h ;B)
nyho ftu T[; ;G s'A gzE xkse tzvhnK gkT[D tkb/, e[u/PNk
nXhB ikoh ehs/ rJ/ “j[ewBkw/” dk fIeo eoBk nfs Io{oh j?. rbs
sZE g/P eoe/ nkgDhnK fBZih roIK s/ bkb;ktK nXhB ikoh eotkJ/,
fJ; j[ewBkw/ ekoB ftd/Ph f;ZyK ftu ;dk tk;s/ gkVk g? frnk. xo,
foPs/dkohnK, w{zj w[bkji/ N[ZN rJ/, d[PwDh d/ ezv/ EK EK T[Zr gJ/. fJj
;h GkJh oDihs f;zx tZb'A wJh 1998 ftu ikoh ehsk frnk. (sZgV iK
e[o;h) bzro fttkd tkbk “j[ewBkwk”. w;bk fJsBk wkw{bh ;h fe fJ;
B{z b'eb s"o s/ BfiZfmnk ikDk ukjhdk ;h. go pV/ d[Zy dh pks j? fe
nkgDhnK fBZih bkb;ktK dh g{osh tk;s/ fJ; B{z g?dk ehsk frnk,
tXkfJnk frnk s/ fco i'odko Yzr Bkb gq?Z; ftu T[Skfbnk frnk.
;EkBe gZXo s/ fBp/Vk eoB dh Ekt/A fco fJ; B{z fpBQK b'V s'A, nekb
s\s ;kfjp s/ x;hN e/ fbnKdk frnk. sZgVK s/ p?m e/ bzro SeD dk
fto'X eoB tkb/, e[o;hnK d/ jZe ftu p'bD tkb/, S/ ;/tkdkoK B{z “
j[ewBkwk” ikoh eoe/, ykb;k gzE ftu'A ykoi eo fdZsk frnk. fJ;
e[o;h pBkw sZgV fttkd tkb/ j[ewBkw/ s/, gzi iZE/dkoK d/ d;\s ;B,
T[j ;B ^ GkJh oDihs f;zx ;qh nekb s\s, GkJh wBihs f;zx nBzdg[o
;kfjp, GkJh e/tb f;zx sbtzvh ;kp', GkJh GrtkB f;zx rzqEh nekb
s\s ;kfjp, GkJh uoB f;zx rqzEh ;qh dopko ;kfjp. fJjBK ftu'A GkJh
wBihs f;zx pd/PK ftu e[o;h s/ p?m e/, bzro toskT[D tkb/ r[o{ xoK
ftu e[o;hnK s/ p?m e/ bzro eJh tko Se u[Ze/ jB. gq'L doPB f;zx,
r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk s/ j'o nB/e bhvo e[o;hnK s/ bzro Sed/ oj/ jB.
go fJ; tkoh e[o;hnK d/ fto[ZX nekb s\s d/ b?No g?v s/ w'jo dh
tos'A eoe/, “j[ewBkwk” ikoh ehsk. fJj Gh j[ew fdZsk frnk fe
e[o;hnK d/ jZe ftu G[rsD tkb/ gqpzXeK s'A, r[odtko/ nkIkd eokJ/
ikD. fJjBK r[o{ xoK ftu gkmh, eEktkue, ehosBhJ/ Ykvh Gh Bk

(229)
ikD. fijV/ ikDr/, T[jBK fto[ZX Gh ;ys ekotkJh ehsh ikt/rh. pV/
d[Zy Bkb fbyDk g? fojk j? fe r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk iZE/dkoK B{z ;fseko
jh G[Zb frnk. i/ e'Jh ;/tkdko T[; r[o{ xo ftu Bk fojk, sK ;fsr[o{ d/
gktB ;o{gK dh ;/tk fet/A j't/rh< nkgD/ r[o{ dh ;/tk s/ pkDh gVQBh
;[DBh, ehosB eEk eoB'A o'eD tkbk e'Jh r[owZ[y BjhA j' ;edk. T[j
iE/dkoh d/ Gh edkfus :'r BjhA j?. ;r'A r[o{ dh jI{oh ftu ikD' o'eD
tkbk, f;Zy nytkT[D dk Gh jZedko BjhA j?. e[M fJZe fuZmhnK GkJh
oDihs f;zx B/ pd/PK d/ f;ZyK tZb fbyhnK, fijBK B{z j[ewBkwk fejk.
go T[; Gb/ wkD; B{z fJj Gh BjhA gsk fe xZN' xZN ngD/ fBZih b?No g?v
s/ fbyh fuZmh B{z, j[ewBkwK sK Bk nky/. fco j'o f;sw fJj gJh T[jBK
fuZmhnK s/ GkJh oDihs f;zx d/, jZE Bkb ehs/ d;ys BjhA jB ;r'A
d;ysK dh Beb tkbh opV dh w'jo pDtkJh j'Jh j?. T[; w'jo B{z
“j[ewBkfwnK” s/ d;ysK dh EK mZg fdZsk frnk j?.
fJ; s'A pknd sK j[ewBkfwnK dk jV jh tr s[fonk ;h. GkJh
oDihs f;zx tZb'A, GkJh wBihs f;zx, GkJh e/tb f;zx s/ pofizdo f;zx
jwdod fto[ZX. fJ; s'A gfjbK fe e'Jh j'o “j[ewBkwk” ikoh ehsk
iKdk, GkJh oDihs f;zx B{z nj[d/ s'A T[skoB dk “ j[ewBkwk” ikoh j'
frnk j?. fJ; s'A pknd pDkJ/ rJ/ iE/dko, GkJh g{oB f;zx. fijBK
nkT[AfdnK jh phph irho e"o, gqXkB n?;HihHghH;hH B{z gzE ftu'A ykoi
eo fdZsk. pVk xVwZ; wukfJnk fJ; ;yP B/, BK gzi f;zx fJeZm/ eoB
dh io{os, Bk nekb s\s ;kfjp whfNzr eoB dh b'V. Bk ;pzXs
ftnesh e'b'A g[S gVskb eoB dh io{os. pZ; fi; B{z fdb eo/, gzE
ftu'A pkjo trkj wko'. fJ; dhnK nkg j[dohnK id'A f;o'A bzx rJhnK
sK fJ; B{z Gh rZdhUA T[sko fdZsk frnk, s/ iE/dkoh M'bh gk fdZsh frnkBh
i'frzdo f;zx t/dKsh d/. g{oB f;zx tkb/ ;ko/ j[ewBkw/ oZd eo fds/ rJ/,
go oDihs f;zx tkbk sZgV$e[o;h fttkd tkbk j[ew, tkg; BjhA fbnk.
g{oB f;zx dhnK iVK fesBhnK e[ v{zxhnK jB, fJ; dk nzdkik fJ;/ rZb'A
bkfJnk ik ;edk j?, fe nB/e wBnkJhnK, gzE xkse ekotkJhnK eoB

(230)
d/ pkti{d Gh T[j fJZe ;fsekos nj[d/ s/ cBhno tKr e[zvbh wkoh p?mk
j?. j? fe;/ ftu fJsBh skes fe T[;dk tkb Gh ftzrk eo ;e/< Btzpo
2004 ftu id'A phph irho e"o w[V SGPC dh goXkB pDh sd'A frL
g{oB f;zx B[z ezB' geV pkjo eZfYnk frnk.
fgZS/ tofDs j[ewBkfwnK dh sc;hb toDB eoB dk fJZe' we;d
j?, fe gkmeK B{z uzrh soQK gsk bZr ikt/ fe ;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB d/ ihtB
ekb ftu, fe;/ f;Zy B{z rbsh eoB d/ pkti{d Gh gzE ftu'A ykoi eoB
tkbk j[ewBkwk ikoh BjhA j'fJnk. n;b j[ewBkwk PoXktkB f;Zy
tk;s/, gftZso r[opkDh j?. pkDh nB[;koh ihtB fiT[Dk jh n;b f;Zyh
j?. vkL rzvk f;zx ih B/ fJZe g[;se ;zgkds eoe/ SgtkJh ;h “j[ewBkw/”.
nZieZb fJj feskp gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk tZb'A fwbdh j?. T[;
ftu rzvk f;zx ih B/ y[Zb e/ fieo ehsk j? fe fJj ;fsr[o{ ih d/ ji{oh
f;ZyK tZb'A ;fsr[o{ ih dh fJZSk w[skpe, fbyhnK rJhnK fumhnK jB.
fes/ fes/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/ jZE fbys “ fB;kD” Gh fwbd/ jB. feT[Afe
fJjBK \sK ftu o'IkBk tos'A dhnK uhiK dk fieo j?, fit/A o[g?, ;'Bk,
uKdh, jfEnko, x'V/ nkfd. eJhnK ftu ;zrs B{z fwbtosD Bkb ob e/
ofjD dh skehd j?. rbsh eoB tkfbnK B{z w[V gzE ftu Pkwb eo b?D
dh nkfrnk j?. w;zdK Bkb'A Bksk s'V b?D dh nkfrnk j?. go fJjBK \sK
ftu Gh fe;/ f;Zy B{z esb eo d/D iK gzE ftu'A ykoi eoB pko/ okJh
wkso fieo BjhA fwbdk. ;' T[j fuZmhnK jB, f;Zy ;zrsK, ;fseko Bkb
T[jBK B{z “j[ewBkw/” nkyD bZr gJhnK. ekch ;ko/ \s T[jBK ftu PZe
d/ x/o/ ftu Gh jB.
nZi d/ ;zdop ftu jkbks B{z nZyK nZr/ fbnkU. fet/A fBr{DhnK
p/wkjBhnK, gkDhT[A gsbhnK rZbK pko/ j[ewBkw/ ikoh j'J/ fwbd/ jB. i/
edh iE/dkoK s/ okiBhsh Gko{ BK j[zdh , fJ; tZv/ ;fsekos nj[d/ s/
:'rsk Gog{o ihtB tkb/ ftdtkB r[of;Zy, fB:[es ehs/ j[zd/ sK fBr{DhnK
rZbK pko/ “j[ewBkw/” ikoh BK j[zd/. wkB' wZSo wkoB tk;s/, Gkoh s'g dh
tos'A ehsh rJh. wZSo wfonk BjhA go s'g dk ;kok pko{d rtk fbnk.

(231)
nrb/ gzfBnK s/ T[jBK w;fbnK B{z f;Zy, ;zrsK d/ ;Bw[y fbnKdk ik
fojk j?, fiBK pko/ iE/dkoK B{z ;w/A f;o T[fus ekotkJh eoe/, ;pzXs
iE/pzdh iK ftnesh B{z r[ows fto'Xh ekotkJhnK eoB s'A o'eD bJh
skVBk eoBh pDdh ;h. go oki;h ekoBK eoe/ iK ngDh Bk nfjbhns
eoe/, pDdk ;odk nkd/P Bk fdZsk frnk. fi; ekoB iE/dkoK dh
nkgDh fJZIs sK dkn s/ bZrh jh ;h, fJjBK nekb sys ;kfjp dh
niws B{z Gh iop bk fdZsh.
BBekDk ;kfjp ftu y{Bh eKv tkgo/ B{z brgr nZ;h ;kb phs
uZ[e/ jB. go f;Zy wkBf;esk ftu BokfJD dk; gkgh, Xowh f;ZyK d/ y{B
ftu ni/ sZe skohnK bkT[Adk, f;ZyK dhnK p'NhnK B'udk, nZrK ftu
;kVdk goshs j[zdk j?. isB eoB s/ Gh fJj ;kek G[bkfJnk BjhA ik
;edk. fJj ekok r[o{ xo dh j' ojh p/j[owsh B{z o'eD bJh ;h. go eh
T[;s'A wro'A Gh BokfJD dk; dh wbhB o{j XkoB eoe/ ;kX bkDk T[;/
okj s/ BjhA N[fonk j'fJnk< eh f;Zyh n;{bK dk ;kX Po/nkw xkD BjhA
eo oj/< pj[s bzp/ nop/ s'A nDfrDs ;kX pkp/, v/o/dko f;Zyh ;o{g ftu
ofj e/ jh r[ows d/ iVhA e[jkVk BjhA ubk oj/ < nkg' ngD/ jo v/o/,
mkm, iE/ iK Ne;kb dh tZyoh wfonkdk j?. fBo'b r[opkDh dk ehosB
eoB dh Ekt/A, ngDhnK eZuhnK fgZbhnK eftsktK (ny"sh XkoBktK)
N'Ne/ i'V e/, ;zrsK nZr/ oZyD s'A Pow BjhA eod/. nD ftfrnkBe,
gokG"fse, g[okfDe ejkDhnK, r[ows dk b/pb bk e/, ;zrsK B{z fJi?eN
(m{; d/Dk) ehsk ik fojk j?. r[ows B[{z eokwksh ozrD ftu g/P ehsk ik
fojk j?, i' r[opkDh dh w{b GktBk s'A e'jK d{o j?. fJjBK pkfpnK B/, ;ko/
pqkjwDh eoweKv, G'bh Gkbh f;Zy ;zrs B{z bZ[ND tk;s/ pVh ubkeh Bkb
r[od[nko/ ftu gouZbs eotk fdZs/ jB. eJh v/o/dko ;kX, feogkB BjhA
gfjBd/, ny/ n;hA r[o{ BkBe d/ f;Zy jK, “BkBe;ohJ/”. r[o{ jor'fpzd
;kfjp, ns/ d;w gksPkj ji{o Bkb fJjBK dk e'Jh ;pzX BjhA. e[M e[
v/o/dko, ngD/ s'A gfjbK j' r[io/ ;kXK dhnK c'N'nK dh g{ik r[o{ rzqE
;kfjp ih dh ji{oh ftu oZy e/, iK r[o{ ;kfjp ih dhnK ebgs s;thoK

(232)
ftu fNek e/, Ppd r[o{ d/ f;XKs dh o'ikBk fyZbh T[vkT[Ad/ jB. eJh mkm
tkb/ (r[odtko/< ) sK fBPkB ;kfjp BjhA bkT[Ad/. e[M EktK s/ bzro BjhA
pDdk$tosdk $ eekoK dk tyo/tK, fBsB/w dh pkDh ftu tkXk xkNk, gkm
eokT[D dh ftXh wBwoih dh. ;zgN gkm, wzso, jE"b/ eoB/, gkDh wzso
gVQe/ d/Dk iK nkN/ d/ g/V/ d/D/. Poshnk w[zvk g?dk eoB dk ftPtkP
fdbkT[Dk, ftnkj Bk eotkT[Dk, go phphnK d/ M[owN ftu ;dk fxo/
ofjDk. fJjBK ny"sh v/fonK ftu S'Nh T[wo d/ ;/tkdko bVfenK Bkb
d[okuko j'D/, n"osK dh gs b[ZNh ikDhHHHHH. eh T[FZgo tofDs r[ows B{z
wbhnk w/N eoB tkb/ eko/, ;kv/ ;fseko :'r sysK d/ iE/dkoK B{z, Bio
BjhA nkJ/< eh gkghnK tZb'A d[okuko dk fPeko j'J/ wk;{w bVfenK dhnK
uheK s/ f;;ehnK ;[DkJh BjhA fdZshnK< PoXk fjZs fJjBK n;EkBK s/
ikD tkbhnK G'bhnK phphnK dk j' fojk P'PD nB?sesk fJjBK B{z
wfj;{; jh BjhA j'Jh< fco fJjBK gkg eowK ns/ wBwsh ekotkJhnK
fto[ZX i[pkB feT[A BjhA y[bh< fJjBK gzE xkse, Bhu eos{sK eoB
tkfbnK fto[ZX feT[A nZi sZe edh “j[ewBkwk” ikoh BjhA j'fJnk<
feT[AHHHHH<
p'fb ;[ XowhfVnk w'fB es Xkoh okw..
s[{ B/sqh d/fy ufbnk wkfJnk fpT[jkoh okw..(547)
;w[Zu/ gzE tZb'A fsnko ehsh rJh, ;qh nekb sys ;kfjp tZb'A wkBsk
gqkgs, gzE tZb'A u[Dh j'Jh ;z;Ek, Pq'qwDh r[odtkok gqpzXe ew/Nh tZb'A
gqekfPs eotkJh “f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk” dh T[bx z Dk nB/e f;Zy iZEp
/ d
z hnK
bzw/ no;/ s'A eodhnK nk ojhnK jB. Bkw f;woB d/ w;b/ s'A b? e/,
ykD ghD gfjBD sZe d/ w;fbnK pko/, ;ys wsG/d j' u[Ze/ jB. nkg'
nkgD/ iE/ iK w[yh dh wfonkdk ;ko/ gzE s/ vzv/ d/ i'o m';Dk ukj[zd/ jB.
fpBK fe;/ gZe/ ;p{s s'A ngDh iZE/pzdh ftubh wfonkdk B{z d;w gksPkj
tZb'A fBoXkos ehsh, “;hBk p;hBk ” ubh nk ojh n;bh wfonkdk j'D
dk e[co, jo o'I r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu p'fbnk iKdk j?.
r[opkDh B{z nkgDh v/o/dkoh iK ;zsrhoh d/ jZe ftu, p/y"c tofsnk ik

(233)
fojk j?. d/jXkoh r[o{ B{z wzBD tkb/ v/o/, okXk ;[nkwh, fBozekoh BkwXkoh
(e{e/). f;o;/ tkb/ s/ j'o nDfrDs v/fonK tkb/, Ppd r[o{ f;XKs dhnK
p/ofjwh Bkb XZihnK T[vkT[Ad/ jB, s/ d/jXkoh r[o{ d/ jZe ftu, r[opkDh
dh x'o d[otos'A eod/ jB. fBZs Bt/A Yzr Bkb, r[ows dh o{j r[opkDh,
ns/ gzEe j;sh dk fBokdo ehsk ik fojk j? ns/ gzEe w[yh sysK d/
iE/dko, rcbs dh BhAd ftu x{e ;[Zs/ gJ/ jB. fJjBK E'e ftu g?dk j'
oj/ wBwsh ezwK s/ ny"sh pkfpnK r[o{nK fto[ZX, ;zrsK B{z ;[u/s BK ehsk
frnk. nkyoh jfEnko ti'A e'Jh j[ewBkwk ikoh BK ehsk frnk. go
feT[A< feT[A<<HHHH
;uk Xow g[zB[ Gbk eokJ/.. dhB e? s';? d[Bh B ikJ/..
dhB SvkJ/ d[Bh i' bkJ/.. d[jh ;okJh y[Bkwh ejkJ/..
(743)
fJfsjk; B{z s'V wo'V e/ g/P eoB ftu, b/yeK B/ e'Jh e;o BjhA
Svh. ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih s'A P[o{ j' e/ w"i{dk ;w/A sZe fJfsjk; B{z
rzXbk eoB dk d[PN eow fBofpxB ikoh j?. gfjb/ ;fwnK ftu, pkb/
Bkwh coih Bkw tkb/ ftnesh B/, r[o{ ih dk iBw;kyh ftu, p/nzs EK s/
ngwkB ehsk. p/f;o g?o dhnK wB'ebfgs, e{V ejkDhnK, pkpk ih Bkb
BZEh ehshnK rJhnK. r[o{ pkpk ih d/ nfBB ;/tkdko, GkJh ;kfjp
wodkBk ih B{z, Bhusk dh jZd sZe ngwkfBs ehsk. G[Zyk fgnk;k, T[bKG/
fdzdk, vfonk j'fJnk s/ bkbuh fposh tkbk, pDk e/ sK g/P ehsk jh ;h,
G/v{, SZsok, pDkT[D s'A Gh Pow Bk ehsh. r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ;u/ gksPkj
B{z, fJ; B/ e'jV j'fJnk dZf;nk. feT[Afe pkpk ;qh uzd B/ ;okg i' d/ fdZsk
;h. e'jV tkb/ iywK B{z ;/tkdko pkpk nwodk; (pkd ftu ;fsr[o{)
ngD/ w{zj Bkb u{;dk dZf;nk, rzdh ghe w{zj ftu gkT[Adk fojk. r[o{
noiD ;kfjp ih tZb'A fsnko ehs/ ;q'to dk ib rzdk j'D'A, feow g?D'A, Bk
jfNnk. fiE/ ;qh uzd d/ fJPBkB s'A pknd rzdk gkDh fJeZmk j'fJnk
eodk ;h, T[jh gkDh nzfwqs;o ;q'to ftu gkfJnk, sK gkDh ;tZS j'fJnk,
feow wo/. r[o{ gazuw gksPkj d/ xo bzw/ no;/ sZe pkbe g?dk Bk

(234)
j'fJnk sK ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;[gsBh rzrk ih B{z pkpk p[ZYk ih e'b, g[Zso
gqkgsh tk;s/ N'o fdZsk. pkpk p[ZYk ih d/ wzso Bkb, wksk ih T[E'A jh
roGtsh j' e/ gosh. B"t/A ;fsr[o{ s/r pjkdo, r[ows f;XKsK s'A T[bN
26 ;kb G'o/ ftu p?m e/, sg eod/ oj/. g[Zso gqkgsh tk;s/, B"t/A BkBe
fjzd{ shoEK s/ ik e/, wzBsK wzBd/ oj/, pqkjwDK B{z ;'Bk, uKdh, rT{nK dkB
eod/ oj/. d;t/A BkBe fgSb/ iBwK ftu j/we[zN s/ bZyK ;kb sgZf;nk
eod/ oj/. d/thA gqrN eoe/ T[; s'A Pesh gqkgsh fjZs, jtB eod/ oj/.
nZr/ ftjb/ tes B{z ozrhB pDkT[D tk;s/, d;w gksPkj ekw T[e;kT[,
fsqnk ufoZso torhnK, ufoZsojhD ejkDhnK fbyd/ oj/HHHH. eh fJj
d{Ps ;wZroh r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftu ;jh f;ZX j' ;edh j? < fco nZi sZe
bzwk no;k phs ikD d/ pkti{d, fe;/ sys d/ iE/dko B/, d[PN fbysK
fto[ZX nktki feT[A Bk T[mkJh< j[ewBkwk o{gh sho feT[A BjhA SZfvnk<
e[o;hnK fsnkr e/ sZgVK s/ p?m e/ bzro SeD tor/ ezw tk;s/ j[ewBkwk
dkfrnk ik ;edk j?. gziK f;zx ;fjpkBK d/ d;ysK ns/ w'jo ;qh nekb
sys ;kfjp dh tos'A eoe/, jk;'jhDh rZb pdb/ j[ewBkwk ikoh ehsk ik
;edk j?, go fJfsjk; B{z ;'XD pko/ BjhA. ;fsr[o{ ih dh niws tXkT[D
tkbk BjhA. go feT[A< feT[A<<HHHHHH
frnkBh fXnkBh pj[ T[gd/Ph fJj ir ;rb' XzXk..
efj epho fJZe okw Bkw[ fpB fJnk ir[ wkfJnk nzXk..(338)
nZr/ j'o stZi' fdU. gqf;ZX fJfsjk;eko vkL rzvk f;zx B/, pkpk
okw f;zx (BkwXkoh fcoe/ d/ nkr{) pko/ pj[s fwjBs Bkb y'i Gog{o
feskp fbyh “e{fenK dh ftZfEnk”. T[; g[;se ftu pkpk okw f;zx
dhnK p/nzs f;Zy gzE fto'Xh ekotkJhnK dk ;p{sK ;fjs fieo j?. fet/A
pkpk okw f;zx d/ g?o'eko wBwkBhnK eod/ ;B$jB. pkpk okw f;zx B{z
gzE fto'Xh rZbK ekoB gqwZ[y r[odtkfonK$sysK T[FZgo, fJjBK dh G/Nk
gqPkfd s/ nodk; dh wBkjh j' rJh. fJjBK b'eK r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih B{z,
pVh e[fNbsk Bkb Bkd/V (ji{o ;kfjp) s'A BkG/ nikgkb d/ r[odtko/
(T[; tes fJZe fMVh ;h) r[gstk; ftu fbnKdk. e{fenK d/ fJZe gfjb/

(235)
r[o{, GkJh pkbe f;zx dk iBw fgzv S'Jh fibk nNe (gkfe;skB) ftu
j'fJnk s/ fwqs{ S/ d;zpo 1862 B{z. fJ;/ pkbe f;zx s'A okw f;zx B/
dhfynk bJh ;h. e{fenK d/ ekbgfBe ;o'sK w[skpe, d;w gksPkj B/
r[orZdh 1830 d/ B/V/ pkbe f;zx B{z fdZsh. nr'A woB tes 1862 ftu
okw f;zx B[z{ d/ frnk. iok ;'u' 1666 s'A b? e/ 1830 sZe r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx
ih nro ihts oj/, sK T[jBK dh T[wo fezBh j' rJh< fJZe ;" s/ u"Ajm
;kb, fBok e[co. fco fJjBK soheK ftu sK f;Zy oki dk ;{oi p[bzdhnK
s/ ;h, wkbt/ ftu Gh f;Zy, oki ekfJw eo uZ[e/ ;B. r[o{ ih b[e/ feT[A
oj/, ehjd/ s'A vo ;h< ;ko/ okfinK gqrN eoe/ ;r'A T[jBK dk p/nzs
;BwkB eoBk ;h, nrtkJh b?Dh ;h. go rg"VK fby e/ ngDk r[o{ vzw
e{fenK B/ ubk fbnk j?. nodk; fJjBK pdb bJh, nzfwqs pdb fbnk,
eeko pdb bJ/. Ppd r[o{ d/ neZN f;XKs B{z SZv e/ d/jXkoh r[o{ gqEk
ukb{ eo bJh. f;sw iohch t/y'` nekbh db dk “nzfwqsXkoh gqXkB”,
f;Zyh ;o{gtkbk w[y Z wzsoh ;qH gqek; f;zx pkdb, r[o{ BkBe d/t :{Bhtof;Nh
nzfwqs;o ftu, “r[o{ okw f;zx u/no ;Ekgs eo nkfJnk j?”. ngD/
jZEhA ;kohnK T[dxkNBh o;wK ehshnK. fJj ;ko/ d[PNsk tkb/ eko/
eofdnK pkdb B{z fe;/ iE/dko B/ fusktBh Bk fdZsh. ep{so tKr nZyK
whNh p?m/ oj/. e'Jh j[ewBkwk ;qh nekb sys ;kfjp s'A pkdb tZb BK
G/i ;e/. nfijk feT[A< feT[A<< HHHH
N/Yh gkr N/Y/ ub/ bkr/ pho/ ykB..
GkT[ Grfs f;T[ eki B eS{n? w/o' ekw[ dhtkB[.. (1124)
;zB 1983 ftu pkpk jouzd f;zx b'Ar'tkb, gqXkB ns/ fveN/No,
;q'wDh nekbh db tZb'A, fJZe BtK gogzu ofunk frnk. gzikp d/ tZy tZy
fjZf;nK ftu'A, nkJ/ B"itkBK B{z, nekb sys ;kfjp s/ nodk; eoe/,
j[ewBkwk b? e/ woihtV/ Gosh eoB dk, r[owfs fto'Xh Sb BkNe ehsk
iKdk ;h. jIkoK f;Zy Peb tkb/ b'eK B/, dopko ;kfjp dh gftZsosk
ekfJw oZyD tk;s/, b'V g?D s/ Gkosh c"i d/ jwb/ dk fto'X eofdnK,
ikBK tkoB dk jbc fbnk. bzwhnK Xkofwe o;wK fBGkJhnK rJhnK,

