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Draft Edition 2011

Airside Driver Training and Airside Driver Training and Vehicle Licensing Handbook Vehicle Licensing Handbook
Author: ACI Asia-Pacific Regional Operational Safety Committee Author: ACI Asia-Pacific Regional Operational Safety Committee

Foreword
Safety is of paramount importance to the aviation industry and sharing best practices is one of the key priorities for ACI. With this in mind, the ACI Asia-Pacific Regional Operational Safety Committee decided at its inaugural meeting in May 2008 that it should develop handbooks and guidance materials to assist airports in promoting safety. The training of airside drivers and the proper control and licensing of airside vehicle was one of the key issues in airside safety identified by the Committee at the meeting. This handbook is developed from a chapter of the ACI Airside Safety Handbook, a document providing guidance on airside safety in general, and is aimed at providing airports with more guidance on training drivers to reduce airside accidents, often caused by the lack of training and violation of driving rules. ACI hopes that this handbook will serve as a useful guide for anyone who is involved safety of airside operations. ACI is proud to present the first edition of Airside Driver Training and Vehicle Licensing Handbook to all colleagues of the aviation industry. We would like to thank the ACI Asia-Pacific Regional Operational Safety Committee and everyone who has contributed to the drafting and editing of this handbook. These contributions are greatly appreciated.

Photographs by courtesy of;


Airport Authority Hong Kong Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad Narita International Airport Corporation

INTRODUCTION:
The purpose of this document is to provide airports with comprehensive guidelines on the establishment of an airside vehicle driver training and vehicle licensing program to ensure the safe and orderly movement of personnel, passengers, aircraft and vehicular traffic on the airside of airports. Airports are also encouraged to refer to the relevant chapters in the ACI Airside Safety Handbook for more information.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... i Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 GENERAL ......................................................................................................... 1

Purpose.................................................................................................................... 1 Applicability............................................................................................................. 1 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................... 2 AIRSIDE VEHICLE PASS (AVP) ...................................................................... 4

Chapter 2 Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

General..................................................................................................................... 4 Criteria for Issuance of AVP .................................................................................. 4 Application for AVP ................................................................................................ 5 Conditions for Use of AVP ..................................................................................... 5 Exemptions from Use of AVP ................................................................................ 5 Temporary AVP ....................................................................................................... 6 Entry to the Airside................................................................................................. 6 Roadworthiness/ Vehicle Condition...................................................................... 6 AIRSIDE DRIVING PERMIT (ADP)................................................................... 7

Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

General..................................................................................................................... 7 Categories of ADP .................................................................................................. 7 Training Requirements........................................................................................... 8 Written Test ............................................................................................................. 8 Practical Test........................................................................................................... 8 Conditions of Issue and cancellation of ADP .................................................... 10 AIRSIDE DRIVING RULES ............................................................................. 11

Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10

Traffic Control ....................................................................................................... 11 Speed Limits.......................................................................................................... 11 Proximity to Aircraft ............................................................................................. 11 Reckless Driving ................................................................................................... 11 Overtaking other Vehicles.................................................................................... 11 Right-of-Way.......................................................................................................... 12 Guides.................................................................................................................... 12 Towing ................................................................................................................... 12 Aircraft Fuel Service Vehicles ............................................................................. 12 Vehicle Occupants................................................................................................ 13

5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18

Mobile Phones....................................................................................................... 13 Repair and Location of Disabled Vehicles ......................................................... 13 Smoking................................................................................................................. 13 Lighting Requirements......................................................................................... 13 Hazardous Conditions.......................................................................................... 14 Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Control Measures ................................................ 14 Surface Markings .................................................................................................. 14 Fuel Spillage.......................................................................................................... 15 MANEUVERING AREA OPERATIONS......................................................... 16

Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Parking................................................................................................................... 16 Guides.................................................................................................................... 16 Crossing Service Road/Taxiway Intersections .................................................. 16 Driving on Manoeuvring Area.............................................................................. 17 Advisory Area Operations.................................................................................... 18 Radio Procedures ................................................................................................. 19 LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS .................................................................... 22

Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3

General................................................................................................................... 22 Access to Manoeuvering Area............................................................................. 22 Vehicle Operation on/near Apron........................................................................ 22 RUNWAY SAFETY ......................................................................................... 23 GROUND VEHICLE ACCIDENT/INCIDENT................................................... 24

Chapter 8 Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 9.3

General................................................................................................................... 24 Initial Reporting Procedures................................................................................ 24 Accident/Incident Investigation........................................................................... 24

APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................... 25 Appendix 1. Appendix 2. Appendix 3. Specimen of Airside Driving Permit Written Test................................ 25 Specimen of Evaluation Checklist for Practical Test.......................... 36 Specimen of Application Form for ADP ............................................... 38

