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ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, COIMBATORE B.E. I B.TECH. DEGREE EXAMINATIONS: APRIL I MAY 2011 REGULATIONS: 2007 FIFTH SEMESTER - CSE

## 070230033 - THEORY OF COMPUTATION

Time: 3 Hours PART - A Max. Marks: 100

(20 x 2 = 40 Marks)
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS 1. Prove or disprove: a) All primes are odd. b) There is no pair of integers a and b such that a mod b = b mod a 2. Compare Non deterministic finite automata with that of Deterministic finite automata NDFA: more state transition for single input 3. 4. 5. State the Induction Principle and give an example Design a DFA for L(M) = {a b I n0} .
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Construct a regular expression whose language consists of a's and 1 's with no two consecutive a's in it. Assume that empty string is also not generated

."

6.

Find an equality for the following regular expression and prove the same. a(a + b)* + aa(a + b)* + aaa(a + b)* = a(a + b)*

7.

Does minimization possible for the following finite automata? If not, justify with reasons. (Note: indicates start state and * indicates final state) States qo q1 * q2 * q3 x q1 q2 q2 y q1 q3 q3 q3

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8 State the languages (describe in words) denoted by the following regular expressions a) b) 9. 10 11. 12. (00 + 11+ (0+1)(00+11)*(0+1))* ((0+1 )(0+1 )+(0+1 )(0+1 )(1 +0))*

Define parse tree. Give an example. What language is generated from CFG with productions S aSbS I bSaS Define Deterministic Push down automata. Construct a CFG for the language that consists of balanced parenthesis. Assume any two symbols of parenthesis.

## 13. 14. 15. 16 17.

State the rule to convert CFG to Chomsky Normal form and Greibach normal form. State the properties that are closed under context free languages. Design a Turing machine to recognize the language L List the four assumptions of Turing computability. Define recursive language.

= (x+y)*y.

18.State the rules governing, when there is a reduction from P, to P2. 19.What are tractable and intractable problems?
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20. What is polynomial -space Turing machine? PART - B (5 x 12 = 60 Marks) ANSWER ANY FIVE QUESTIONS

21.

Explain the finite automata with output. Differentiate between the two automata with output with an example for each.

22.

Design a NFA to recognize the regular expression (0+1)(0+1)*(0+1) using Thomson construction algorithm and convert to an equivalent minimized DFA. Trace for a string w

= 0001.
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## 23.a) State whether L = {a b l n O} is regular. complement.

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b) Prove that the regular languages are closed under Union, Intersection and 6

24. Define Pushdown automata (PDA) and design a PDA that accepts any string from {O, 1}* with an odd number of O's. Trace for a string of acceptance and rejection with Justification.

25.

a) What is ambiguous grammar? Show that the CFG G1 with productions S aSaSbS I aSbSaS I bSaSaS I and CFG G2 with productions S aSaSbS I aSbSaS I bSaSaS

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## trees and state the grammar that is ambiguous.

b) Consider the following CFG G with productions stated and Convert to the two normal form: S AB A aAA I e B bBB I e 6

26.

Is the language L(G) = {abc I n O} accepted by the Turing machine? If so , construct the Turing machine for the same and trace for a two strings, one for acceptance and another for rejection.

27.

What are undecidable problems? Why Post correspondence problem is considered to be undecidable problems? Illustrate with an example.

28.a) Is P= NP an undecidable problem? b)Distinguish P, NP, NP - hard and NP- complete problems c)Explain any two applications of NP- complete problems

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