(236)
y[d pkpk jouzd f;zx Gh^ jbc b?D tkfbnK ftu ;kwb j'fJnk. ;wK
phfsnk, i{B 1984 B{z Gkosh c"i B/ dopko ;kfjp s/ fGnkBe jZbk p'b
fdZsk. ;G e[ZM sfj; Bfj; eo fdZsk. jcsk Go r'bhnK, s'gK, N?AeK
d[nkok nZr to;kJh iKdh ojh. nDfrDs PoXkb{ wkJh GkJh, b/y/ bZr
rJ/. nZr s'A gfjbK c"i tZb'A p/ ofjwh Bkb ehwsh ;kwkB b[ZfNnk frnk.
phphnK B{z p/gZs ehsk frnkHHH. fi; fe;/ d/ nzdo feDek wkso iwho
Bkw dh uhi pkeh ;h, T[j sVfcnk o'fJnk. ;kok gzikp jh BjhA d[BhnK
Go ftu c?fbnk f;Zy fjodk tb[zXfonk frnk. oZp dk G? wzBD tkb/
fJB;kBhns d/ jwdod r?o f;ZyK B/ Gh, f;ZyK s/ Ykj/ rJ/ i[bwK fto[ZX
nktki p[bzd ehsh. fesBh Pow Bkb wo ikD tkbh xNBk xNh, fe r[o{
rqzE ;kfjp d/ ;Bw[y, ;qh nekb sys ;kfjp s/ jkio j' e/ ikBK tkoB
dhnK e;wK u[ZeD tkb/ “woihtV/ d[zw dpk e/” nfij/ BZ;/ fe nZi sZe
T[jBK dk y[ok y'i jh BjhA bZfGnk. nekbh db d/ gqXkB pkpk jouzd
f;zx ns/ pkeh jikoK woihtV/, GhV gJh s'A r[o{ ns/ gzE B{z f;yo
d[gfjo/, drk d/ rJ/. ehs/ gqD, u[ZehnK e;wK, nekb sys ;kfjp dh
niws, dopko ;kfjp dh gftZsosk, xZN/ o'b fdZsh fJjBK wBw[yK B/.
fJjBK gzE d/ Gr'fVnk fto[ZX, nodk; eoe/ fgZm d/ ikD tkfbnK fybkc,
fe;/ iE/dko B/ e'Jh n?ePB BjhA fbnk. feT[A< e'Jh j[ewBkwk ikoh BK
ehsk, go feT[A << HHHHfeT[A<< HHHHH
M{m/ eT[ Bkjh gfs BkT[.. epj{ B ;{uk ekbk ekT[.. (839)
;zB 9^8^1928 ftu GkJh s/ik f;zx s/ phph fBoziD e"o G;"V
tkfbnK fto[ZX, gzE ftu'A ykoi eoB dk j[ewBkwk ikoh eofdnK, fJj
fJbikw bkfJnk frn ;h fe fJjBK B/ r[opkDh dh soshp B{z Gzr ehsk
j? , p/ndph ehsh j?. go ;kv/ iE/dkoK B{z edh BIo jh BjhA nkfJnk fe
v/o/dko ;kX ;zs ns/ d[ekBdko fet/A r[opkDh dh soshp B{z wbhnkw/N
eo oj/ jB< ig[ih ;kfjp pkopko Skg e/, r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp fiZvk rqzE pDk
Xfonk j?. ;[ywBh ;kfjp p/nzs tkoh Skg e/ j'o fJZe r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh
soi dk rqzE pDk fdZsk frnk j?. ;zgN tkb/, ;[ywBh ;kfjp, nbZr Sg/

(237)
j'J/ fwbd/ jB. fBsB/w dhnK pDhnK dk ;ko/ v/o/dkoK B/ tZvk o/Vek
gkfJnk j'fJnk j?. j'o s/ j'o, dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o s/ ;kjwD/ jh
nekb sys ;kfjp, fJZe wfonkdk ftu BjhA jB. d/PK pd/PK ftu
r[opkDh d/ r[Ne/, g'EhnK, nbZr nbZr soshp ftu SghnK j'JhnK
fwbdhnK jB. fBsB/w d/ r[Ne/ ns/ r[opkDh dhnK g'EhnK d/ nZr/ fgZS/
v/o/dko ;kXK dhnK c'N'nK ns/ tfuZso p/f;o g?o dhnK ejkDhnK SkghnK
rJhnK jB. r[opkDh B{z frDshnK ftu gVBk ftP/P EktK s/ p?m e/
gVBk, ubhj/ eZND tKr jm eow eoB/, nkw ihtB ftu ns/ v/o/dkoh
fbysK ftu ;G fwbd/ jB. v/o/dkoK dh e[{Vh gq;z;k ftu eJh eJh gzB/
ekb/ ehs/ j'J/ fwbd/ jB. fJjBK r[ows fto'Xh wBwsh eowK fto[ZX,
edh e'Jh j[ewBkwk ikoh BjhA ehsk frnk. eh iE/dkoK B{z fJj gkyzv
ikb Bio BjhA nkT[Adk < go feT[A << HHHHH
n;zs[ nBkVh ed/ B p{M.
? . eEBh eo? s? wkfJnk Bkfb M{M.
? . (1160)
;zB 1984 ftu ;w/A dh gqXkB wzsoh fJzdok rKXh B/, ;ko/ e"wh s/
e"wKsoh fB:wK B{z g?oK j/m wX'bfdnK, gktB ;qh dopko ;kfjp ns/ j'o
pj[s ;ko/ r[odtkfonK s/ c"ih jwbk eotk fdZsk. nDfrDs pZu/ p[ZY/,
wkJh GkJh p/d'P/ gzuw r[od/t dk r[og[op wBkT[D nkJ/, pVh p/ofjwh
Bkb w"s d/ xkN T[sko fdZs/ rJ/. fJ; x'o nBoE s'A pkd, gzdoK ;kb
sZe, dopko ;kfjp dh Bkekpzdh ojh. doPB eoB nkJ/ PoXkb[{nK B{z,
jo o'i sbkPhnK b? e/ ibhb ehsk iKdk fojk. fJ; no;/ d"okB e[M
f;ofco/ ;oekoh e?N (ny"sh ykVe{) dopko ;kfjp d/ nzdo s/ pkjo
gzE fto'Xh ns/ wB[Zysk fto'Xh Bhu joesK eod/ oj/. g[fb;h XkVK
ykVe{tkd B{z ysw eoB d/ Bkw j/m f;Zy B"itkBK dk fdB oks fPeko
eod/ oj/. nwho f;ZyK dh XzB ;zgsh b[ZNd/ oj/. Bhusk dhnK ;G jZdK
gko eoe/, phphnK B{z p/gs eod/ oj/. fco"shnK b?D tk;s/ w[zfvnK B{z
nrtk eoe/, B'NK dhnK gzvK pzBd/ oj/HHHHHHHH. fJj I[bw dk sKvt Bku
fpBK o[e/, gzdoK ;kb sZe ubdk fojk. fJ; ;w/A gzi ;kb sZe gzikp dk
wZ[y wzsoh f;Zy Peb tkbk s/ f;Zy nytkT[D tkbk p/nzs f;zx ;h. fi;

(238)
d/ j[ew Bkb f;Zy e"w dh B;b e[Ph P[o{ ehsh rJh. d{ik tZvk d?As f;Zy
Peb tkbk, g[fb; dk w[yh ;h e/HghHn?;H frZb. fi; dh ewKv ftu
brgr d' bZy B"itkBK B{z fpBK e;{o dZ;/, M{m/ g[fb; w[ekpb/ ftyke/, e'j
e'j e/ wkfonk frnk. f;Zy ;{osK tkb/, j'o Gh S'N/ tZv/ nc;o, EK EK
skfJBks ;B, s/ f;Zy gzE dk y{B vheK bk e/ gh oj/ ;B. wksk fgsk
dhnK nKdoK G?DK d/ fgnko/, ;[jkrDK d/ f;o d/ ;kJhA, wk;{wK d/ ;jko/,
B"itkBK B{z G[ZyhnK wZShnK dk ykik pDkT[Ad/ oj/. nDgSks/ rodkB e/,
f;Zy i[nkBh B{z bKp{ bkT[Ad/ oj/. HHHHH s/ gzE d/ ;fseko:'r iE/dko,
u{fjnK tKr, y[ZvK ftu dV/ p?m/ oj/. i[bw dh jB/oh nZr/ fjZe skD e/ nV
yb'Dk sK fes/ fojk, j' oj/ i[bwK fto[X i[pkB sZe BK y'jb ;e/. wB[Zysk
s'A fro/ j'J/ ekb/ ekoBKw/ eoB tkfbnK fto[ZX, j[ewBkwk o{gh sho BK
ubk ;e/. go nfijk feT[A < feT[A << HHHHH
egV[ o{g[ ;[jktDk Sfv d[BhnK nzdfo iktDk..
wzdk uzrk nkgDk nkg/ jh ehsk gktDk.. (470)
(fJ; ekbh p'bh jB/oh oks ftu i/ e'Jh feoB ftykJh fdzdh
ojh ;h T[j ;h ;fseko:'r ;kpek iE/dko ;qh nekb sys wPj{o
gqukoe, gq'c?;o doPB f;zx ih ykb;k. go pV/ d[Zy dh pks j?, j{V
ws ykVe{nK ns/ ;oekoh J/iz;hnK B/, fJjBK B{z y[b e/ ezw Bk eoB
fdZsk, nzs fsnkr gZso d/ e/ bKG/ j' rJ/)
nihs f;zx ;zX{ Bkw dk g[fb; nc;o, gkg dh p/Vh ftu nfijk
;tko j'fJnk fe T[; B/ who wzB{z tkb/ i[bwK B{z Gh wks eo fdZsk. f;Zy
rGo{nK B{z, fpBK e;{o s'A uZ[e fbikDk, wB[Zysk s'A fro/ j'J/ EoV fvroh
s;hj/ d/D/, T[jBK d/ ;pzXhnK s'A w[zv/ dh ikB pyPh bJh w'NhnK oewK
pN'oBhnK. fJjBK cV/ B"itkBK B{z y[d sVcd/ ftbed/ t/yDk. x'N/
bkT[D/, fpibh d/ eozN SZvD/, bZsK gkV d/DhnK, r[gs nzr s/ ;ZNK
wkoBhnK, r[dk ftu fwouk Go d/DhnK HHHHH fJ; d/ P[rb dk fjZ;k ;B.
w'J/ iK nXw'J/ w[zfvnK B{z u[Ze e/ dfonk ftu ;[ZN wZShnK dh y[oke pDk
d/Dk iK nDgSks/ nky e/ bKp{ bk d/Dk. f;odko i;tzs f;zx ykbVk,

(239)
fJ; ekb/ d"o ftu fJZe o"PB fuokr pD, f;o s/ eZcD pzB e/,
;oekoh dfjPs dk GKvk ;z;ko d/ b'eK dh eufjoh ftu GzBD tk;s/,
ekB{zBh ftXh B{z jfEnko pDk e/, db/oh Bkb T[Gfonk. T[; :'X/ B/
2500 nDgSks/ nky e/ ;kV fdZs/ rJ/ B"itkBK dh gSkD eo bJh,
xo gs/ bG bJ/. j'o 25000 nDgSkfsnK B{z gSkBD tk;s/ fdB
oks fJZe eo fdZsk. e;kJhnK dk o{g Xko u[e/, g[b;hnK B{z BZE
gkT[D bJh gzikp s/ jfonkDk jkJh e'oN ftu nghb ehsh. ;[DtkJh
Bk j'Jh. T[gzqs Gkos dh ;otT[FZu ndkbs ;[gqhw e'oN ftu, ;p{sK
;fjs ;kok e/; g/P ehsk. gV ;[D e/, fJB;kBh dod oZyD tkb/ iZi
;kfjpkB dk fjodk ezp frnk. T[jBK gzikp ftu tkgo oj/ tfjPh
ekfonK B{z, f;ZyK dh B;b e[Ph nkfynk. fJjBK i[bwK dh ;hHphHnkJhH
okjhA iKu eoB d/ nkd/P d/ fds/. d'Ph gkJ/ ikD tkb/ g[b;hnK ftoZ[X
s[ozs w[eZdw/ doi eoB bJh fejk. ;qL i;tzs f;zx ykbVk ih d/P
ftd/P ftu, wB[Zyh nfXekoK d/ oky/ ti'A, pVh s/ih Bkb T[Go/. e"wKsoh
iE/pzdhnK B/ T[jBK B{z ;fseko ;fjs ngDh w?ApofPg d/D dhnK g/PePK
ehshnK. go fJXo ;koh dh ;koh g[fb; dh uzvkb u"eVh ezp T[mh. gJh
i/ ykbVk fJ;/ soK god/ ck; eodk fojk sK pj[s/ g[b;hJ/ cK;h bZr
ikDr/, s/ ofjzd/ i/jbK ftu ;V woBr/. w[Zy wzsoh p/nzs f;zx dh
;fjwsh Bkb ;qL i;tzs f;zx B{z nuBu/sh uZe [ fbnk frnk. e/HghHn?;HfrZb
dh jkioh ftu, nihs f;zx ;zX{ s/ T[; dh p[ZuV N'bh B/, ykbVk ih B{z
p/ns z s;hj/ fds/. ngD/ ezw s'A jN ikD bJh ns/ g[fb; w[yh e/HghHn?;HfrZb
d/ g?ohA g? e/ w[nkch wzrD bJh wip{o ehsk frnk. T[; P/o wod s/ fe;/
s;Zdd dk e'Jh n;o Bk j'fJnk. nkgDh ;'u s/ T[j fjwkbk gops tKr
nv'b ofj e/ vfNnk fojk. ;ko/ ewhB/ jEezv/ tos e/ Gh id'A T[; B{z
M[ekfJnk Bk ik ;fenk sK T[; B{z Gh nDgSkshnK bkPK ftu Pkwb eoe/
fpnk; dfonk dhnK G[ZyhnK wZShnK nZr/ ;[ZN fdZsk frnk. gzikp g[fb;
B{z GkiVK g[nk d/D tkbk, gzikp ;oeko dh BhAdo jokw eo d/D tkbk,
;[gohw e'oN ns/ Gkos ;oeko B{z fjbk e/ oZy d/D tkbk d[BhnK Go d/

(240)
wB[Zyh nfXeko d/ nbzpodkoK tZb'A Gkos ;oeko B[z{ p/fJZis s/ ibhb
eotkT[D tkbk, ;qLi;tzs f;zx ih ykbVk, N[eV/ N[eV/ eoe/ wZShnK nZr/
;[ZN fdZsk frnk. gzi/ f;zx ;fjpkB ngDhnK T[FZuhnK gftZso gdthnK
s/, Xow ;[y wkDd/ oj/. tZv/ fJeZmK ftu ngD/ i?eko/ brtkT[Ad/ oj/, jko
gtkT[Ad/ oj/, f;ZyK dh ;{owrsh d/ ;'fjb/ rkT[Ad/ oj/. ;[nkdh G'iB
frohnK pdkw SZed/ oj/, vBbZg d/ rZfdnK dk b[sc T[mkT[Ad/ oj/. Bkw
igd/ oj/ Bkw igkT[Ad/ oj/. i[bw fto[ZX nV yb'Dk sK do feBko “ngD/
e'wb j'mK ftu'A, gftZso w[ykofpzd okjhA, fto'X dk e'Jh gotuB Gh Bk
T[uko ;e/.” p/nzas f;zx , e/ gh n?; frZb, nihs f;zzx ;zX{ tor/ gosZy
fdZ; oj/ f;Zy i[nkBh dk xkD eoB tkb/ wB[Z\sk d/ d[PwDK d/ fto[Z X Gh
j[ew Bkwk ikoh eoB bZr/ fJjBK B{z g;hB/ S[ZN gJ/.
ikT[ sT[ gqw y/bD ek ukT[.
f;o[ Xfo sbh rbh w/oh nkT[.. (1412)
dk gkm gVkT[D tkfbnK dhnK bZsK ezpD bZr gJhnK, w"s dh fGnkBesk
nZr/ r[zr/ pD rJ/. wjkB :'X/ r[o{ jfo r'fpzd ;kfjp ih dh wjkB Pesh
dhnK NKjok wkoB tkb/ vo vo e/ nzdo b[Ze rJ/, nypkoh fpnkB Gh
fBvosk Bkb Bk d/ ;e/. G'bh f;Zy ;zrs B[{z “ GkDk wzBD dk Xow T[gd/P
d/d/ oj/. go feT<<
wkD; ykD/ eofj fBtki.. S[oh torkfJfB fsB rfb skr..
;ow Xow dk v/ok d{fo.. BkBe e{V[ ofjnk Gog{fo..(471)
i{B 84 ftu dopko ;kfjp s/ i' efjo, Gkos ;oeko B/ c'o;K
okjh Ykfjnk esbkw j'fJnk fJ; ekb/ eko/ d/ ;pzX ftu, gZe/ ;p{s
w"i{d jB fe fJj gkg, nekbh bhvoK dh ;fjwsh Bkb j'fJnk. pkpk
ioB?b f;zx dhnK Bhshnk Bkb Gkt/A e'Jh g[{oh soK ;fjws Bk Gh j't/,
go fJZe rZb gZEo s/ beho tKr ;jh j?, fe T[j fJjBK p/JhwkB, Xow
d/ d[PwD e"w xkse, nekbh bhvoK dhnK wekohnK B{z X[o nzdo sZe
ikDdk ;h jo o'I fJjBK d/ Bt/A s' Bt/A co/ph fujfonK B{z f;Zy irs dh
y[Zbh eufjoh ftu Bzfrnk eodk ;h. fJ; y[d roi ftekT{ N'b/ B{z T[j,

(241)
jo edw s/ gSkV fojk ;h. fJj gzE d'yh bhvo, fJzdok nKNh d/ uoBK
ftu p?m e/ G[ZphA o'J/. pkpk ih pko/ fjzd{ gq?; Bkb'A nZr/ tXe/ fJbIkw
bkJ/. fJ; w[zv/ (ioB?b f;zzx) B{z ;pe f;ykT[D bJh sob/ b?Ad/ oj/.
;oekoh i[ZshnK uZND tkbh ekfJo N'bh jh, fJzdok nKNh B{z ok; nkT[Adh
;h. T[; nfij/ jkbks g?dk ehs/ fe nZr pb gJh. nekbh bhvofPg
T[; nZr ftu c{eK wkod/ oj/, jtk fdzd/ oj/. gzikp ;oeko fJ; nZr
bJh s/b d/ N?Aeo G/idh ojh. g[fb; tkb/ pb ojh Gpke/ dko nZr s/
p/d'P/ f;ZyK dk r';s G[zBd/ oj/. f;Zy gqtkoK d/ xo t?D j'o T[Zu/ ;[DkJh
d/D bZr/. phphnK d/ jT[e/ pZfunK dhnK uheK nkekP sZe ;[DkJh d/D
bZrhnk. pI[orK dhnK ;c/d dkjVhnK, g[N Z e/ g?oK ftu wX'bhnK rJhnK.
;kv/ f;zx ;fjpkBK dh ipkB mkeh rJh, f;nkjh iw rJh, ebwK N[ZN
rJhnK. wzd eos{sK eoe/ gzikp B{z pbdh d/ p[ZE/ d/D tkb/ nekbh bhvoK
fto[ZX e'Jh j[ewBkwk ikoh Bk ehsk frnk feT[A < feT[A feT[A <<
i/ wkT[A g[Zs? ft;[ d/ fs; eT[D fgnkok.
p/Vh v'p? gksDh feT[ gkfo T[skok.. Gkr[^35$22
dopko ;kfjp s/ jwb/ d/ e[M jh fdBK nzdo, Gkos d/ okPNogsh
frnkBh i?b f;zx, nzfwqs;o nkJ/. T[jBK j'Jh phsh nkgD/ prbrhoK s'
;[Dh. EK EK wB[Zyh y{B d/ SZgV t/y/, ;o'to dk ib ;fVnKd wkodk
gqshs j'fJnk. wB[Zyh wk; d/ uhEV/ uko/ pzB/ fybo/ t/y/.
;qh nkekb sys ;kfjp dh PkBk wZsh fJwkos Yfj Y/oh ehsh ik
u[Zeh ;h. dopko ;kfjp ftu 300 s' tZX r'bhnK d/ fBPkB gqZsy Bio nk
oj/ ;B. f;Zy o?co?A; bkfJp/oh ns/ j'o nB/e fJwkosk, G;wK G{s j'
u[Zehnk ;B, s/ jkbh sZe T[jBK ftu nZr ;[brdh fdZ; ojh ;h. efjzd/
jB okPNo gsh d/ fgZS/ T[jBK d/ ;/te, SZsoh b? e/ uZb oj/ ;B. frnkBh
i?b f;zx B/, nekb sys ;kfjp d/ iZE/dko B{z ;Zde/ io{oh ikDekoh b?Dh
ukjh. iZE/dko GkJh feqgkb f;zx, okPoNogsh B{z ykb;k gzE Bkb tkgo/
efjo pko/ e[M Bk d; ;e/. w"s d/ G? B/ nk x/fonk, o{j ezp T[FZmh.
neb dk iBkik fBefbnk goshs j'fJnk, id'A iZE/dko p'bD bZfrnk ^

(242)
okPNogsh ;kfjp nBoE j' frnk, dopko ;kfjp dh wfonkdk dk s[;hA
xkD eo fdZsk. feT[Afe s[;h gqeowk ftu SZsoh b? e/ i[ nkJ/ j'. s[jkv/
Bkb uZb oj/ ;/te g?oK ftu i[Zsh gfjB e/ i[ nkJ/ jB. gftZso wfonkdk
ysw j' rJh. iE/dko dh ekfJosk sd'A nk;wkB sZe gorN j'Jh t/yh
rJh, id' T[;B/ dopko ;kfjp ftu spkjh pko/ e'Jh rZb w{zj'A Bk eZYh.
gzuw r[od/t d/ Pjhdh r[og{op tkb/ fdB, wk;{wK d/ j'J/ xkD dh ejkDh
Bk ;[Dk ;fenk. p; fJZe d' pueBk rZbK iE/dko B/ ehshnk okPNogsh
SZsoh b? e/ gfoewk ftu i[ZshnK ;w/s nk rJ/, fJ; bJh wonkdk Gzr
j' rJh. Iok ;'u' ` i/ c"ih i[Zshnk bkj e/ wk;{wK dk fPeko eod/, sK
fJj gftZsosk tkbK ezw pD ikDk ;h < ny/ ih c"ih gftZso ;o'to ftu'
wZShnK cV cV yKd/ oj/. eh wB[Zyh fizdrh Bkb' wZShnK dh ikB tZX
ehwsh ;h < nfij/ Bk nfjb ftnesh B{z iE/dko pD/ ofjD dk nfXeko
j' ;edk j? < go T[j iE/dko pfDnk fojk nkgDh w"s sZe. okPNogsh
B/ wfonkdk s'Vh ;h fco T[; fto[ZX j[ewokBK feT[A Bk eZfYnk frnk <
Gkos ;oeko Bkb' s'V ftS'V/ tk;s/, Gkosh c"iK Bkb'A ;pzX ysw eo b?D
tk;s/ e'Jh nkd/P Bjh eZfYnk frnk, go feT[ < feT[ feT[A <<
e[{V[ p'fb w[odko ykfJ.. ntoh B' ;wMktfD ikfJ..
w[mk nkfg w[jkJ/ ;kE?.. BkBe n?;k nkr{ ikg?.. (140)
fJ; eko/ s'A s[ozs pkd fJzdok rKXh, dopko ;kfjp ftu wro
wZS d/ jzM{ e/oB tk;s/ gj[zuh. iE/dkoK B{z p[bk e/ wfonkdk ukb{ eoB
tk;s/ fejk. fe;/ iE/dko ftu fJBh db/oh BjhA ;h fe T[j dopko
;kfjp ftu j'J/ wB[Zyh xkD pko/, f;Zy ;wki dh ;KMh wkBf;e ghV B{z
goXkB wzsoh nZr/ fpnkB eo ;e/. ;r'A NhHthH ns/ nypkoK tkfbnK B{z
fJjh r[wokj e[B fpnkB fdzd/ oj/ fe dopko ;kfjp e'mk ;kfjp fpbe[b
mhe jB. Bk G? fdU Bk G? ykT[ d/ dwri/ wkoB tkb/ X[o nkswk sZe G?
rq;s j' e/, wB[Zyh xkD dk fIeo Bk eo ;e/. ib pb oj/ fdb ftu'A e'Jh
Gyd/ j'J/ ;{j/ nzfrnko tork p'b Bk fBefbnk. c"i dh tfjPhnkBk y{z
o/ih pko/, fJZe nZyo Gh goXkB wzsoh B{z Bk nky ;e/. dopko ;kfjp