Appendix 4. Specimen of Accident/Incident Involving Injury or Property Damage Report Form ...................................................................................................... 39 Appendix 5. Appendix 6. Specimen of Infringement Notice ......................................................... 40 Specimen of Airside Vehicle Inspection Report.................................. 41

Chapter 1 1.1

GENERAL

Purpose

In general, the aerodrome license holder has the responsibility of including as part of its regulatory suite of documents, particulars for the management and control of surface vehicles operating on the airside of the aerodrome. The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidance on what particulars should be provided based on the best practices adopted in ACI member airports. These include, but are not limited to, the implementation of an airside vehicle driving training and certification program and an airside vehicle licensing and management program. Such programs would minimize the risk of accidents and injury to persons and damage to aircraft and property, arising from the use of vehicles in airside areas. 1.2 Applicability

In general, the airport operator has the overall responsibility for managing the operation of ground vehicles on the airside, in compliance with the requirements of the civil aviation regulator. The airport operator needs to publish comprehensive rules governing the access and operation of vehicles and mobile equipment in the airside areas. Airlines, ground handlers, contractors and their employees that are required to operate vehicles on the airside are in turn responsible for compliance with the regulations. The airport operator is responsible for the dissemination of these rules and amendments to these rules to all users.

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Chapter 2

DEFINITIONS

Words not specifically defined herein which relate to aeronautical practices, processes and equipment should be construed according to their general usage in the aviation industry. Accident An occurrence associated with the operation or handling of an aircraft in which a person is fatally or seriously injured, or the aircraft sustains damage (adapted from ICAO Annex 13). Aircraft A machine or device, such as an airplane, or helicopter that is capable of atmospheric flight or used or intended to be used for flight in the air. Air Traffic Control (ATC) The service provided by ground based controllers to maintain the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic. Airport User Refers to an airline, contractor, tenant or concessionaire using the Airport facilities. Airside - The sub-system of the airport that provides the means for the operations and maintenance of the aircraft. It includes such facilities as the runways, taxiways, bays, aprons, aircraft holding areas, aircraft servicing and maintenance areas, cargo area, and the service roads. Airside or Ground Vehicle All vehicles used on the ground to transport persons, cargo, fuel, or equipment. Airside Drivers Permit (ADP) The license issued by the airport to an adequately trained and qualified person authorized to operate a ground vehicle at the airside within the security perimeter of the Airport. Airside Vehicle Pass (AVP) - The permit issued by the airport allowing the operation of a ground motorized vehicle at the airside. Apron or Ramp That part of the airport that is not part of the maneuvering area, and is intended to accommodate the loading and unloading of passengers or cargo, and refueling, servicing, maintenance and parking of aircraft. Apron Stand That part of an apron where the aircraft parks to load and unload passengers or cargo. Equipment Any mobile device, self-propelled or towed, used for aircraft maintenance or servicing, and airfield maintenance or safety. Foreign Object Debris or Damage (FOD) Also known as litter, trash, rubbish, or the actual debris found on runways, taxiways, and aprons that can cause damage to aircraft engines and tires. Incident An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation or handling of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation (adapted from ICAO Annex 13). Incursion Unauthorized entry into or movement within the manoeuvring area. Intersection That point at the airside where a runway, taxiway, or service road meets or crosses another runway, taxiway, or service road. Light Signal - A light used by ATC in the event of a communications failure. Low Visibility Operations The operations conducted under conditions of restricted visibility that require special procedures to ensure safety.

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Manoeuvering Area That part of an aerodrome used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons. Markings and Signs The paint markings, traffic signs, guidance signs and lights that are used to guide movement of aircraft and vehicles to ensure safe and efficient movement of the aircraft, vehicles and pedestrians. Movement Area That part of an aerodrome to be used for taking-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron(s) Near Miss Accident/Incident An unplanned or unforeseeable event that could have resulted, but did not result in personal injury, property damage or other form of loss. Non-Movement Area The service roads, hangars and other areas not under the control of ATC. Runway A defined rectangular area on a land at the airport, prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft along its length. Runway Safety Area A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared or suitable for reducing the risk of damage to aircraft in the event of undershoot, or overshoot from the runway. Security Perimeter The portion of the airport that is enclosed by fencing, walls, or other barriers and to which access is controlled through designated entry points by airport security. Serious Incident An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred. (adopted from ICAO document) {which ICAO doc?} Note .- The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result. Service Road or Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Road The designated roadway for airside vehicles and ground support equipment in the non-movement area. Taxiway That part of the manoeuvering area designated for the surface manoeuvering of aircraft to and from the runways and the apron. Threshold The portion of the manoeuvering area that marks the beginning of the usable portion of the runway. Traffic Pedestrians and vehicles, either singly or together, using any airport area. Air Traffic All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvering area of an airport. Vehicle Operator Any person who is in actual physical control of the ground vehicle or equipment, including employees, transient delivery persons, persons being escorted, within the security perimeter of the airport.

