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5.
5.1

IRRIGATIONSYSTEMOFPAKISTAN

INDUSBASINIRRIGATIONSYSTEM

TheIndusisoneofthebiggestriversoftheworldandthevalleysoftheIndusanditstributariesconstitutethe heartland of Pakistan. Indus Plain is a vast flat plain through which the Indus and its tributaries flow, after descendingfromthenorthernhillsandbeforefallingintotheArabianSea.TheaverageannualrainfallintheIndus Plainirrigatedareas,stretchingfrombelowtheSaltRangetotheArabianSea,variesfrom102mm(4inches)to 600mm(24inches)andagriculturecannotbepracticedintheseareaswithoutirrigation.Assuchavastirrigation systemhasbeendevelopedintheIndusPlainandirrigatedagricultureonalargescaleisbeingpracticedinthis plain.ThewaterresourcesoftheothertwobasinsofthecountrynamelyKharanClosedBasinandMakranCoastal Basin,areextremelylimited.TheIndusPlainisconsideredtobethebreadbasketofPakistan.Irrigatedagriculture provides90percentofPakistansfoodrequirements,22percentofitsGrossDomesticProduct(GDP)andprovides employmentto60percentofthepopulationofthecountry.IrrigationhasbeenpracticedintheIndusBasinsince timesimmemorial.Howeverirrigationmethodshavechangedwiththepassageoftimeanddevelopmentofnew technologies. It changed the form of open wells, persian wells and inundation canals to the weir controlled perennialirrigationcanalsandthediesel/electricmotoroperatedshallowanddeeptubewells.

5.2

IRRIGATIONNETWORK

Thecanalcommandareawas10.35Mha(25.56MAc)atthetimeofindependence.AfterthecreationofPakistan new irrigation systems were developed. Jinnah Barrage was completed in 1947, Kotri Barrage in 1955, Taunsa Barragein1959,GudduBarragein1962andChashmaBarragein1971.Constructionofnewirrigationsystemshas broughtmoreareaunderirrigationandhasresultedintheincreaseofthecanalcommandareafrom10.35Mha (25.56MAc)to14.02Mha(34.63MAc)whichmeansanincreaseof35percentovertheareain1947. Table13: IrrigationNetworkofPakistan Item MajorReservoirs Barrages/Headworks LinkCanals CanalSystems LengthofWatercourses LengthofCanals AverageCanalWaterDiversion GroundwaterAbstractions Tubewells IrrigatedArea
Source:WAPDA,2010

Description 3 No. 18 No. 12 No. 45 No. 107,000 km 56,073 km 104.7 MAF 41.6 MAF 1000,000 No. 44.5 Millionacres

The irrigation network (Table13) at present comprises three major reservoirs (total number of large dams in Pakistan is 68) and 18 barrages on the main rivers with a total offtake canals capacity of 7,376 cumecs (nearly 260,446cusecs)ofirrigationsupplies.Inaddition,thereare12interriverlinkcanalswithacapacityofabout4,076 cumecs(144,000cfs)whichtransferwaterfromsurplustodeficientareas.Thenetworkisnowover56,073kms

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(34,821mi) of irrigation canals 18,884 kms (11,736 mi) of seepagecumstorm water drains and 12,612 km (7,838miles) of the canals in the Indus Plain. The network of canals is composed of 45 independent canal commands supplying water to some 4,000 distributaries, ultimately dividing into 107,000 watercourses serving 14.6Mha(36MAc)ofcanalirrigatedland.TheschematicdiagramofIndusBasinIrrigationSystem(IBIS)isshown inFigure29.

Figure29: IndusBasinIrrigationSystem

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5.3

RESERVOIRS

TherearetwomainstoragedamsontheIndusRiverSystem,theTarbelaDamonthemainstemoftheIndusRiver and Mangla Dam on the Jhelum River, having a combined (current) live storage capacity of 14.42BCM (11.65MAF).Athirdreservoir,Chashma,withalivestoragecapacityofapproximately0.4BCM(0.26MAF),serves primarilyasaregulationfacility.Thesereservoirsplayakeyroleinregulatingnaturalflows,andinmakingreleases tobettermatchtheseasonalwaterneedsofirrigatedagricultureinthecountry.About77percentofwaterstored inKharifisusedinRabi,whiletheremaining23percentisusedalmostequallytosupplementflowsduringearly Kharif(fromApriltoJune)andlateKharif(September).CapacityofmajorreservoirsisgiveninTable14. Table14: CapacityofMajorReservoirs(MAF) RESERVOIR TARBELA (R.L13781550) feet MANGLA (R.L10401210) CHASHMA (R.L637649) TOTAL
Source:WAPDA(2010)

Gross 11.62

ORIGINAL Live Dead 7.72 3.90

PRESENT(2011) Gross Live Dead 7.73 6.63 1.10

Gross 3.89

LOSS Live 1.09

Dead 2.80

6.41 0.87 18.90

5.87 0.72 14.31

0.54 0.15 4.59

5.12 0.32 13.18

5.02 0.26 11.91

0.10 0.06 1.27

1.29 0.55 5.72

0.85 0.45 2.40

0.44 0.09 3.32

Theoriginalcombinedlivestoragecapacityof14.31MAFofTarbela,ManglaandChashmareservoirshasreduced to11.91MAFbytheyear2011,areductionof2.90MAFonaccountofsiltation,whichisabout20percentofthe capacity at the time of commissioning. The storage capacity is likely to further reduce to 10.0MAF by the year 2025.Atthesedimentationofthereservoiristakingplace,itisresultinginreducedregulationcapabilityandhence progressivelydecreasedwateravailabilityforirrigationuse.

5.4

BARRAGES

Barrages have been constructed on all major rivers to headup waters in the rivers and to enable water to be divertedtolinkcanalsandcanalcommands.ThedesigndischargesofbarragesaregiveninTable15. Table15: DesignDischargesofControlPointsofIndusRiverSystem Structures RiverIndus TarbelaReservoir Jinnah Chashma Taunsa Guddu Sukkur 15,00,000 9,50,000 9,50,000 11,00,000 12,00,000 15,00,000 DesignedCapacity(cusecs)

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Structures Kotri RiverKabul

DesignedCapacity(cusecs) 8,75,000 5,40,000 10,60,000 8,50,000 11,00,000 8,00,000 8,07,000 6,45,000 7,00,000 2,75,000 2,50,000 2,25,000 1,50,000 3,25,000 3,00,000

Warsak/Nowshera RiverJhelum ManglaReservoir Rasul RiverChenab Marala Khanki Qadirabad Trimmu Panjnad RiverRavi Jassar Shahdra Balloki Sidhnai RiverSutlej Suleimanki Islam
Source:WAPDA2010