(243)
d/ nkb/ d[nkb/ ofj oj/ b'eK s/, c"i tZb'A ehs/ i[bwK pko/ jkb gkjfonk
Bk eo ;e/. goeowk ftu gqtkoK ;w/s ofj oj/ b'eK dh c"ihnK tZb'A e[ZN
ns/ b[ZN pko/ r[zr/ pD/ yb's/ oj/. fJZe' oN bkJh ik oj/ ;B^“ wfonkdk
Gzr j' rJh, phph ih feogk eoe/ S/sh s'A S/sh wfonkdk ukb{ eotk fdU
s[jkvk pj[s T[geko j't/rk ”. nKNh fJzdok dopko ;kfjp s/ ehs/ rJ/
jwb/ d/ fJti ftu, iE/dkoK d/ jZE ftu ehosB o{gh S[DS[Dk cVk rJh.
p; fco eh ;h, iE/dko wkB' y[Ph ftu yht/ j' e/ M{wD bZr gJ/. fJj
S[DS[Dk 10$6$84 s'A ibzXo o/vhU okjhA ;t/o/ 4 ti/ s'A 6 ti/ sZe ehosB
ohb/n d/ f;ZX/ gq;koD okjhA SDeD bZr fgnk. iE/dko ngD/ nj[d/ dh
T[FZusk nB[;ko tes s/ yo/ Bk T[FZso ;e/. oki;h b'eK tZb'A T[bMh skDh
Xkowe ftnesh ;[bMk b?Ad/ jB, go nc;';, fJE/ Xowh jh BjhA ;B
PkfJd. toBk ngD/ Xow dh gkbDk eod/, r[o{ d/ do s'A ykXk Bwe
jbkb eod/. ikbwK fto[ZX j[ewBkwk s/ fes/ fojk fJZe nZyo Gh T[uko
Bk ;e/. feT[A <HHfeT[A<<HHHHHHHH
uVe? x'VV? e[zd/ geVfj y[zvh dh y/Ykoh..
jz;k ;/sh fus T[bk;fj e[eV dh T[vkoh.. (322)
dopko ;kfjp gqh;o ns/ j'o ukbh r[odtkfonK ftu'A, i' e[M
tXhnk BIo nkfJnk ;oekoh vke{nK (c"ihnK) B/ b[ZN fbnk. r[o{ ehnK
r'beK ;'Bk, uKdh, jho/ itkjoks, eZgV/ GKv/, fJZis nkpo{ s/ o{g, ;G
e[M wX'b o'b fdZsk frnk. jikoK wkJh GkJh Pjhd j' rJ/. jikoK iywh
iK ;dk tk;s/ ngzr j' rJ/, pj[s ;kfonK B{z frqcsko eoe/ wkfonk
frnk, s;hj/ fds/ rJ/, gkDh dh p{zd p{zd bJh so;kfJnk frnk. d{o B/V/
dhnK i/bK ftu s{V fdZsk frnk. bzw/ no;/ sZe cV/ rJ/ f;y, n"osK
wodK dh fes/ cfonkd Bjh ;[Dh rJh. d{i/ pzB/ d[PN nkswk e"w xkse,
f;Zy bhvoK dk tkb ftzrk BjhA j'fJnk. T[jBK B{z g{oh fjckis Bkb,
r?;N jkT{;K ftu g[uk fdZsk frnk. ;kohnK ;[y ;j{bsK w[jZJhnk eotk
fdZshnK rJhnK. fJjBK gzE d'yhnK B/, Gkos ;oeko Bkb nzdoyks/,
nZy wNZek y/YDk P[o{ eo fdZsk. ;wM"sk eo b?D s/ gzikp dk oki Gkr

(244)
;KG b?D tor/ N[efVnK s/ bkbK ;[ZND bZr gJ/. fJjBK bhvoK dh ;{M
;woZEk s/ feodko dh v{zxh Ekj gk b?D s'A pkd, fJZe ;kb d/ no;/ s'A
gfjbK jh fJjBK B{z fojk eo fdZsk frnk. b[et/A sohe/ fJjBK dhnK
w[bkeksK ubdhnK ojhnK. fJjBK r[gs fwbDhnK d/ roG ftu'A ‘okiht,
b"Ar'tkb ;wM"s/ o{gh pZu/ B/ iBw fbnk. fJ; e[u/PNk Goh fbyk gVh B{z
wjkB fJfsjk;e ;wM"sk rodkB e/, ;zx gkV gkV e/ rrB wzvbK sZe
T[Skfbnk frnk. ngD/ pfunK d/ eksbK Bkb fpBK e[M Gh gqkgs ehs/,
pVh YhmskJh Bkb :koh rzY bJh. v[Zb/ y{B dk w[Zb Gh BK tZN ;e/. ;qh
nekb sys ;kfjp dh Pjhdh dh ehws Gh BK t;{b ;e/. fJjBK
y[droi ns/ e"w xkse iE/dkoK fto[ZX, f;zx ;kfjp tZb'A fusktBh
Gfonk j[ewBkwk ikoh j'Dk ukjhdk ;h. gzE dh fgZm ftZu S[ok wkoB dh
bhvoK B{z eokoh ;Ik fwbDh ukjhdh ;h. nzdoyks/ i' eVQh x'b e/ f;Zy
e"w B[z{ r[wokj ehsk frnk ;h, T[; pko/ ;g;NheoD wzrD/ ukjhd/ ;h.
go nfijk Bjh j'fJnk. go feT[A< feT[A<< HHHH
dkBz gok g{o p/D G[uz s/ wjhgs/..
fpgohs p[:z wkos b'ej BkBe fuozekb d[y G'rs/.. (1359)
fJ; e[uhbsk Go/ okiht b"Ar'tkb ;wM's/ d/ roG ftu'A, poBkbk
;oeko o{gh ngzr pZu/ B/ iBw fbnk. fJ; pZu/ B{z tXdk c[bdk t/yD s'A
gfjbK jh bkv bvkT[D d/ ukn, wB d/ nzdo jh b? e/ pkpk jouzd f;zx
;z;ko s'A ftdk j' frnk. okiht, fJ; pZu/ B[z{ p/p;h ftu izfwnK ;wM e/
fgZSk S[vkT[D bJh ekjbk ;h. fJ; soQK fJj gzikp ;oeko o{gh pZuk g"D/
e[ d' ;kb dh pkb nt;Ek ftu jh eZuh T[wo/ wVhnK d/ okj N[o frnk.
fJ; poBkbk ;oeko o{gh ;oekoh pZu/ B/, eZuh ;'u Bkb b'eK dh u[Ze
ftu nk e/, w[V s'A dopko ;kfjp s/ Xktk p'b fdZsk. r'bhnK tohnK,
p/ndph j'Jh, ykVe{ cV/ rJ/. fJ; jwb/ Bkb fJzdok nKNh tZb'A ehs/ rJ/
Bhbk skok jwb/ B{z, ikfJI mfjok fdZsk frnk. w[y wzsoh ;[oihs f;zx
poBkbk B{z ukbh fdBK tk;s/ tZy' ty r[odtkfonK ftu, fJ; ngokX
pdb/ GKv/ wKiD, i'V/ MkVB dh ;/tk bkJh rJh. dopko ;kfjp ;w{j

(245)
ftu'A cV/ rJ/ ;ko/ ykVe{ gVskb eoB s/ ;oekoh e?N (n;b ftu
g[fb;hJ/) fBeb/. ekbh roi jwb/ dk ebze, f;Zy w[Zy wzsoh d/ wZE/ s/
g/;N eo fdZsk. e/Ado ;oeko dh emg[sbh pDe/ Gkt/A poBkbk ih B/
ngD/ jh e/Adoh Xow n;EkB s/, jwbk eoB tork pZio gkg Gh eo
fbnk, go fdZbh tkfbnK fco Gh fJ; ftuko/ s/ e'Jh so; BK ehsk.
fJ; eos{s s'A e[M jh ;w/A pkd, fpBK e[M gzikp iK f;ZyK tk;s/ gqkgsh
ehs/, poBkbk ;oeko B{z bKG/ trkj wkfonk. poBkbk ;oeko B{z BZE gk
e/ mhe okj N'oB tkbk e'Jh iE/dko ;kjwD/ BK nkfJnk. f;Zy fjZsK tkb/
GftZy ftu Gbk eoB tkb/, e'Jh c?;b/ Bk eotk ;fenk. gzikp d/ gkDh,
fpibh, okiXkBh, gzikp dh j'Jh spkjh dk w[nktik, f;ZyK d/ eksbK B{z
;iktK HHH. ;G w;b/ dcB j' rJ/ s/ iE/dko x{e rcbs dh BhAd ftu
;Z[s/ oj/, Bkw igd/ oj/, Xow s/ vN e/ gfjok fdzd/ oj/, gzE dh okyh
eoB dhnK pVeK wkod/ oj/.
nr'A d/ i/ u/shn? sK ekfJs[ fwb? ;ikfJ..
;kjK ;[ofs rtkJhnk ozfr swk;? ukfJ..
pkpopkDh fcfo rJh e[fJo[ Bk o'Jh ykfJ.. (417)
;zB 1982 ftu J/PhnB y/vK fdZbh fty/ j'JhnK. Gkos ;oeko
tZb'A f;ZyK Bkb ehshnK XZe/;kjhnK B{z, ;z;ko gZXo s/ ;[oyhnK ftu
fbnkT[D tk;s/ fdZbh ftu PKswJh o'; w[ikjo/ eoB dk n?bkB ehsk
frnk. fJzdok nKNh d/ fJPko/ s/, jfonkD/ dk w[Zy wzsoh GiB bkb,
g[b;h XkVK b? e/ f;ZyK d/ w"o eZ[ND nk frnk. f;Zy Peb tkbk, fe;/
gkoNh, fe;/ nj[d/ ns/ fe;/ fJbke/ dk ofjD tkbk j't/, jfonkD/ dh jZd
nzdo t/yfdnK jh ;ko/ ekB{BK B{z g?oK j/m wX'bfdnK, f;Zy j'D dh
nDwB[yh ;ik fdZsh rJh. f;ZyK B{z g[Zie/ ibhb ehsk frnk. x'o ngwkB
s'A pknd sob/ eotk e/, ;kwkB bZ[N e/ tkg; w[V ikD s/ wip{o ehsk
frnk. e[M jh ;w/A pkd, GiB bkb w[Zy wzsoh jfonkDk d/ ;Zd/ s/,
r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk, gqekP f;zx pkdb, poBkbk nkfd ;kok bkDk nzpkb/
fJZe ;oekoh o?;N jkT{; ftu, GiB bkb B{z fwfbnk. 1982 dhnK

(246)
J/PhnB y/vK pko/ o;wh fijk o'; gqrN ehsk s/ GiB bkb tZb'A w[nkch
wzr b?D s'A fpBK jh fJj bhvo T[; Bkb jZE fwbkT[Ad/ oj/, d[ZX ukj,
e"ch, fp;e[N, poch yKd/ oj/ s/ nzs GiB bkb dk w[bkeks bJh XzBtkd
eoe/ tkg; nk rJ/. f;ZyK dh fBvosk s/ ;{owrsh dhnK pVQeK wkoB
tkb/, ykb;k gzE Bkb ehs/ rJ/ ;owBke tosko/ pkps, GiB bkb B{z
“yok” fJZe bci sZe BK efj ;e/. f;ZyK d/ ewhD/ d[;wD, GiB bkb
Bkb fgnko ghAxK gkT[D tkb/ nekbh bhvoK B{z fe;/ iE/dko B/ eNfjo/
ftu yVk BK ehsk. b'eK dh eufjoh ftu, ehsh rJh wBw[Zysk pko/,
fe;/ iE/dko tZb'A itkp sbph BK ehsh rJh. f;zx ;kfjp ih dopko
;kfjp gqh;o ftu p?m e/ f;Zyh wfonkdk s/ gfjok fdzd/ oj/. ;/tk eod/
oj/, ;/tk eokT[Ad/ oj/< e'Jh j[ewBkwk , GiB bkb iK nekbh bhvoK
fto[ZX ikoh BK eo ;e/^ feT[< feT[ HHH<<.
cohdk pkfo gokfJn? p?;Dk ;KJh w[M? B d/fj..
i/ s{ J/t? oy;h ihT[ ;ohoj[ b/fj.. (;b'e ^ 42)
Pq'wDh nekbh db dh ;EkgBk ,f;ZyK dhnK oki;h T[wzrK dh
g[{osh fjZs, ;qh nekb sys ;kfjp s/ nodk; eotk e/ j'Jh. n?bkB
ehsk frnk fe nekb sys s/ gqtkB ufVnk nekbh db, f;Zy gzE d/
okiBhse fBPkB/ dh g{osh tk;s/ jo ;zGt :sB eodk oj/rk. fJ; d/
nj[d/dko, r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftu B/e, goT[gekoh, ;kdrh tkbk, r[ow[yh
ihtB fpskT[Dr/. fJ; dk gqXkB ns/ j'o nj[d/dko, ofjstkB, fBsB/wh,
nzfwqsXkoh j'Dr/. nekbh db dk gqXkB dkjVk gqekP eoe/ oy/rk, fJj
puB nekbh db d/ ;zftXkBK ftu nzes jB. gfjbh rZb sK fJj fe
fJeZb/ gqekP f;zx pkdb B/, ngD/ fgZSbZrK d/ bkD/ s'A nzr{m/ brtk e/,
w'r/ d/ nekbh fJeZm ftu, nekbh db dk Bkw pdb e/ gzikph gkoNh eo
fdZsk frnk. fi; Bkw B{z nekb sys s/ ;theko ehsk frnk ;h, pVh
wBw[Zysk Bkb T[; B{z e[M ftneshnK tZb'A pdb fdZsk frnk. nekbh db
d/ pj[s ;ko/ nj[d/dko ;koh T[wo p/ nfwqzshJ/ jh fpsk rJ/. r[opkDh d/
B/fVU BK bzx/. fJjBK tZb'A Po/nkw xoK ftu s/ gkoNhnK$ftnkjK ftu

(247)
;okpK dhnK g/NhnK iK NoZe jh ygd/ oj/. fJjBK d/ pj[s/ gqtkoe w?Apo
f;Zyh s'A (e/;K eoe/) gfss t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. xoK ftu Po/nkw PokpK
dh tos'A j[zdh j?. nekb sys, ns/ r[opkDh B{z fgZm d/ e/ Gh fJj b'e
nekbh nytkT[Ad/ oj/, f;Zy gzE d/ wbkj pD/ oj/, tZvhnK e[o;hnK dk
oki ;[y wkDd/ oj/ HHH. s/ ;kv/ sysK d/ iE/dko fpZN fpZN sed/ oj/.
ipkB sZe BK y'jb ;e/, fe;/ bhvo B{z rbsh dk nfj;k; BK eotk ;e/
HHHH. e'Jh j[ewBkwk ikoh BK eo ;e/. go feT[< HHHHH<<
cohdk i/ s{ nefb bshc[ ekb/ fby[ B b/y[..
nkgBV/ frohtkB wfj f;o[ BhtK efo d/y[.. (;b'e ^ 6)
Pq'wDh r[odtkok gqpzXe ew/Nh, bzwh bVkJh ns/ f;oV f;de s'A
pkd, fGqPN wjzsK d/ epi/ ftu'A r[odtko/ w[es eoke/ gzEe gqpzX j/m
fbnkT[D tk;s/ ekw:kp j' rJh. P[o{ d/ e[M ;kbK ftu ekch ;[Xko ehs/
rJ/. ;zB 47 s'A pkd brksko gqpzX ftu fBxko nkT[Adk frnk. Bt/A o[{g
ozr tkb/ iE/pzde b'e ekB{Bh Ykb b? e/, r'beK dh pVh p/ofjwh Bkb
d[otos'A eoB bZr gJ/. fJ; ew/Nh dk ekoi y/so e/tb Xow sZe
;hws ;h, go fJ; d/ gqpzXeK B/, r'be d/ g?;/ d[nkok okiBhsh tZb
bbukJhnK BioK Bkb t/yDk P[o{ eo fdZsk. n;b fizw/Atkoh sK ;h
r[odtkfonK dh ;/tk ;zGkb, wfonkdk dh fJZe;kosk, r[ows d/ gquko
bJh wzr w[skpe gqukoe G/iD/, ftfdne b'VK dh g{osh tk;s/ ;e{b
ekbi y'jbD/ B"itkBK B{z g?oK s/ yV/ eoB bJh feZsk w[yh ndko/ ;Ekgs
eoB/, y/vK bJh ;kXB i[NkT[D/ s/ B"itkBK B{z fJ; gk;/ T[sPkjs eoBk.
fgzvK PfjoK ftu, r[ows bkfJpq/ohnK y'jbDhnK, f;Zyh gquko ns/ ;wki
B{z u/sBsk d/D bJh nypko o;kb/ g[;seK xo xo gZ[idhnK eoBhnK.
nX[fBe whvhJ/ dh tos'A eofdnK, gzEe ;'u tkbhnK nkvhU thvhU
e?;NK fsnko eotk e/, r[owfs frnkB tZv/ gZXo s/ tzvDk. fiZE/ fes/
e'Jh f;Zy gqtko w[Peb ftu j't/, T[;dh T[fus ;jkfJsk eoBh. r[opkDh
ns/ j'o r[ows ;kfjs d[BhnK dhnK gqw[Zy p'bhnK ftu Sgtke/, tZv/
g?wkB/ s/, d/P ftd/P ftu g[Zidk eoBk. ekbiK :{Bhtof;NhnK d/ foNkfJo
ftdtkBK dhnK ;/tktK b? e/, fJZe ;bkjeko (fEze NA?e) p'ov ;Ekgs

(248)
eoBk. gzE dh uVdh ebk tk;s/ GftZyw[yh jo soK d/ gqki?eNK s/
brksko ;'u ftuko eoBh HHH. nc;';, pj[s pj[s ` ;q'wDh ew/Nh ;zrsK
tZb'A G/Nk ehsh wkfJnk B{z, p/ofjwh Bkb popkd eoB s'A f;tkJ/ e[M BjhA
eo ;eh. xZN' xZN Xow gquko e/tb ekriK sZe ;hws j?, nwbh s"o s/
fes/ BjhA. pj[GkPh nypko o;kb/ Bjh eZY ;eh HHH s/ ;qh nekb sys
d/ iE/dko (g'qL do;B f;zx s'A S[N) BK y[d gquko eo ;e/ BK ew/Nh B{z
ngD/ coiK dh gSkD eotk ;e/. i/ ew/Nh tkb/ pjkB/ pkIhnK eod/
gqshs j[zd/ ;B, sK ;w/A f;o iE/dkoK B/ j[ewBkfwnK dh tos'A feT[A BK
ehsh< fJj feT[A cohi j' rJ/< fJjBK wBw[yK B{z coiK dh gSkD eokT[D
tk;s/ feT[A j[ew dh tos'A BjhA ehsh rJh< feT[<< HHHHH
cohdk fiBQh ezwh Bkfj r[D s/ ewV/ ft;kfo..
ws[ ;ofwzdk EhtJh ;kJh d? dopko.. (;b'e ^ 59)
pj[s bzw/ ;w/A s'A r[o{ xoK B{z, oki;h bkjk b?D tk;s/ tofsnk ik
fojk j?. okiBhsh Gh nfijh, fi; ftu'A jZe ;Zu fBnK dh wfje nkT[D
dh EK b[ZN y;[ZN X'ykXVh nkfde ftekoK dh ;fVnKd wkodh j?. Xow B{z
oki;h nj[dk b?D bJh gT[Vh tKr tofsnk ik ;edk j?. ;q'wDh ew/Nh d/
pj[s/ w?Apo g?o g;kod/ j'J/ oki;h e[o;h s/ ik fpokid/ jB, ns/ Xow
Bkb drk ewk iKd/ jB. pj[sh tkoh d'jo/ nj[d/ Gh jfEnk b?Ad/ jB.
fit/A n?;H ihH ghH ;hH dh w?Apoh Gh s/ Bkb'A Bkb n?wH n?bH J/H iK n?wH
ghH Gh. j'o pj[fsnK dh rZb i/ BK Gh eohJ/ sK n?;H ihH ghH ;hH d/ bzw/
;w/A sZe oj/ gqXkB ;qH r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk gqXkBrh d/ Bkb Bkb 1977
ftu n?wH ghH pD/. d[pkok c/o HHHeJh gkgV t/b e/ oki ;Gk d/ w?Apo
pD/. gzikp dh okiBhsh s'A ngD/ nkg B{z edh tZy Bk eo ;e/. gzikp dk
w[y wzsoh pDB dk ;[gBk ;dk nZyK ftu bNedk fojk, go nB/e Pkso
ukbK ubD d/ pkti{d, fJj fjo; g{oh BK j'Jh. f;ZX/ ;kd/ PpdK ftu
fejk ik ;edk j? fe fJZe Xow dh gftZso gqw[Zy e[o;h s/ p?m e/ ;/tk
eoB dh EK, okiBhsh d/ rzd ftu jh ;dk u[GhnK bkT[Ad/ oj/. oki;h
fJeZmK w'ofunK s/ i/jbK GoB ftu gqXkB ih w'joh oj/. oki;h b'eK d/
fJeZmK ftu X{znK^Xko seohoK eod/ oj/, d/P ftd/P ftu'A oki;h ezwK

(249)
tk;s/ uzd/ Gh fJeZm/ eod/ oj/. b'V g?D s/ r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk nekb
sys s'A pkrh, nkg' ngDh tyoh wfonkdk s/ ubD tkb/ ;kX bkD/ Bkb
;KM fGnkbh Gh gk ;edk j?. gzE d'yh Bebh fBozekohnK d/ GtBK ftu
ik e/, jE i'V e/ T[jBK s'A t'NK Gh wzr ;edk j? s/ f;o'g/ Gh b? ;edk j?.
i/ fJjBK ewhDhnK ukbK s'A toiD dk jhnk eo/ sK Xow s/ okiBhsh
fJeZmh dk Yzv'ok Gh fgZN ;edk j?. ;ko/ ;z;ko ftu c?b/ f;Zy gzE dk w[y
;/tkdko pDe/, fsqgsh BjhA j'Jh, okiBhsh d/ fuZeV ftu'A ;[nkd nkT[Adk
j?. fJjBK gzMh shj ;kbK no;/ d"okB Xow gouko s'A fpBk, j'o ;G e[M
ehsk frnk j?. go fJjBK gzE d'yh ekoBK eoe/, fe;/ ew/Nh w?Apo iK
gqXkB B{z BZE gkT[D tk;s/, e'Jh f;zx ;kfjp BK fBsfonk. nekb sys
tZb'A fe;/ d/ fto[ZX j[ewBkwk o{gh s'g Bjh dkrh rJh. go nfijk
feT[HHHH< feT[<< HHHH
ekih j'fJ e? pj? fBnkfJ.. c/o/ s;ph eo/ y[dkfJ..
tYh b? e/ je rtkJ/.. i/ e' g[S? sk gfV ;[DkJ/.. (951)
;q'wDh ew/Nh d/ w?ApoK pko/ edh r[gs gVskb eotk t/yDh, pZu/
pZuhnK gfss sK MZN jh fdZ; g?Dr/, ;r'A E'e ftu BfPnK dh tos'A eod/
fwbDr/. y[d pj[s/ w?Apo Pokp nchw d/ nkdh jB. pj[s/ w?Apo pqkjwDh
eowekvK ftu roe j'J/ gJ/ jB. ew/Nh dk fJZe ;hBhno nkr{, pbpho
f;zx gzB{z :{H ghH ftu ew/Nh dh rZvh ftu ;tko j' e/ “Xkowe ekoiK”
tk;s/ frnk. T[Xo jh fGnkBe n?e;hv?AN ftu wkfonk frnk. fJ; dh
rZvh ftu'A, tzB ;[tzBh nzrq/ih Pokp dhnK g/NhnK fwbhnK. fJZe i[nkB
;[zdo bVeh Gh fJsokI:'r jkbs ftu, rZvh ftu'A fwbh. T[FZso gqd/P,
ns/ d/P d/ j'o ;ko/ nypkoK ftu fJ; ypo B{z gfjb/ gzfBnK s/ Skfgnk
frnk. fJ; PowBke eos{s ekoB f;Zy gzE dh p/jd Bw'Ph j'Jh. ;q'wDh
ew/Nh dk fJZe w?Apo, ;kX{ f;zx i' fe ehosBhnk Gh j?, G[Zeh ns/ nchw
d/ e/;K ftu fco'ig[o i/jb ftu pzd j?. pd/PK ftu'A wkfJnk fJeZso
eoBh s/ T[;dk fj;kp BK d/D dhnK ypoK sK pj[s frDsh w?ApoK pko/
SgdhnK jh ofjzdhnK jB, fJE/ sK sysK d/ iE/dko Gh fJjBK fJbIkwK
s'A w[es Bjh j' ;e/. iE/dkoK ftoZ[X gVskbhnk ew/NhnK Gh pDhnK go

(250)
ngD/ oki;h n;o o;{y Bkb, T[jBK ew/NhnK B{z goGktjhD eo fdZsk
frnk. Xkowe gfjoktk gfjB e/, Xkowe rZdhnK s/ fpoki e/ r[opkDh
dhnK fgnkohnK gzeshnK gVe/ jh b'eK B{z X'yk fdZsk ik ;edk j?. eh
fe;/ iE/dko B{z ngfDnk gokfJnk dh ypo BjhA< fco feT[A j[ewBkwk
o{gh sho fJjBK gkg eowK B{z o'eD tk;s/ ikoh BjhA ehsk frnk< go
feT[< <
s[w gfts gktB g[oy gqG ;[nkwh jw feT[A efo fwbfj i{mkoh..
jwo? ihn j'o[ w[fy j'o j's j? jw eowjhD e{fVnkoh..
jwoh w[dq Bkw[ jfo ;[nkwh fod nzsfo d[;N d[;Nkoh.. (528)
nekbh dbK dh dbdb B{z fJZe ;{so ftu go'D tk;s/ 1993 d/
nes{po ftu GkJh wBihs f;zx s/ r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk B/ r[o{ eh tvkbh
s'A nBzdg[o ;kfjp sZe “ykb;k wkou” dk gqpzX ehsk. p/nzs f;zx s/ e/H
ghH n?;H frZb tZb'A gzikp dh nekbh bhvofPg B{z r'bh dh dfjPs
d[nkok, nzdo b[e/ ofjD bJh wip{o eo fdZsk frnk ;h. nDfrDs f;Zy
fJjBK tZb'A, M{m/ w[ekpfbnK ftu ygk fds/ rJ/ ;B. ;KswJh g[o nwB
sohe/ ngDk o'; gqrN eoB i'rh ;woZEk Gh fe;/ e'b BjhA ;h. fJ;
dfjPs ns/ oki;h yV's B{z s'VB tk;s/, Xow d/ BK j/m, iE/dko ;qh
nekb sys tZb'A, nekbh dbK B{z cj[VhnK d/D tk;s/, ykb;k wkou
eZfYnk frnk. b'eK B{z Xow d/ ;jko/ xoK s'A pkjo fBebe/, gzE dh
uVdh ebk tkb/ Bkjo/ i?eko/ bkT[D dk nt;o fwfbnk. bhvoK B{z ;N/i
s'A p'bD dk w"ek fwfbnk, PoXktkBK B{z ;/tk eoB dk ;wK gqkgs j'fJnk.
bZyK b'eK fJ; “wkou” ftu Pkwb j' e/ nu/s o{g ftu r[bkwh B{z s'VB
dh e'fPP ehsh s/ pkjoh s"o s/ nekbh J/esk dk gqdoPB ehsk. fJ; dh
ekw:kph s'A pkr'A pkr j'J/ iE/dko ns/ y[Ph ftu yht/ j'J/ oki;h bhvo
c[b/ Bjh ;wk oj/ ;B. ;kfonK ;bkj eoe/ fJZe j'o “ykb;k wkou”
jfor'fpzdg[o s'A sbtzvh ;kp' sZe Gh eZY fdZsk. dwdwk ;kfjp fty/
fJjBK dh oki;h fdZy gVQd/ gkV e/ pkjo nk rJh, id'A oki;h b'eK
;N/i s/ epik Gh ehsk, ns/ y[bQ e/ oki;h GkPD Gh fdZs/. fJ; s'A pkd
sK wkB' nfij/ wkouK dk c?PB jh uZb fgnk. fJjBK fJeZmK ftu GkJh