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Chapter 3 3.1 General

AIRSIDE VEHICLE PASS (AVP)

Vehicle access to the airside should be controlled by the relevant department of the airport operator, through the issuance of Airside Vehicle Pass (AVP). As far as practical, the AVP should be issued by one department. If more than one department are authorized to issue the AVP, coordination is required. All vehicles authorized to operate within the security perimeter of the airport should: be identified through the AVP that should be prominently displayed on the side of the windshield of the vehicle opposite to the drivers seat while airside; be clearly marked with the company name, logo, a color code or other identifications; be equipped with an operating amber (yellow?) (or in any color specified by the airport authority) rotating/flashing beacon light; be in sound mechanical condition with unobstructed forward, side and rear vision from the drivers seat.

All ground vehicles accessing the airside should be licensed for general highway use, except for specialized airport and aircraft servicing equipment.

AVP must be issued by the airport operator and identifications of a vehicle should be clearly marked on AVP

3.2 Criteria for Issuance of AVP 3.2.1 3.2.2 The basic criterion for the issuance or renewal of an AVP should be the operational need to drive a vehicle on the airside on a frequent and unescorted basis. Additionally, one or more of the following criteria should be met: (i) (ii) the direct involvement of the vehicle in the operations or servicing of aircraft; the direct involvement of the vehicle in the servicing of ground service equipment;

(iii) the direct involvement of the vehicle in the servicing or maintenance of airside facilities, equipment or buildings, and that these areas cannot be reached directly from the landside; (iv) the direct involvement with servicing of other equipment that can only be reached from the airside; (v) requirement for carrying out regulatory or law enforcement activities;

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(vi) the need to facilitate mobility of ramp personnel in the performance of their duties at the airside; (vii) other legitimate purposes agreed by the airport operator. 3.3 Application for AVP 3.3.1 Applications for AVP should be supported with the following: (i) (ii) Certificate of roadworthiness from a competent engineer or relevant authority that states the vehicle is properly maintained and is in good operational condition; Evidence of adequate insurance coverage for the vehicle including an acknowledgement from the insurer that the vehicle is to be used on the airside; and

(iii) Reasons for the need for airside access. 3.4 Conditions for Use of AVP 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 The AVP should have a limited period of validity and the airport operator should have the authority to suspend or revoke it for reasons it deems appropriate. The AVP should be used only for the vehicle for which it was issued. The AVP should serve only to authorize and identify the vehicle but does not confer the right of the vehicle operator or its occupants to entry into the airside. The AVP should be returned to its licensing authority for cancellation in the following cases: (i) (ii) Cessation of the purpose for which it was issued. Change of ownership of the vehicle.

(iii) Permanent withdrawal of the vehicle from airside use. (iv) On demand by the airport operator for reasons such as damage, misuse, involvement in violation of rules and regulations pertinent to airside vehicle driving and operations. 3.4.5 3.4.6 The airport operator should have the right to inspect the vehicle and to audit its maintenance records for purposes of ensuring aerodrome safety. Vehicle users should produce records for vehicles involved in accidents / incidents to the airport operator for inspection.

3.5 Exemptions from Use of AVP 3.5.1 The following types of vehicles may be exempted from requiring an AVP to enter the airside provided they have prior approval from the airport operator and are escorted by an authorized person holding an appropriate ADP : (i) (ii) Police vehicles attending to an emergency. Specialist military vehicles

(iii) Fire and ambulance vehicles attending to an emergency. (iv) Private ambulance on non-emergency duties

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(v) Vehicles involved in VIP movements and special ceremonies 3.6 Temporary AVP The airport operator may issue a temporary AVP for vehicles making an ad hoc delivery or collection of goods and supplies to the premises in the non-movement areas, provided that they are escorted by an authorized vehicle operator holding a valid Airside Drivers Permit (ADP). A temporary AVP is an one-off permit given to a vehicle for a short duration for special purposes. 3.7 Entry to the Airside 3.7.1 For safety and security reasons, the airport operator may need to inspect and/or search a vehicle prior to its entry into the airside of the airport.

Security inspection may need to be conducted before a vehicle enters airside

3.7.2

A vehicle may be refused entry at any time based on, but not limited to any of the following conditions: (i) (ii) Heightened security. Aerodrome emergency.