5.5

LINKCANALS

There are 12 interriver (link) canals with discharge capacities ranging from 142 to 624m3/sec (5,000 to 22,000cusecs). The Link canals play a vital role in the regulation of irrigation water in the IBIS. The MaralaRavi (MR)LinkCanalandtheUpperChenabCanal(UCC)transferwaterfromtheChenabRivertotheRaviRiver.The UCCisaperennialcanal,aswellasaninterriverlink.TheBRBD(BambanwalaRaviBedianDipalpur)LinkCanal offtakesfromUCC,suppliesirrigationwatertotheCentralBariDoabCanal(CBDC)andtheUpperDipalpurCanal which were previously fed from Ferozepur Barrage near India border. The RasulQadirabadBallokiSuleimanki (RQBS)andtheTrimmuSidhnaiMailsiBahawal(TSMB)CanalSystemswereconstructedasasequeltothesigning of the Indus Basin Treaty between Pakistan and India. The purpose was to supply irrigation water, from the Western Rivers to the canal systems that were previously fed from the Eastern Rivers whose waters became exclusivepropertyofIndia. TheBallokiSulemankipartoftheRQBSsystemisfurtherdividedintoBSIandBSIIlinkcanals.TheRQBSSystem drawsitswaterfromtheRasulBarrage,whiletheTSMBSystemgetsitssharefromTrimmuBarrageandfeedsa numberofcanalsthatitcrossesbetweenRaviandSutlejRivers.AftercrossingSutlejRiverthroughMailsiSyphon undertheriverbed,itdeliverswaterintheLowerBahawalSystem.TheTaunsaPanjnadLinkCanaldeliverswater tothePanjnadCanals.TheHaveliLinkCanal,whichalsoofftakesfromTrimmu,isoneoftheoldestlinkcanalsof thesystemalongwithUCCandUJC.ItwasbuilttoaugmentthewatersuppliesofSidhnaiCanalofftakingfromthe RaviRiveratSidhnaiBarrage.Someoftheselinkcanals,inadditiontotransferringwaterfromoneriversystemto another,alsosupplyirrigationwatertoeitheroneoranumberofirrigationchannelsofftakingdirectlyfromthe

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links. Such irrigation withdrawals are designated as internal uses and include MR Internal, UCC Internal, BRBD Internal (Raya Branch), and the Haveli Internal. The aggregate designed capacity of link canal system is 4,078m3/sec(144,000cusecs).ThenewlyconstructedlinkcanalsasaresultofIndusBasinTreatyof1960under IndusBasinProjectsaredetailedinTable16. Table16: NewlyConstructedLinkCanalsofPunjabIrrigationSystem Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LinkCanal ChashmaJhelumLink TaunsaPanjudLink RasulQadirabadLink QadirabadBallokiLink BallokiSuleimankiLink TrimmuSidhnaiLink SidhnaiMailsiBahawalLink Rivers Indus Jhelum Indus Chenab JhelumChenab Chenab Ravi Ravi Sutlej Chenab Ravi Ravi Sutlej Yearof Construction 1970 1970 1967 1967 1968 1965 1965 Length (Miles) 63 38 30 80 54 46 62 Capacity (Cusecs) 21,700 12,000 19,000 18,600 18,500 11,000 10,100

Source:Irrigation&PowerDepartment,GovernmentofPunjab(2010)

5.6

IRRIGATIONSYSTEMOFPUNJAB

The irrigation infrastructure of Punjab comprises 3993 miles long 25 main and branch canals along with 19,191 mileslongDistributariesandMinors.Asawhole,thetotallengthofinterriverlinkcanalsis528miles.Thetotal offtake capacity of main canals is 1.2 lakh cusecs and link canals 1.1 lakh cusecs. There are 58,000 outlets installedinthesewaterchannelsforthepurposeofirrigationwhereasGrossCommandAreais23.35millionacres andCulturableCommandAreais20.78millionacresintheprovince.Thereare13Headworks/Barrageswhichare veryhelpfultoensurewatersupplyinallthecultivablelandsofPunjabandtherefore,becomesthebaseofthe largest irrigation system of the world. The irrigation system of the Punjab is shown in Figure 30. The irrigation systemnetworkofthePunjbaanditsdesigndischargesaredescribedinTable17&18respectively. Table17: IrrigationNetworkofPunjab Headworks&Barrages MainCanals LengthofMainCanalsandBranches LengthofDistributaries&MinorCanals LengthofInterRiverLinkCanals OffTakeCapacityofMainCanals OffTakeCapacityofLinkCanals GrossCommandArea
Source:IrrigationDepartment,Govt.ofPunjab2010

13No. 25No. 6,389Kms 30,706Kms 845Kms 120,000cusecs 110,000cusecs 23.35millionacres

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Figure30: IrrigationSystemofPunjab

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Table18: DesignDischargeofCanalSystemofPunjab Sr.No. 1 2 3/4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18/19 20 21 22 23/24 Canal UpperJhelum LowerJhelum UpperChenab/BRBD M.R.Link LowerBariDoab LowerChenab CBDC UpperDepalpur Pakpattan Muzaffargarh Thal Rangpur D.G.Khan Panjnud Abbassia Bahawal Qaim/Mailsi EasternSadiqia Fordwah LowerDepalpur SidhnaiCanal/Haveli Yearof Construction 1915 1901 1912/1956 1956 1859 1892 1913 1928 1927 1958 1947 1939 1958 1929 1929 1927 1927/1928 1926 1927 1928 1886/1939 CCA (Acres) 544,000 1,518,000 1,441,000 158,000 659,000 3,054,000 1,670,000 350,000 1,049,000 820,000 1,912,000 345,000 906,000 1,355,000 154,000 730,000 1,036,000 1,052,000 428,000 612,000 1,017,000 DischargeCapacity (Cusecs) 8,700 5,300 16,500/7,200 1,400 2,500 11,700 9,200 2,400 5,200 8,900 7,500 2,700 8,300 10,400 1,300 4,400 500/4,900 5,800 3,400 4,000 4,000/5,200

Source:Irrigation&PowerDepartment,GovernmentofPunjab(2010)

5.6.1

ReformsinIrrigationSystemsofPunjab

Punjab Irrigation & Power Department (IPD) is undergoing a fast program of lining of irrigation channels for efficient and equitable distribution of water besides improving the huge irrigation sector which is more than a centuryoldandtherefore,theneedwasarisentorevampandmodernizethecolossalnetworkwhichisbenefiting manyamillionfarmersintheprovinceandmakingitavirtualfoodbasketofthewholecountry. The provincial government launched massive overhauling of irrigation infrastructure. The various mega water sectorprojectsrelatingtotherehabilitationofthecanalinfrastructureinclude,Rs.30,996millionworthschemeof channels lining. This scheme is aimed at improving hydraulic performance of the system, maintaining equity of distribution, reducing maintenance needs to ensure substantial water conservation. Similarly, the project of irrigationsystemrehabilitation(ISPR)willprovideequitableandassuredwatersupplytothefarmers,especiallyat the tails. This will be achieved through strengthening of canal banks and rehabilitation of hydraulic structures/ regulators. A project costing Rs.19,519million includes 25 different schemes and these schemes have been financedthroughpublicsectordevelopmentprogram.