(251)
wBihs f;zx dh ;G s'A fInkdk uVQ wZuh. nZr'A T[; ngDh skes wfj;{;
eoe/ fybo/ ns/ fJZe d{i/ d/ d[;wD pD/ j'J/ nekbh dbK dh J/esk dk
fizwk uZ[e fbnk. BKj B[eo eod/ j'J/, pkeh ;ko/ db fJZe j'Dk wzB rJ/
go gqekP f;zx pkdb B/ pjkB/pkih eoBh P[o{ eo fdZsh. id'A Gh whfNzr
tk;s/ nekb sys s/ ;Zfdnk iKdk sK pkdb edh c'B iK fe;/ J/buh
okjhA nkydk w?A fpwko jK. edh efjzdk w?A gzikp s'A pkjo jK tes f;o
gj[zu BjhA ;edk. id'A pj[s dpk g?D s/ pkdb nzfwqs;o g[Zfink sK d'
uko ;kEhnK Bkb BjhA ;r'A eohp 50000 bZmwko b'eK d/ ji{w Bkb
nkfJnk. iE/dko B/ id'A gzEe J/esk tkbk ckow[Zbk pkdb nZr/ ofynk
sK fJj jo jhb/ pjkB/ xV e/ Pkw d/ uko ti/ sZe Nkbdk fojk. nzs
pkdb B/ tZyo/ j' e/ ;kEhnK Bkb ;bkj eoe/, n?bkB eo fdZsk fe “w/ok
nekbh db fe;/ j'o db ftu Pkwb BjhA j't/rk. fi; fe;/ db B/ w/o/
db ftu Pkwb j'Dk j? T[j fpBK Pos ;kwb j' ikt/. fJj nkye/ pkdb
ns/ ;kEh nekb sys dcso ftu'A pkjo nk rJ/. fJ; d/ bZmwko ;kEh
ji{w B/, Bkjo/ bkT[D/, ;'o gkT[Dk, P[o{ eo fdZsk. ekoiekoh iE/dko
GkJh wBihs f;zx, pkjo nkfJnk ;h pkdb B{z wBkT[D tk;s/, go fJ;
d/ G{so/ j'J/ jwkfJshnK B/, Po/nkw nekb sys d/ ;Bw[Zy, dopko
;kfjp dhnK gqeowk ftu, iE/dko dk p/ T[Ve ngwkB ehsk. Bzrh
;pdktbh ftu rkbK eZYhnK. XZe/ w[ZehnK wkohnK, T[FZek jh p/Powh dh
jZd sZe ub/ rJ/. y[chnk g[fb; ns/ Nk;e c'o; tkfbnK B/ pVh id'
ifjd s'A pkd iE/dko B{z fJ; ji[{w ftu'A X{j e/ eZfYnk s/ MZN fJZe ewo/
ftu pzd eoe/ nZr/ nkg dhtko pD e/ yb' rJ/. ;ko/ pkdb jwkfJshnK
B{z g[fb; B/ r'bh ub ikD dh fusktBh d/ e/ ub/ ikD s/ wip{o eo fdZsk.
fJ; xNBk uZeo dhnK ;wekbh nypkoK rtkj jB. GkJh wBihs f;zx
B/ fJ; ngwkB B{z fwZmk f;jswzd gdkoE ;wMe/ gh fbnk. pkdb iK
T[;d/ bZmwko b'eK fto[ZX i[pkB sZe BK y'jbh. e'Jh nypkoh fpnkB Gh
BK fdZsk, j[ewBkwk ikoh eoBk sK d{o dh rZb ;h. go ;wK phsD s/
jkbks pdbD Bkb, iE/dko B/ pkdb Bkb fco B/Vsk gqkgs eo bJh.
fi;dh pd"bs id'A 1997 ftu gqekP f;zx, gzikp dk w[y wzsoh pfDnk

(252)
sK fJ; B[z{ Xkowe ;ogo;sh dh b'V wfj;{; j'Jh. Xkowe Ssoh d/D
tk;s/ GkJh wBihs f;zx gfjbK jh gZpK Gko j'fJnk fcodk ;h. d{ik gZy
fe wBihs f;zx dh “Xkowe ;ky” pj[s wip{s j' rJh. d't/A fJZe d{i/
d/ prbrho iK g{oe pD rJ/. fJ; “nfj;kB” pdb/ fco pj[s ;kohnK
w[;hpsK ftu'A pkdb B/ GkJh wBihs f;zx B{z n?B tes f;o pukfJnk.
eh j[ewBkw/ rohp f;ZyK B{z vokT[D tk;s/ jB< tZv/ b'eK tk;s/ e'Jh
j[ewBkwk BjhA j?< feT[< nfijk feT[<< HHHH
epho n?;k izs[ fJZe d/fynk i?;h X'Jh bky..
dh;? uzub pj[ r[Bk wfs jhBk Bkgke.. (gzBk ^
1271)
fJZe bzw/ no;/ s'A pknd 1997 ftu ;qH gqekP f;zx pkdb nekbh
db tZb'A gzikp dh rZdh s/ epik eo fbnk. fi; nZr d/ dfonk ftu'A
f;Zy bzx/ ;B, T[; B{z pko pko e[o/fdnk frnk. t'NK pN'oB tk;s/ Bhbk
skok xb{xkok, gzikp dh i[nkBh dk xkD, gzikp dhnK jZeh wzrK dh e/Ado
tZb'A em'osk Bkb ehsh rJh pjkB/pkIh, fdbh ns/ Gkos d/ j'o nB/e
y/soK ftu f;ZyK s/ Ykj/ rJ/ i[bwK B{z oZi e/ jtk fdZsh rJh. fJjBK gkgK
eoe/ e/Ado ftubh ssekbhB eKro; ;oeko B{z gkDh gh gh e'f;nk
frnk. i' ngD/ u'D wB'oE gZso ftu tkjd/ ehs/ rJ/, s/ T[jBK tkjfdnK
B{z jikoK tkoh e;wK yk e/ g{o/ eoB dh rZb ;zx gkV gkV e/ d[jokJh
rJh. w'N/ fij/ tkjd/ fJj ;B^
TH ykVe{tkd dh ndkbsh iKu eotk e/ d'PhnK g[b;hnK B{z ;Ik
fdnKr/.
nH ykVe{tkd d[jokB wko/ rJ/ ftneshnK d/ gqtkoK dh ;zGkb eoKr/.
JH f;Zy B"itkBK dh jo soQK ;zGkb eoKr/ o'Irko fdnKr/.
;H gzikp dk gkDh, gzikph p'bd/ fJbke/, gzikp dh okiXkBh uzvhrVQ
gzikp B{z b? e/ fdnKr/.
jH fGqPNkuko, foPtsy'oh B{z iV'A T[ykV fdnKr/.
eH p?oeK SZvD tkb/ Xowh c"ihnK d/ w[V t;/p/ dk gqpzX eoKr/ gzikp
ftu tZv/ ekoykB/ bktKr/, tgko B{z nkX[fBe bhjK s/ N'oKr/, y/sh

(253)
ftu BthA eoKsh fbnktKr/HHHnkfd nkfd. pV/ d[Zy Bkb fbyDk g?
fojk j? fe T[go tofDs rzGho w;fbnK B{z pkdb nekbh db B/,
wB' jh ft;ko fdZsk.
okirZdh s/ p?me/ b'eh s/ T[jBK d/ nDfrDs d[y, ;G ft;o rJ/.
e/Ado ftu GkJhtkb Gkosh izsk gkoNh B{z, nekbh Gok fpBk Pos
jwkfJs fdzd/ oj/. tZN/ ftu ngD/ p/N/ ;[ypho f;zx pkdb B{z e/Ado ftu
tiho pDkT[D s/ jh ;kok skD bkT[Ad/ oj/. gzikp dh e'Jh fJZe Gh pDdh
ikfJI wzr e/Ado e'b'A BK wBtk ;e/. ;r'A gzikp ns/ f;ZyK dhnK
fInkdshnK p/p;hnK, d[Zy dod ;G pVh p/ofjwh Bkb G[bk fdZs/, edh
i[pkB sZe BK y'jbh. go pfbjko ikJhJ/ ;kv/ gzEe p/V/ d/ wbkjK d/, e"w
d/ Xow w[yhnK d/ fiBQK gzikp d/ f;Zy wzsoh wzvb B{z coiK s'A ikD{z
eokT[D tk;s/, e'Jh j[ewBkwk ikoh Bk ehsk. nfijk feT[< feT[<<
Ek i' Bky{p pdsohi, tjh y{p j{nk,
fe r[bkwh w/ pdb iksk j? e"w'A ek Iwho. (eth fJepkb)
;qH e[bdhg f;zx Gkos dh ;otT[Zu ndkbs ftu fJZe ;fseko:'r
;hBhno iZi j[zfdnK, wBZ[ysk dh i' ;/tk eod/ oj/ T[j p/ fw;kb j?.
B"eoh s'A g?BPB gqkgsh s'A pkd id'A T[jBK t/fynk fe ftbed/ sVgd/
f;ZyK d/ iywK s/ fizBh e[ j' ;e/ wbQw bkJh ikt/. T[jBK id'A s;Zbh eo
bJh fe gzikp dk f;Zy wZ[y wzsoh gqekP f;zx pkdb, p/d'P/ f;ZyK d/ eksbK
B{z ;ik fdtkT[D s'A pVh p/ofjwh Bkb nZyK c/o frnk j?. ;r'A gkg eoB
tkfbnK dh g[;s gBkjh eo fojk j?. fe;/ jhb/ Gh id'A gzikp d/ d[yKs
dh gVskb eotkT[D s'A pkdb g{oh sok ftjo frnk sK fJ; B/e fJB;kB
;qH e[bdhg f;zx B/, nB/eK ysfonK dh gqtkj BK eofdnK, gZfbUA youk
eoe/, fBih fwbtosD s/ fJB;kBhns d/ Bks/, j'o pj[s ;ko/ wB[Zysk d/
dodh fJB;kBK B{z ngDh Nhw ftu ;kwb ehsk. ngD/ tZb'A ghgb
efwPB pDk e/ fgSbh ;oeko tZb'A fJB;kBhns d/ ehs/ rJ/ xkD dh
w[ZYA'A gVskb nkozG eo fdZsh. ghVs b'eK B{z nypkoK ftu tZv/ fJPfsjko
d/ e/ d[y dod nk e/ dZ;D bJh fejk. ;zGt ;p{sK ;fjs ngDh d[y Goh
dk;skB efw;B nZr/ oZy', n;hA sjkB{z fJB;kc d[nkT[D ftu wZdd

(254)
eoKr/. nro fe;/ tikj g[fb; tkfbnK Bkb Gh p/fJB;kch j'Jh j't/ T[j
Gh nk e/ fpBk fMie ngDk gZy g/P eo/. iZi ;kfjp B/ fJj Gh ;g;N
ehsk fe w?A ;oekoh ndkbsK dh pokpoh BjhA eo fojk, BK jh ;oeko
d/ iK ndkbsK d/ ezw ftu w/ok e'Jh dyb d/D dk fJokdk j?. go w?A Go/
wB Bkb efj fojk jK fe i' fJB;kc gzikp ;oeko B{z eoBk ukjhdk ;h,
i' ekB{zB dh wkD wfonkdk ndkbsK B{z poeoko oyDh ukjhdh ;h, i/
T[jBK ngD/ coi dh g{osh BK ehsh sK eh w?A ns/ w/o/ ;kEh, fBih
j?;hns ftu wB[Zyh jZek dh okyh BK eohJ/< ndkbsK ns/ ;oekoK e'b
fJ; ;tkb dk e'Jh T[so BjhA ;h. p/JhwkBh dh uow ;hwk sd'A ;kjwD/
nkJh id'A pkdb ;oeko tZb'A, gzikp s/ jfonkDk jkJh e'oN ftu, noih
d/ e/, fJ; ghgb efwPB B{z ezw eoB'A o'e fdZsk. nypkoK B/ ;qL e[bdhg
f;zx d/ ezw dh Pbkxk ehsh, pkdb ;oeko B{z fcNekoK gkJhnK.
d[fynko/ b'e tjhoK xZs e/, ngD/ Bkb j'JhnK XZe/PkjhnK, ;p{sK ;w/s
dZ;D nkT[Ad/. p[ZeK Go Go rGo{nK dk y{B ghD tkb/ g[b;hJ/ s/ T[jBK d/
ofjw s/ ihn oj/ pkdb e/, fsbfwbk T[m/. i;fN; e[bdhg f;zx B{z uko/
pzfBT[A x/ok xZs fbnk s/ B/e ekoi fsnkr e/ xo p?mD bJh wip{o eo
fdZsk. ;koh ;fEsh ;gPN eoB fjs, iZi ;kfjp w[Zy wzsoh pkdb d/
xo y[d uZb e/ rJ/. fgSb/ bzw/ no;/ s'A f;yK Bkb j'Jh phsh d[jokJh.
f;Zyh n;{b s/ fJB;kBhns dk tk;sk gkfJnk. gZEo fdb fJB;kB
gqekP f;zx NZ; s'A wZ; Bk j'fJnk. nkgD/ jh gzEe pZfunK dk y{B ghD
tkb/ cBhno Bkr B{z iZi ;kfjp wzso gVe/ t; eoBk ukj[zd/ ;B, e'Jh
wzso ezw Bk nkfJnk. Go/ wB SbedhnK nZyK ezpd/ p[Zb bVyVKd/ g?oK
Bkb N[od/ ;qLe[bdhg f;zx, pkdb dh e'mh ftu'A pkjo XZe fds/ rJ/. sd'A
coi pDdk ;h gzEe iE/dkoK dk, pkdb fto[ZX fJfsjk;e j[ewBkwk
ikoh eod/. T[; B{z rbsh dk nfj;k; eokT[Ad/, f;Zyh dk tk;sk gkT[Ad/,
y[dk dk y"c u/s/ eokT[Ad/. ;qL e[bdhg f;zzx dh j";bk ncikJh tk;s/
nekb sys s/ ;Zde/ ;BwkB eod/, T[; d/ jZe ftu fBXVe fpnkB
fdzd/HHHHHHH. nc;'; pj[s pj[s nc;'; nfijk Bk j'fJnk. fco j[ewBkw/
e/tb rohpK B{z ckj/ bkT[D tk;s/ jB< eh fJjh r[owfonkdk j?< BjhA

(255)
BjhA..
joDk pkiK s? f;edkoK J/Bk gfVnk BkT[..
cKXh bZr ikfs cjkfJfB nr? Bk jh EkT[[.. (1288)
woj{w jouzd f;zx b'Ar'tkbhnk1985 dh gzikp ftXkB ;Gk dhnK
u'DK s'A gfjbK ;zro{o d/ fJZe fjzd{ wzdo ftu frnk. w{oshnK B{z wZEk
N/fenk, fsbe brtkfJnk. iE/dko nZyK whN rJ/. fJjBK jh u'Dk
d"okB ;[oihs f;zx poBkbk, poBkb/ d/ fJZe wzdo ftu NZb yVekD frnk
fNZe/ brtkJ/. iE/dkoK i[pkB Bk y'jbh. r[ouoB f;zx N'jVk gfNnb/
fBozekoh GtB ftu ik e/ T[jBK s'A t'NK b?D bJh sob/ eodk fojk.
;o'gk gqkgs ehsk. iE/dkoK w{zj Bk y'jfbnk. gqekP f;zx pkdb f;Zy
w[Zy wzsoh, nekbh db dk gqXkB Gh, b[fXnkD/ d/ fJZe wzdo ftu sKfsfoek
e'b'A jB eotkT[Adk fojk , fsbe brtkT[Adk fojk. iE/dkoK dh i[pkB B{z
skb/ bZr rJ/. f;Zy tiho wzvbh B/ ;ko/ gzikp B{z fdB fdjkV/ d'jhA jZEhA
b[ZfNnk. B'NK Bkb fsi"ohnK s{V bJhnK. nopK d/ wkbe pD p?m/.
;oekoh B"eohnK fuZN/ fdB fBbkw j'D bZrhnK. :{Bhtof;NhnK dhnK
ikjbh fvrohnK dhnK d[ekBK E'e ftu y[ZbQ rJhnK. b'e GbkJh d/ ;ko/
ekoi mZg eo fds/ rJ/. p/nzs e[opkBhnK eoe/ gzikp ns/ f;Zy fjsK
bJh ;zxoP eod/ nk oj/ nekbh db B{z pdBkw eoe/ fwZNh ftu fwbk
fdZsk frnk. fJ; nekbh ;oeko B/ f;ZyK B{z d[BhnK ftu eZy'A j"b/ eoe/
oZy fdZsk. nkw f;Zy toeo dk e'Jh ezw BjhA j'fJnk, g[okD/, gzE tk;s/
e[opkBhnK eoB tkb/, i/jbK eZND tkb/, f;ZyK dh fe;/ ;ko Bk bJh,
o'NhUA nks[o j' rJ/. ykb;k gzE dk r"ot, nekb sys ;kfjp d/
iE/dko, w{zj ftu x[zrDhnK gkJh fpZN fpZN sed/ oj/. f;Zy nkr{nK B{z
f;Zyh fto'Xh eos{sK s'A o'eD dh fjzws Bk i[Nk ;e/. j[ewBkwk ikoh Bk
eo ;e/. go feT[A < feT[A <<
ikfB p{fM e? pkto/ s? eki[ fprkfoU..
gkg eos ;[efuU BjhA Bj rop[ fBtkfoU.. (727)
wBwZ[y fe;w d/ gqpzXe u"XoK ekoB gftZso n;EkB, r[o{ xoK B{z
izr dk nykVk pDk fdzd/ jB. d/P ftd/P ftu'a fBZs BthnK p[okJhnK dk

(256)
id'A PoXkb{ ftnesh B{z gsk ubdk j?, sK T[j jT[e/ Godk, nZEo{ e/odk,
p/p; j'fJnk sVg e/ ;fsr[o{ d/ uoBK ftu ;[Xko dh nodk; jh eo
;edk j?. ;zrsK tZb'A nogD ehsh gq/w G/Nk, pVh p/dodh Bkb popkd
ehsh ik ojh j?. p/nzs gqpzXe s/ gqukoe BfPnK ns/ j'o fxBkT[D/
ftekoK ftu bZEgZE j'J/ gJ/ jB. r[odtko/ ;zrsK bJh ;KM/ Xow n;EkB
Bk ofj e/, fBih ikfJdks s/ ewkJh dk ;kXB pD uZ[e/ jB. r[o{ xoK B{z
;oeko iK ckJhBK; ezgBhnK e'b froth (rfjD/) oZy e/ eoi/ b?D/ s/
ngD/ fBZih eko'pko tXkT[D/, nkw toskok pD u[Zfenk j?. pd/PK d/ e[M
gqpzXe Pokp ns/ f;roN dhnK d[ekBK Gh eod/ jB. fpd/PK ftub/
nZfXT[A pj[s/ gqpzXe nzfwqsXkoh ofjstkB j'Dk sK d{o ;r'A gfsZs jB.
jo EK s/ nkg' ngDh wfonkdk bkr{ ehsh j'Jh j?. gqukoe nkg' ngDh
wBwoih dh vcbh tik oj/ jB. ehosBhJ/ eftsktK B{z jh “ Ppd
ehosB” dk b/pb bk e/ g/P eo oj/ jB. wBxVs jk;'jhDhnK ejkDhnK
r[o PpdK Bkb i'VhnK ik ojhnK jB. gkmhnK bJh gkm dh e'Jh ;[XkJh
BjhA j?. rzdhnK EktK s/, ;VeK feBko/, BfjoK d/ ezfYnK s/, SZgVK tor/
N'fJnK ftu, PwPkB xkNK ftu, MrV/ tkbhnK EktK s/ epik iwkT[D
bJh, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp B{z x;hfNnk ik foj?. fJjBK wBwsh ezwK ekoB
gktB pkDh dk x'o ngwkB j' fojk j?. v/fonK, xoK ftu r[o{ rzzqE ;kfjp
d/ ;o{gK B{z szr, rzd/ Ekt/A ofynk j'fJnk j?. r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp Bkb'A
ftneshnK dh g{ik tX/o/ j'Jh ik ojh j?. fJZe fJZe fgzv iK w[jZb/ ftu
eJh eJh r[odtko/ T[;o u[Ze/ jB. ;gheo nkw ifrnk;{ d/ fdB Go
ezB gkVd/ jB. ;kv/ iE/dko J/H;hH rZvhnK s/ J/H;hH e'mhnK ftu “ u?B
dh pz;oh” tik oj/ jB, fit/A fes/ e[M j'fJnk jh BjhA. ;zrsK B{z Bkw
igD dhnK r'bhnK Sek oj/ jB. fJjBK x'o wBwsK pko/ gzEe jkbs B{z
;[XkoB pko/ e[M m'; T[gokb/ eoB dk T[jBK e'b tes BjhA pudk.
vkbo, g"AAv fJeZm/ eoB/ e'Jh S'Nk ezw j?< fJ; nj[d/ d/ ekoB jh sK
wkfJnk dhnK gzvK nk ojhnK jB. gftZso nj[dk poeoko oZyD tk;s/
pV/ gkgV t/bD/ g?Ad/ jB. oki;h b'eK B{z Gh y[P oZyDk j'fJnk. i/ nj[dk
jh Bk fojk fco eZy'A j"b/ j' ikDr/. d/P ftd/P ftu x[zw e/ Xow T[gd/P
eoe/ g"AvK dhnK gzvK pzBe/, tkg; gos nkT[Dk jh f;Zyh dh uVdh ebk

(257)
wzBh ik ojh j?. fJzBhnK d[;tkohnK s'A pkd r[owfs tk;s/ tes pudk
jh feZE/ j?<
pkjo eh nrfB p[Ms ib ;fosk e?,
BkT[ w? iT[ nrfB bkr? e?;/ e/? p[MkJhn?..
wkfJnk vo vo bgs jkfo r[od[nko/ ikt?,
sjk iT[ wkfJnk fpnkg? ejk mfjokJhn?..(GkJh r[odk; ^ 544)
iE/dko i'frzdo f;zx t/dKsh ih tZb'A pj[s gfjbK iE/dkoh ;zGkbD
;ko jh P'qwDh ew/Nh B{z “ j[ew” fdZsk frnk ;h fe ;ko/ iE/dkoK dh
fB:[esh ns/ poyk;srh d/ fB:w fsnko ehs/ ikD. fJjBK pDkJ/
fB:wK sfjs jh fe;/ ftnesh B{z iE/dko bkfJnk iK jNkfJnk ikt/.
fJjBK dh ftfdne :'rsk Gh fBoXkos ehsh ikt/. bzwK tes phs ikD
sZe Gh Pq'wDh ew/Nh B/ fJ; j[ew dh osh Go gotkj BjhA ehsh.
uzvhrVQ s'A Sgd/ nypko (d/P ;/te) ftu 22H09H99 dh ypo ftu
fbfynk frnk ;h fe ;qL Gkr f;zx Bkwh ftnesh ngDh gzikp (BtK
Pfjo) ftu eJh J/eV iwhB r[o{ d/ Bkw s/ GkJh wBihs f;zx, iE/dko
nBzdg[o ;kfjp d/ jtkb/ eo frnk. e[M jh ;w/A nzdo T[[; iwhB B{z 63
bZy 25 jiko ftu t/u e/, GkJh wBihs f;zx B/ o[g? nkgD/ fBZih ykfsnK
ftu iwQK eotk bJ/. wkbe GkJh Gkr f;zx :{He/H fBtk;h fJ; ;dw/ B{z
podkPs Bk eodk j'fJnk, gob'e rwB eo frnk. fJj ns/ j'o eJh
fe;w d/ fttkdK ftu wBihs d/ fxo ikD s'A pknd gVskb eoB tk;s/
fJZe ew/Nh pDkT[D dk n?bkB ehsk frnk. T[; ew/Nh dh fog'oN sK feZE'A
nkT[Dh ;h, edh whfNzr jh BjhA j'Jh, ;r'A ew/Nh pDh jh BjhA. frnkBh
g{oB f;zx B/ j[ewBkfwnK dh i' d[odPk ehsh, nekb sys dh wkD
wfonkdk B{z i' Ykj bkJh, T[j fpnkB s'A pkjoh, iZr'A s/othA j?. T[j ;dk
fttkd ftu fxfonk ofjzdk j?. gzEe GktBktK iK ;zrh ;kEhnK dh fJZis
dh e'Jh gqtkj BjhA eodk. fBowb i's wjkB goT[gekoh PyPhns, r[o{
BkBe r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih B{z, fJZe ;kXkoD fij/ g"okDe g[oy dh ;zskB
nkyD'A Gh Pow BjhA eodk. edh iE/dkoK dh io{oh fJeZsosk ftu BjhA
iKdk. sys dh iE/dkoh s'A Gkt/A bkj fdZsk, go fJZe j'o pj[s jh

