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MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

A Medical Wearable Device with Wireless Bluetooth-based Data Transmission


Tura, 2M. Badanai, 2D. Longo, 2L. Quareni 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Research Council, Padova, Italy, 2QUBIsoft S.r.l., Padova, Italy Email: tura@isib.pd.cnr.it
1A.

INTRODUCTION
The project deals with the design and development of hardware and software for temperature and heartbeat measurement of a patient over LCD The data which are recorded continuously in this project are Heartbeat of the patient. The digital value read is sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller temporarily stores this value. The heartbeat pulses can be seen by the doctor at regular intervals in LCD to know the patient condition.

1.1.

OBJECTIVE
The project intends to interface the microcontroller with the LCD and Heart beat

monitoring system and send the information like heartbeat pulses of the patient to the doctors work station on LCD. The project uses the LCD, Heartbeat sensor and Embedded Systems to design this application. The main objective of this project is to design a system that continuously monitors the heartbeat of the patient and if they are likely to exceed the normal values, the system immediately sends a message to the doctors LCD.

This project is a device that collects data from the sensors, codes the data into a format that can be understood by the controlling section. This system also collects information from the master device and implements commands that are directed by the master.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

1.2 BACK GROUND OF THE PROJECT


The software application and the hardware implementation help the microcontroller read the output of the sensors and send these values to the doctors mobile whenever he sends a request to the controlling unit. The measure of efficiency is based on how fast the microcontroller can read the sensor output values and send a message to the doctors mobile whenever these parameters exceed the normal values. The system is totally designed using LCD and embedded systems technology. The Controlling unit has an application program to allow the microcontroller read the sensor output values and send them to the user mobile whenever he sends a request to the controlling unit. The performance of the design is maintained by controlling unit.

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
The block diagram of the design is as shown in Fig 3.1. It consists of power supply unit, microcontroller, GSM modem, Serial communication unit, sensor module. The brief description of each unit is explained as follows.

Fig: Block diagram for Heartbeat Monitoring System

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

2.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

2.3 WORKING PROCEDURE

The working of the project goes like this: The temperature and heartbeat of the patient will be monitored continuously and the status of the patient will be monitored and sent to the doctor wherever he may be. Thus, the two values, the temperature and the heartbeat pulse will be sent to the doctor who knows the entire health conditions of the patient. Thus, to send this data, we are using the wireless technology, Bluetooth. When the monitoring system sends a message to the doctors, even this system should have a device which can send or receive the messages from/to the doctor. The device we are using is the Bluetooth modem. The Bluetooth modem will be interfaced with the microcontroller through serial interface. The data which are monitored continuously in this project are Temperature and Heartbeat of the patient. The analog quantities are taken and converted into corresponding digital values using a single channel ADC. This converted digital value is sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller temporarily stores this value. The doctor can read the temperature and heartbeat value whenever he wishes to. The doctor can take care of the patients condition wherever he may be. The doctor has to send predefined messages to the modem to retrieve the data. The modem receives the predefined messages and intimates the same to the microcontroller. Now, it is the job of the microcontroller to read the value, process it and send the requested value to the doctors mobile. The user can read the updated data whenever he reads the predefined messages to the modem. These values can also be displayed on the LCD.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

MICROCONTROLLER
3.1. A brief history of the 8051 family:
In 1981, Intel Corporation introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called the 8051. This microcontroller had 128 bytes of RAM,4K bytes of on- chip ROM, two timers, one serial port, and four ports(each 8-bit wide) all on a single chip. At the time it is also referred to as a system on chip. This is an 8-bit processor, meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. Data larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8 bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. The 8051 has a total of four I/O ports, each 8-bit wide. The 8051 became widely popular after Intel allowed other manufactures to make and market any flavors of the 8051 they please with the condition that they remain code-compatible with the 8051. This led to many versions of the 8051 with different speeds and amounts of onchip ROM marketed by more than half a dozen manufacturers. It is important to note that although there are different flavors of the 8051 in terms of speed and amount of on-chip ROM, they are all compatible with the original 8051 as far as the instructions are concerned. This means that if you write your program for one, it will run on any of them regardless of the manufacturer. The 8051 is the original member of the 8051 family. Intel refers to it as MCS-51. The Microcontroller AT89c51 is from Atmel Corporation. It has a wide collection of 8051 chips, as shown below. The AT89C51 is a popular and inexpensive chip used in many small projects. It has 4K bytes of flash ROM. Notice that AT89C51-12PC, where C before the 51 stands for CMOS, which has low power consumption, 12 indicates 12MHz, P is for plastic DIP package, and another C is for commercial.

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3.2 FEATURES Compatible with MCS-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Full Duplex UART Serial Channel Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer Power-off Flag Fast Programming Time Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode

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3.3 PIN DIAGRAM:

FIG PIN DIAGRAM OF 89S52 IC

3.4 PIN DESCRIPTION


VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives High for 96 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.

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PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the Internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

POWER SUPPLY
All digital circuits require regulated power supply. In this article we are going to learn how to get a regulated positive supply from the mains supply.

Figure shows the basic block diagram of a fixed regulated power supply. Let us go through each block.

4.1 TRANSFORMER

A transformer consists of two coils also called as WINDINGS namely PRIMARY & SECONDARY. They are linked together through inductively coupled electrical conductors also called as CORE. A changing current in the primary causes a change in the Magnetic Field in the core & this in turn induces an alternating voltage in the secondary coil. If load is applied to the secondary then an alternating current will flow through the load. If we consider an ideal

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

condition then all the energy from the primary circuit will be transferred to the secondary circuit through the magnetic field.