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Keepinginviewtheimportanceofirrigationsectorintheoveralleconomyofthecountry,andtheroleplayedby theIPD,variousinternationaldonoragencieslikeWorldBank,ADBandJICAarealsofundingirrigationprojects. JICAhasfinancedPunjabIrrigationSystemimprovementprojectinBahawalpur,D.G.KhanandFaisalabadZones. For the improvement of the oldest Lower Bari Doab Canal System in Punjab, Asian Development Bank and GovernmentofPunjabhavetogetherlaunchedtheLowerBariDoabCanalImprovementProjecttomaintainand enhance the water supply up to 1.7 million acres in the districts of Kasur, Okara, Sahiwal and Khanewal. This ProjectcomprisesoftherehabilitationandupgradationofBallokiBarrageComplex,OnFarmandGroundWater Management,implementationofInstitutionalReformsandthemigrationofenvironmentalissuesofthearea.The totalcostoftheLBDCIPisRs.17,176million;outofwhich77%istheshareofADB,whilerestoftheamountis sharedbyPunjabGovernment. Keepinginviewthechangingpatternsinwatersector,growingneedsofwaterutilizationforfoodcropsandthe needtoinvolvethefarmingcommunityintherepairmenandmaintenanceofcolossalirrigationinfrastructure,the governmentofthePunjabembarkeduponamajorinstitutionalreformsprogrammebyinvolvingdecentralization and transformation of its colossal irrigation system. These institutional reforms were launched with the promulgation of Punjab Irrigation and Drainage Authority Act, 1997 by the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab. World Bank provided loan for the reforms. Since then, the irrigation management transfer reforms are being managedbytheIrrigationDepartmenti.e.,underpublicsectorinfrastructure. The reforms in irrigation management mainly focus on decentralization, participatory management, improved servicesandsustainabilityoftheinfrastructure.Undertheimplementationofreformsprocess,themanagement functions of various entities are transformed and functions of Irrigation Department are shared by newly establishedinstitutionsviz.PunjabIrrigationandDrainageAuthority(PIDA)atprovinciallevel(representationof farmersandthegovernment),AreaWaterBoards(AWB)atCanalCommandlevel,FarmerOrganizations(FOs)at DistributarieslevelandKhalPanchayats(KP)atWatercourselevel. Under this new role, Irrigation Department has the responsibility of overall policy regulation and overseeing of reformsprocess.PIDA,asanautonomousentity,isresponsibleforallthefunctionsoftheIrrigationDepartment with emphasis on improving irrigation performance, optimizing water use efficiency, introducing the concept of participatory management, undertaking measures to improve assessment and collection of Abiana (water charges),andmakingtheAuthorityselfsustaining.TheAreaWaterBoardperformsmostoftheabovementioned irrigation management functions at the Canal Command Level (CCL) and also adopts implementation programs aimed at promoting the formation and growth of Farmer Organizations. Farmer Organizations are the basic managementunitandresponsibletooperateandmanagetheDistributariesintheirjurisdiction,obtainirrigation water from the main canals and supply it to the farmers equitably, repair and maintain the channels/works & structures,resolvethewaterrelateddisputes,andassess,collect&deposittheamountofwaterchargesetc.The rivers,barragesandmajorcanalsofPunjabaresketchedintheFigure31. With an amount of Rs.9142 million, rehabilitation of Lower Chenab Canal System (PartB) Project is being implementedtorevamptheLowerGugera,Burala,MainAliandRakhBranchesoftheLCCSystemtomaintainthe water supply up to 1.69 million acre cultivable lands of Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib, Faisalabad and T.TSinghdistrictsofPunjab.JapanBankforInternationalCooperationcontributed72.6%costoftheproject,while the rest of 27.4% share is financed by Government of the Punjab. The LCC rehabilitation project will help to rehabilitatethe381kmlongBranchcanals,1501kmDistributariesandMinorsincluding994KMlining.Therewill also be 231 new bridges constructed or replaced with the old ones. Likewise, 188 new Cattle Ghat will also be constructed under this project. The project deadline has been declared March 31, 2013 (The Pakistan Spectator,2011).

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Figure31: PunjabIrrigationSystem

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5.7

IRRIGATIONSYSTEMOFSINDH

IrrigationinSindhhasahistoryofseveralthousandyears.IndusRiverisflowingsincemillionsofyears.TheIndus civilizationistherichestandoneoftheoldestintheworld.Irrigationcanalsystemswereextendedandimproved during the late 1800s. A major program for improvement and construction of new inundations canals was undertakeninthelaterhalfofthenineteenthcenturywhenconstructionofbarrageswasstartedin1924.Barrage commanded irrigation was introduced with the construction of Sukkur Barrage system in 1932 commanding a grossareaofsomeeightmillionacresontheleftbankoftheRiverIndus.KotriBarrageandGudduBarragewere completedin1955and1962respectively.TheirrigationmapofSindhisshowninFigure32.Aschematicdiagram oftheirrigationsysteminSindhisgivenasFigure33.

Figure32: SindhIrrigationSystem

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5.7.1

SalientFeaturesofIrrigationSysteminSindh

ThesalientfeaturesofirrigationsysteminSindhareasbelow: Totalgrosscommandarea(GCA)is14.391millionacres Barrages:03No. MainCanals:14No. Branchcanals,distributariesandminors:1462No. Watercourses:42000No. Morethan95%oftheirrigationisfromcanalwater. Thesystemruns13234milesinformofmaincanals,branchcanals,distributorcanalsandminorcanals. Approx80%oftheareaisunderlainbysalinegroundwater Apartfromirrigationsystem,Sindhhasdrainagesystemwhichassuchisnotcontiguousandintegrated. Thereare13existingsurfacedrainagesystemsinSindh,whichserveatotalareaofover6.2Millionacres (2.5Mha)andhaveanaggregatelengthofabout2,981miles(4,800Km). In addition there are two subsurface drainage systems, which serve an area of 0.10 Million acres (0.04Mha).

Figure33: SchematicDiagramoftheIrrigationSysteminSindh

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5.8

IRRIGATIONSYSTEMOFKHYBERPAKHTUNKHWA(KPK)

IrrigationsystemofKhyberPakhtunkhwacomprisesoftencanalsystemswithtotallengthof1847milesandtotal dischargeof12,948cusecs.ThesecanalsystemsarelistedinTable19whileTable20showstheexistingirrigation infrastructure of the province. A map of Irrigation system in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is given in Figure34. (GoKPK,2009) Table19: ThemaincanalsystemsinKPK Sr.No. 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 10.