(258)
;fseko:'r nj[d/ dopko ;kfjp d/ w[Zy rqzEh dh rZdh dk b[sc T[vk fojk
j?. eh wikb fe T[; dh jtk tZb Gh e'Jh e?oh nZy Bkb t/y/. dwdwk
;kfjp d/ iE/dko frnkBh e/tb f;zx, ngDh B[{zj d/ nksw jZfsnk e/;
ftu i/jb ftu pzd jB. GktA/ nj[d/ s'A fsnkr gZso fdZsk frnk go
pj[s d/oh eoe/. pkdb ;oeko dk fJZe wzsoh ;[Zuk f;zx bzrkj r[opkDh
B{z fgZm d/ e/ r[o wfonkdk tZb'A Gr"Vk j' e/, 501 owkfJD d/ nyzv gkm
r[odtkfonK ftu eotkD tk;s/ bzr"Nk pzBh fcodk fojk. dopko ;kfjp
nzfwqs;o ns/ j'o nDfrDs r[odtkfonK d/ e[gopzX dhnK nypkoK
ftu fBZs ypoK SgdhnK jB. f;Zy i[nkBh BfPnK ftu v[Zp ojh j?.
gfssg[D/ dh jB/oh tr ojh j?. ftnkj dh nkV ftu bVe/ bVehnK dk
fet/A P'PD j[zdk j?, fe;/ B{z fceo BjhA. fet/A ftd/PK ftu gzikp dhnK
XhnK Boe ftu XZe fdZshnK iKdhnK jB, fe;/ s'A b[fenk fSfgnk BjhA
j?. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu nBzd ekoi eotk e/, goeowk eoe/,
e;w yk e/, ihtB Go ;kE fBGkT[D dhnK, e[M jh ;w/A pkd foPs/ N[ZN
iKd/ jB. r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp d[nkb/ goeowk eoe/ Bebh ftnkj j[zd/ Gh
gsk ufbnk j?. fJj ns/ nfij/ j'o PowBke wBwsh eow j[zd/ ;[D
gVe/ Gh ;kv/ iE/dkoK, edh i[pkB y'jbD dk ePN sZe BjhA ehsk.
p[okJhnK B{z o'eD dh iok fizzBK Gh T[gokbk BjhA ehsk. fco g[ZfSnk ik
;edk j? fe fJj fe; ekoB iE/dko jB< rZvhnK nkokwdkfJe, nkbhPkB
e'mhnK, w{zj wzrhnK Gkoh sBykjK, ;zrsK tZb'A nEkj wkD s/ wkfJnk d/
y[Zb/ rZc/HHHHH. fco i/ fJjBK e'Jh r[o{ xo dk, gzEe fjZsK tkbk ezw jh
BjhA eoBk sK feT[A e"w dk g?;k nikJhA o'jfVnk ik fojk j? < eh G/Nk
g{ik dk g?;k SZe, veko wko ikDk, r[ows d/ ekoiK tZb'A w{zj w'V b?Dk,
fJjh f;Zfynk j? r[opkDh e'b'A iE/dkoK B/ < go feT[A <
ihn pXj[ ;[ Xow efo Ekgj[ nXow ejj[ es GkJh..
nkg; eT[ w[fBto efo Ekgj[ ek eT[ ejj[ e;kJh.. (1102)
j'o pj[s e[M nfijk j? i' c"oh fXnkB wzrdk j?, go ;kv/
iE/dkoK e'b oki;h b'eK B{z y[P eoB s'A f;tkJ/ j'o e[M BjhA ;[Mdk. fBs
BthnK t zrkoK ykb;k gzE B{z dog/P j[zdhnK jB. GftZy pko/ edh e'Jh

(259)
gbkB BjhA pDkfJnk frnk. EK EK y[zpK tKr T[FZr oj/ v/o/ fezB/ e[ gzEe
jB fezB/ e[ gzE fto'Xh. ;'uDk pDdk j?. gzikp dh fe;kBh dk nkT[D tkb/
fdBK ftu GftZy j'o Gh nzXekowJh j't/rk. ftZfdnk gZy'A edh gzikp
Gkos d/ ;kyosk ftu w'joh ;{fpnK ftu ;h.nZi gzikp ftZfdnk gZy'A
gSV e/ s/Jht/A Bzpo s/ ubk frnk j?. ftfdnk ftu fdB'A fdB fBxko jh
nkT[Adk fdZ; fojk j?. brgr S/ bZy, T[FZu ftfdnk gqkgs B"itkB bVe/,
bVehnK, p/o[Irkoh dh dbdb ftu c;/ j'J/ jB. y/vK d/ y/so ftu Gh
gzikp pj[s fgS/ ofj frnk j?. gkfe;skB Bkb izr d/ pjkB/ pkvo d/
fe;kBK dk nopK dk B[e;kB j' u[Zfenk j?. gzikp dhnK ;oekoh p?AeK
gzikp ftu'A g?;k fJeZso eoe/ Gkos dhnK j'o ;N/NK ftu ftek; d/ ezwK
s/ ;ko/ p?fezr fB:wK dh T[bzxDk eoe/ bk ojhnK jB. gzikp B{z fdtkbhnk
pDk ojhnK jB. gzikp ftu tZv/ ekoykB/ bkT[D pko/ edh ezB jh BjhA
Xfonk frnk. gzikp s'A pkjo t;d/ f;ZyK sZe, Xow gquko bJh ns/
T[jBK d/ j'o w;b/ jZb eotkT[D bJh gzEe w[yhnK B/ edh e'Jh ;koEe
isB BjhA ehsk. nkb fJzvhnk r[odtkok n?eN pDkT[D pko/ bzw/ ;w/A s'A
ezB gkVthnK uheK sK ;[DkJh d/ ojhnK jB, T[gokbk e'Jh BjhA ehsk
frnk. fJ;d/ T[bN fjwkub r[odtkok ew/Nh, jfonkDk r[odtkok ew/Nh,
fdZbh ew/Nh, ji{o ;kfjp p'ov, gNBk ;kfjp p'ov, gkfe;skB r[odtkok
ew/NhnK pDh ik ojhnK B/. gzEe w[yh rcbs dh x[{e r{jVh BhAd ftu
;[Zs/ j'J/ jB.
w;b/ pj[s jB go ezBK s'A p'fbnK B{z e'Jh fet/A ngDh t/dBk
;[Dkt/< gZEo d/ fdb tkfbnK nzdo gzEe dod dh ghV fet/A g?dk eo/<
;ktD wjhB/ d/ nzfBnK B{z T[FZiV ojh gzEe c;b, g;o fojk wko{Eb e'Jh
fet/A ftykt/< fiBQK Xkowe w[yhnK dh, p/JhwkB oki;h bhvo fB:[esh
eod/ jB, ngDh woih d/ c?;b/ eotkT[Ad/ jB, id'A wB ehsk go/ trkj
wkod/ jB, T[jBK iE/dkoK s'A i[onZs tkb/ c?;b/ b?D dh fet/A nk; ehsh
ik ;edh j?< fiBK B{z ngDh rZdh dk Gh Go';k BjhA nZi j? eZb oj/rh fe
BjhA, eh gsk. fijBK iE/dkoK dh T[FZu r[ows :'rsk t/ye/ fB:[esh BjhA
j'Jh. ;r'A wBwoih d/ j[ewBkw/ ikoh eotkT[D tk;s/ bkfJnk frnk j?.
fgSb/ ;w/A ftu j[ewBkfwnK dh pVh tkoh rbs tos'A j'Jh j?. ;fsr[o{
(260)
ih d/ gktB w[yko fpzd s'A j'fJnk “X[o eh pkDh” o{gh gftZso j[ewBkwk
edh ;[DkfJnk jh BjhA frnk. y'jb e/ ;wMkfJnk jh BjhA frnk. i/
ekp/ ftu'A jh e[co T[m gt/ fco fJ;bkw feZE/ fNe/rk< e[o;hnK s/ p?m e/
bzro SeDk r[owfs BjhA j?, iwhB s/ p?m e/ bzro SeDk r[ows j?. fJ;
j[ewBkw/ B/ pd/PK d/ f;ZyK B{z bho'A bho eoe/ oZy fdZsk j?. p/wkjBhnK
rbK s/ j[ewBkw/ HHHHHH. gzE dh ftrVh ;fEsh ;[XkoB tk;s/, wBw[y f;Zy
bhvoK B{z BZE gkT[D tk;s/, gzE ftu e[ohshnK d{o eoB tk;s/, e'Jh
j[ewBkwk BjhA HHHH go feT[A nfijk feT[A < <
! efb j'Jh e[s/ w[jh yki[ j'nk w[odko[..
e{V p'fb p'fb GT[eDk u{ek Xow[ phuko[ (1242)
! oki/ ;hj w[edw e[s/.. ikfJ i rkfJfB p?m/ ;[s/..
ukeo Bjdk gkfJfB xkT[.. os[ fgs e[fsj' ufN ikj[.. (1288)
pI[or b/ye ;qL r[opyP f;zx ekbk ncrkBk ih ;zB 1994 s'A
y'i Gog{o g[;seK “fpgqB eh ohs s'A ;Zu dk wkor” bVh dhnK fbydk
nk fojk j?. feskp SgtkT[D s'A gfjbK T[; dhnK c'N' ekghnK gqf;ZX
;ekboK ns/ nekb sys d/ iE/dko B{z G/i e/, fBwosk ;fjs ;[MkT[
wzrdk fojk j?. fe;/ ftdtkB tZb'A iK iE/dko tZb'A, e'Jh i[nkp Bk fdZsk
frnk. r[L f;zx ih ngDh g[;se Sgtk e/ r[ows gq/whnK sZe g[ukT[D
bZr gJ/. S/ ;kb sZe r[ows d/ nB/e ftfPnK Bkb ;pzXs, eJh feskpK
wkoehN ftu g[Zi rJhnK. f;Zy gkmeK B/ g[;seK dk T[sPkj Gog{o
jz[rkok Gfonk. fe;/ ftdtkB iK fe;/ iE/dko B/ Gh e'Jh T[Arb Bk
T[mkJh. nZi s'A fszB e[ ;kb gfjbK iE/dko i'frzdo f;zx t/dKsh ns/
nwoihs f;zx dh ;KM/ s"o s/ ;zgkde ehsh g[;se “r[o fpbk; gkL
S/thA” P'qwDh ew/Nh B/ Sgtk fdZsh. n;b ftu fJj feskp GkJh nwoihs
f;zx dh jh fbyh$;zgkds ehsh j'Jh j?. t/dKsh ih dk ;zgkdBK ftu e'Jh
yk; :'rdkB BjhA j?. nwoihs f;zx B{z fe;/ ;jko/ dh io{os ;h sK fe
tZv nekoh g[;se Pq'wDh ew/Nh tZb'A SgkJh ik ;e/. t/dKsh B{z ngDk BK
uwekT[D dh bkb;k ;h. d't/A fJZe d{i/ d/ prbrho j' rJ/ s/ feskp
Pq'wDh ew/Nh B/ Sgtk fdZsh. fJ; feskp ftu p/nzs fjzd{ g"okfDe
ejkDhnK jB. fJ;d/ b/ye pko/ e'Jh gsk BjhA j?. ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB dk
(261)
fJ; feskp ftu x'o ngwkB ehsk frnk j?. e[dos d/ neZN fB:wK B[z{
Gzr ehsk frnk j?. eokwksh ejkDhnK dh Gowko j?. r[opkDh d/ fe;/
f;XKs s/ fJj g[;se yoh BjhA T[sodh. go t/dKsh ;kfjp ns/ T[; d/
;zrh ;kEh, G{wektK fbyD tkb/, fJ; B{z gzE dh tvw[bh fJfsjk;e y'i,
d[obZG yikBk, wjkB ;/tk nky e/ fBtkiD bZr gJ/. t/dKsh ih B{z
ikfgnk fe w?A oks' oks wjkB y'ih fbykoh pD frnk jK. Bkb vkL
nwoihs f;zx B{z Gh yzG bZr rJ/.
nfijh r[ows fto'Xh e[co Bkb bpo/i gkg dh p/Vh, r[ows
dhnK XZihnK T[vkT[D tkbh feskp, ;qL r[opyP f;zx dh pki nZy s'A
fet/A pu ;edh ;h. T[jBK fJ; feskp ftubk epkV Bzrk eoBk P[o{ eo
fdZsk. gfjbK b/yK d[nkok s/ fco fJZe tZv nekoh g[;se “r[{ofpbk;
gkLS/thA^ r[opkDh dh goy e;tZNh s/” fby e/ gzE nZr/ d[jkJh gkJh fe
fJ; e{V feskp B{z o'e' t/dKsh B{z toi' fJ;/ dpkT[ ekoB ;q'L ew/Nh tZb'A
fJ; feskp B{z o'e fbnk frnk. go t/dKsh B/ w[V nkgDk o;{y tos e/,
fJ; g[;se dh fteoh P[o{ eotk fdZsh. Bkb jh r[opyP f;zx ih B{z gzE
ftu'A S/eD dk j[ew ikoh eo fdZsk. fJjBK ;kohnK xNBktK dk ft;Eko
nypkoK o;kfbnK ftu Sgdk nk fojk j?. gqekP f;zx pkdb uzdok
;[nkwh s'A b[fXnkDk ftu jtB eokT[Adk fojk w[eN gfjBdk s/ fsbe
brtkT[Adk fojk, iE/dko ih nkokw Bkb t/yd/ oj/. pkdb nB/e wzdoK
ftu NZbhnK yVekT[Adk fojk, iE/dko ih nZyK whN rJ/. pkdb dh gsBh
phph ;[fozdo e"o nkP{s'P, gzE d'yh d/ uoBK s/ f;o ;[N e/ w[okdK wzrdh
ojh. t/dKsh dh nkswk Bk ikrh. pkdb d/ B/Vb/ foPs/dko B/ u'D fiZsD
tk;s/ nekb sys ;kfjp s/ ik e/ nzfwqs SeD dk Sb BkNe ehsk. u'D
fiZsD s'A pkd fco dkjVh eNtk fdZsh, t/dKsh ih u?B dh pz;oh pikT[Ad/
oj/. nekbh db B/ sys ;qh e/;rVQ s/ nodk; eoe/ j[ewBkwk b? e/,
(r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp dk ) nBzdg[o dk wsk gqtkB ehsk ;h. fJ; ftu fby/
nfXeko gqkgs eoB tk;s/ wo fwND dhnK e;wK ykXhnK ;B. ;zB
1973 dh ehsh nodk; s/ wsk j"bh j"bh wo w[Ze frnk j?. fJ; ehs/ gqD
B{z g{ok eotkT[D bJh fe;/ iE/dko B/ ezB Bk u[Zfenk. fJZe' rZb :kd j?
fe gzE ftu nk uZ[ehnK ewi'ohnK B{z d{o eoB tk;s/ i/ e'Jh ftdtkB
(262)
g[oP, jkb gkjfonk eodk j?, T[; dh i[pkB pzd eo fdU. gzE ftu'A S/e
fdUHHHH. ;qL ros/i f;zx nkJhHJ/Hn?;H B?PBb gq'c?;o nkc f;Zy fJiw
s'A T[;dh fJj T[gkXh y'j bT[, feT[Afe T[j Gh “ e[M nkeVdk j?”. ;ko/
n;{bK wfonkdktK dh pbh d/ e/, fjZe d/ skD iE/dko j[ewBkw/ ikoh eo
oj/ jB. fJZe tkoh fJj fBoDk eo bJhJ/ fe iE/dkoK B{z j[ewBkw/ ikoh
eoB d/ nfXeko fwb/ fet/A jB<
T[L eh ;fsr[o{ ih fe;/ ftnesh B{z f;ZyK dk r[o{ iK j[ewBkw/ ikoh
eoB dk nfXeko Ekg rJ/ ;B< iK ;ko/ nfXeko ykb;k gzE B{z d/
rJ/ ;B <
nL eh r[opkDh ftu'A e'Jh nfijk gqwkD fdZsk ik ;edk j? fi; okjhA
fe;/ iE/dko B{z nfij/ ftP/P nfXeko fdZs/ rJ/ j'D <
JL eh r[odtkok n?eN ftu e'Jh ni/jh wZd j?, fi; ftu iE/dko B{z
e'Jh nfijk jZe fdZsk frnk j't/ <
;L eh gzE gqwkDs f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk ftu e'Jh nfijk nfXeko
iZE/dko B{z fdZsk frnk j?<
jL eh fe;/ g[oksB gqwkDhe g[;se ftu'A e'Jh fJ; soK dk jtkbk
fwbdk j? fi; okjhA iE/dko B{z e'Jh tZX skes fwbh j't/ <
i[nkp jo EK BKj ftu fwb/rk, fco fJj j[ewBkw/ ikoh eoB dk
jZe ;q'L ew/Nh B/ fe;/ ws/ okjhA fdZsk j't/, BjhA. fJj sK XZe/Pkjh dk
tYKrk j?, fi; d/ jZE ftu skes dh bkmh j't/, fco tos'A eoe/ ncrkBk
ih tor/ B{z feT[A Bk ;'fXnk ikt/< XzB f;Zyh, XzB iE/dkoh.
ewfo eNkok pze[Vk pze/ ek n;tko..
r[op[ B ehi? BkBek ws[ f;fonkt? Gko[.. (956)
nro iE/dkoK dk gq/PkB ehsk f;Zy ndkbs ftu ubk frnk sK
fJjBK B{z puD dk e'Jh okj BjhA bGDk. ;zB 03 ftu Sgh “j[ewBkw/
nkd/P ;zd/P” Bkwh g[;se d/ gzBK 174 s/ “iE/dko P'qwDh ew/Nh” B{z
“j[ewBkwk” ikoh eo fojk j?. fJ; dh fwsh j? 29H03H2000 “ w?A P'qwDh
ew/Nh B{z j[ew fdzdk jK fe iE/dko bkT[D jNkT[D nkfd dk ftXh ftXkB
fsnko ehsk ikt/. iE/dko d/ nfXeko ns/ ftfdne :'rsk fBPfus
ehsh ikt/. j[ewBkwk ikoh eoB d/ Yzr sohe/ ;[MkJ/ ikD. Xow n;EkBK
(263)
B{z oki;h b'eK dh ieV ftu'A nkikd eokfJnk ikt/. r[odtkok n?eN pD/
B{z pj[s bzwk no;k phs frnk j?, fJ; ftu b'VhAdhnK ;'XK ehshnK
ikDHHHHHH.” S/ ;kb phs u[Ze/ jB y[d P'qwDh ew/Nh B/ fJ; ny"sh j[ewBkw/
B{z BjhA wzfBnk. iE/dko B/ e'Jh ekotkJh ehsh< ih BjhA, T[j nkgD/
foiedksk nZr/ nZy u[Ze e/ BjhA t/y ;ed/. pZ; ngD/ wkbeK d/ nky/ bZr
e/ j[D j'o eZd{ ftu sho eZY wkfonk j?, ;g'e;w?B d/ w[Zy ;zgkde
;qL i'frzdo f;zx B{z gzE ftu'A ykoi eoe/. feT[Afe T[j f;ZyK B{z frnkB
tzv fojk j? , fJ; bJh ;g'e;w?B gouk e'Jh Bk gV/. tkj t/dKsh ih
PkpkP/ iE/dko' XzB j' s[;hA XzB s[jkv/ wkbe j[ewBkw/ ikoh eotkT[D
tkb/. fJ; frnkB dh jB/oh B{z j[D o'e ;eDk s[jkv/ bJh ;zGt BjhA j?.
d' jh okj ;Bl fJZe ^t/dKsh Pjhdh gk b?Adk d{ik ^ nksw jZfsnk eo
b?Adk. i/ fgSbhnK ehshnK rbshnK bJh gzE ns/ ;fsr[o{ s'A w[nkch
wzr b?Adk, fe w/o/ e'b'A oki;h b'eK B/ dpkT[ gk e/ rbs ezw eotkJ/ ;B.
w?A nZr'A j'o oki;h dpkT[ Bk ;jkodk j'fJnk B"eoh s'A n;shck d/ fojk
jK. fJj ;h T[; dh “Pjhdh” go nekb sys dh nkpo{ pu iKdh. d{ik
;h oki;h b'eK d/ nky/ rbs j[ewBkw/ ikoh eod/ ofjDk s/ fJfsjk;
ftu ngDk BK ebzes eotk b?Dk. Bkb jh nekb sys dh fJZis j"bh
eo d/Dh. t/dKsh B/ nksw jZfsnk tkbk okj jh u[fDnk j? , fJj okj T[;
B{z w[pkoe, go ;dk bJh ngD/ wZE/ ekby brtk bJh. nekb sys d/
iE/dko dh t[Zes dk G'r gk fdZsk. j[D iE/dko ndkbsK ftu g/PhnK
G[rs/rk iK fco n;shck d/t/rk. e'Jh okj pkeh Bk ofjD fdZsk frnk,
XzB f;Zyh, XzB iE/dkoh. XzB jB oki;h b'e, fiBK B{z nkgDhnK T[FZu
Xkowe ;z;EktK s/ gqzgoktK ngwkBs eoe/ gq;zBsk gqkgs j[zdh j?.
nkT[D tkb/ eZbQ tk;s/ u/szB r[of;ZyK B/ c?;bk eoBk j? fe gftZso
;z;EktK B{z wbhB j'D s'A fet/A pukfJnk ikt/. ;wK ikrD dk j?.

B'N L ;Zu p'bD s/ ;Zu fbyD s'A r[Z;/ ftu nke/ g[ikohnK B/ b/ye
fto[X Gh j[ewBkw/ dk nrB pkD ubk fdZsk j?.

[[[[

(264)
thjth ;dh dk F'qwDh f;Zy
rZb d[nkgo :[Zr dh j? i' ebi[r Bkb'A fpjso, ;[DhAdk j?. fJZe'
dkd/ d/ g'sfonK dk iwhB s/ xo tzvD s'A MrVk j' frnk. f;nkfDnK
tZb'A d'jK fXoK ƒ ;zs[PN eoB tk;s/ e'Jh :'r T[gokbk Bk ehsk frnk.
sbyh pj[s tZX rJh fJ;/ r[Z;/ ftu e"ot fXo B/ nkgDh GoMkJh do'gsh
ƒ rzd/ wy"b eo fdZs/. rZb rkbh rb'u s'A tZX e/ wko ekN se g[Zi rJh.
d'tK fXoK B/ fBPfus fdB s/ g{oh c"ih skes Bkb I'o niwkJh eoB dk
n?bkB eo fdZsk. c"iK dk s/ :'fXnK dk ;wheoD j'fJnk izrh ;kwkB
fJZeZmk ehsk frnk s/ d't/A skesK nkjw' ;kjwD/ j' e/ nZr tokT[D
bZrhnK. fJZe pzB/ gKvt ;?Bk, w[yh noiB ;?Bkgsh. go izrh g?AsV/ pko/
;ko/ nfXeko oEtkjh feqPB e'b. d'tK fXoK d/ f;gkjh s/ ;?Bkgsh woB
bZr/.
izr fBZs fdB j'o Gydh ik ojh ;h. e"otK B/ eJh fdBK dh
iZe'sZeh pkd nkgDh jko ojh ;?Bk ƒ wjkB ;{ow/, Bhsh fBg[zB, eoD d/
;g[od eo fdZsk. ;kfonK fJZe ipkB fejk ^ “eoD dkBtho^s{z ;kvh
jko ƒ fiZs ftu pdb ;edk j?. n;hA s?ƒ nkgDk wZ[y ;?Bkgsh ;theko
eod/ jK.” eoD B/ w[yhnK dk c?;bk gqtkB eo fbnk. c"i ƒ nkgD/ Yzr
Bkb iE/pzd ehsk. g{oh fsnkoh eoe/, nrb/ fdB eoD, izr d/ w?dkB
ftu ik ;fink. tkoh tkoh eoD Bkb bVB tk;s/, eJh nkJ/ s/ eZyK
ekfBnK tKr T[FZvd/ rJ/. gKvt ;?Bk ftu GrdV wZu rJh. e'Jh g/P Bk
iKdh t/ye/, eoD d/ Nkeo/ bJh, noiB ƒ tZvh c"i ;w/s, w?dkB ftu
T[skfonk frnk. d't/A nkjw' ;kjwD/ p[ZeD bZr/. izr P[o{ eoB bJh
fprb tZi fgnk. d't/A fXoK B/ fiZs gqkgsh bJh, e'Jh e;o pkeh BK
SZvh. y{p nrBh toQkJh rJh. c?;bke[B f;ZN/ s/ g[ZiD bJh, noiB B/
(265)
nkgD/ GZE/ ftu'A, fJZe yk; sho eZfYnk. feqPB oEtkjhA ƒ gqDkw ehsk,
d/ts/ fXnkJ/. rKvht (XB[;) ƒ g{oh skes Bkb, ezB she fyZfunk.
eoD ƒ w?dkB Sve/ GZiD bJh wIp{o eoB tk;s/, sho fBPkB/ tZb dkr
fdZsk. P{edk j'fJnk sho, eoD tkb/ oE d/ wZE/ s/ ik NeokfJnk. eoD
oE ;w/s, G[nkNDhnK yKdk j'fJnk, d' ;" ri dh d{oh s/ ik fgnk.
c[osh Bkb eoD ;zGfbnk, oE mhe ehsk, x'V/ tZb ehs/, oEtkjh ;bZw
ƒ, oZE fco gfjb/ ;EkB s/ fbikD bJh j[ew fdZsk. nZy d/ c'o ftu,
;jh ;bkws, fpBk \"c eoD, noiD d/ ;kjwD/ djkV fojk ;h.
j[D sho dkrD dh tkoh eoD dh ;h. T[;B/ GZE/ ftu'A fJZe sho
eZfYnk, fuZbk ukjfVnk, ewkD dhnK jZvhnK eVe rJhnK, rKvht ƒ
ezB s'A fgSKj sZe fyZfunk, fBPkBk ;/X e/, sho dkr fdZsk. noiB d/
oE ƒ ;kjwD/ wZE/ P{edk j'fJnk fJj sho ik NeokfJnk. nZr dhnK
bkNK fBebhnK, Xosh ezph, oE d/ gjhJ/ uowokJ/, feqPB v'fbnk,
nekP ftu'A fGnkBe uheK ;[DkJh fdZshnK, X{V d/ pZdb T[FZm/, s/ noiB
oE ;w/s d; pkoK ri T[bNe/ fgSKj ik fgnk. S/sh feqPB ;zGfbnk,
T[; T[mfdnK jh eoD dh T[;ssh ftu i?ekok bk fdZsk. “wjKpbh eoD
dh i? j't/, i? j't/HHHH”. fJ;d/ Bkb jh nekP ftu'A I'odko gq;z;kwJh,
ntkiK r{zi T[mhnK. “eoD :'X/ dh i? j't/, dkBtho eoD s/oh i? j't/HHHH.”
nekP ftu'A eoD s/ g[Pg poyk j'D bZrh.
noiB fJj ;G t/ye/ G"Auek ofj frnk, s/ T[;B/ o'; tZi'A bVB
s'A fJBeko eo fdZsk. jfEnko IwhB s/ oZy f;o fgZN e/ p?m frnk.
feqPB B/ g[ZfSnk ^
“eh j'fJnk noiB ` w?dkB ftu :'X/ nkgD/ jfEnko fJ; soQK
IwhB s/ BjhA oZyd/, T[FZm s/ w[ekpbk eo.”
“Bjh gqG{ ` w? Bjh bVKrk, w/ok ngDk oEtkjh d[PwD tZb'A wko{
tko eoB s/ i?eko/ rikt/, w?E'A podk;s BjhA j[zdk. nZi eZbQ sK p?e[zm d/
d/ts/ Gh gZygksh j' rJ/ brd/ B/.”
“eh j'fJnk noiD, S/sh dZ; <”