So

The secondary voltage of the transformer depends on the number of turns in the Primary as well as in the secondary.

4.2 RECTIFIER
A rectifier is a device that converts an AC signal into DC signal. For rectification purpose we use a diode, a diode is a device that allows current to pass only in one direction i.e. when the anode of the diode is positive with respect to the cathode also called as forward biased condition & blocks current in the reversed biased condition. Rectifier can be classified as follows: 1) Half Wave rectifier.

This is the simplest type of rectifier as you can see in the diagram a half wave rectifier consists of only one diode. When an AC signal is applied to it during the positive half cycle the diode is forward biased & current flows through it. But during the negative half cycle diode is reverse

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

biased & no current flows through it. Since only one half of the input reaches the output, it is very inefficient to be used in power supplies. 2) Full wave rectifier.

Half wave rectifier is quite simple but it is very inefficient, for greater efficiency we would like to use both the half cycles of the AC signal. This can be achieved by using a center tapped transformer i.e. we would have to double the size of secondary winding & provide connection to the center. So during the positive half cycle diode D1 conducts & D2 is in reverse biased condition. During the negative half cycle diode D2 conducts & D1 is reverse biased. Thus we get both the half cycles across the load. One of the disadvantages of Full Wave Rectifier design is the necessity of using a center tapped transformer, thus increasing the size & cost of the circuit. This can be avoided by using the Full Wave Bridge Rectifier.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

3)

Bridge Rectifier.

As the name suggests it converts the full wave i.e. both the positive & the negative half cycle into DC thus it is much more efficient than Half Wave Rectifier & that too without using a center tapped transformer thus much more cost effective than Full Wave Rectifier. Full Bridge Wave Rectifier consists of four diodes namely D1, D2, D3 and D4. During the positive half cycle diodes D1 & D4 conduct whereas in the negative half cycle diodes D2 & D3 conduct thus the diodes keep switching the transformer connections so we get positive half cycles in the output.

If we use a center tapped transformer for a bridge rectifier we can get both positive & negative half cycles which can thus be used for generating fixed positive & fixed negative voltages.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

4.3 VOLTAGE REGULATOR


A Voltage regulator is a device which converts varying input voltage into a constant regulated output voltage. Voltage regulator can be of two types 1) Linear Voltage Regulator Also called as Resistive Voltage regulator because they dissipate the excessive voltage resistively as heat. 2) Switching Regulators. They regulate the output voltage by switching the Current ON/OFF very rapidly. Since their output is either ON or OFF it dissipates very low power thus achieving higher efficiency as compared to linear voltage regulators. But they are more complex & generate high noise due to their switching action. For low level of output power switching regulators tend to be costly but for higher output wattage they are much cheaper than linear regulators. The most commonly available Linear Positive Voltage Regulators are the 78XX series where the XX indicates the output voltage. And 79XX series is for Negative Voltage Regulators.

After filtering the rectifier output the signal is given to a voltage regulator. The maximum input voltage that can be applied at the input is 35V.Normally there is a 2-3 Volts drop across the regulator so the input voltage should be at least 2-3 Volts higher than the output voltage. If the input voltage gets below the Vmin of the regulator due to the ripple voltage or due to any other reason the voltage regulator will not be able to produce the correct regulated voltage.

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

3 Circuit diagram:

Fig 2.3. Circuit Diagram of power supply

IC 7805: 7805 is an integrated three-terminal positive fixed linear voltage regulator. It supports an input voltage of 10 volts to 35 volts and output voltage of 5 volts. It has a current rating of 1 amp although lower current models are available. Its output voltage is fixed at 5.0V. The 7805 also has a built-in current limiter as a safety feature. 7805 is manufactured by many companies, including National Semiconductors and Fairchild Semiconductors. The 7805 will automatically reduce output current if it gets too hot.The last two digits represent the voltage; for instance, the 7812 is a 12-volt regulator. The 78xx series of regulators is designed to work in complement with the 79xx series of negative voltage regulators in systems that provide both positive and negative regulated voltages, since the 78xx series can't regulate negative voltages in such a system. The 7805 & 78 is one of the most common and well-known of the 78xx series regulators, as it's small component count and medium-power regulated 5V make it useful for powering TTL devices.

Table. Specifications of IC7805

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

SPECIFICATIONS Vout Vein - Vout Difference Operation Ambient Temp Output Imax

IC 7805 5V 5V - 20V 0 - 125C 1A

SENSORS
The sensors used in this project are Heartbeat and Temperature sensor. The output of temperature sensor is given to the ADC so as to convert the analog value into digital data and then give it to the microcontroller. The Heartbeat sensor used is basically a LED and LDR arrangement.

5.1 HERT BEAT SENSOR

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LED and LDR arrangement


The Heartbeat sensor used in this project is basically a LED and LDR arrangement. The LED used in this arrangement is a high intensity LED. Heart beat is sensed by using a high intensity type LED and LDR. The finger is placed between the LED and LDR. As sensor, a photo diode or a photo transistor can be used. The skin may be illuminated with visible (red) using transmitted or reflected light for detection. The very small changes in reflectivity or in transmittance caused by the varying blood content of human tissue are almost invisible. Various noise sources may produce disturbance signals with amplitudes equal or even higher than the amplitude of the pulse signal. Valid pulse measurement therefore requires extensive preprocessing of the raw signal. The setup described here uses a red LED for transmitted light illumination and a LDR as detector. With only slight changes in the preamplifier circuit the same hardware and software could be used with other illumination and detection concepts. These values are sent to the ADC for conversion of analog to digital and then sent to the microcontroller.

