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Mathematics KFP00105

Topic 1 : Number System


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TOPIC : 1.0 NUMBER SYSTEM
SUBTOPIC : 1.1 Real Numbers
LEARNING : At the end of the lesson, students should be able to
OUTCOMES
(a) Define and understand natural numbers, whole numbers, integers,
prime numbers, rational numbers and irrational numbers.
(b) Represent rational and irrational numbers in decimal form,
(c) represent the relationship of number sets in a real numbers
diagrammatically showing N W Z Q and Q Q = ,
where N, W , Z , Q , Q and R represent the set of natural, whole,
integer, rational and real numbers respectively.
(d) State clearly the properties of real numbers such as closure,
commutative, associative, distributive, identity and inverse under
addition and multiplication.
(e) Understand open, closed and half open interval and their
representations on the number line.
(f) Understand that the end point of and open interval on the number
line are usually represented as empty circles, whereas the end
points of a closed interval are represented by dense circles, .
(g) Simplify union,, and intersection, , of two or more intervals
with the aid of number line.
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Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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CONTENT
The most fundamental collection or set of numbers is the set of counting numbers or natural
numbers and denoted by N. Mathematically, this can be written
N = {1, 2, 3 }
Natural numbers include prime. Prime numbers are the natural numbers that are greater than 1
and only can be divided by itself and 1.
Prime number = {2, 3, 5, 7 }
The natural numbers, together with the number 0 are called the whole numbers. The set of the
whole number is written as follow: W = {0, 1, 2, 3 }.
The whole numbers together with the negative of counting numbers form the set of integers and
denoted by Z.
Z = {, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 } or Z = Z
-
{0} Z
+
.
The set of positive integers is denoted by Z
+
= {1, 2, 3 } and the set of negative integers is
denoted by Z
-
= {, -3, -2, -1}.
Furthermore the elements in Z can be classified as even and odd numbers where
set of even numbers = {2k, k Z}
set of odd numbers = {2k + 1, k Z}
A rational number is any number that can be represented as a ratio (quotient) of two integers
and can be written as Q=
; , , 0
a
a b Z b
b


' ;

. Rational number can be expressed as terminating
or repeating decimals. Irrational number is the set of numbers whose decimal representations are
neither terminating nor repeating and cannot be expressed as a quotient.
Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers

3
1
= 0.333

11
4
= 0.363636

4
1
= 0.25

2
= 1.41421356
= 3.14159265
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Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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Real number ( )
The real number consists of rational numbers and irrational numbers.
Relationship of Number Sets
R
Q Q
Z
W
N
From the diagram, we can see that: 1. N W Z Q 2. Q Q =
Example
For the set of {-5, -3, -1, 0, 3, 8}, identify the set of
(a) natural numbers (b) whole numbers (c) prime numbers
(d) even numbers (e) negative integers (f) odd numbers
Solution
(a) N = {3, 8} (b) W = {0, 3, 8}
(c) Prime numbers = {3} (d) Even numbers = {0, 8}
(e) Z
-
= {-5, -3} (f) Odd numbers = {-5, -3, 3}
Example
Given S = {-9, 7 ,
3
1
,
2
, 0, 4, 5.1212}, identify the set of
(a) natural numbers (b) whole numbers (c) integers
(d) rational numbers (e) irrational numbers (f) real numbers
Solution
(a) N = {4}
(b) W = {0, 4}
(c) Z = {-9, 0, 4}
(d) Q = {-9, 0, 4,
3
1
, 5.1212}
(e) Q = { 7 ,
2
}
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Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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(f) R = {-9, 7 ,
3
1
,
2
, 0, 4, 5.1212}
Example
Express each of this number as a quotient
b
a

(a) 1.555 (b) 5.45959
Solution
(a) Let x = 1.555 (1)
(1) 10 10x = 15.555 (2)
therefore, (2) (1), 9x = 14
x =
9
14
(b) Let x = 5.45959 = 5.4
59
(1)
(1) 10 10x = 54.5959 (2)
(1) 1000 1000x = 5459.59 (3)
therefore, (3) (2), 990x = 5405
x =
990
5405
=
198
1081
Algebraic Operation on Real Numbers
For all a, b, c and d R
Properties of Real Numbers Addition Multiplication
1. Closure
a + b = c , c R
6 + 7 = 13 R
ab = d , d R
6 7 = 42 R
2. Commutative
a + b = b + a
2 + 5 = 5 + 2
ab = ba
2 5 = 5 2
3. Associative
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
(1 + 3) + 2 = 1 + (3 + 2)
(ab)c = a(bc)
(4 3) 2 = 4 (3 2)
4. Distributive
a(b + c) = ab + ac
4 (2 + 3) = 4 2 + 4 3
5. Identity
a + 0 = 0 + a = a
5 + 0 = 0 + 5 = 5
a 1 = 1 a = a
3 1 = 1 3 = 3
6. Inverse a + (a) = 0 = (a) + a
7 + (7) = 0 = (7) + 7
a
a
1
= 1 =
a
1
a
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Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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5
5
1
= 1 =
5
1
5
Example
Write down the type of properties for this statement
(a) 3 + 4x = 4x + 3
(b) x (y + z) = xy + xz
(c) 3ab + 0 = 3ab
(d) 2 (3n) = (2(3))n
Solution
(a) 3 + 4x = 4x + 3 Commutative
(b) x (y + z) = xy + xz Distributive
(c) 3ab + 0 = 3ab Identity for Addition Operation
(d) 2 (3n) = (2(3)) n Associative for Muptiply Operation
Example
Given a, b R, ab = 1. Prove that a =
b
1
.
Solution
Given ab = 1
(ab)
,
_

b
1
= 1
,
_

b
1
a
,
_

b
b
1
=
b
1
(associative and identity)
a 1 =
b
1
(Inverse)
a =
b
1
(identity)
Number Line
The set of numbers that corresponds to all point on number lines is called the set of real
number. The real numbers on the number line are ordered in increasing magnitude from the left
to the right
For example for 3.5,
3
2
and can be shown on a real number line as
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