(266)
“gqG{ ` fJj e'Jh dZ;D tkbh rZb j? < eh s[;hA BjhA ikDd/ eh
j'fJnk j? < w?A sho ubkfJnk, eoD d/ SZe/ S[Vk fdZs/. G[nKNDhnK yKdk,
oE ;w/s d' ;" ri dh d{oh s/ ik fvZrk ;h. fezBh d/o fgS'A, w;hA
;zGfbnk. sd'A fe;/ d/th d/ts/ B/ w/oh P'Gk BjhA ehsh. fe;/ B/ g[Pg
poyk BjhA ehsh. s[;hA y[d Gh e'Jh gq;z;Bh: Ppd BjhA p'fbnk. id'A
eoD B/ sho Bkb w/ok oE e/tb d; ri fgSKj XZfenk, fJj d' ;" ri
d/ w[ekpb/ e[M Gh BjhA j?. go nc;'; s[;hA fpBk ;'u/, eoD dh ;'Gk ftu
i?ekok bkfJnk. d/tfsnK B/ nekP ftu'A g[Pg poyk ehsh. i? i? eko
j'Jh xzN/ tZi/. eh s[jkvh d/tsk ;Gk dk, fJj' fijk fJB;kc j? < w?ƒ
i[nkp ukjhd?, j[D/ fJ;/ tes. toBK w? BjhA bVKrk.”
“BjhA noiB fiZd Bk eo, jfEnko ;zGkb, fJj ;wK ci{b
pfj; eoB dk BjhA j?. izr ;w/A :'X/ ekfJosk ftykT[Ad/ wkD BjhA
gkT[Ad/.”
“ih BjhA, w?A sho sbtko BjhA u[e
Z Krk, gfjbK w/oh s;Zbh eotkU.
toBK w?A ;wMKrk fe s[;hA, nzdo yks/ e"otK dk gZy g{o oj/ j'.”
“mhe j?, fit/A s/oh woih, w?ƒ n;bhns s/o/ ;kjwD/ oZyDh jh
gt/rh. nkgD/ fdb s/ jZE oZy b?, fes/ ;Zu ;[De/, s{z rP yk e/ fvr jh
Bk gt/.” feqPB GrtkB B/ nkgDh ebk toskJh, E'V/Q ;w/A bJh, noiB
dk shik B/so y'jfbnk. “nkj t/y fXnkB Bkb noiB, s/o/ oE d/
gjhJ/ Xosh wksk B/ g{oh soQK ieV/ j'J/ B/. j'o r"o Bkb t/y, P/P Bkr
B/ oE d/ gjhJ/ ƒ tb/t/A gkJ/ j'J/ jB. w?A p/Bsh eoe/ ;ko/ d/tfsnk ƒ
s/oh ;jkfJsk eoB bJh wBk fbnk ;h. T[jBK Gh g{oh tkj bkJh. w?A
y[d fpPƒ dk ntsko ;'bK ebK ;zg{oB, ngDh ;koh ntskoh Pesh
Bkb, s/oh wdd eo fojk jK. s/o/ oE ƒ nrBh s'A pukT[D tk;s/, nrBh
dk d/tsk fJzdo nkgD/ eowukohnK ;w/s, nZr p[Mk fojk j?. go fJ;
;G d/ pkti{d, e[opkB iktK dkBtho :'X/ eoD s'A. tkj, tkj s/o/, eoD
tkj. s{z nkgD/ fJZe' sho Bkb Xosh dk wkB s'V fdZsk. P/P Bkr dhnK
jZvhnK u{ok eo fdZshnK. ;ko/ d/tfsnK dh r?ph Pesh, jtk ftu T[vk

(267)
fdZsh. w?A nkgDh ;koh nrzwh Pesh bk e/ Gh, s/o/ oE ƒ o'e BjhA
;fenk, p/ tZ; j' frnk ;K w?A. eoD B/ e/tb noiB d/ oE ƒ d; ri
fgSKj BjhA XZfenk, pbfe swkw sq?b'eh ƒ fjbk e/ oZy fdZsk. ;ko/ d/t
b'e s/ eoD Gko{ j' fBpfVnk. i/ n;hA nB/e skesK tose/, oE ƒ Bk
o'fenk j[zdk, sK s{z s/ s/ok oE fwZNh ftu fwb ikDk ;h, shbk shbk j' e/
fpyo ikDk ;h. eoD B/ ;kvk ;kfonK dk wkB Gzr ehsk j?. T[;dh fJ;
nEkj Pesh ƒ t/ye/ jh, ;G B/ T[;dh T[gwk ehsh j?. s{z d' ;" ri eoD
dk oE, fgSKj o/VQe/ e'Jh fjwkbk gops BjhA u[Ze fbnk. s{z fJZeZb/ eoD
Bkb bV fojk j?. s/ eoD nB/e PeshnK s/ fJZeZbk Gko{ j?. j'o ;[D
noiB. w?A oks d/ ;w/A, eoD ƒ fgnko Bkb dZ; nkfJnk ;K, fe gKvt
s/o/ jh Gok B/, s?E'A S'N/, T[jBK dh ikB p\; d/thA. s[;hA ;ko/ e[zsh d/
g[Zso j'. fco w?A f;ykb e/, s/oh wksk e[zsh ƒ eoD e'b G/fink, T[;B/ o'
o' e/ ;koh j'Jh phsh efj ;[DkJh. wK dh wwsk dk tk;sk gkfJnk. M'bh
nZv e/ e[zsh B/ gziK g[ZsoK dh ikB p\Ph bJh sobk ehsk. T[j fejVh
ukb j? i' w?A Bk uZbh j't/. s?ƒ pukT[D bJh s/ eoD ƒ ysw eotkT[D
bJh. s?ƒ sK fJZebZt: B/ jh ed/ dk gko p[bk d/Dk ;h, i/ X'y/ Bkb r[o{
do'D, T[; dk nzr{mk Bk eNtk fdzdk. fJ; s'A pkd dh izr ftu, noiB
fiZs frnk, s/ eoD fiZs e/ Gh jko frnk, nkgDk nkgk e[opkB eo
frnk.
efjzd/ jB fJ; wjKGkos dh izr s'A pkd e[oy/so “g[zB G{wh”
efjbkT[D bZrh. feT[Afe fJE/ pj[s tZvh y{Bh izr bVh rJh ;h. fJfsjk;
nkgD/ nkg ƒ d[jokT[Adk j?. nkT[ ebi[r ftu goshJ/, s/ t/yhJ/ fe
nfijh izr fco feZE/ bVh rJh < fejVh ;h “g[zB G{wh” s/ e"D ;h fJ;
EK eoD pbh. fJj “Xow Xosh” r[o{ BkBe dh uoB S'j Bkb gftZso
j'Jh. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp nZmK ikfwnK okjhA fJE/ (nzfwqs;o) gXko/. fJE/
jh d;K ;fsr[oK dh nksw i's “g'Eh ;kfjp’ dh ;zg{oDsk j'Jh, s/ gfjbk
gqekP j'fJnk. fJE/ jh “whoh ghoh” Grsh s/ Pesh dk ;[w/b gqrfNnk.
joh d/ wzdo d/ ;kjwD/ jh, nekb dk s\s Gh T[;ko fdZsk frnk. fJjBK

(268)
dh gktBsk bJh, nDfrDs ;zsK GrsK s/ ;{ofwnK B/ nkgD/ gqkDK dh
nj{sh fdZsh. fJ;/ do s/ jkIo j' e/, ;kEhnK ;w/s fJZe f;Zy B/ nodk;k
;'fXnk. fe nkgD/ Goktk Bkb j' ojh, p/^fJB;kch ysw eotke/ jh ;kj
btKrk. f;Zy gzE d/ ;t?wkD bJh Xow:[ZX P[o{ eo fdZsk. Bzr/ XV e[M Gh
BK j[zfdnK, e/tb ;fsr[o{ ih s/ Go';k oye/, izr dk fprb tik fdZsk.
fJZe gk;/ fJeZbk eoD j? (pkpk ioB?b f;zx) e"ot Gok Gh ;kE Bjh fBGk
oj/, (nekbh db) d[nkgo tkbk xNBk uZeo P[o{ j' frnk j?. GkJh ;r'A
swkPphBK ftu ik yb'J/. gKvtk dh ;?Bk (;oekoh fXo) s/ e"ot Gok Gh
(nekbh) “P{dg[so” ns/ j'o eJh fe;w dhnK s'jwsK bkT[D'A Pow BjhA
eod/. p/rkfBnK s'A sK eh nk; ;h, nkgD/ Gh gokfJnK Bkb ik ob/.
edh gqeowK ftu'A fBeb ikD dh u/sktBh, edh vke{nK b[N/fonK dk w[yh
nkfynk ik fojk j?. fJ;d/ r[ZM/ G/d gfjbK jh d[PwD ƒ dZ; fdZs/ iKd/
B/.
BthB izrh n;so nk ikD eoe/ j[D feqPB ƒ oEtkjh pDe/
noiB d/ Bkb nkT[D dh Io{os BjhA j?. feqPB (fJzdok rKXh) noiB
(t?fdnk) ƒ eoD (pkpk ioB?b f;zx) d/ ftoZ[X ;kohnk PeshnK d/ e/
G/idh j?. T[; nZr'A ioBb fdnkb s/ pokV, nkfd ƒ ;G e[M ;zGkb
fdZsk. nzBQk fXqXok;No (frnkBh i?b f;zx) ;zi/ (;{jhJ/) s'A izr pko/
ikDekoh gqkgs eodk j?. fJ; tkoh ;zi/ Gh X'y/pkI fBefbnk, izr dh
;jh ;fEsh BjhA dZ;dk. ;ko/ wko{ nrBh P;so s/ n;so fJZeZm/ eo
bJ/ rJ/, N?Ae, s'gK, s/ T[vD yN'b/ Gh. fJeZb/ ioB?b f;zx ƒ c[zvD
tk;s/, wjkB Gkos toP dh Pesh Pkbh ;?Bk ƒ M'e fdZsk frnk j?.
T[;ƒ ewI'o eoB tk;s/ gfjbk pkjtK (nekbh) s'V fdZshnK. fco
“;{d g[Zso” nkfynk, fJbIkw bkJ/. pkjobh ;jkfJsk o'eD tk;s/
;ojZdK s/ u"e;h tXk fdZsh. nypko, o/vhU, NhHthH s/ “u'o j?, eksb
j?, d/P ek d[PwD j?,” dk M{mk P'o gkfJnk frnk. pj[s ukbK uZbhnK,
go eoD ;{ow/ B/ jko Bk wzBh.
d; bZy c"i ukbh e[ G[Zy/ GkD/ f;zxK ƒ wkoe/ fco pjkdoh dk

(269)
fYzv'ok fgZNDk uj[zdh j?. w[V s'A uwe"o dh rVQh dk fdqP nZyK nZr/ nk
iKdk j?. jzekoh j'Jh c"i dk, id'A pj[sk B[e;kB j'D bZrk sK fJZe' tkoh
;ko/ pzfBT[, ;ko/ soQK d/ jfEnkoK Bkb, jZbk p'b fdZsk. y{B dhnK BdhnK
tfj N[ohnK, nZr d/ bKp{ T[m/ xw;kD dk izr wZfunk, s'gK N?eK r'bhnK,
s/ f;zxK d/ i?ekfonK B/ fGnkBe Bkd tikfJnk. noiB e'b ;kohnK
skesK ;B eoD fBjZEk eo fdZsk frnk. nDfrDs ewhDhnK ukbK uZb
e/, Gkt/A eoD ƒ ;ohoe s"o s/ ysw eo fdZsk frnk j?. go feqPB B/
y[d eoD dh ;{owrsh d/ ;'jb/ rkJ/. jo c"ih ioB?b B/ T[;ƒ “tvi'Xk”
eoe/ fbfynk. ;koh gKvt ;?Bk B/ eoD ƒ wkoe/ fJZIs BjhA yZNh, go
eoD B/ d; ri oE fgSKj XZe e/, ;z;ko ftu gqf;Xh gqkgs eo bJh.
f;ZyK d/ fdbK s/ T[;dk ;dk oki oj/rk. eoD s'A izr d/ w?dkB ftu jh
g[Pg toyk j' rJh ;h, go fJE/ gzikp ftu sK ni/ Gh y"c SkfJnk
j'fJnk j?. fJ; thjthA ;dh dh wjkB :'X/ “Pq'wDh f;Zy” dk T[Zuh ntkI
Bkb e'Jh Bkw Gh BjhA b? fojk. fJZe fXo tk;s/, fJzdok rKXh p/d'fPnK
dh eksb, Xow n;EkB dh p/ndph eoB tkbh, woB s/ “Pjhd” pD
rJh j?. d{ih fXo tk;s/ ;t?wkD fgZS/, ikBK e[opkB eoB tkb/ :'X/ Gh,
Pjhd BjhA jB. pkpk ioB?b f;zx dh Pjhdh xZN/ o[bdh ik ojh j?.
p/nzs f;zx, ;stzs f;zx, e/jo f;zx, p/gSkD j[zd/ ik oj/ jB. “;[Zyk
fizdk” ns/ j'o ;{ow/ :kdK dhnK gosK u'A feod/ ik oj/ jB. ;zB ’84 d/
d't/A xZb{xko/ brgr fizw/tko ftneshnK tZb'A G[bk fdZs/ rJ/ jB.
“dktk nrfB pj[s fsqD ikb/ e'Jh jfonk p{N ofjU oh” d/
wjKtke w[skpe ;ko/ gk;/ dfjPs dh nrBh j?. ;kok f;Zy o{gh o[Zy
izrb, pkr, ;kV e/ ;[nkj eo fdZsk j?. e'Jh jfoU p{Nk fes/ ftobk jh
pfunk j?. j? e'Jh r[o{ fgnko tkbk i' fJ; gzEe c[btkVh B{z f;zi ;e/<
T[ifVnK B{z p;k ;e/, ftbQefdnK d/ jzM{ g{zM ;e/. pkpk ioB?b f;zx dk
Pjhdh fdt; wBk ;e/<
ftP/P ;{uBkL Bth Sg e/ nkJh g[;se ‘X{zd{eko/ ftu'A ukBD dh y'i’ ftu
;qL dbpho f;zx B/ tdkDh u'N wkofdnK fJze;kc ehsk j? fe 1984 d/

(270)
xZb{xko/ ftu pkpk ioB?b f;zx B{z Pjhd eoe/, eJh e'DK s'A ukbh c'N'nK
fyZuhnK ;B. Ne;kb d/ u"XohnK B/ c"ih n|;oK B{z ukbh jIko o[g?
foPts d/ e/, ukbh c'N'nK d/ T[sko/ gqkgs ehs/ ;B. Ne;kb ns/ gqtko
B{z gZek gsk j? ;p{s w"i{d jB, fe pkpk ioB?b f;zx Pjhd j' frnk j?.
go fJj b'e ;w[Zu/ gzE B{z e{V gquko Bkb rz[wokj eod/ nk oj/ jB. fBok
e[|o r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh gktB jI{oh ftuHHH. j? e'Jh o'eD tkbk<
Ne;kb tkb/ dZ;Dr/ fe thj ;kb s'A pkpk ih feZE/ b[e/ p?m/ jB<
Ne;kb dk w[yh pkpk mke[o f;zx Po/nkw fJZeh ;kb M{m p'bdk
fojk fe “ioB?b f;zx ihts j?, uVQdh ebk ftu j?. w?A woB s'A gfjbk
ioB?b f;zx dh pKj cVke/ iktKrk.” r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu bZyK
tkoh e[|o s'bD tkb/ ;zs ns/ pqjwfrnkBh pD/ p?m/ jB. ;z;ko Go ftu
c?b/ f;Zy “pqjw frnkBhnK” dhnK XkVK ftu'A fe;/ fJZe B/ Gh fJj Bk
fejk fe, “Ne;kb tkfbU ` s[;hA M{m p'b oj/ j'. n;hA nkgDh
“pqjwfrnkBsk” ftu'A gosZy ikD fbnk j? fe pkpk ioB?b f;zx ikB
tko frnk j?. pkpk ioB?b f;zx thjthA ;dh dk Pq'wDh f;Zy. T[;dh
Ne;kb tkb/ thjthA ;dh d/ ;G s'A M{m/ wB[Zy. j[D 12H6H2005 B{z
Bt/A Ne;kb w[yh frL joBkw f;zx B/ n?bkB eo fdZsk j? fe “pkpk ih
Pjhd j' rJ/ jB.” eh Ne;kb tkb/ dZ;Dr/ gJh T[jBK B{z fJZeh ;kb
wro'A fet/A gsk bZfrnk fe pkpk ih Pjhd j' rJ/ jB< ;ukJh sZe g[ZiD
tk;s/ T[jBK B/ eh ;kXB ngDkJ/< fJZeh ;kb gzE B{z r[wokj eoB dh
;Ik eh fwZEh ikt/< BoeK d/ Gkrh s/ BoeK d/ ehV/, eh s[jkv/ tor/ jh
BjhA pDBr/<

[[[[

(271)
r[opkDh ftu ftfrnkBe ;Zu
id'A ;z;ko d/ Xow rqzEK dk rfjokJh Bkb nfXn?B eohJ/, sK
e/tb wB[Zy ƒ PoXk ;fjs nkgD/ ofjpo d/ fgZS/ s[oB dk T[gd/P fdZsk
fwb/rk. nkgDh neb dh tos'A eoB s/ gkpzdh nkfJd ehsh fwb/rh.
ftfrnkBe dbhb s/ i/ e'Jh ftuko g{ok Bk T[sodk j't/, soe PkPso s/
Gh yok Bk T[so/, sK Gh fJZe nkfrnkekoh r[bkw tKr, T[;ƒ gqtkB eo
b?Dk jh ;/te dk eow j?. goy eoBh ;[nkb i[nkp eoB/, ;kfJz; Bkb
w/b e/ t/yDk, fJjBK rZbK dh Bk fJikis j? Bk e'Jh wjZst. ;r'A g{oh
skes fJ;/ T[gd/P bJh M'e fdZsh iKdh j? fe, Xow ns/ ftfrnkB dk
nkg; ftu e'Jh w/b BjhA j?. pbfe fJj d't/A fJZe d{i/ d/ eZNV fto'Xh
jB. d[BhnK ftu tZvh pj[ frDsh Xow ƒ fJ;/ BIohJ/ s'A t/ydh ;[Ddh
nk ojh j?. PkfJd T[j p/p; jB, feT[Afe T[jBK ƒ ftok;s ftu i' Xow
;zd/P gqkgs j'J/ jB, T[jBK ftu ftfrnkBe BIohnk BKj d/ pokpo j?.
fJ;/ wIp{oh tZ; T[jBK d/ T[gd/PeK B/ nkw iB ;w{zj d/ nzdo, fJj
ftuko gogZe eo fdZs/ jB, fe Xow ns/ ftfrnkB dk e'Jh foPsk BjhA
j?.
fi; fyZs/ (Gkos) ftu f;Zy Xow iBfwnk s/ gqtkB ufVQnk j?,
T[E'A dk Xkowe ns/ ;wkie skDk pkDk, fBo'b o{Vhtkdh nD fte;s ns/
r?o ftfrnkBe j?. bzwK ;wK r[bkwh ftu e;N G'rfdnK, fJE'A d/ b'eK
dh nkswk dw s'V rJh. ;'uD Pesh skes d[nkok dpk fdZsh rJh,
;t?wkD e[ub fdZsk frnk. e"wh s"o s/ ;w[Zu/ Gkos tk;hnK ƒ gZs^jhD,
ws jhD s/ i[nos jhD eo fdZsk frnk. id'A e"wh s"o s/ “uzr/ fdBk dh
nk;” ;dk tk;s/ wo w[Ze ikt/ sK r[bkw b'eK, ftu'A e'Jh “f;nkDk g[oy”
Go/ wB, fpyohnK nk;K ftu'A jT[ek b? e/ “GftZy pkDh” eodk j?^“n?
w/o/ d/P tk;hU ` j[D s[jkvh r[bkwh dhnK izihoK e'Jh r?ph Pesh jh s'V
;edh j?. s[jkv/ d[ZyK dk nzs, e'Jh wjkB nkswk jh eo ;edh j?.

(272)
s[jkv/ Xow ƒ s[jkvk oZp jh nk e/ puk ;edk j?. s[jkvhnK wB'ekwBktK
fe;/ eokwks d[nkok Gkt/A g{ohnK j' ikD, toBk e'Jh T[whd BjhAHHHH.”
g{oh bkukorh ftu'A nky/ nfij/ tke e"wK ƒ fBZ;b eofdnK eod/ jB.
fe;/ gkf;T[A nk; dh feoB id'A BIo Bk nkt/, nkgD/ e'b ;{M p{M e'Jh
Bk j't/, ftneshrs ns/ e"wh skes yhD j' u[Zeh j't/, wB[Zy p/gZs j' e/ Gh
trkoK eoB bJh wip{o j't/, sd'A pko pko fJj fynkb nzdo'A T[FZmdk j?,
fe j[D sK e'Jh eokwks, nrzwh Pesh jh, w/ok pzd ybk; eotk ;edh
j?. fpbe[b nfijh wkBf;e dPk ftu'A jh eokwksK B/ iBw fbnk
goshs j[zdk j?. skesto b'e nD j'DhnK, eokwksK dh, e{VQh nk; edh
BjhA eod/. T[jBK B{z nkgDh neb ns/ pkj{pb s/ Go';k j[zdk j?. fIzdrh
d/ jo gfjb{ s'A jko u[Ze/ b'e, frnkB soe dbhb s/ ftfrnkBe BiohJ/
tkbh e'Jh ftuko sZe ;[BD bJh fsnko BjhA j[zd/. id'A nfij/ o{Vhtkdh
ftuko nzdo xo pDk e/ p?m ikD, sK fJjBK s'A S[Nekok gkT[Dk brGr
n;zGt j' iKdk j?. Gkosh b'eK ftu gqubs tfjwk GowK ns/ eokwksh
ejkDhnK ƒ, fJ;/ BIohJ/ s'A t/fynk rZb ;"yh ;wM nk ;edh j?. pj[
frDsh ftukoXkok dk n;o f;Zy wBk s/ Gh nkw t/fynk ik ;edk j?.
r[otke jB ^
c{N' nKvk Gow ek wBfj GfJU gork;[]
ekNh p/oh grj s/ r[fo ehBh pzfd ybk;[] (1002)
ng[;N pks s/ GJh ;hXoh d{s d[;N ;iBJh]
nzXeko wfj osB[ gqorkf;U wbhB p[fX jSBJh] (402)
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/, r[bkwh dhnK pj[ gosh izihoK ƒ
s'VB bJh, ftfrnkBe okj u[fDnk Gkt/A fJj o;sk nsh fpyw ;h, bzwk
;h go j? ;h fJjh do[;s. r[o{ ;kfjpkB dk w[y gqi'iB ftfrnkB dh
nb'uBk eoBh iK ftfrnkB dh ;'Mh d/Dh BjhA ;h. jK nkgD/ ftukoK ƒ
gqrN eofdnK, ;/teK ƒ f;Zyws fdzfdnK, i' okj u[fDnk, fynkb fdZs/
T[j ;zg{oD s"o, ftfrnkB dh e;tNh s/ yo/ T[sod/ jB. fJ;/ BIohJ/
Bkb T[jBK B/ g[oksB eokwksh e{V ejkDhnK ƒ Gh ;fji/ jh oZdh dh
N'eoh ftu ;[ZN fdZsk. ebw dh fe;/ fJZe' o{jkBh S'j, fJZe' gzesh ftu
;dhnK d/ pV/, T[;o/ e{V/ eokwksh wfjb, r[o{ ih B/ cBkj eo fdZs/.