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Pulse Oximeter:
What is pulse oximeter? An oximeter provides accurate blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate reading. This information helps our condition during exercise, activities of daily living, or air travel.

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How does a pulse oximeter work?


Oxygen in the air is breathed into the lungs. The oxygen then passes into the blood where the majority of the oxygen attaches to hemoglobin (a protein located inside the red blood cell) for transport in the bloodstream. The oxygenated blood circulates to the tissues. Pulse oximeter technology utilizes the light absorptive characteristics of hemoglobin and the pulsating nature of blood flow in the arteries to aid in determining the oxygenation status in the body. First, there is a color difference between arterial hemoglobin saturated with oxygen, which is bright red, and venous hemoglobin without oxygen, which is darker.

Second, with each pulse or heartbeat there is a slight increase in the volume of blood flowing through the arteries. Because of the increase of blood volume, albeit small, there is an associated increase in oxygenrich hemoglobin. This represents the maximum amount of oxygen-rich hemoglobin pulsating through the blood vessels.

A clip-like device called a probe is placed on a body part, such as a finger or ear lobe, to measure the blood that is still carrying or is saturated with oxygen. The probe houses a light source, a light detector, and a microprocessor, which compares and calculates the differences in the oxygen-rich versus oxygenpoor hemoglobin. One side of the probe has a light source with two different types of light, infrared and red, which are transmitted through the finger to the light detector side of the probe. SPO Medical pulse oximeter use reflectance technology to measure oxygen saturation. The oxygen-rich hemoglobin absorbs more of the infrared light and the hemoglobin without oxygen absorbs more of the red light. The microprocessor calculates the differences and converts the information to a digital readout. This information helps the physician assess the amount of oxygen being carried in the blood and evaluate the need for supplemental oxygen.

Respiratory Sensor:
Respiratory activity can be detected by measuring changes in the impedance across the thorax. Several types of transducers have been developed for the measurement of respiration rate. A Strain Gauge type Chest Transducer is a suitable transducer to measure the respiratory activity. The respiratory movement

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results in the changes of the strain gauge element of the transducer hence the respiration rate can be measured. A respiration belt that is basically a piezo electric sensor embedded into an elasticized belt that you put around your chest. As we breathe, the belt stretches and this produces a small voltage from the piezo electric (of the order of a few tens of mill volts). A circuit that will amplify the signal to somewhere in the region of 0 5V that can be connected microcontroller to read the signal programmatically.

Fig-1

Accelerometer
The MMA7260QT low cost capacitive accelerometer features signal conditioning, a 1pole low pass filter, temperature compensation and g-Select which allows for the selection among 4 sensitivities. Zero-g offset full scale span and filter cut-off are factory set and require no

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

external devices. Includes a Sleep Mode that makes it ideal for handheld battery powered electronics.

Features
Selectable Sensitivity (1.5g/2g/4g/6g) Low Current Consumption: 500 A Sleep Mode: 3 A Low Voltage Operation: 2.2 V 3.6 V 6mm x 6mm x 1.45mm QFN High Sensitivity (800 mV/g @ 1.5g) Fast Turn On Time Integral Signal Conditioning with Low Pass Filter Robust Design, High Shocks Survivability Pb-Free Terminations Environmentally Preferred Package Low Cost

Typical Applications HDD MP3 Player: Freefall Detection Laptop PC: Freefall Detection, Anti-Theft Cell Phone: Image Stability, Text Scroll, Motion Dialing, E-Compass Pedometer: Motion Sensing

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PDA: Text Scroll Navigation and Dead Reckoning: E-Compass Tilt Compensation Gaming: Tilt and Motion Sensing, Event Recorder Robotics: Motion Sensing

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

The Free scale accelerometer is a surface-micro machined integrated-circuit accelerometer. The device consists of two surface micro machined capacitive sensing cells (gcell) and a signal conditioning ASIC contained in a single integrated circuit package. The sensing elements are sealed hermetically at the wafer level using a bulk micro machined cap wafer. The g-cell is a mechanical structure formed from semiconductor materials (poly silicon) using semiconductor processes (masking and etching). It can be modeled as a set of beams

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attached to a movable central mass that move between fixed beams. The movable beams can be deflected from their rest position by subjecting the system to acceleration. As the beams attached to the central mass move, the distance from them to the fixed beams on one side will increase by the same amount that the distance to the fixed beams on the other side decreases. The change in distance is a measure of acceleration. The g-cell beams form two back-to-back capacitors. As the center beam moves with acceleration, the distance between the beams changes and each capacitor's value will change, (C = A/D). Where A is the area of the beam, is the dielectric constant, and D is the distance between the beams. The ASIC uses switched capacitor techniques to measure the g-cell capacitors and extract the acceleration data from the difference between the two capacitors. The ASIC also signal conditions and filters (switched capacitor) the signal, providing a high level output voltage that is Ratio-metric and proportional to acceleration.

g-Select
The g-Select feature allows for the selection among 4 sensitivities present in the device. Depending on the logic input placed on pins 1 and 2, the device internal gain will be changed allowing it to function with a 1.5g, 2g, 4g, or 6g sensitivity. This feature is ideal when a product has applications requiring different sensitivities for optimum performance. The sensitivity can be

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 3, Section 2, 2003

changed at anytime during the operation of the product. The g-Select1 and g-Select2 pins can be left unconnected for applications requiring only a 1.5g sensitivity as the device has an internal pull-down to keep it at that sensitivity (800mV/g). Sleep Mode The 3 axis accelerometer provides a Sleep Mode that is ideal for battery operated products. When Sleep Mode is active, the device outputs are turned off, providing significant reduction of operating current. A low input signal on pin 12 (Sleep Mode) will place the device in this mode and reduce the current to 3 A typ. For lower power consumption, it is recommended to set g-Select1 and g-Select2 to 1.5g mode. By placing a high input signal on pin 12, the device will resume to normal mode of operation.