5
4
3 2 1 0
1 2 3 4
Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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Symbol Description Example
a = b
a < b
a > b
a equal to b
a less than b
a greater than b
3 = 3
4 < 4
5 > 0
Note: The symbols < or > are called inequality sign
All sets of real numbers between a and b, where a < b can be written in the form of intervals as
shown in the following table.
Type of Interval Notation Inequalities Representation on the number line
Closed interval [a, b] a x b
Open interval (a, b) a < x < b
Half-open interval (a, b] a < x b
Half-open interval [a, b) a x < b
Open interval (, b) < x < b
Half-open interval (, b] < x b
Open interval (a, ) a < x <
Half- open interval [a, ) a x <
Note :
The symbol is not a numerical. When we write [a, ), we are simply referring to the interval
starting at a and continuing indefinitely to the right.
Example
List the number described and graph the numbers on a number line.
(a) The whole number less than 4
(b) The integer between 3 and 9
(c) The integers greater than -3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

6
3.5
a b
a b
a b
a b
a
b
a
b
3
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Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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Solution
(a) W = {0 , 1, 2 , 3}
(b) Z = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
(c) Z ={-2, -1, 0 }
Example
Represent the following interval on the real number line and state the type of the interval.
(a) [-1, 4] (b) {x : 2 < x < 5}
(c) [2, ) (d) {x : x 0, x R}
Solution
(a) closed interval
(b) open interval
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

7
-1 4
2 5
Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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(c) half-open interval
(d) half-open interval
INTERSECTION AND UNION
Intersection and union operation can be performed on intervals.
For example,
A = [1 , 6) and B = (2, 4),
Intersection of set A and set B is a half-open interval [1,4).
The union of set A and set B is given by A B = (2, 6) is an opened interval.
All these can be shown on a number line given below:
A B
A B
2 1 4 6
Example
Solve the following using the number line
(a) [0, 5) (4, 7) (b) (, 5) (1, 9)
(c) (, 0] [0, ) (d) (4, 2) (0, 4] [2, 2)
Solution
(a)
0 4 5 7
[0, 5) (4, 7) = [0, 7)
(b)
1 5 9
(, 5) (1, 9) = (1, 5)
8
2
0
B
A
Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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(c)
0
(, 0] [0, ) = (, ) = R
(d) Consider (4, 2) (0, 4]
4 0 2 4
(4, 2) (0, 4] = (4, 4]
Thus, ((4, 2) (0, 4]) [2, 2) = (4, 4] [2, 2)
So by using number line,
4 2 2 4
(4, 4] [2, 2) = [2, 2)
Example
Given A = {x : -2 < x 5} and B = {x : 0 < x 7}. Show that A B = (0, 5].
Solution
2 0 5 7
(2, 5] (0, 7] = (0, 5]
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Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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Exercise
1. Given {-7, - 3 , 0,
5
1
,
2

,
4
, 0.16, 0.8181}. List the numbers for
(a) N (b) Z (c) Q (d) R (e) Q
Ans : (a) none
(b) {-7, 0,
4
}
(c) {-7, 0,
5
1
,
4
, 0.16, 0.8181}
(d) {-7, - 3 ,
4
, 0,
5
1
,
2

, 0.16, 0.8181}
(e) {- 3 ,
2

}
2. Express each of there numbers as a quotient
b
a

(a) 0.444 (b) 0.5353 (c) 1.777
Ans : (a)
9
4
(b)
99
53
(c)
9
17
3. Write down the properties of the real numbers that are used to prove the statement below
(a) x (x + z) = xy + xz
= yx + zx
= (y + z) x
(b) (-3) + (b + 3) = (-3) + (3 + b)
= (-3 + 3) + b
= 0 + b
= b
Ans : (a) distributive, commutative, distributive
(b) commutative, associative, inverse,
identity
4. Represent these intervals on a number line.
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Mathematics KFP00105
Topic 1 : Number System
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(a) [2, 5] (b) (4, 5]
(c) (8, 8) (d) [2, )

5. Write down the following solution set in an interval notation.
(a) {x : x 6} (b) {x : 3 x < 6}
(c) {x : 5 < x 5} (d) {x : 0 x 4}
(e) {x : x 8} {x : x 13} (f) {x : x 4}
6. Given A = [2, 5], B = (3, 5], C = (7, 7) and D = [3, ). Find
(a) A B (b) A B
(c) A C D (d) C D A
Answer
1. (a)
2 5
(b)
-4 5
(c)
-8 8
(d)
-2
2. (a) [6, )
(b) [-3, 6)
(c) (-5, 5]
(d) [0, 4]
(e) (, 8][12, ); half- open interval
(f) (-, 4] ; half-open interval
3. (a) [2, 5]
(b) (-3, 5]
(c) [2, 5]
(d) [2, 5]
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