(273)
ngDk gZy fiE/ g{oh p/pkeh Bkb gqukfonk, T[E/ ftfrnkBe fdqPNhe'D ƒ
ny'A go'y/ BjhA ehsk. PkBkwZsk fJfsjk; fJ; rb dk rtkj j? fe i'
eoKshekoh spdhbh wB[Zyh ;'u ftu nkJh, T[;/ dh pd"bs wkBf;e
;wkfie s/ okiBhse r[bkwh rb'A bkjh rJh. nkT[ j[D gktB r[opkDh
ftu'A T[j puB gVQhJ/ ftukohJ/, fiBK okjhA ;fsr[o{ ih B/ o{Vhtkdh Gow
ikb ƒ sko sko ehsk, s/ nkgDk ftfrnkBe BIohnk wB[Zysk ;Bw[Zy
oZfynk.
1H f;qPNh ouBk pko/ Xkowe wjKg[oyK d/ ftuko, nkg; ftu
w/b BjhA yKd/. fe;/ nkfynk oZp B/ ekfJBks ;ZsK fdBK ftu pDkJh, s/
fe;/ fejk e/tb “e[B” (j'ik) nkyD Bkb jh;G e[M pD frnk. fe;/
dZf;nk gJh ;w[zdo ftu fJZe ewb c[Zb g?dk j'fJnk,T[; ftu'A pqjwk
fBeb/, T[jBK B/ nZr'A f;qPNh ouBk ehsh. p'XhnK B/ nkfynk gJh fJj
gdkoEK s'A f;qPNh pDh j?, fJE/ e[M BtK Bjh pDdk, f;oc gfotosB j'
iKdk j?. fe;/ j'o B/ fejk fe fJj fd;dk g;kok j? jh BjhA, n?t/A nZyK
dk Gow ns/ Sbktk j?, ;[gB/ dh fBnkJh j?. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ ;ko/
ftuko gV/Q s/ x'y/. Ud'A s'A b? e/ nZi se, ftfrnkBh Gh f;qPNh dh
g?dkfJP pko/, nkgD/ y'i gZso g/P eod/ ofjzd/ jB. fJjBK dh nkgDh
wjZssk j?. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih nkyD bZr/, fgnkfoU ` bZy isB eoB
d/ pkti{d Gh fJ; G/d ƒ BjhA gkfJnk ik ;e/rk, fe fJj ekfJBks fet/A
pDh. fJ;ƒ i/ e'Jh ikDdk j?, sK T[j f;oc pDkT[D tkbk jh ikDdk j?.
T[; B/ fe;/ ƒ dZf;nk BjhA, gJh fet/A pDkJh rJh j?, fJj ;koh fd;dh
y/v. ;fsr[o{ ih dk c[owkB j? ^
etD[ ;[ t/bk tys[ etD[ etD[ fEfs etD[ tko[]
etfD f; o[sh wkj[ etD[ fis[ j'nk nkeko[]
t/b B gkJhnk gzfvsh fi j't? b/y[ g[okD[]
tys[ B gkfJU ekdhnk fi fbyfB b/y[ e[okD[]
fEfs tko[ B i'rh ikD? o[fs wkj[ B e'Jh]
ik eosk f;omh eT[ ;ki/ nkg/ ikD/ ;'Jh] (ig[)
fit/A ftfrnkBhnK B/ fJZe ftek;tkdh f;XKs d[Bhnk nZr/ oZfynk
j? fe gfjbK fJ; pqjwzv ftu r?;K jh r?;K ;B, (nzdkIk jh j?) ;{oi

(274)
Bkb'A e[M N[eV/ N[ZN e/ tZy j' rJ/.j"bh j"bh fJj N[eV/ mzY/ j' rJ/.whAj
fgnk, ekJh nfde tBk;gsh g?dk j'Jh. fBZek iht “nwhpk” g?dk
j'fJnk, nwhpk ftueko'A N[ZN e/ fJZe s'A d', d' s'A uko s/ uko s'A nZm
tXdk frnk. djhA nkfd ftu nZi Gh fJjh gqfefonk ubdh j?. fJ; s'A
pkd gkDh tkb/ iht pD/ wzBhd/ jB. fJ;/ eow nXhB Xosh s/ ohArD
tkb/ iht, uZbD tkb/ iht s/ gzSh g?dk j' rJ/. ;G s'A nkyoh, f;yobh
B;b wBZ[y dh wzBh rJh. fJj ftek; fefonk n;zy ;kbK s'A fBozso
ubdh nk ojh j?, fJjh ftfrnkB dk gqtkBs ;Zu j?. id'A ;fsr[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih B/ fJ; gk;/ ;[osh fposh x[wkJh, sK fJ;/ soQK d/ ftfrnkBe
ftuko gzi ;" ;kb gfjbK gqrN ehs/.
;ku/ s/ gtBk gfJnk gtB? s/ ib[ j'fJ]
ib s/ fsqGtD[ ;kfink xfN xfN i'fs ;w'fJ] (19)
2H fi; G{wh T[FZgo n;hA ihtB fpsk oj/ jK fJ; pko/ ikBD dh
wB[Zy nzdo ;dk s'A b'uk ojh j?. fiE/ ;kfJz; B/ nkgDk gZy g/a; ehsk j?
Xkowe w[yh Gh, nkg' nkgDh gj[zu w[skpe, ftuko gqrN eod/ oj/ jB.
Pkwh ofjpoK (e[okB s"o s/ izp{o nzihb d/ ou?sk) Xosh ƒ ugNh
nkfynk T{pV ykpV nkfynk. ;{oi x[zw fojk j? Xosh fJZe EK ;fEo
fNeh j'Jh j? nkfynk. id'A rbhbhU tor/ wjkB ftfrnkBhnK, ;z;ko
;kjwD/ Xosh pko/ gqubs ftukoK ƒ oZd eoe/ f;ZX ehsk, gJh Xosh r'b
nzvkeko j?, ;{oi fJZe EK ;fEo j?, Xosh ;{oi d[nkb/ goeowk eo
ojh j?. p; fco eh ;h` fJ;kJh Xow w[yhnk B/, n;wkB f;o s/ u[Ze
fbnk. pkJhpb s'A pkrh f:;{ w;hj d/ j[ewK dh T[bzxDk eoB tkbk,
rodkfBnk frnk. oki Pesh ƒ gq/fos eoe/, rbhbhU ƒ ekb e'mVh
ftu pzd eo fdZsk frnk. bzwh e?d s'A pkd so; dh fpB? s/ T[;ƒ i/jb
ftu'A pkjo fbnKdk frnk. T[;ƒ nkgDh “rbsh” bJh w[nkch wzrD
bJh fejk frnk. rbhbhU B/ pV/ mozw/ Bkb gkdoh ns/ oki/ nZr/ w[V
d[jokfJnk ^ “w/o/ e'b'A i' fdb ukj/ nytk bT[, p/Bsh fJ; soK j? fe
Xosh B/ s[jkvh pkJhpb Bjh gVQh. ;{oi sheo Gh s[jkvh pkJhpb dk
T[gd/P BjhA g[Zfink. f:;{ w;hj B/ i' fbfynk j? T[j Xosh ns/ ;{oi ƒ
g[ZSe/ BjhA fbfynk. Xosh gfjbK Gh ;{oi d[nkb/ uZeo eZNdh ;h, nZr'A

(275)
Gh fJ;/ soQK ubdh oj/rh. w?A i' woih fby fdnK fJjBK ƒ e'Jh coe
BjhA g?Dk. feT[Afe fJj pkJhpb d/ r[bkw BjhA jB, Bk jh w/o/.;Zu fJj'
jh j? fe Xosh goeowk eo ojh j?, fJ;/ ekoB o[ZsK w";w fdB oks
pDd/ jBHHHHH.” s/ ftuko/ rbhbhU ƒ w[V e?d ykB/ ftu pzd eo fdZsk,
id'A se T[;dh o{j T[vkoh wkoe/ pkjo BjhA fBeb rJh.
fjzd{ rqzEK d/ sK pfbjko/ ikD ƒ fdb eodk j? fe fJsBk bki[nkp
wB'oziB fJjBK d/ fbykohnK B/ fet/ fby fbnk < ny/ Xosh ;wz[do dh
MZr s'A pDh. fco okyP Xosh ƒ u[Ze e/ d"V rJ/, d/tfsnK izr bVe/
Xosh tkg; y'j fbnkdh. iK fco Xosh P/PBkr d/ f;o s/ fNeh j'Jh
j?. BjhA BjhA` P/P Bkr Bkb ;fjwsh BjhA, fJj X"b/ pbd B/ nkgD/ f;zr
T[go fNekJh j'Jh j?. id'A pbd fJZe f;zr s'A d{i/ f;zr s/ Xosh ƒ
pdbdk j?, sd'A G{ukb nk iKd/ jBHHHHH. fJ; soQK d/ yzfvs ftuko,
puekBhnK rZbK ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ Gh ;[DhnK gVhnK. T[jBK
g{oh db/oh Bkb ;u dk gZbk cfVnk, b'eh eh efjzd/ jB gqtkj BjhA
ehsh. r[o tke fJT[ j? ^
X"b[ Xow[ dfJnk ek g{s[] ;zs'y[ Ekg ofynk fifB ;{fs]
i/ e' p{M/ j't? ;funko[] Xtb? T{gfo e/sk Gko[]
Xosh j'o[ go? j'o[ j'o[] fs;s/ Gko[ sb? etD[ i'o[] (ig[)
;fsr[o{ ih c[owkB eo oj/ jB, j/ ;z;ko d/ b'e' X"bk pbd Xosh
j/mK BjhA j?, ;r'A dfJnk o{gh wK dk Xow (oZph fBnw) o{gh X"bk pbd
j?. i' fe ;zs'y o{gh nIkbh ;{so ftu go'fJnk j'fJnk j?. i/ e'Jh wB[Zy
tkfjr[o{ dh fJ; ndG[s, ns/ ftokNsk ƒ ;wM bt/, T[jh n;b ;Zu d/
B/V/ g[Zfink wzfBnk ikt/rk. eh e'Jh dZ; ;edk j? fe Xosh dk tiB
fezBk j? < fJ; n;hw tiB tkbh Xosh ƒ e'Jh u"gkfJnk pbd BjhA u[Ze
;edk. fco j'o p/nzs jh XoshnK jB, T[jBK ƒ e"D u[Zeh yb'sk j? < sK
brd/ jZE fJj Gh dZ; fdU fe pbd Xosh ƒ u[e e/, yb'sk ekjd/ T[go
j?< T[;ƒ g?o fNekT[D bJh fJZe Xosh Io{o ukjhdh j?. T[; j/mbh Xosh
ƒ u[ZeD tk;s/, fJZe j'o pbd fJZe j'o XoshHHHHH< feZE/ ik e/ fJ; dk
nzs eo'r/< BjhA GkJh fJj e[dos s/ pZMt/A ekƒB w[skpe, jtk ftu
fNeh j'Jh j?. fe;/ pbd d/ f;zr T[go BjhA. gowkswk pj[s wjkB j?,
T[;B/ fpBK gosZy fd;d/ ;jko/ s'A, jtk ftu fNek fdZsh j?. r[otke jB L^

(276)
“gT[D[ T[gkfJ, Xoh ;G Xosh, ib nrBh ek pzX[ ehnk]” (350)
;fsr[o{ ih B/ sK nkgD/ nB[Gt Bkb fJj Gh ;gPN fby fdZskl
GkJh feT[A fJ; MrV/ ftu g?Ad/ j' < Xosh Gh ubdh j?, ;{oi Gh ubdk
j?, skok wzvb ;w/s ;w[Zuk pqjwzv rshPhb j?. i/ fJj o[e ikD sK
fIzdrh Gh o[e (ftBkP) ikt/rh. r[o tke fJT[A jB ^
“w[ekw[ fs; B' nkyhJ/ fi; f;f; B j'th b/y[]
“n;wkB Xosh ub;h” w[ekw T[jh J/e[]”
“fdB oft ub? fBf; ;f; ub? skfoek by gb'fJ.”
w[ekw[ T[jh J/e[ j? BkBek ;u[ p[r'fJ]” (64)
;fsr[o{ ih sK p/nzs T[FZu/ ftfrnkBe ftuko gqrN eod/ j'fJ j'o
dZ; oj/ jB ^
G? ftfu ;{oi[ G? ftfu uzd[] e'j eo'Vh ubs B nzs[] (464)
3H ;w[zdo ;dk jh wB[Zy dh fdbu;gh dk e/Ado fojk j?. fezBk
v{zxk j?, fesBk tZvk j?, ftu eh eh S[fgnk j'fJnk j?, yk; eo fJj gkDh
fNfenk j'fJnk fet/A j? < e'Jh tZNK ezXK o'eK feXo/ BiohA BjhA g?dhnK.
g"okDe eEk ejkDhnK ftu ;w[zdo dk foVeDk Gh ebfgnk frnk. fiBQk
t;sK dh wB[Zy ƒ b'uk ;h, T[jBK dh ;w[zdo ftu'A gqkgsh Gh ebgh rJh.
Xosh dk w[ZY ;w[zdo ftu'A pZfMnk. nr;s w[Bh (ekbgfBe) r[Z;/ ftu
nk e/ ;ko/ ;w[zdoK dk gkDh fJZe' tkoh vhe bk e/ gh frnk. ihtK d/
p/Bsh eoB s/ ;kok ghsk gkDh fgPkp okjhA pkjo eZY fdZskHHHHnkfd.
fJ; ftu s/ e'Jh PZe BjhA fe gkDh ihtB dk w[ZY j?, go ;w[zdo tkbh
p[Mkos b'eK bJh fiT[A dh fsT[A poeoko j?. ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih ƒ
g[ZS t/yhJ/ gksPkj ihU ` s[;hA feogk eoe/ dZ;', fJzBk ;kok gkDh fet/A
fNfenk j'fJnk j? <
Ghsfo nrfB pBk;gfs wT[bh ;kro gzv? gkfJnk]
uzd[ ;{oi[ d[fJ xo jh Ghsfo n?;k frnkB B gkfJnk] (1171)
xkj iK s{Vh ƒ fJZe EK s'A d{ih EK fbikD tk;s/ fgSb/ ;fwnK
ftu fJZe w'N/ eZgV/ ftu s{Vh nkfd gk e/, uzrh soQK pzBQ fbnk iKdk ;h.
fJ; fefonk ƒ “yzv pzB b?Dh” nkfynk iKdk ;h. fJ; Ppdktbh dh
tos'A eod/ j'J/ ;kfjp r[o{ BkBe ih ;wMk oj/ jB. n? ;z;ko d/ b'e',
fJ; ;w[zdo d/ nBzs nEkj gkDh d[nkb/ e'N ezXK BjhA jB. fJzBhnK ezXK

(277)
e"D eZY ;edk j? < fJj sK T[; nrzw nr'uo gqw/Po dh fBnw o{gh
dhtko j?, i' uko/ gkf;nK s'A gkDh ƒ o'e ojh j?. T[; y[dkJh ekƒB
(BkBe j[ew? i/ p[M?^ig[) d/ ;jko/ jh gkDh o[fenk j'fJnk j?. toBk fJj
ed/ dk T[v$o[VQ frnk j[zdk, nkgDh r[o{sk ekoB fJeZmk j?.
4H ;z;ko d/ “f;nkfDnK” B/ fJZe Xosh, fJZe uzdowk s/ fJZe
;{oi ƒ jh e[M jZd se ikfDnk ;h. fNwNwkT[Ad/ sko/ pZ; r[ZMk G/d jh
;B. fd;d/ skfonK s'A go/, dh d[Bhnk pko/ ;'uDk s/ b'ekJh ƒ dZ;Dk
e/tb ebgDk d/ x'V/ jh ;B. ;BksBh rqzEK B/ gkskb b'e, wks b'e (fiE/
n;hA ofj oj/ jK) ns/ nkekP b'e fbfynk. iK e[M ;tor Boe dh
ebgDk ehsh. fJ; s'A nZr/ pko/ ;'uD, ftukoB s'A, T[j n;woE ;B.
fJ; s'A nZr/ fJ;bkw s/ fJ;kJhns B/ e[M g[bKxK g[ZNhnK. u"dK spe iK
nmkoK jIko nkbw se, SbKr brk fdZsh. ny/ p; ` fJ; s'A nZr/ j'o
e[M BjhA j?. ;kfjp r[o{ BkBe ih s'A g[ZShJ/` ihU s[jkvk fJ; pko/ eh
j[ew j? <
gkskbk gkskb by nkrk;k nkrk;]
UVe UVe Gkb Ee/ t/d ejfB fJe tks]
;j; nmkoj efjB es/pk n;[b{ fJe Xks[]
b/yk j'fJ s fbyhn? b/y? j'fJ ftDk;[] (ig[)
;fsr[o{ ih dZ;d/ jB fe GkJh frDsh tkb/ fjzd;/ w[Ze iKd/ jB,
go pqjwzvK yzvK dk e'Jh UVe nzs BjhA j?. fJT[A efj bJhJ/ fe n;zy
jB, frDsh Bk w[wfeB j?. ;r'A ig[ pkDh ftu jh nr/ ik e/ ;fsr[o{ j'o
dZ; gkT[Ad/ jB^
yzv gskb n;zy w? rDs B j'Jh] (1283)
“e/s/ fJzd uzd ;{o e/s/, e/s/ wzvb d/;]
e/s/ f;X p[X BkE e/s/, e/s/ d/th t/;]HHHH
e/shnk ykDh e/shnK pkDh e/s/ gkfs Bfozd]
e/shnk ;[osh ;/te e/s/, BkBe nzs[ B nzs] (ig[)
5H ;fsr[o{ ih pVhnK gs/ dhnK ftfrnkBe ftukoK ;kv/ ;Bw[y
oyd/ ub/ ik oj/ jB. e[M b'eK ƒ gsk ;h fe d[ZX ftu'A (fJZe gqfefonk
g{oh eoe/) wZyD fxT[ gqkgs j' iKdk j?. rzB/ ftu'A o; eZY e/, ekjVe/,
r[V PZeo fsnko ehsh ik ;edh j?. c[ZbK ftu y[Pp{ j[zdh j?, PhP/ ftu

(278)
t/yD tkb/ dk jh ne; j'fJnk eodk j?. bZeVh nzdo nZr j?, fJj fe;/
ftob/ ƒ gsk j't/rk. r[opkDh ftu fJjBK rZbK pko/ nkw jtkb/ fwb iKd/
jB ^
gtfB go'fJU ;rb nekok gkte ek;N ;zr/]
Bho[ XofD efo oky/ J/es e'fJ B fe; jh ;zr/] (1235)
;fsr[o{ ih dZ;d/ jB fe jtk d/ ;tk; o{gh v'o ftu ;ko/ ;oho
(iht tB;gsh nkfd) pZM/ eko ewk oj/ jB. bZeVh d/ nzdo nZr w"i{d
j?, go ;ziw ftu j?. ;w[zdo dk gkDh pj[s fInkdk j? Xosh e/tb u"Ek
e[ fjZ;k jh j?. go t/y' n;uoi e"se, Xosh dh fwZNh y[oe/ ;w[zdo ftu
nb'g BjhA j' iKdh. ofjzd/ fJZeZm/ jB, b/feB ;fj:'r pfDnk j'fJnk j?.
j'o ;[D' ^
g[jg wfX fiT[ pk;[ p;s[ j? w[eo wkfj i?;/ SkJh. (684)
cb ekoB c{bh pBokfJ] cb[ bkrk sp c{b[ fpbkfJ]
frnkB? ekoB eow nfGnk;] frnkB[ GfJnk sj eowfj Bk;[]
fxqs ekoB dfX wE? f;nkB] ihtB w[efs ;dk fBopkB] (1167)
6H ;{oi dh s/i nrBh s'A goGkts j' e/, d[Bhnk d/ f;nkfDnK
B/ fenk; nokJhnK ehshnK fe ;{oi pj[s tZvk j? wjkB j?, ihtB dk
;'wk j?, ukBD eoB bJh oZp B/ g?dk ehsk j?HHHH. uzdowk pko/ rZb ;gPN
BjhA j' ojh ;h, gJh fJj uwedk j?, b/feB sgP g?dk BjhA eodk. fJj
fej' fijh “nrBh” j?, i' mzYe fijh Svdh gqshs j[zdh j? < fjzd{ g"okDe
eEktK ftu uzd ƒ u"dK osBK d/ Bkb jh ;w[zdo ftu'A fBefbnk gqtkB eo
fbnk frnk. “nrBh iK o'PBh mzve sK jh d/ ;edh j? i/ gkDh ftu'A g?dk
j'Jh j't/”, T[jBK fJjh ;'funk. Bkb jh uzdowk ƒ w"s d/ d/ts/, fPt d/
e/;K ftu r[bkp d/ c[Zb tKr fNek fdZsk frnk. pj[s ;kok Gkosh ;wki
fJ;dh g{ik Gh eoB br fgnk. fJ; s'A Gh nZr/ tXe/ eJh ;kfonK B/ sK
uzd Bkb B/V/ dh foPs/dkoh Gh rzY bJh “wkwk ih”. ewkb fJj gJh
fJj nfijk “wkwk ih” j? i' thj g[;sK gfjbK iBw/ pZfunK dk Gh wkwk
;h, s/ nZi g?dk j'D tkb/ Gh fJ; ƒ wkwk jh wzBDr/. fJj j? ;dk pjko
“wkwk”. eot/ u"E dk tos ysw eoB s'A gfjbK fjzd{ ;wki dhnK
phphnK B/ uzd dh T[;ss ftu rhs rkT[D/ Gh P[o{ eo fdZs/. fJ;bkw
tkfbnK B/ o'fInK dh ;wkgsh s/ uzd t/ye/ o'Ik y'bQDk j[zdk j?. nkw s"o

(279)
s/ “d{i ek uKd” pV/ B;hpK Bkb fd;dk j?. i/ BK fd;/ sK nrb/ fdB s/
rZb ubh iKdh j?. u"XthA dk uzd, g[zfBnk dk uzd, Gh b'e p'bhnK, nykDk
ftu nkgDh ftP/P EK oZydk j?. “uzB tork w[ZyVk” sK S[gkfJnk Gh Bjh
S[gdk. s/ eJh sK f;ZX/ jh uzd pD pfjzd/ jB. eJh tkoh uzd pZdbK ftu
b[Ze iKdk j?, edh ftukok “eoi/” d/ Gko EZb/ dZfpnk Pow dk wkok, w{zj
b[ek e/ pfj iKdk j?. uzdowk dh pzd ybk;h bJh, b'ehA gzfvs (gkyzvs
ih) ih ƒ dkB eod/ jB, s/ w[esh eokT[Ad/ jB. fe;/ tes fJzdo dk jZE
m'ek pDe/, r"sw dh gsBh, njZfbnk dh p/gsh eotkT[D bJh e[eow dk
Gkrhdko pDe/ e[ZeV dk o{g XkoB eoe/, e'm/ uVQ tes s'A gfjbK e[ZeV{z
e[V{z dh pKr d/ fdzdk j?. ftuko/ :'oghB b'e fJ; rb'A nGkr/ jh oj/,
w";w dh yokph ekoB, T[jBK d/;K ftu Bk uzdowK dk ukn, Bk nc;';,
Bk T[;dk fIzdrh ftu e'Jh fjZ;k. j[D sK uzd s/ ;?o Gh ;zGt j'D bZrh
j?.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJ; “uzd wkw/” ƒ fInkdk wjZssk BjhA fdZsh.
ubzs w[jkto/ w[skpe ;fji Gk fes/ fIeo p/PZe eoBk g? frnk, Gko{
BjhA j'D fdZsk frnk. fJ; s'A “uzdo ;kb” tkbk ebzvo Gh b'ehA fsnko
eod/ jB. fJ;bkw dk ;kok fjIoh ;kb uzd Bkb jh i'fVnk frnk j?.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJ;ƒ oZph dhge nky e/ ;bkfjnk j?, (oft uzd[ dhge
pB/^663) ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ fJj uzrh soQK gsk ;h, fe uzd dh o"PBh nkgDh
BjhA j?. fJj ;{oi s'A “j[Xkoh” bJh rJh j?. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ gktB
ftfrnkBe puB gVQ' ^
Gko nmkoj wkbD s/oh] uT[o[ Y[b? gtD/ b? c/oh]
uzd[ ;{oi[ d[fJ dhge oky/ “;f; xfo ;{o[ ;wkfJdk”] (1033)
;fsr[o fwbj[ nkg/ gqG sko/]“;f; xfo ;{o[ dhge[ r?Dko/”.
dfy
/ nfdq;N[ ojj[ fbt bkrh ;G[ fsqGtfD pqjw[ ;pkfJnk] (1041)
7H ;fsr[o{ ih ftfrnkB ƒ fesBhnK v{zxhnK gosK sZe ikDd/
;B, gVQe/ T[jBK d/ uoBK s/ pd'pdh ;h; M[e iKdk j?. w"i{dk d"o ftu
pj[s ;ko/ ftfrnkBhnK d/ ;KM/ isBK ;dek eJh Bt/A G/d y[bQd/ ik oj/
jB. y'i eoB bJh ndG[s bpkNohnK, wfjzr/ n"iko, ;oekoK tZb'A
fdZsk ikD tkbk nEkj g?;k. sK feXo/ e'Jh BthA bZGs gqkgs j[zdh j?.
nZi s'A brgr gzi ;" ;kb gfjbK pko/ ;'u' ` sd'A ftfrnkB fezBk e[

(280)
fte;s ;h. y'i ekoiK bJh feZE/ ;B ;Z[y ;j{bsK < fco ftZfdnk gZy'A,
wkBf;e pDso gZy'A, ;wki fezBk gSfVnk j'fJnk ;h. nfij/ d"o ftu,
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp rrB wzvbK *s/ ;{oi ts uwe/. fIzdrh d/ jo gfjb{
s/ T[jBK Gog{o o'PBh gkJh. bT[ fJZe j'o B[es/ s/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/ ftuko
;wMD dh e'fPP eohJ/.nZr dh sk;ho j? row, ftdtkBK B/ nZr ƒ ;{oi
dk nzP Gh gqtkfBnk j?. fiZE/ jkbks Y[et/A pD ikD, fJj nrBh gbK
ftu jh ;G e[ZM ;kV e/ ;[nkj eo fdzdh j?. fiE/ nZr ;ziw ftu ofje/
;wMdko B'eo tKr, ;kv/ nDfrDs ezw ;ztkodh j?. T[E/ p/ekp{ j'Jh,
fpBk ftseo/ s'A, pr?o fbjki ehs/,i' wko ftu nkfJnk G;wK G{s eo
fdzdh j?. wBZ[ysk dh spkjh tk;s/ wB[Zy tZb'A (ftfrnkBhnK) i' wko{
jfEnko pDke/ rJ/ jB, bZrGr ;kfonK ftu jh nrBh nkgDh fenkwsh
y/v y/vdh j?. nkw eoe/ d[Bhnk Go ftu, tosh wPhBoh ƒ ubkT[D
tk;s/, nZr fJZe nfjw o'b ndk eodh j?. d{i/ xo bZr/ p;zso fd;dh
j?, nkgD/ xo nZr dk ;/e bZrdk j?. r[opkDh ftu nZr ƒ pj[s ;ko/
noEK ftu tofsnk j?. n;hA f;oc fJ;dk “gkDh Bkb w/b” ;wMD dk
isB eoKr/. nZr beVh d/ nzdo j?, r[otke jB ^
ek;N wfj fiT[ j? p?;zso[ wfE ;zifw ekfY eYhi?]
okwBkw[ j? i'fs ;pkJh ss[ r[owfs ekfY bJhi?] (1323)
PkfJd pj[s ;ko/ b'eK ƒ fJ; rZb dk gsk Bk j't/ fe wB[Zyh ;oho
ftu nZr ns/ gkDh w"i{d jB. ;oho dk skgwkB (rowkfJPOnZr) xZN
tZX j' ikt/ sK s[ozs vkeNoh ;jkfJsk b?Dh g?Adh j?. ykDk jiw eoB
bJh, ;oho dk b'V w[skpe row ofjDk bkIwh j?. e[dos d/ efoPw/
t/y' ` nB/e iht i' wk;kjkoh jB, eZuk wk; yKd/ jB. T[jBK d/ g/N ftu
fgnk (ykXk frnk) wk; jiw j' iKdk j?, go nkgD/ nzdobhnK wk; s'A
pDhnK BkVhnK, fwjdk ;jh ;bkws ofjzd/ jB. wkdk d/ g/N ftubk
pZuk, nZr gkDh ftu ofj e/ Gh, g{oh soQk ;[oZfyns ofjzdk j?. fJ;
;oho dh nZr ƒ ;kfjse p'bh ftu “imo nrBh” fejk iKdk j?. d{ih
j? “dktk nrBh”, Gkt izrb ftu d' ;[e/ pK;K dh brkskoh orV s'A, i'
nZr g?dk j' ikt/. izrbK dh tZv/ gZXo s/ spkjh fJ;/ dktk nrBh Bkb
j'Jh wzBh iKdh j?. pZ; r[opkDh w[skpe^dktk nrfB pj[s[ fsqD ikb/ e'Jh
jfonk p{N[ ofjU oh] (384) id'A izrb ƒ nZr bZrdh j? gzSh T[v iKd/