Filtering The 3 axis accelerometer contains onboard single-pole switched capacitor filters. Because the filter is realized using switched capacitor techniques, there is no requirement for external passive components (resistors and capacitors) to set the cut-off frequency.

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER


Analog-to-digital converters are among the most widely used devices for data acquisition. Digital systems use binary values, but in the physical world everything is continuous i.e., analog values. Temperature, pressure (wind or liquid), humidity and velocity are the physical analog quantities. These physical quantities are to be converted into digital values for

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further processing. One such device to convert these physical quantities into electrical signals is sensor. Sensors for temperature, pressure, humidity, light and many other natural quantities produce an output that is voltage or current. Thus, an analog-to-digital converter is needed to convert these electrical signals into digital values so that the microcontroller can read and process them. An ADC has an n-bit resolution where n can be 8,10,12,16 or even 24 bits. The higher resolution ADC provides a smaller step size, where step size is the smallest change that can be detected by an ADC. In addition to resolution, conversion time is another major factor in judging an ADC. Conversion time is defined as the time it takes the ADC to convert the analog input to a digital number.

6.1 PIN DIAGRAM


ADC0804: The ADC chip that is used in this project is ADC0804. The ADC0804 IC is an 8-bit parallel ADC in the family of the ADC0800 series from National Semiconductor. It works with +5 volts and has a resolution of 8 bits. In the ADC0804, the conversion time varies depending on the clocking signals applied to the CLK IN pin, but it cannot be faster than 110s.

6.2 PIN DESCRIPTION


CS (Chip select) Chip select is an active low input used to activate the ADC0804 chip. To access the ADC0804, this pin must be low.

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RD (read) This is an input signal and is active low. ADC converts the analog input to its binary equivalent and holds it in an internal register. RD is used to get the data out of ADC0804 chip. When CS=0, if a high-to-low pulse is applied to the RD pin, the 8-bit digital output shows up at the D0-D7 data pins. WR (write) This is an active low input used to inform the ADC0804 to start the conversion process. If CS=0 when WR makes a low-to-high transition, the ADC0804 starts converting the analog input value Vin to an 8-bit digital value. The amount of time it takes to convert varies depending on the CLK IN and CLK R values.

CLK IN and CLK R CLK IN is an input pin connected to an external clock source when an external clock is used for timing. However, the 804 has an internal clock generator. To use the internal clock generator of the ADC0804, the CLK IN and CLK R are connected to a capacitor and a resistor. In that case, the clock frequency is determined by the equation: f = 1/ (1.1RC) Typical values are R=10K ohms and C= 150 pf. Substituting in the above equation, the frequency is calculated as 606 kHz. Thus, the conversion time is 110s. INTR This is an output pin and is active low. It is a normally high pin and when the conversion is finished, it goes low to signal the CPU that the converted data is ready to be picked up. After INTR goes low, the CS pin is made low i.e., CS=0 and send a high-to-low pulse to the RD pin to get the data out of the ADC0804 chip.

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Vin(+) and Vin(-) These are the differential analog inputs where Vin=Vin(+) Vin(-). The Vin(-) pin is connected to ground and the Vin(+) pin is used as the analog input to be converted to digital. Vcc This is the +5 volt power supply. It is also used as a reference voltage when the Vref/2 input (pin 9) is open. Vref/2 Pin 9 is an input voltage used for the reference voltage. If this pin is open, the analog input voltage for the ADC0804 is in the range of 0 to 5 volts.Vref/2 is used to implement analog input voltages other than 0.5V. i.e., if the analog input range needs to be 0 to 4 volts, Vref/2 is connected to 2 volts. D0-D7 D0-D7 (D7 is the MSB) are the digital data output pins since ADC0804 is a parallel ADC chip. To calculate the output voltage, the below equation is used: Dout = Vin/ (step size) where Dout = digital data output pins (in decimal) and Vin = analog input value

Analog ground and Digital ground These are the input pins providing the ground for both the analog signal and the digital signal. Analog ground is connected to the ground of the analog Vin while digital ground is connected to the ground of the Vcc pin.

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Clock source for ADC0804: The speed at which an analog input is converted to the digital output depends on the speed of the CLK input. According to the ADC0804 datasheets, the typical operating frequency is approximately 640 kHz at 5 volts.

ADC interface with Microcontroller:

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY


LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD is finding wide spread use replacing LEDs (seven segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs) because of the following reasons: 1. The declining prices of LCDs.

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2.

The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs, which are limited to numbers and a few characters.

3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data. 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

7.1 LCD SCREEN


LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of 5x7 dot matrix. Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied on pin marked as Vee. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during operating, a resistor for current limitation should be used (like with any LE diode).