Name UpperSwatCanalsystem LowerSwatCanalSystem PehurMainCanalSystem PehurHighLevelCanalSystem WarsakCanalSystem KabulRiverCanalsSystem TandaDamCanalsSystem MarwatCanalSystem CRBC BannuCanalSystem Total

Length(Miles) 526 193 76 16 124 76 56 167 453 160 1847

Discharge(Cusec) 3600 1940 250 1000 595 800 363 800 3000 600 12,948

Table20: ExistingIrrigationInfrastructureinKPK Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Item FlowIrrigationSchemes(Nos) LengthofCanals(Km) LiftIrrigationSchemes(Nos) StorageDams(Nos) IrrigationTubewells(Nos) SCARPTubewells/Dugwells(Nos) CCA(Millionacres)underthecanals,Tubewells,LiftIrrigation schemeandDams Watershareinthe1991Accord(maf) Averagewithdrawals(maf) PrivateTubewells(Nos) SurfaceDrains(Km) SubSurfaceDrains(Km) FloodProtectionembankment&spurs(Kms) Description 83 4335 45 14 356 606 2.285 8.78 (7.5%)ofshare 6.00(68.34%) 14,000 2818 2045 332

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Figure34: KhyberPakhtunkhwaIrrigationSystem

5.9

IRRIGATIONSYSTEMOFBALOCHISTAN

Irrigation resources in Balochistan are extremely scarce and virtually every perennial source is already being utilized.Irrigationwaterisderivedfromsurfacewatersources,suchasfloodflowsandperennialbaseflowinthe rivers,subsurfaceflowthroughtherivergravels,springsandgroundwaterresourcesthroughthedevelopmentof traditional karezes, shallow dug wells and deep tubwells. The surface water resources of the Balochistan constitute96%ofthetotalwaterresourcesavailableperannum.AverageannualwaterbudgetofBalochistanis giveninTable21. Table21: AverageAnnualWaterBudgetofBalochistan Sr.No. AvailableWaterResources 1 2 3 4 Surfacewater(Indusriverperennial) Surfacewater(Indusrivernonperennial) Surfacewater(FloodsandRunoff) Groundwater TotalAvailableWater 4.77 5.72 15.88 1.07 27.44 3.87 4.64 12.87 0.87 22.25 Particular Water(billionm) Water(MAF)


Sr.No. WaterUse 6 7 8 Surfacewater(Indusriverperennial) Surfacewater(FloodsandRunoff) Groundwater Particular

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Water(billionm) 3.75 3.69 0.60 TotalWaterUse 8.04 1.02 5.72 12.19 0.47 TotalBalanceLeft 19.40

Water(MAF) 3.05 3.00 0.49 6.54 0.82 4.64 9.87 0.38 15.71

BalanceAvailable 9 10 11 12 Surfacewater(Indusriverperennial) Surfacewater(Indusrivernonperennial) Surfacewater(FloodsandRunoff) Groundwater

Source:IrrigationandPowerDepartment,Balochistan2006

5.9.1

PatfeederCanalSystem

PriortoconstructionofGudduBarrage,asmallpartofNasirabaddistrictofBalochistanwasgettingwaterfrom inundationcanalsofriverIndus.ButafterconstructionofGudduBarragein1969,aseparatecanalinthenameof Patfeederwasconstructedwithaheaddischargeof90m/sec(3,200cusecs).Originallythecapacityofcanalwas designedfordrycroppingsystems,butlateronpeoplechangedtheircroppingpatternfromdrytopaddy(Rice); consequentlytheshortageofirrigationwaterwasfeltattails.TheRehabilitationandImprovementofthecanal waseventuallycarriedoutandwascompletedbyWAPDAin1998withjointfinancingofGovernmentofPakistan andAsianDevelopmentbank.Underthisprojectcapacityofthecanalwasincreasedfrom90to190m/sec(3,200 to6,700cusecs). TheDesertCanalSystemofSindhProvinceofftakesfromGudduBarrage,andthebifurcatesintoDesertcanaland Patfeeder canal, with 13 numbers distributaries and 6 numbers main regulators serve the command area. The maximum capacity of the Patfeeder Canal is 190m/sec (6,700 cusecs) and irrigated an area of 185,300ha (458,000acres).Thereisaproposalforremodelingofthemaincanalto240m/sec(8,400cusecs)forservingan additional area of 65,000ha (160,000acres). The canal command areahas a drainage network of176 mainand subdrainsforcontrolofwatertablesandtofunctionasseepagecumsurfacedrains.

5.9.2

KirtherCanalSystem

KirthercanalofftakesfromNorthwesterncanalofSindhProvinceatadistanceof58km(36miles)downstream fromSukkurBarrage.Itwasconstructedin1932foradesignedcapacityof33m/sec(1164cusecs)forsupplying irrigationwatertobothBalochistanandSindhProvinces.Afterremodelingofthesystem,atpresentKirthercanal system operate at maximum capacity of about 68m/sec (2,400 cusecs) irrigating an area of 75,300ha (186,000acres).Besidesthecanalcommandarea,italsoprovidesirrigationsuppliesfor32,400ha(80,000acres) toBaroon(outsidecommand)areaduringRabiseason.TheKirthercanalsystemhas8No.distributarieswith9 No. minors. The network system has a reliability and equity problem due to interprovincial distribution. The operationandmaintenancebudgetprovidedfortheyear200506isRs.7.5millionagainstproposedYardstickof Rs.11.94million.

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5.9.3

LasbelaCanalSystem

The main canal off takes from Hub Dam Reservoir and is 5 miles in length with a capacity of 370 cusecs and bifurcates into two canals i.e. the Lasbela and Karachi canal. The Lasbela canal is 21.28miles in length and is designedtotake170cusecstoirrigate1000acresinSindhand21,000acresinBalochistan.Thisirrigationcanal supplies water to the Hub irrigated area and also to industrial area located aroundHub city. Theoperation and maintenance of Lasbela canal as well as distributaries canal (minors) are the responsibility of the Irrigation and PowerDepartment,GovernmentofBalochistan.

Figure35: BalochistanIrrigationSystem InadditiontotheIndusBasin,approximately13riverbasinscanbeidentifiedthroughoutBalochistan.Mostriver ofthehilltorrentsandsmallstreams,whichonlyhavesurfaceflowsafterintenserainstorms.Theprovinceonly has a few perennial rivers which has a base flow more than 1000 liters per second.According to their drainage pattern,theperennialriverscanbedividedintofourgroups(IIMI,1998). 1. 2. 3. 4. TheKacchiPlaindrainagewithNari,Sukleji,Mula,Chakkar,Lehri,BolanandKarkhasthemainrivers. TheIndusdrainagewiththeZhobRiver. TheArabianSeadrainagemainlythroughDasht,Hingol,Porali,HubandWinderRivers. TheKharanDesertdrainagewithMashkai,BaddoandMorjanrivers.

ThetotalestimatedirrigablelandinBalochsitanissome1,520,000ha,ofwhich330,000ha(22%)isirrigatedby flooddiversionsystems,640,000ha(42%)bywaterharvestingand550,000ha(36%)byperennialirrigation.