(281)
jB, go T[jBK d/ pZu/ s/ nzv/ G;w j' ikd/ jB. tZv/ ikBto d"V iKd/ jB,
pZu/ s/ ewI'o ;V wod/ jB. eJh ;ko/ jkEh rktK wZMK fjoB nkfd S/sh
Bkb B/V/ d/ gkDh ftu SbKrK brk fdzd/ jB. nZr p[Mh s'A jh tkg; nkT[Ad/
jB. sh;oh fe;w j? pVtk nrBh` fJ; dk fIeo xZN j'fJnk j?.
feT[AFe fiE/ fJj nZr g?dk j[zdh j?, T[E/ sZe wB[Zy dh gj[zu BKj d/ pokpo
j[zdh j?. id'A ;w[zdo ftu s[ckB T[FZmdk j? sd'A fJ; ;w[zdoh (pVtk
nrBh) nrBh dhnK bkNK d{o d{o se fdykJh fdzdhnK jB. nfij/
jkbks ftu fxo/ s/ pue/ nkJ/ wS/o/ iK ijkIh, fJ; fdb ezpkT{ sKvt
Bku dk, edh edkJh fIeo eod/ jB. j? Bk e[dos dk nB'yk y/b` beVh
ftu'A nkgD/ nkg nZr g?dk j' rJh. ;wz[do dhnK bfjoK (gkDh) ftu'A
nZr d/ GkpV pbd/ fd;d/ jB. Xosh d/ nzdo gkDh Gh j? s/ nZr Gh
w"i{d j?. r?;K bktk c[ZNDk, G[ukb nkT[D/, fJ;dk gqsZy gqwkD jB.
;kvh j?okBh sd'A f;yoK se g[Zidh j? id'A y[d “gkDh ƒ nZr
bZrh” t/yd/ jK. pZdb fJZeZm/ j'J/, jtk d[nkok NeokJ/ s/ bZrhnK n;wkB
ftu'A fGnkBe nktkiK nkT[D. fJj rVrVkjN ekjdh j? < bT[ fJj
f;oc roiDk BjhA ;h, nZyK u[zfXnk d/D tkbh o'PBh Gh g?dk j'Jh ;h.
j'o nktkiK j'o uweHHHHfJj T[gobh roi s/ uwe Xosh s/ nk fvZrh.
fiZE/ gJh, gbK ftu ;G spkjh wZu rJh. fJj eh pbk ;h Gbk < gkDh
ftu'A g?dk j'Jh nrBh. e'Jh ;Zu wzB ;edk j? fe gkDh ƒ nZr Gh bZr
;edh j?. ;w[zdo dh nZr ftob/ wB[Zy B/ t/yh j?. nkj nk;wkB ftu
s?od/ pdbk ƒ bZrh nZr sK ;kfonK B/ t/yh j?.Xosh s/ wko eodh, gob'
po;kT[Adh sK fJj “gkDh dh nZr” ;GBk t/yh j?. gkme iB'A ;fsr[o{ ih
sK j'o pj[s nZr/ dhnK rZbK d;d/ jB. T[j sK nky oj/ jB GkJh gkDh
ftu nZr w"i{d j?, s/ nZr ftu gkDh Gog{o wksok ftu ;wkfJnk j'fJnk
j?. nkw fJB;kB ƒ BjhA fd;dk, go ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ gzi ;" ;kb gfjbK
fd; fgnk ;h. ftfrnkBhnK ƒ Gh p; “nZi eZbQ” jh fdZf;nk j?. r[o{
tke gVQ' ^
“gkT[D? gkDh nrBh ek w/b[”] uzub ugb p[fX ek y/b[](152)
fifB ehsk wkNh s/ osB] “roG wfj” okfynk fifB efo isB] (177)
gT[D T[gkfJ Xoh ;G Xosh “ib nrBh ek pzX[ ehnk”](350)

(282)
ftfrnkBh p'bh ftu fJZe f;XKs j? fi;ƒ “H2O” (n?u d' U)
nkyd/ jB. n?u dk wsbp j? jkJhvq'iB s/ ‘U’ dk wkfjBk j? n"e;hiB.
id'A d't/A nbZr nbZr r?; o{g ftu j'D sk n"e;hiB, i' nZr pbD ftu
;jkfJsk eodh j?. jkJhvq'iB sK wkB' j? jh fBoh nZr. fJ; r?; s'A pD/
pzp tZvh spkjh eoB tkb/ jB. nuzG/ dh rb j? fe d't/A r?;K sob pDk
e/ fwbk fdshnK ikD sK < eh pD/rk Gbk < ih jK fJjh pD/rk fIzdrh
godkB eoB tkbk ;'wk, “gfjbk gkDh ihT[ j? fis[ jfonk ;G[ e'fJ”.(472)
p{zd s'A b? e/ ;kro sZe gkDh fJjBK d' r?;K s'A pfDnk j'fJnk j?. nZr
ftu gkDh s/ gkDh ftu nrBh ;wkJh j'Jh j?. fIzdrh ns/ w"s B/ wkB'
rbteVh gkJh j'Jh j?. ifjo ftu nzfwqs s/ nzfwqs ftu Ifjo w"i{d j?.
fi; soQK e'Jh tos'A eoBh ukj/ eo ;edk j?.
wkfJnk wwsk w'jDh fifB ehsh ;' ikD[]
fpfynk nzfwqs J/e[ j? p{M/ g[oy ;[ikD[] (937)
;kro wfj p{zd, p{zd wfj ;kro[ etD p[M? fpfX ikD?]
T[sG[i ubs nkfg efo uhB? nkg/ ss[ gSkD?] (878)
8H ftfrnkB dhnK bZGsK ftu'A fJZe ndG[s y'i j? gqwkD{ (n?Nw)
dh. id'A fJ; dh tos'A eoB dk “uZi” ftfrnkBhnK B/ f;Zy fbnk, sd'A
fJj fJZe fBZek fijk feDek, nsh ;{yw IZok, ;w[zdo ftu s{ckB g?dk eo
;edk j?. fjwkbk gops ƒ T[bNk ;edk j?, x[Zr tZ;dh Xosh ƒ pzio
pDk ;edk j?. fJ; s'A tZyoh fdPk ftu id'A T[;ko{ ekoiK bJh fJ; dh
;koEe tos'A eoBh f;Zy bJhJ/, sK fJjh fBZek fizB, i' nbkdhB d/
fuokr ftu'A g?dk j'fJnk ebfgnk frnk ;h, nkgDh n;hw Pesh ;w/s
nk ;bkw eodk j?. fiBQK c?eNohnK ftu p/nzs fpibh tosh iKdh j?.
fJ; s'A gfjbK jIkoK NB e'bk pkbD tk;s/ you j' iKdk ;h. T[jBK
wPhBK c?eNohnK ƒ fdB oks ubkT[D bJh fJZe “fBZek f;zx” (n?Nw) dk
e[M rqkw j'Dk jh ekch j?. uzd skfonK tZb bzwk g?Avk s?j eoB tkb/
okeN, s/b gNo'b dk Gko uZ[e e/ BjhA T[FZv ;ed/. fJj Gh n?Nw dh jh
eokwks j? fe e[M feZb' :{o/Bhnw (n?Nw dh fJZe fsnko ;[dkftXh)
fJjBK s/i rsh okeNK ƒ bZyK whbK se uZeo brtk fdzdk j?. n?Nw
fJzBk S'Nk j? fe Bzrh nZy Bkb fJ; ƒ t/fynk BjhA ik ;edk. ;{Jh d/ BZe/
fizBh EK ftu fJj jIkok bZyK ;wk ;ed/ jB. fJ; d/ ezw eoB dh

(283)
;kXkoD fijh, ;wM nk ;eD tkbh, ftXh fJj j? fe ftfrnkBh, nkgD/
T[geoDK Bkb fJZe n?Nw ftu ft;c'N eoe/, T[;ƒ s'V fdzd/ jB. p;
fco fJj “r[Z;/” ftu nk ikdk j? s/ “xo c{e swkPk” eo ftykT[Adk j?.
Gkt fe fJZe N[ZfNnk gqwkD{ nZr'A j'o eJhnK ƒ s'Vdk j?. T[j eJh N[ZNe/
nr'A nDfrDs ƒ s'Vd/ ub/ iKd/ jB. s/ wB[Zy fi; soQK dk ezw fJ; s'A
b?Dk ukj/ b? ;edk j?, ;w/s n?Nw pzpK d/.
fJj fBZek n?Nw edh nkokw BjhA eodk. ;dk nkgD/ X[o/ d[nkb/
gqeowK eodk ofjzdk j?. fJjBK dh pDso e[M fJ; soQK dh dZ;h iKdh
j?, fe fBT{NokB, fJb?eNokB nkgDh BkGh (e/Adoh X[ok) d[nkb/ ;dk
uZeo eZNd/ ofjzd/ jB. i' dhtkoK fJZNK ;hfwzN dhnK pDhnK BIo nk
ojhnK jB, fJjBK ftu Gh fJjh XVeD w"i{d j?. o[ZyK fpoyK ihtK
izs{nK d/ ;oho Gh, fJ;/ fefonk nXhB jB. i' fBofizd fd;dk gZEo
(gjkV) ;dhnK s'A nfjb d;k ftu fJZe' EK fNfenk j'fJnk j?, eh s[;hA
;wMd/ j' T[j w[odk j? < ih BjhA` T[; d/ nzdo Gh XVeD j?, b/feB T[j
;kƒ ;[Ddh fd;dh BjhA j?. gZEo d/ nzdo Gh n?Nw nkgDh goeowk eo
oj/ jB. fJj “nDEZe :'X/” fpBk o[e/ fpBk nkokw ehs/, fpBk e[M (;kv/
tKr) ykX/ ghs/, fpBk wzfib dh :ksok s/, ;dk s'A ub oj/ jB. id'A s'A
f;q;Nh ;kih rJh j? sd'A s'A jh, s/ ofjzdh d[Bhnk se fJjBK dk ;co
ikoh oj/rk. n?Nw dh j'Ad fezBh S'Nh j?, skes T[; ftu fezBh S[gh j'Jh
j?, ;wMe/ ft;wkd dh nt;Ek skoh j' iKdh j?. fJ; bJh ;fsr[o{ ih B/
pko pko gq/oDk ehsh j? ^
wfs ftfu osB itkjo wkfDe, i/ fJe r[o eh f;y ;[Dh] (ig[)
i' pqjwzv/ ;'Jh fgzv/, i' y'i? ;' gkt?] (695)
gqrNh i'fs fwfNnk nzfXnkok] okw osB gkfJnk eos phukok] (1349)
gqwkD{z pko/ ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ gsk j?, T[;dh n;hw s/ ndG[s eokwksh
Pesh pko/ Gh wjkB ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ v{zxk frnkB j?. T[d'A Gkt/A n?Nw dh
Pesh gqkgs eoB tk;s/ ;kXB w"i{d BjhA ;B. ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ w[ezwb
nB[Gt j? fJ; dh ftokN skes dk. fJ; nrb/ r[opkDh gqwkD ftu
;fsr[o{ pyfPP eo oj/ jB ^ j/ GkJh` gqwkD{ dh n;hw skes jk;b
eoe/ (tos'A eoBh f;Zye/) wB[Zy, nZy MgeD fizB/ ;w/A ftu (Gkt S/sh)

(284)
yzvK pqjwzvK dh :ksok eoe/, tkg; gos ;edk j?. fJ; gqwkD{ dh tos'A
Bkb nB/e ;Z[y ;j{bsK gqkgs ehshnK ik ;edhnK jB. go fJB;kB ƒ
wkBf;e PKsh gqkgs BjhA j' ;e/rh. ;dhthA ;[Zy sK ;fsr[o{ d/ uoDK
ftu'A fwb/rk, r[o{ j[ew ftu ihtB pshs eoB ftu Bkb gqkgs j't/rk.
“gowkD'” goizs nkek;j dhg b'n f;yzvDj]
rS/D, B?D Gko/D, BkBe, fpBk ;kX{ B f;Xs/] (1360)
9H s/ j[D brd/ jZE ftu wBZ[yh ;oho dh pDso, ezw skes ns/
w"s pko/ Gh ftuko eo jh bJhJ/. fJ; rb BKb sK d[BhnK Go d/ f;nkD/
;fjws jB, fe wB[Zyh ;oho gziK sZsK dk pfDnk j'fJnk j?. fJj gzi
jB ^ fwZNh, gkDh, jtk, nrBh s/ nkek;, Gkt fi; nfdZy “oZph ebk”
dh pd"bs fJj ;oho joes ftu nkT[Adk j?. edh nzso nksw/ T[so e/
oZph ekokroh ƒ ikBD dk isB eo'. wB[Zy d/ nzdo (jo fJZe Bo wkdk
ftu fJjh gqfeqnk j?) ihBI e"D g?dk eodk j? < T[j Gh nDfrDs eo'VK
nopK dh wksok ftu. Bo wkdk d/ ;zi'r ;w/A fJj fBZe/ ihBI fJZe d{i/
s'A ekjb/, XkJh eod/ j'J/ gZe u[Ze/ wkdk nKv/ nzdo dkyb j'Dk b'ud/
jB. eo'VK ihBI ftu'A, ;G s'A “skesto, s/I d"Vke” e/tb fJZe jh
nKv/ ftu gqt/P eo ;edk j?, s/ Bkb jh nKv/ dk dotkik (w{zj) pzd j'
iKdk j?. eo'VK ftu'A edh fJZe nX ukB; j[zdk j? fe fJZe s'A tX/o/ ihBI
nKv/ ftu dkyb j' ;eD. T[gqzs fJj wkw{bh fijk iht i' Bzrh nZy Bkb
t/fynk BjhA ik ;edk, gqc[bs j'Dk P[o{ eo fdzdk j? ^
wK eh oes fgsk fpzd[ Xkok] w{ofs ;{ofs efo ngkok]
i'fs dkfs i/sh ;G s/oh s{z eosk ;G mkJh j/] (1022)
fJ; s'A pknd tXdk j'fJnk ;oho dk nkeko XkoB eoB br
g?Adk j?. oZph fBnw d/ nB[;ko roG ftu pZu/ dh oZfynk ;zGkb j[zdh j?.
r[otke jB ^
fifB ehsk wkNh s/ osB] roG wfj okfynk fifB efo isB] (177)
fJ; s'A pkd i' nZr/ gqfefonk ubdh j?, ;fsr[o{ ih fJZe fJZe
B[es/ ƒ ;kc eod/ ik oj/ jB. ;[D' ^
fifB s{z ;kfi ;tkfo ;hrkfonk]
roG nrfB wfj fiBfj T[Gkfonk]
pko fpt;Ek s[Mfj fgnko? d{X] Gfo i'pB G'iB ;[y ;{X]

(285)
fpofX GfJnk T{gfo ;ke ;?B] w[fy nfgnkT[ p?m eT[ d?B]
fJj[ fBor[B[ r[B[ eS{ B p{M]
? pyf; b/j[ sT[ BkBe ;hM?] (266)
;fsr[o{ ih ;wMk oj/ jB fe GkJh s{z j? sK e/tb fwZNh dk g[sbk
jh Bk. rop fe; rZb dk eo fojk j?A < wkNh e' g[sok e?;/ Bus j?] d/y?
d/y? ;[B? p'b? dT[foU fcos[ j?] (487)
fJ; ;oho ƒ bZeV dh pDh g{sbh Gh nkfynk j?, fi; dh v'o
wkbe d/ jZE j[zdh j?, fit/A ukj/ Bukt/.
ekm eh g{soh ejk eo? pg[oh fybktB jko' ikB?]
i?;k G/y[ eokt? pkihro[ Uj[ s?;' jh ;ki[ nkB?] (206)
i/ nkw ;wkie gqkDh dh ihtBh ƒ d; fjZf;nK ftu tzv, BePk
fyZuDk j't/ sK ;fsr[o{ ih s'A g[ZShJ/ ^
gfjb? fgnkfo brk ED d[fX] d{i/ wkfJ pkg eh ;[fX]
shi/ G:k Gkph p/p] uT[E? fgnkfo T[gzBh y/Y]
gzit? ykD ghnD eh Xks[] Sht? ekw[ B g[S? ikfs]
;st? ;zfi ehnk xo tk;] nmt? eq'X[ j'nk sB Bk;[]
Bkt? XT[b/ T[G/ ;kj] d;t? dXk j'nk ;[nkj] (137)
fJ;/ soQK ;fsr[o[ ih B/ fJZe j'o Ekt/A ihtB fefonk fJT[ Gh
;wMkJh j? ^
d; pkbsfD, ph; otfD, sh;K ek ;[zdo[ ejkt?]
ukbh;h g[o[ j'fJ guk;h gr[fy;? ;mh e/ p'Y/gk nkt?]
;sfo ek wfs jhD[ n;hjK ek ftT[jko[ B gkt?]
Bt/ ek ;fjik ;Dh w{b[ B ikD/ ng pb[]
YzY'fbw[ Y{fYw[ fvm[w? BkBe ir[ X{J/ ek Xtbjo[] (138)
fJj ;h ;zy/g sohe/ r[opkDh okjh fpnkB ehsh ihtB fefonk.
gJh fet/A fet/A wBZ[y, ;ohoe ns/ wkBf;e s"o s/ ;wki ftu ftuodk,
ftek; eodk j?. T[FZgo fpnkB ehsk fposKs bZrGr ftfrnkB w[skpe
;jh ;kps j[zdk j?. fJ; s'A pknd nkT[Adh j? ftuko ;oho d/ nzs pko/
:kBh fe w"s. ftfrnkBh wB iK nkswk ƒ f;X/ Yzr Bkb ;theko BjhA
eod/. i' gEkoE bpkoNoh ftu gofynk ik ;e/, ;p{s g/P ehs/ ik
;eD ;kfJz;dkB T[;/ pko/ uouk eod/ jB. fiBQK pkeh sZsK s'A ;oho
nkeko XkoB eod/ jB, w"s j' ikD s/ tkg; T[j nkgD/ w{b ftu ;wk

(286)
iKd/ jB. fJ; s/ ftfrnkB dh g{oB ;fjwsh j?. wjkB ;fsr[o{ ih B/
fJ; gZy ƒ Gh g{oh p/pkeh Bkb fpnkB ehsk j?. j'o ws wsKsoK pko/
;zy/g fNZgDhnK Gh r[opkDh ftu'A gqkgs j' ikdhnK jB. r[opkDh d[Bhnk
d/ pkeh XowK d/ w[ekpb/ ftfrnkB d/ pj[s B/V/ j?. w"s eh j? < fwbe/
ezw eo oj/ ;oho d/ sZsK dk ezw SZv d/Dk. ekoB nB/e j' ;ed/ jB,
p[Ykgk, fpwkoh, d[oxNBk nkfd. i' sZs ;oho ƒ ubdh jkbs ftu
oZydk j?, T[jh sZs fJ; ;oho ƒ fpyoB s'A rbB ;VB s'A pukT[Adk j?.
d/j nzdo nkgD/ nkg w[ozws ns/ ;ckJh dh fefonk jo tes uZbdh
ofjzdh j?. fJj i' d/j ƒ j[ew fdzdk j? e"D j? < wB < nkswk < oZph i's <
fJj eh j? < id'A d/j fpyo iKdh j?, d/j dk “;tko wkbe” feE/ ubk
iKdk j? <
;oho d/ fpyo ikD s/ ;fsr[o{ ewkb ftfrnke ftuko ;z;ko
;Bw[Zy oZyd/ jB. j/ GkJh wodk e"D j? < n;b ftu e'Jh BjhA wodk,
e/tb sZs nkgDk ;o{g pdb b?Ad/ jB. fJj iht o{g gzSh T[vkoh wko
iKdk j? ^
ib eh Ghfs gtB ek EzGk oes p{zd ek rkok]
jkv wk; BkVh e' fgzio[ gzyh p;? fpukok] (659)
nZr/ ;fsr[o{ ih pyfPP eod/ jB fe GkJh jtk gkDh s/ nZr
nkfde sZsK dk ;[w/b j' frnk. fJBQK sZsK d/ pD/ ;oho ftZu uzub fijh
p[ZXh gk fdZsh. fJ; ƒ ubkT[D bJh B"A dotki/ bk fds/ rJ/, d;tK
frnkB dk p{jk nzdo jh j?. j/ frnkBtkB g[oy fJ; gZy s/ dhox
ftuko eoe/ fBoDk eo fe wfonk e"D j? <
gkT[D? gkDh nrBh ek w/b[] uzub ugb p[fX ek y/b[]
BT[ dotki/ d;tk d[nko[] p{fM o/ frnkBh J/j[ phuko[] (152)
d/jh wkNh p'b? gT[D[] p{fM o/ frnkBh w{nk j? eT[D]
gtB/ wfj gtB[ ;wkfJnk] i'fs wfj i'fs ofb ikfJnk]
wkNh wkNh j'Jh J/e] o'tB jko/ eh etB N/e]HHHH
ej[ BkBe r[fo Gow[ u[ekfJnk] Bk e'Jh wo? Bk nkt? ikfJnk] (885)
fJj sK ;gPN j'fJnk d/jh dh fwZNh, fwZNh ftu fwb rJh. gkDh
tkg; nkgD/ n;b/ ftu ik ;wkfJnk. nrBh w[V nrBh ftu ubh
rJh. jtk Gh tkg; ik g[Zih nkgD/ xo. e[M wfonk BjhA e/tb sZsK B/

(287)
fpyoe/ nkgDk ;[Gk pdb fbnk. o{g pdb frnk wfonk sK e[M Gh
BjhA. fco ;tkb g?dk j[zdk j? fe i' fwZNh d/ g{sb/ nzdo j;dk o'Adk
p'bdk d"Vdk ;h T[j feE/ ubk frnk < fit/A gtB gkDh fwZNh nrBh w[V
nkgD/ n;b/ ftu ik ;wkJh, eh fJj ;zGt BjhA fe i'sh i'sh ftu ob
ikt/ < ih jK ;zGt j?, r[opkDh fJjh ;/X pyP ojh j?. toBk d{i/ sK uko
jh sZs jB ^
;{oi feofD fwb/ ib ek ib[ j{nk okw]
i'sh i'fs obh ;zg{oB Ehnk okw] (846)
gkDh dk b'Nk T[bNk d/JhJ/ sK BIo nkT[Adk j? fe Xosh okjhA
jtk okjhA (ib tkPg) ;w[zdo ftu fwb frnk j?. fwZNh ;gPN fd;dh
j? fe rb e/ (w[odk dZpDk) iK ;Ve/ (nZr ftu ;kVBk) fwZNh ftu fwZNh
;wk rJh. go nrBh BIo BjhA nkT[Adh feE/ ubh rJh < fJj sK gZek
j? fe ;oho ftu skg (nrBh) w"i{d ;h, id'A wo frnk sk “mzYk” j'
frnk nrBh fBeb rJh, fd;dh feT[A BjhA < fpibh d/ pbZp, s/b$fxT[
s'A pbdk dhtk, beVhnK ftu bZrh nZr, id'A p[Mk fdZsh iKdh j?, sd'A
feZE/ ubh iKdh j? < ftPtkP Bkb nkfynk iKdk j? fe nkgD/ n;b/ ;{oi
ftu. fco ;oho ftu'A fBefbnk gzitK sZs “nkekP” (JhEo) ftu
tkg; frnk wzfBnk iKdk j?. Bk e'Jh wo? Bk nkt? ikfJ] (885) dk
i[nkp eh j' ;edk j? < r[opkDh sK ;gPN j? ^
gzu ss fwfb d/jh ek nkekok] xfN tfX e' eo? phukok] (1128)
nzdob/ iht pko/ r[opkDh pko pko ;tkb eodh j?, okj ftykT[Adh
j? ^
;[Bj[ o/ ` s{ eT[B ejk s/ nkfJU <
J/sh B ikBT[ e/she w[dfs ubs/ ypo B gkfJT[] (999)
;fsr[o{ ih Bkb fJj Gh ;wMkT[Ad/ jB, fe fJj ;z;ko wkB' pVk
jh ewI'o ekrI dk febQk j?. p; n?t/A bhgk g'uh nkfd eoe/ ybko fdZsk
j?. fit/A ekri s/ Iok e[ gkDh g? ikt/ sK ekri rb iKdk j?. ;kok
nkeko fvZr g?Adk j?. fJ;/ soQK ihtB s/ w"s ƒ ;wM'^
ekrd e'N[ fJj[ ir[ j? pg[o', ozrfB fujB us[okJh]
BkBh ;h p[zd gtB[ gfs y't? iBfw wo? fyB[ skJh] (1274)

(288)
;fsr[o{ fJZe j'o T[dkjoD d/ e/ ;wMkT[Ad/ jB fe GkJh gkDh ns/
jtk d/ ftueko s/o/ gqkD fNe/ j'J/ jB. Gkt fe fJjBK dh e'Jh gkfJdkoh
BjhA j?, p; fJZe fBnw (pzXB) j?.t/yD bJh nZyK (uzd ;{oi) ns/ pkeh
nzr p\P fdZs/ jB. iBw s'A b? e/ ;kok ihtB, woB se ;kohnK b'VK,
y[PhnK, fJ; Xosh T[FZgo (Xosh d/ gdkoE yk jzYk e/) g{ohnK eodk j?.
T[; f;oiDjko B/ i' e[M s?ƒ d/Dk ;h fJZe' tkoh Xosh ftu gk fdZsk, s{z
fJE'A ftXh g{ote eZY ns/ tos.
e'fN s/ sh; ik ufj gqG BkfJe d/ d/ s'fN Bkjh Gzvko]
T{X? GKv? eS[ B ;wkt? ;hX? nzfwqs[ go? fBjko] (503)
Xosh d/r fwb? fJe t/ok Gkr[ s/ok Gzvkoh]
Bk ;kp{o j't? fcfo wzr? Bkod eo/ y[nkoh] (1190)
j/ wB[Zy T[; f;qPNh ;kiD tkb/ eos/ ƒ :kd oZy^BkBe ;u
dksko[ f;Bkys[ e[dosh (141) fizBK ;wK Xosh s/ ftuoB dk fwfbnk j?,
B/e Bhsh Bkb fpsk e/, ;[oy[o{ j' e/ tkg; w[V, oZE ih d/ T[geko Bk
G[Zbh.
gkDh gqkD gtfD pzfX oky/ uzd[ ;{oi[ w[fy dhJ/]
woD ihtD eT[ Xosh dhBh J/s/ r[D ft;o/] (877)
gqwkswk dhnK nBzs tfvnkJhnK jB. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ftfrnkBe
sohe/ e[ods d/ G/d ;wMkT[D dk T[geko ehsk j?. fco Gh ;fsr[o{ ih
fBwosk ftu nkgD/ nkg ƒ fBwkDk iK ew neb jh nkyd/ oj/ jB. i'
T[jBK ehsk j?,bk;kBh j?, i' ftuko fdZs/ jB T[j wjkB jB. nkT[
;fsr[o{ nZr/ ;h; M[ekJhJ/. T[jBK d/ do;kJ/ wkor s/ uZbDk jh T[jBK dk
n;bh ;fseko j?.
j'o ;ohe[ j't? e'Jh s/ok fs;[ nkr? s[X[ nkyk]
s[X[ nkr? s[X? ;bkjh w? nzX/ BkT[A ;[ikyk] (1242)

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