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LCD Connection Depending on how many lines are used for connection to the microcontroller, there are 8-bit and 4-bit LCD modes. The appropriate mode is determined at the beginning of the process in a phase called initialization. In the first case, the data are transferred through outputs D0-D7 as it has been already explained. In case of 4-bit LED mode, for the sake of saving valuable I/O pins of the microcontroller, there are only 4 higher bits (D4-D7) used for communication, while other may be left unconnected. Consequently, each data is sent to LCD in two steps: four higher bits are sent first (that normally would be sent through lines D4-D7), four lower bits are sent afterwards. With the help of initialization, LCD will correctly connect and interpret each data received. Besides, with regards to the fact that data are rarely read from LCD (data mainly are transferred from microcontroller to LCD) one more I/O pin may be saved by simple connecting R/W pin to the Ground. Such saving has its price. Even though message displaying will be normally performed, it will not be possible to read from busy flag since it is not possible to read from display.

7.2 LCD INTERFACING WITH 8051

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RS-232 AND MAX-232


8.1 RS 232:
RS-232 is simple, universal, well understood and supported but it has some serious shortcomings as a data interface. The standards to 256kbps or less and line lengths of 15M (50 ft) or less but today we see high speed ports on our home PC running very high speeds and with high quality cable maxim distance has increased greatly. The rule of thumb for the length a data cable depends on speed of the data, quality of the cable.

. Sub-D15 Male Sub-D15 Female

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This is a standard 9 to 25 pin cable layout for async data on a PC AT serial cable Description Carrier Detect Receive Data Transmit Data Data Terminal Ready Signal Ground Data Set Ready Request to Send Clear to Send Ring Indicator Signal CD RD TD DTR SG DSR RTS CTS RI 9-pin DTE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 25-pin DCE 8 3 2 20 7 6 4 5 22 Source DTE or DCE from Modem from Modem from Terminal/Computer from Terminal/Computer from Modem from Modem from Terminal/Computer from Modem from Modem

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8.2 MAX 232:


DESCRIPTION:
The MAX232 device is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V, and can accept 30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. The driver, receiver, and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas.

8.2.1 FEATURES:

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Operates With Single 5-V Power Supply Lin Bi CMOS Technology Two Drivers and Two Receivers 30-V Input Levels Low Supply Current . . . 8 mA Typical Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V.28

8.2.2 APPLICATIONS:
TIA/EIA-232-F Battery-Powered Systems Terminals Modems Computers ESD Protection Exceeds 2000 V Per MIL-STD-883, Method 3015 Package Options Include Plastic Small-Outline (D, DW) Packages and Standard Plastic (N) DIPs

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Absolute maximum ratings Input supply voltage range, VCC : 0.3 V to 6 V Positive output supply voltage range: VS+ VCC 0.3 V to 15 V Negative output supply voltage range: VS0.3 V to 15 V Input voltage range, VI: Driver:0.3 V to VCC + 0.3 V Receiver: 30 V Output voltage range, VO: T1OUT, T2OUT VS 0.3 V to VS+ + 0.3 V R1OUT, R2OUT : 0.3 V to VCC + 0.3 V Short-circuit duration: T1OUT, T2OUT: Unlimited Package thermal impedance, D package :113C/W DW package : 105C/W N package : 78C/W Storage temperature range, Tstg : 65C to 150C Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds: 260C Stresses beyond those listed under absolute maximum ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. NOTE 1: All voltage values are with respect to network ground terminal.2. The package thermal impedance is calculated in accordance with JESD 51, except for through-hole packages, which use a trace length of zero description

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8.2.3. MAX 232 Interfacing with RS232 and 89C51 microcontroller:


The MAX232 device is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V and a typical hysterics of 0.5 V, and can accept 30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. The driver, receiver, and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas.

Bluetooth Modem
TECHNOLOGY USED BLUETOOTH

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Bluetooth is a specification for a small form-factor, low-cost radio solution providing links between mobile computers, mobile phones and other portable handheld devices, and connectivity to the Internet. It will enable users to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunications devices easily and simply, without the need to buy, carry, or connect cables. It is a wireless technology that operates on an unlicensed radio spectrum. There is no charge for communicating between two Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth is intended to get around the problems that come with both infrared and cable synchronizing systems. The hardware vendors, which include Siemens, Intel, Toshiba, Motorala and Ericsson, have developed a specification for a very small Bluetooth: 1. Its wireless. When you travel, you dont have to worry about keeping track of a radio module to be built into computer, telephone and entertainment equipment. From the users point of view, there are three important features to

briefcase full of cables to attach all of your components, and you can design your office without wondering where all the wires will go. 2. Its inexpensive. 3. You dont have to think about it. Bluetooth doesnt require you to do anything special to make it work. The devices find one another and strike up a conversation without any user input at all. It is a wireless protocol that is used to communicate from one device to another in a small area usually less than 30 feet. Bluetooth communicates on a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz, which has been set aside by international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific and medical devices (ISM). Bluetooths founding members include Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba.

Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become so simple to use that they seamlessly integrate into your daily life. A simple example of a Bluetooth application is updating the phone directory of your mobile phone. Today, you would have to either manually enter the names and phone numbers of all your contacts or use a cable or IR link between your phone and your PC and start an application to synchronize the contact

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information.