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5.9.4

Rodkohi/FloodIrrigation

Flood irrigation, locally known as sailaba or manda sailaba, is widely practiced in the Province and different techniqueshaveevolvedoverthecenturiestoutilizefloodwaterforirrigation.Floodeventsnormallyhaveashort duration with a rapid rise and swift recession to zero flow. The flow magnitude is extremely variable between eventsandthereislittleuniformityinthenumberofeventsthatmayoccurinanygivenyear.Consequently,the interannualvariabilityofflowvolumesisgreatandfloodirrigationisassociatedwithahighdegreeofuncertainty. Thebasicprincipalinvolvesthediversionoffloodwaterfromtherivertothecommandarea,whereitisconveyed into large bunded basins toa depth of 60to 90 centimeters (2 to 3 feet) and allowed to infiltrate into the soil. Suitablesoilsforfloodirrigationaredeepandfinetexturedandtheyhaveahighmoistureretentioncapacityin order to store sufficient water within the soil profile to mature a drought tolerant crop, such as wheat and sorghum. Because of the short flashy nature of the floods, the volumes of water that have to be diverted are considerableinordertoirrigateasizeablearea. TwomethodsofdiversionhavebeendevelopedintheProvince.Thefirstmethodconsistsoftheconstructionofa bundorghandaacrosstherivertoincreasetheupstreamwaterlevelanddiverttheflowintothefloodchannel. Usually,thereisnoprovisionforaspillwayandasthefloodrisesthebundiseitherdeliberatelybreachedorfails duetoovertopping.Thesecondmethodusesaspurconstructedpartiallyacrosstherivertodivertaportionofthe floodflowintotheconveyancesystem.Largefloodflowsnormallybreachtheghandaorwashawaythediversion spursbeforesufficientwaterhasreachedthecommandareaanditisoftennotpossibletorebuildthediversion structureduringthesamefloodseason.Consequently,onlyalimitedportionofthetotalcommandareacanbe broughtundercultivation. Both of these methods require considerable labor input by the farmers to maintain and/or to reconstruct the bunds after every major flood. The frequent reconstruction of the diversion structure and the operation and maintenance of the large distribution system, which often extends over an area of many thousands of acres, requiresastrongandeffectiveorganizationamongthefanners.Costsarenormallysharedonthebasisofbenefits received,whichdependsontheelevationofindividuallandholdingsandtheirproximitytothewatersupply. In the major flood irrigation areas, complex relationships have evolved between villages sharing the same flood source.Oftenagreementsaremadetoensurethattheupstreamabstractors,whotakethespatewatersfirst,are obligedtodeliberatelybreaktheirbundafteracertainperiodoftime,releasingtheremainderofthespateflow for diversion, in turn, by the communities further downstream. Within individual flood irrigation schemes, regulations have evolved to govern the distribution of available flood water in order to ensure an equitable distribution.Inthepast,theseruleswerestrictlyenforcedbytraditionalrulers.However,thedecliningpowerof tribal leaders has led in some areas to a breakdown in the traditional operation rules, which is depriving downstream users of their share of the available flood water and they are often forced to seek redress in the courts or appeal directly to the local administration. Theproblem is further aggravated by the increasinguse of tractors and bulldozers, allowing famers to build higher and stronger bunds than was previously possible with simpleoxendrawndamscoops.

5.9.5

WaterHarvesting

Waterharvesting,locallycalledkhushkaba,hasbeenpracticedforhundredsofyearsanditisbasicallyasmallscale versionoffloodirrigationwherelocalizedsurfacerunoffisdivertedintobasins.Becausethecatchmentareastend to be very small, the risks involved are considerable, although it is nonetheless more reliable than just rain fed (barani)agriculture."

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5.9.6

PerennialIrrigation

PerennialirrigationintheProvincecanbesubdividedintolargescaleriverandcanalsystemsandsmallscaleor minorirrigationsystems.

LargeScaleRiverandCanalSystems
ThisformofirrigationisrestrictedprimarilytothecanalirrigateddistrictsofNasirabadandJaffarabad,whichare fedbythePatFeeder,DesertandKhirtharCanalsystems,emanatingfromtheGuduandSukkurBarragesonthe IndusRiver,respectively.BothsystemsareoperatedandmaintainedbytheProvincialIrrigationDepartmentdown to the minor offtakes and the farmers within the watercourse command area are responsible for the water distributionandthemaintenanceofthecommandareachannels.Waterdistributionisbasedonthewarabandi,or fixed rotation system, with proportional division down to the minor offtakes and time division within the watercoursecommandarea. Theselargescaleriverandcanalirrigatedareasaccountfor285,000haor19%oftheestimatedpotentialirrigable areaintheProvince.Anumberofdevelopmentprojects,suchasthePatFeederCanalRehabilitationProject,are currentlybeingexecuted.

MinorIrrigationSystems
SmallscaleorminorirrigationsystemsintheProvincederivewaterfrombothsurfaceandgroundwatersources. Perennialwatersourcesarerelativelysmallwithbaseflowsrarelyexceeding1cumec(35cusecs)andmostareless than0.1cumec(3.5cusecs).Thelargersystemsareassociatedwiththediversionofwaterfromperennialrivers, suchastheNari,HidandZhob.Someofthesesystemshavebeendevelopedbythecolonialpowersduringthe earlypartofthiscentury.LargersystemsareoperatedandmaintainedbytheProvincialIrrigationDepartmentin thesamewayasthelargescalecanalsystems. About 265,000ha, or 17% of the total estimated potential irrigable area in Balochistan, is under command of minorirrigationsystems.

5.10 CIVILCANALSIRRIGATIONSYSTEM
Inadditionto45MainCanalstherearealsosomesmallercanalsystemscalledCivilCanals(Private)intheKhyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). The irrigation water uses in these systems are, of course, considered in the overall managementoftheIBISandtheirshares(waterrights)havebeendulyestablishedintheWaterApportionment Accord(WAA)of1991.

5.11 CROPPRODUCTIVITYFROMIRRIGATIONSYSTEM
The crop productivity is, however, very low as majority of the farmers are still practicing traditional farming techniques. Moreover, the cost of production has increased many times due to rising prices of fuel and other agricultural inputs (Gill, 2000). The existing conservative production technologies do not offer effective and efficientutilizationofnaturalresources,particularlythatofwater.Extremelylowefficiencyofinputusehasledto wastageanddepletionofnaturalresourcesbesidesenvironmentaldegradation(Hobbsetal.,1997).Thereishuge scope to increase the average yield of major crops by improving the supply of canal water and other necessary input of crop production. The area under major crops and average yields for the above irrigation system of the countryisgiveninTable22.