With Bluetooth, this could all happen automatically and without any user

involvement as soon as the phone comes within range of the PC! Of course, you can easily see this expanding to include your calendar, to do list, memos, email, etc. This is just one of many exciting applications for this new technology! Can you imagine walking into a store and having all the sale items automatically available on your cell phone or PDA? It is a definite possibility with Bluetooth.

System Architecture
Bluetooth communication occurs in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHz. This is an unlicensed band and, in most countries, includes the frequency range from 2400 to 2483.5 MHz. of course, as always when dealing with international standards, there are a few exceptions. The primary geographies with exceptions are France (2446.5 to 2483.5 MHz) and Spain (2445 to 2475 MHz). The transceiver utilizes frequency hopping to reduce interference and fading. A typical Bluetooth device has a range of about 10 meters. The communication channel can support both data (asynchronous) and voice (synchronous) communications with a total bandwidth of 1 Mb/sec.

The supported channel configurations are as follows: Max. Data Rate Upstream Max. Data Rate Downstream

Configuration

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3 Simultaneous Voice Channels Symmetric Data Asymmetric Data

64 kb/sec X3 channels 433.9 kb/sec 723.2 kb/sec or 57.6 kb/sec

64 kb/sec X3 channels 433,9 kb/sec 57.6 kb/sec or 723.2 kb/sec

The synchronous voice channels are provided using circuit switching with a slot reservation at fixed intervals. A synchronous link is referred to as an SCO (synchronous connection-oriented) link. The asynchronous data channels are provided using packet switching utilizing a polling access scheme. An asynchronous link is referred to as an ACL (asynchronous connection-less) link. A combined data-voice SCO packet is also defined. This can provide 64 kb/sec voice and 64 kb/sec data in each direction. Bluetooth devices can interact with one or more other Bluetooth devices in several different ways. The simplest scheme is when only two devices are involved. This is referred to as point-to-point. One of the devices acts as the master and the other as a slave. This ad-hoc network is referred to as a piconet.

Bluetooth Modem - BlueSMiRF Gold


sku: WRL-00582 Description: The BlueSMiRF is the latest Bluetooth wireless serial cable replacement from SparkFun Electronics! These modems work as a serial (RX/TX) pipe. Any serial stream from 9600 to 115200bps can be passed seamlessly from your computer to your target. We've tested these units successfully over open air at 350ft (106m)!

The remote unit can be powered from 3.3V up to 6V for easy battery attachment. All signal pins on the remote unit are 3V-6V tolerant. No level shifting is required. Do not attach this device directly to a serial port. You will need an RS232 to TTL converter circuit if you need to attach this to a computer.

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Specifications:

FCC Approved Class 1 Bluetooth Radio Modem Extremely small radio - 0.15x0.6x1.9" Very robust link both in integrity and transmission distance (100m) - no more buffer overruns! Low power consumption : 25mA avg Hardy frequency hopping scheme - operates in harsh RF environments like WiFi, 802.11g, and Zigbee Encrypted connection Frequency: 2.4~2.524 GHz Operating Voltage: 3.3V-6V Serial communications: 2400-115200bps Operating Temperature: -40 ~ +70C

Serial Bluetooth Module:


This module enables you to wireless transmit & receive serial data. It is a drop in replacement for wired serial connections allowing transparent two way data

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communication. You can simply use it for serial port replacement to establish connection between MCU or embedded project and PC for data transfer.

Features
3.3V power operation UART interface 10 meters range Easy to use Minimum External Components Status LEDs

Applications
Wireless Telemetry Remote Data Logging Robotics Sensor Monitoring Remote Programming

GSM modem (900/1800 MHz):

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SEMENS GSM/GPRS SMART MODEM IS A MULTI-FUNCTIONAL, READY TO USE, RUGGED UNIT THAT CAN
BE EMBEDDED OR PLUGGED INTO ANY APPLICATION . TO VARIOUS LEVELS BY USING THE STANDARD

THE

SMART MODEM CAN BE CONTROLLED AND CUSTOMIZED

AT

COMMANDS.

THE

MODEM IS FULLY TYPE-APPROVED, IT CAN

SPEED UP THE OPERATIONAL TIME WITH FULL RANGE OF VOICE, DATA, FAX AND SHORT MESSAGES (POINT TO POINT AND CELL BROADCAST), THE MODEM ALSO SUPPORTS

GPRS (CLASS 2*) FOR SPONTANEOUS DATA TRANSFER.

LED Status Indicator The LED will indicate different status of the modem: OFF ON Flashing Slowly Flashing rapidly Modem Switched off Modem is connecting to the network Modem is in idle mode Modem is in transmission/communication (GSM only)

2.1.1 History of GSM


DURING
GROWTH IN THE EARLY

1980S,

ANALOG CELLULAR TELEPHONE SYSTEMS WERE EXPERIENCING RAPID

EUROPE,

PARTICULARLY IN

SCANDINAVIA

AND THE

UNITED KINGDOM,

BUT ALSO IN

FRANCE

AND

GERMANY. EACH

COUNTRY DEVELOPED ITS OWN SYSTEM, WHICH WAS INCOMPATIBLE WITH EVERYONE ELSE'S IN

EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION.

THIS

WAS AN UNDESIRABLE SITUATION, BECAUSE NOT ONLY WAS THE MOBILE

EQUIPMENT LIMITED TO OPERATION WITHIN NATIONAL BOUNDARIES, WHICH IN A UNIFIED

EUROPE

WERE

INCREASINGLY UNIMPORTANT, BUT THERE WAS ALSO A VERY LIMITED MARKET FOR EACH TYPE OF EQUIPMENT, SO ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND THE SUBSEQUENT SAVINGS COULD NOT BE REALIZED.

The Europeans realized this early on, and in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Group Special Mobile (GSM) to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system. The proposed system had to meet certain criteria: Good subjective speech quality Low terminal and service cost

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Support for international roaming Ability to support handheld terminals Support for range of new services and facilities Spectral efficiency ISDN compatibility In 1989, GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunication

Standards Institute (ETSI), and phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990. Commercial service was started in mid-1991, and by 1993 there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries. Although standardized in Europe, GSM is not only a European standard. Over 200 GSM networks (including DCS1800 and PCS1900) are operational in 110 countries around the world. In the beginning of 1994, there were 1.3 million subscribers worldwide, which had grown to more than 55 million by October 1997. With North America making a delayed entry into the GSM field with a derivative of GSM called PCS1900, GSM systems exist on every continent, and the acronym GSM now aptly stands for Global System for Mobile communications. The developers of GSM chose an unproven (at the time) digital system, as opposed to the then-standard analog cellular systems like AMPS in the United States and TACS in the United Kingdom. They had faith that advancements in compression algorithms and digital signal processors would allow the fulfillment of the original criteria and the continual improvement of the system in terms of quality and cost. The over 8000 pages of GSM recommendations try to allow flexibility and competitive innovation among suppliers, but provide enough standardization to guarantee proper inter-working between the components of the system. This is done by providing functional and interface descriptions for each of the functional entities defined in the system.

2.1.2 Services provided by GSM


From the beginning, the planners of GSM wanted ISDN compatibility in terms of the services offered and the control signalling used. However, radio transmission limitations, in

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terms of bandwidth and cost, do not allow the standard ISDN B-channel bit rate of 64 kbps to be practically achieved. Using the ITU-T definitions, telecommunication services can be divided into bearer services, teleservices, and supplementary services. The most basic teleservice supported by GSM is telephony. As with all other communications, speech is digitally encoded and transmitted through the GSM network as a digital stream. There is also an emergency service, where the nearest emergency-service provider is notified by dialing three digits (similar to 911). A variety of data services is offered. GSM users can send and receive data, at rates up to 9600 bps, to users on POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), ISDN, Packet Switched Public Data Networks, and Circuit Switched Public Data Networks using a variety of access methods and protocols, such as X.25 or X.32. Since GSM is a digital network, a modem is not required between the user and GSM network, although an audio modem is required inside the GSM network to interwork with POTS. Other data services include Group 3 facsimile, as described in ITU-T recommendation T.30, which is supported by use of an appropriate fax adaptor. A unique feature of GSM, not found in older analog systems, is the Short Message Service (SMS). Short Message Service (SMS) Short Message Service (SMS) is popular among mobile phone users as a cheap and convenient method of communicating. Therefore, SMS technology is a common feature with all mobile network service providers. They provide many information and services via SMS such as latest news updates, stock information, and various entertaining applications stuffs. Some common examples are

1. Send and receive confidential information of bank accounts, 2. Enhance security in households and vehicles, 3. Monitoring physical quantities remotely,

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4. Transfer data between remote locations, 5. Alerting method, and 6. Information distributing system and many more... In order to use SMS for various applications it is necessary to understand their data communication methods and protocols since several unnecessary information needed to be filtered out. Filtering and manipulating hardware assistance is very important and this could be performed using a microcontroller. Since the use of SMS technology is a cheap, convenient and flexible way of conveying data, researchers are trying to apply this technology in many different areas that were not provided by service providers at present. One of such areas that the SMS technology could be used as a cost effective and more flexible way will be remote monitoring and controlling. SMS is a bidirectional service for short alphanumeric (up to 160 bytes) messages. Messages are transported in a store-and-forward fashion. For point-to-point SMS, a message can be sent to another subscriber to the service, and an acknowledgement of receipt is provided to the sender. SMS can also be used in a cell-broadcast mode, for sending messages such as traffic updates or news updates. Messages can also be stored in the SIM card for later retrieval. Supplementary services are provided on top of tele-services or bearer services. In the current (Phase I) specifications, they include several forms of call forward (such as call forwarding when the mobile subscriber is unreachable by the network), and call barring of outgoing or incoming calls, for example when roaming in another country. Many additional supplementary services will be provided in the Phase 2 specifications, such as caller identification, call waiting, multi-party conversations.

2.1.3 AT Commands Used:


SIM Insertion, SIM Removal

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SIM card Insertion and Removal procedures are supported. There are software functions relying on positive reading of the hardware SIM detect pin. This pin state (open/closed) is permanently monitored. When the SIM detect pin indicates that a card is present in the SIM connector, the product tries to set up a logical SIM session. The logical SIM session will be set up or not depending on whether the detected card is a SIM Card or not. The AT+CPIN? Command delivers the following responses: If the SIM detect pin indicates absent, the response to AT+CPIN? is +CME ERROR If the SIM detect pin indicates present, and the inserted Card is a SIM Card, the If the SIM detect pin indicates present, and the inserted Card is not a SIM Card, the

10 (SIM not inserted). response to AT+CPIN? is +CPIN: xxx depending on SIM PIN state. response to AT+CPIN? is CME ERROR 10. These last two states are not given immediately due to background initialization. Between the hardware SIM detect pin indicating present and the previous results the AT+CPIN? sends +CME ERROR: 515 (Please wait, init in progress). When the SIM detect pin indicates card absence, and if a SIM Card was previously inserted, an IMSI detach procedure is performed, all user data is removed from the product (Phonebooks, SMS etc.). The product then switches to emergency mode.