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Table22: HistoricalDataofMajorCropProduction&Yields Crop/Period WHEAT 194748 19992000 PercentIncrease RICE 194748 19992000 PercentIncrease SUGARCANE 194748 19992000 PercentIncrease Area(ha) 3,954,000 8,463,000 214 790,000 2,515,000 318 189,000 1,030,000 544 Production(tons) 3,354,000 21,078,000 628 693,000 5,156,000 744 5,529,000 4,837,000 875 29,194 47,000 161 877 2,050 234 848 2,491 294 Yield/ha(kg)

Source: AgriculturalStatisticsofPakistan19992000,Islamabad

5.12 CANALDIVERSIONS
ThediversionstothecanalsystemoftheIndusPlainaregovernedbyoneinternationaltreaty(TheIndusWater Treaty) between India and Pakistan and one accord (The Water Apportionment Accord) between the four provincesofPakistannamelyKPK,Punjab,SindhandBalochistan.

5.12.1 CanalWaterDistributionasaresultofIndusWaterTreaty
UnderIndusWaterTreaty,Indiaisentitledtotheexclusiveuseofthethreeeasternrivers(Ravi,BeasandSutlej) whilethreewesternrivers(Indus,JhelumandChenab)areearmarkedforusebyPakistan.Asystemofstorages, 8interriverlinkCanalsandfive(5)Barrageshavebeenconstructedtotransferwaterfromwesternriverstothe easternriverstomeettheneedoftheareasirrigatedbyeasternrivers.

5.12.2 WaterApportionmentAccord
DistributionofIndusWateramongtheprovincesofPakistanisgovernedbytheWaterApportionmentAccord.The provincewiseseasonalallocationsaspertheWaterApportionmentAccord(1991)aregiveninTable23. Table23: ProvincewisewaterallocationunderWaterApportionmentAccord Province KPK(A) KPK(B) Punjab Sindh Balochistan Total Kharif BCM 4.28 2,21 45.60 41.75 3.51 118.14 MAF 3.48 1.80 33.07 33.94 2.85 75.14 BCM 2.83 1.28 23.21 18.23 1.25 46.8 Rabi MAF 2.39 1.20 18.87 14.82 1.02 38.30 BCM 7.11 3.69 68.81 59.98 4.76 144.35 Total MAF 5.78 3.00 55.94 48.76 3.87 117.35

Source:WaterApportionmentAccord(1991)

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Thebalanceofriversupplies,includingfloodstorages,istobedistributedintheratioofKPK14percent,Punjab37 percent,Sindh37percentandBalochistan12percent.

TheWaterApportionmentAccord Surface water developments after the final commissioning of the Tarbela Dam Project in 1977, were almost stalledduetothenonresolutionoftheinterprovincialwaterdispute.Thecountryunderwentaoneandahalf decade longcrisis related toirrigation supplies andhydropower generation before reachingconsensus. Load shedding and irregular agriculture produce was observed during this period. An interprovincial agreement becameessentialtosolvethelongstandingdisputeofcanalwateruses,sharesintheriversuppliesandsurplus flows in the form of floods, etc. An agreement called the "Apportionment of the Water of the Indus River SystembetweenProvinces"wasarrivedupon,whichhadtwoimportantfeatures;(i)Itprotectedtheexisting usesofcanalwaterineachprovince.(ii)Itapportionsthebalanceofriversupplies,includingfloodsurplusesand futurestoragesamongtheprovinces.

5.13 WATERSUPPLYATFARMGATE
The annual water flow diversion to canal head of Pakistan is about 104MAF. According to the various studies regardingwaterlossesincanalsystemabout20MAFwaterislostuptothewatercoursehead.Further40percent ofthesuppliesatwatercourseheadarelostinthewatercoursessystemofPakistan,resulting48MAFofirrigation watertobeavailableatthefarmgate.

5.14 SECTORWISEWATERUTILIZATION
ThesectorwisewaterconsumptionanddistributioninthecountryisshowninTable24. Table24: Sectorwisewaterutilization S.No. 1 2 3
Source:TaskForceonClimateChange2010

WaterUsage Agriculture Domestic Industrial

Percentage(%) 92 05 03

5.15 WETLANDS
SometwentyyearsafterPakistansindependence,anexplorationsponsoredbyWWFUKrevealedthatwildlife and wetlands resources in Pakistan were severely threatened and, in most areas, declining in condition. The expedition report prepared by Mountfort (1967) recommended that a range of wetland sites be declared ProtectedAreas.OtherearlyeffortsincludedextensivesurveysmadebySavage(19671970)andKoning(1970, 1976,1987and1989). KoningsfieldworkwassupportedbytheInternationalWetlandsResearchBureau(IWRB)andhemadethefirst ever effort to train provincial conservation staff in waterfowl identification. Pakistan ratified the Ramsar Convention in 1975 and, simultaneously, nine wetland sites were somewhat hastily recognized by the Ramsar Bureau as being of international importance. Early inventory work tended to be confined to readily accessible wetland sites, In 1980, IUCN compiled A Directory of Wetlands of International Importance in the Western Palaearctic. This was followed by the International Council for Bird Preservations preliminary Inventory of

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WetlandsinEastAsia.TheDirectoryofAsianWetlandspreparedbyScott(1989)listed52sitesinPakistan,based on the work of the NCCW and other agencies. Scott and Poole (1989) subsequently compiled an overview of importantwetlandsinAsiathatfeaturedsomeoftheresourcesinPakistan.In1987WetlandsInternational(WI) initiated a mid winter waterfowl census in the region and government staff from a range of institutions have participated in this survey series annually since that time. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (1992) includedtheprotectionofwatershedsandwaterbodiesastwooffourteenmajorprogrammeareasforpriority implementation.AreportbasedonjointsurveysbytheNCCWandRamsarBureauin1990identifiedprioritiesfor actionincludingsurveys,conservationmeasures,awarenessraising,managementandappliedresearch.Thereport recommendedrationalizingtheexistinglistofRamsarsites.Asaconsequence,severalwereamalgamatedintoa complex, three existing sites were withdrawn from the list and two others added, bringing the total number of RamsarsitesinMarch1996,toeight.By2003,thenationalandsitelevelinvestmentinwetlandswasgenerally inadequate to meet the challenge of conserving globally important biodiversity. At the national level, the key significant drawback was the absence of an effective enabling environment that could encourage and sustain initiatives for biodiversity conservation. Key barriers to creating an enabling environment remained:the lack of effective and integrated policies;the absence of decisionmaking tools and reliable information to support effectivewetlandsconservationplanning;technicaldeficienciesrelatedtoskillsandequipment;andthelackof general public awareness or political pressure that would favour wetlands conservation. The list of important wetlandsinPakistanisdescribedinTable25. Table25: ListofimportantWetlandsinPakistan No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 NameofWetland BaghsarLake Banjosa ChattaKathaLake GarhiDupatta ManglaLake NardiLake PhoolawaeiLake RattiGaliLake RiverNeelum SaralLake AkaraDam Astola(HaftTalar)Island AstolaSeaMount BandKhushdilKhan BojiPoint Chakhon DashtKhor HamuniLora HamuniMushkel HannaLake JiwaniEstuary Status NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected WildlifeSanctuary NotProtected GameReserve NationalPark(partof) NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotKnown NotProtected Province AJK AJK AJK AJK AJK AJK AJK AJK AJK AJK Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan District/Area Bhimber Rawalakot Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad Mirpur Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad Makran Makran Makran Pishin Lasbela Zhob Gwadar Chagai Chagai Quetta Makran