Keil Compiler:

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Keil compiler is software used where the machine language code is written and compiled. After compilation, the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped into the microcontroller for further processing. Keil compiler also supports C language code.

Fig Compilation of source Code

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Fig Run the compiled program

Proload: Proload is software which accepts only hex files. Once the machine code is converted into hex code, that hex code has to be dumped into the microcontroller and this is done by the Proload. Proload is a programmer which itself contains a microcontroller in it other than the one which is to be programmed. This microcontroller has a program in it written in such a way that it accepts the hex file from the Keil compiler and dumps this hex file into the microcontroller which is to be programmed. As the Proload programmer kit requires power supply to be operated, this power supply is given from the power supply circuit designed above. It should be noted that this programmer kit contains a power supply section in the board itself but in order to switch on that power supply, a source is required. Thus this is accomplished from the power supply board with an output of 12volts.

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Fig Atmel AT89C2051 Device programmer Features


Supports major Atmel 89 series devices Auto Identify connected hardware and devices Error checking and verification in-built Lock of programs in chip supported to prevent program copying 20 and 40 pin ZIF socket on-board Auto Erase before writing and Auto Verify after writing Informative status bar and access to latest programmed file Simple and Easy to use Works on 57600 speed

Description It is simple to use and low cost, yet powerful flash microcontroller programmer for the Atmel 89 series. It will Program, Read and Verify Code Data, Write Lock Bits, Erase and Blank Check. All fuse and lock bits are programmable. This programmer has intelligent onboard firmware and connects to the serial port. It can be used with any type of computer and requires no special hardware. All that is needed is a serial communication ports which all computers have. All devices have signature bytes that the programmer reads to automatically identify the chip. No need to select the device type, just plug it in and go! All devices also have a number of lock bits to provide various levels of software and programming protection. These lock bits are fully programmable using this programmer. Lock bits are useful to protect the program to be read back from microcontroller only allowing erase to reprogram the microcontroller.

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The programmer connects to a host computer using a standard RS232 serial port. All the programming 'intelligence' is built into the programmer so you do not need any special hardware to run it. Programmer comes with window based software for easy programming of the devices.

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Programming Software Computer side software called 'Proload V4.1' is executed that accepts the Intel HEX format file generated from compiler to be sent to target microcontroller. It auto detects the hardware connected to the serial port. It also auto detects the chip inserted and bytes used. Software is developed in Delphi 7 and requires no overhead of any external DLL.

Fig Writing the programs bytes onto the microcontroller

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RESULTS AND CONCLUSION


Results Assemble the circuit on the PCB as shown in Fig 5.1. After assembling the circuit on the PCB, check it for proper connections before switching on the power supply.
Conclusion The implementation of Heartbeat Monitoring System using GSM is done successfully. The communication is properly done without any interference between different modules in the design. Design is done to meet all the specifications and requirements. Software tools like Keil Uvision Simulator, Proload to dump the source code into the microcontroller, Orcad Lite for the schematic diagram have been used to develop the software code before realizing the hardware.

The performance of the system is more efficient. Continuously reading the output from the sensors and pass the data to the doctors mobile whenever the read values exceed the normal values or whenever the doctor sends a request to the controlling unit is the main job carried out by the microcontroller. The mechanism is controlled by the microcontroller.
Circuit is implemented in Orcad and implemented on the microcontroller board. The performance has been verified both in software simulator and hardware design. The total circuit is completely verified functionally and is following the application software.

It can be concluded that the design implemented in the present work provide portability, flexibility and the data transmission is also done with low power consumption.

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FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
In spite of the improvement of communication link and despite all progress in advanced communication technologies , There is still very few functioning commercial Wireless Monitoring Systems, which are most off-line, and there are still a number of issues to deal with. Therefore, there is a strong need for investigating the possibility of design and implementation of an interactive real-time wireless communication system. In our project, a generic real-time wireless communication system was designed and developed for short and long term remote patient-monitoring applying wireless protocol.

Advantages:
1. This system gives very accurate heart beat rate than the existing equipment. 2. Efficient and low cost design. 3. Low power consumption. 4. Easy to install the system. 5. Fast response.
6. All the parameters can be viewed on the mobile phone. 7. Most reliable. 8. Cost effective. 9. Supports innumerable sensors to the system.

Disadvantages:
1. Distance is limited. 2. Interfacing heart beat sensor to the Micro Controller is sensitive.

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Applications:
1. Old age people Heart Rate remote monitoring continuously.

2. Central diagnostic system implementation in hospitals.


3. Consistent health monitoring for personal health care without any cable contact interface.

4. More useful telemedicine.

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REFRENCES AND BIBLOGRAPHY


Muhammad Ali Mazidi , Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Rolin D. Mckinlay. Second edition, THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEM K. J. Ayala. Third edition, The 8051 MICROCONTROLLER General information about electronic voting machine www.eci.gov.in www.eci.gov.in/faq/evm.asp www.eci.gov.in/Audio_VideoClips/presentation/EVM.ppt www.rajasthan.net/election/guide/evm.htm www.indian-elections.com/electoralsystem/electricvotingmachine.html Tutorial on microcontroller: www.8051projects.net/microcontroller_tutorials/ Tutorial on LCD: www.8051projects.net/lcd-interfacing/