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No. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

NameofWetland KalmatKhor MaravLake MianiHor PasniBay QamardinKarez RasMalan SirandaLake SpinKarez WastaDam ZangiNawar ZhobRiver RawalLake BorithLake DeosaiPlateau GashoLake,SaiNullah HundrupLake JutialLake KachuraLake KharfaqLake NaltarLakes PhanderLake RamaLake SarfarangaLake SatparaLake BaranDam ChashmaLake DodibaghSarLake GandialiDam IndusGameReserve IndusWaterfowlRefuge KandarDam KhanpurDam KheshkiReservoir KurramRiverValley LakeShandur LulusarWetlandComplex MahoDhand MalugulDhand

Status NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotKnown NotProtected NotProtected NotKnown NotProtected GameReserve NotProtected NationalPark(partof) NotProtected NationalPark NotKnown NotKnown NotKnown NotProtected NotKnown NotProtected NotKnown NotProtected NotKnown NotProtected NotProtected WildlifeSanctuary NotProtected NotProtected GameReserve WildlifeRefuge NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotKnown NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected

Province Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan FederalCapital GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan GilgitBaltistan KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK

District/Area Makran DeraBugti Lasbela Gwadar QilaSaifullah Lasbela Lasbela Quetta Zhob Chagai Zhob Islamabad Gilgit Skardu Gilgit Ghizer Gilgit Skardu Ghanche Gilgit Ghizer Astor Skardu Skardu Bannu D.I.Khan KaghanValley Kohat D.I.Khan D.I.Khan Kohat Hazara Peshawar Bannu Chitral KaghanValley Swat Bannu

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No. 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

NameofWetland SaifulMaluk TandaDam TarbelaDam ThanedarWala ZebiDam BroghalorYarkhunLake Bajwat GhamagharLake HeadIslam JahlarLake KalarKaharLake KhabbakiLake Kharrar(Kharal)Lake LalSuhanra(Patisar)Lake ManglaDam MaralaHeadworks NammalLake QadirabadBarrage QadirabadLinkCanal Rasool(Rasul)Barrage SoanRiver TaunsaBarrage UcchaliLake BadinandKadhanLagoons BeroonKirtharCanal CharwoLake CliftonBeach DrighLake

Status NotProtected RamsarSite NotProtected GameReserve NotProtected NotProtected GameReserve NotProtected GameReserve NotProtected WildlifeSanctuary WildlifeSanctuary WildlifeSanctuary NationalPark NotProtected NotProtected WildlifeSanctuary NotProtected GameReserve WildlifeSanctuary NotKnown WildlifeSanctuary RamsarSite NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected WildlifeSanctuary

Province KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK KPK Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh

District/Area Hazara Kohat Haripur Lakki Karak Chitral Sialkot Kasur Multan Khushab Chakwal Khushab Okara Bahawalpur Jhelum Sailkot Khushab Gujrawala Gujrat Gujrat Chakwal Muzaffargarh/DGK Khushab Badin Larkana Badin Karachi Larkana Jacobabad Karachi Thatta Thatta Larkana Karachi Kashmor Thatta Thatta Badin

GhauspurJheel&SindhiDhoro NotProtected Lake HubDam HadeiroLake HalejiLake HamalKatchriLake HawkesBay/Sandpit IndusDolphinReserve KetiBunderNorth KetiBunderSouth Khango(Khowaj)Lake WildlifeSanctuary WildlifeSanctuary WildlifeSanctuary NotProtected WildlifeSanctuary WildlifeSanctuary WildlifeSanctuary WildlifeSanctuary NotProtected

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No. 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

NameofWetland Khinjar(Kalri)Lake KhiproLakes KorangiandGharoCreeks Langh(Lungh)Lake MahboobLake MancharLake NaraCanal PhoosnaLakes PugriLake RannofKutch SadhoriLake SanghriaroLake Shahbunder&JafriLake SoonhariLake TandoBagoLake

Status WildlifeSanctuary NotProtected NotProtected WildlifeSanctuary NotProtected NotProtected GameReserve NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected NotProtected

Province Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh

District/Area Thatta Sanghar Karachi Larkana Sujawal Dadu Sanghar Badin Larkana Thatta Sanghar Sanghar Thatta Sanghar Badin

Source:WWF2010

Fewcomprehensivedecisionsupportsystemsormanagementtoolswereavailableforregionalresourceplanning. ThescopeoftheGISfacilitiesinthePFIandForestManagementCentreinPeshawar,waslimitedtoforestryonly andnotorganisedtoacceptdataonotherformsofbiodiversityorsocioeconomicconditionsinwetlandsandtheir bufferzones.Technicalcapacityinalmosteveryaspectofwetlandsmanagementtendedtobeinadequatedueto the lack of resources for scientific and specialised wetlands management training, appropriate equipment and exposuretointernationalapproachestowetlandsmanagement.WhilePakistanhadproducedaWetlandsAction Planin2000,thelackofacomprehensiveWetlandsManagementStrategyhinderedpolicyformation,coordination and management of wetlands at a national scale. Additionally, options for financial sustainability had not been fully explored to enable the proliferation of longterm initiatives in biodiversity conservation. As a result, such initiatives tended to be donordriven and shortlived. At the site level, several of the abovementioned inadequacies were also evident. Although all four of the designated Demonstration Complexes fell within the jurisdiction of the provincial forestry and wildlife management agencies, actual activity was limited to partial enforcement of resourceuse regulations. Some communitybased biodiversity management initiatives hadbeen supported elsewhere by the appropriate agencies in KPK and Sindh. These approaches had, however, not been applied in the four selected wetland sites. Biodiversity monitoring in these sites had also been inconsistent althoughtheZSDandWWFPhadundertakensomeinitiatives,particularlyduringthePDF(B)phaseoftheProject. Some shortterm conservation initiatives had been implemented inrecent years in Makran Coastal Wetlands Complex (MCWC), Central Indus Wetlands Complex (CIWC), and Salt Range Wetlands Complex (SRWC) with the active involvement of WWFP. Significant activities comprised of a programme for the rescue of lndus Dolphins (Platanista minor) stranded in irrigation canals during the dry season in CIWC and support for ecotourism initiatives on the Indus River. In MCWC, initiatives had included the conservation of endangered Olive Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) and Green Turtles (Chelonfa mydas) and the rehabilitation of mangroves near Jiwani. Monitoring of waterfowl, Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) and Chinkara or Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) had been the key focus of conservation activities in SRWC, although some limited communitybased ventures,mainlyrelatedtoenvironmentalawareness,hadalsobeenimplemented.Ifthe2003scenariowereto

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continue, it is projected that wetlands conservation in Pakistan would continue to encompass a series of essentially unrelated, shortterm initiatives driven by donor support. In the absence of the measures proposed underthePakistanWetlandsProgramme,theexistingnationalandsitelevelconservationeffortsarelikelytohave little sustainable impact on the globally important wetlands and their associated biodiversity in Pakistan. The Table26depictstheimportantwetlandsofthecountrywithsignificantfeatures. Table26: Importantwetlandswithsignificantfeatures Sr. No. 1. Name TandaDam Reservoir ThanedarWala GameReserve KandarDam KurramRiver Valleyincluding BaranDamand MalugulDhand NammalLake UcchaliLake Province KPK Coordinates 3335'N, 7l22'E 3237'N, 7105'E 3336'N, 7l29'E 3237' 3305'N, 7030' 7100'E 3241'N, 7149'E 3233'N, 720l'E 3229'N, 7207'E 3237'N, 7214'E 3059'N, 74'00E 3053'N, 7335'E 3246'N, 7242'E 2922'N,71 57'E 2808'N, 6906'E 2734'N, 6802'E Area 644ha (RamsarSite 405ha) 4,047ha. 251ha Altitude 528m Annual Rainfall 250760 mm 250mm 300mm 338mm Tempera tures 045C

2. 3. 4.

KPK KPK KPK

303m 255m

4C47C 4C45C 0.5C 42C

70kmof 305 river;Baran 390m. Dam1,554ha; Malaghul Dhand405ha. 486ha. 943ha 352m 700m

5. 6.

Punjab Punjab

300600 mm 300mm to800 mm 300mm to800 mm 300mm to800 mm 300500 mm 225mm 250mm 150200 mm 175mm

1C45C 0.5C 36C 0.5C 36C 0.5C 36C 10C35C 9.5C 35C 1C40C 1C49C 2C49C

7.

JahlarLake

Punjab

100ha

950m

8.

KhabbakiLake

Punjab

283ha

978m

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

GhamagharLake Kharal(Kharrar) Lake KalarKaharLake PatisarLake(Lal Suhanra) Ghauspur(Rup) JheelandSindhi DhoroLake DrighLake Wildlife Sanctuary

Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Sindh

80ha 235ha 220ha 1,935ha 600ha

80ha 180m 900m 110 120m 70m

14.

Sindh

182ha

50m

175mm

1.7C 49C

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Sr. No. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Name HamalKatchri Lake PugriLake MancharLake SoonhariLake SadhoriLake SanghriaroLake KhiproLakes

Province Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh

Coordinates 2723'N, 6755'E 2718'N, 6803'E 2625'N, 6739'E 2610'N, 6904'E 2612'N, 6907'E 2607'N, 6912'E 2532' 2549'N, 6929' 6938'E 2445' 2450'N, 6850' 6905'E 2448'N, 6854'E 2450'N, 6900'E 2447'N, 6905'E 2415' 2430'N, 6835' 6905'E 2406' 2412'N, 6754' 6815'E 2430'N, 6803'E 2456'N, 6803'E 2449'N, 6752'E 2848'N, 6747'E 2730'N, 6805'E

Area Unknown Unknown 6,000ha 245ha Unknown 380ha Unknown

Altitude 50m 50m 35m 60m 60m 60m 40m

Annual Rainfall 175mm 175mm 175mm 175mm 175mm 175mm 200mm

Tempera tures 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C

22.

TandoBagoLakes Sindh

Unknown

40m

175mm

1.7C 49C

23. 24. 25. 26.

PhoosnaLakes CharwoLake Khanjo(Khowaja) Lake Badinand KadhanLagoons

Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh

160ha 100ha 500ha Unknown

40m 40m 50m 50m

175mm 175mm 175mm 200mm

1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C 1.7C 49C

27.

ShahbunderSalt WasteandJafri Lake MahboobShah Lake Kinjhar(Kalri) Lake HaderoLake HalejiLake Langh(Lungh) Lake

Sindh

20,000ha

5m

200mm

1.5C47C

28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh Sindh

>100ha 13,468ha 1,321ha 1,704ha 19ha

50m 70m 60m 60m 50m

200mm 175mm 185mm 178mm 150mm

1.5C47C 1.5C47C 2C47C 2C49C 2C49C

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Sr. No. 33. 34. 35.

Name HubDam SirandaLake MianiHor

Province Balochistan andSindh Balochistan Balochistan

Coordinates 2515'N, 6707'E 2531'N, 6637'E 2524'25 38'N,6606' 6635'E 3036'N, 6645'E 2927'N, 6547'E 2525'N, 6220'E 25l0' 2523'N, 6137' 6154'E

Area 27,219ha 2,700ha 60,000ha.

Altitude 150m 15m Sea level 1,460m 975m 50m 05m

Annual Rainfall 200mm 150mm 150mm

Tempera tures 2C49C 2C49C 2C49C

36. 37. 38. 39.

BundKhushdil Khan ZangiNawarLake AkaraDam DashtKaur

Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan Balochistan

1,296ha 2,070ha 50ha Unknown

200mm 76mm 150mm 150mm

10C 35C 4C47C 32C 32C

Source:WWF2010

ThereaderisreferredforadditionalinformationrelatingtotheabovetopicsinthetablesD1toD41attachedas annexureD.

90

IrrigationSystemofPakistan
Table27: IrrigationSystemofPakistan(AnnexureD) Genre CANAL DIVERSIONS Description CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR196768 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR196869 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR196970 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197071 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197172 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197273 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197374 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197475 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197576 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197677 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197778 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197879 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR197980 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198081 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198182 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198283 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198384 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198485 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198586 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198687 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198788 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198889 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR198990 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199091 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199192 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199293 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199394 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199495 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199596 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199697 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199798 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199899 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR199900 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200001 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200102 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200203 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200304 Nomenclature TABLED1 TABLED2 TABLED3 TABLED4 TABLED5 TABLED6 TABLED7 TABLED8 TABLED9 TABLED10 TABLED11 TABLED12 TABLED13 TABLED14 TABLED15 TABLED16 TABLED17 TABLED18 TABLED19 TABLED20 TABLED21 TABLED22 TABLED23 TABLED24 TABLED25 TABLED26 TABLED27 TABLED28 TABLED29 TABLED30 TABLED31 TABLED32 TABLED33 TABLED34 TABLED35 TABLED36 TABLED37 Page# 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73

HandbookonWaterStatisticsofPakistan

91

Genre CANAL DIVERSIONS

Description CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200405 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200506 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200607 CANALWATERDIVERSIONSTOIBISFORTHEYEAR200708

Nomenclature TABLED38 TABLED39 TABLED40 TABLED41

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