(iii) Low visibility operations. (iv) Vehicle defect. (v) As otherwise the airport operator may deem appropriate. 3.8 Roadworthiness/ Vehicle Condition 3.8.1 3.8.2 The vehicle user applying for an AVP should be responsible for the safe operation of the vehicle/equipment it uses on the airside and maintaining it in good condition. The vehicle user should provide proof that the vehicle has been properly inspected, maintained and serviced within a reasonable time period prior to the date of application for an AVP and should continue to have it inspected, maintained and serviced by an appropriately qualified engineer throughout the validity of the pass. The vehicle should be equipped with all relevant safety devices as required by the airport operator.

3.8.3

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Chapter 4 4.1 General

AIRSIDE DRIVING PERMIT (ADP)

Any person operating a ground vehicle on the airside of an airport should possess a valid Airside Driving Permit (ADP) issued by the airport operator. The ADP should be appropriate for the area in which the vehicle is operated. All persons who have vehicular access to the airside and a need to be there must have an appropriate level of knowledge of the airside driving rules of the airport. Operators of specialized vehicles or equipment, e.g., hydraulic lifts, trucks, conveyors, tugs, etc. must also hold a certificate issued by their employer or the relevant authority to confirm their competence to operate such vehicles or equipment.

Operators of specialized vehicles must also hold a certificate issued by their employer or the relevant authority to confirm their competence to operate such vehicles or equipment

The airport operator should administer written and airside driving road tests to applicants and certify them prior to issuance of the ADP. The tests should cover airside rules and regulations and knowledge of the airport layout.. The airport operator should have the authority to request that airside vehicle operators produce personal identity documents, e.g., ADP, driving license, airport security pass, company I.D., special equipment qualification certificate, etc. on demand. 4.2 Categories of ADP Airports may consider the following categorization of ADP: (i) (ii) Category 1 ADP valid for service roads only; Category 2 ADP valid for service roads and aprons;

(iii) Category 3 ADP valid for all airside areas.

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Airside Driving Permits may need to be categorized to suit different purposes

4.3 Training Requirements It is the responsibility of the airport users to ensure that their vehicle operators undergo a comprehensive training course and pass a written and or practical test pertaining to airside rules and regulations in order to obtain an ADP. The vehicle operators should be able to demonstrate the ability to operate a vehicle safely and in accordance with established procedures while operating it independently on the airside. The training package may also include the following areas: human factors relating to airside driving emphasis on situational awareness safety awareness driver responsibilities national legislation and regulation aerodrome regulation and requirements aerodrome layout vehicle standards hazards of airside driving emergency procedures local organizations communications aircraft familiarization (knowledge of aircraft types, airline call signs and aircraft terminology) practical training (visual familiarization of airfield, signs, markings, navigational aids and protected area etc.)

4.4 Written Test 4.4.1 4.4.2 The purpose of the written test is to assess the applicants knowledge of important information, procedures, polices, rules and driving regulations on the airside. Appendix 1 is a specimen of written test for reference.

4.5 Practical Test 4.5.1 A practical test, if required, is to assess the applicants ability to apply the airside driving rules of the airport and to operate the vehicle safely and properly.

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4.5.2

For Category 1 ADP applications, the applicant should complete a reasonable period of testing and familiarization on the service road, part of which should be conducted at night, under the supervision of a test officer. The applicant should demonstrate to the test officer the following: (i) (ii) Compliance with speed limits and signage as appropriate, and observance of safe speed limits for existing conditions; Knowledge of parking areas, equipment storage areas, equipment staging areas and their associated markings;

(iii) Giving way to aircraft taxiing or under tow; (iv) Safe vehicle operations in the vicinity of the aircraft; (v) Recognition of aircraft which have anti-collision lights on and their main engines running; (vi) Awareness of the dangers of jet blast and safe distance to pass behind aircraft with their main engines in operation; (vii) Knowledge of relevant airside safety policies such as vehicle occupancy, etc. 4.5.3 In addition to the requirements for Category 1 ADP applicants, Category 2 ADP applicants should demonstrate to the test officer knowledge on the following: (i) (ii) Minimum distance to be maintained from parked or taxiing aircraft; Safety procedures in relation to passengers moving about on aprons, to and from aircraft;

(iii) Correct procedures for crossing live taxiways; (iv) Geographic limits for Category 2 and 3 ADP drivers and recognition of the boundaries of maneuvering areas, by day and night; (v) Significance of apron road pavement markings and adherence to apron roads while driving on aprons. 4.5.4 For Category 3 ADP applications, the applicant should demonstrate to the test officer knowledge of the following in addition to all requirements for Category 1 and 2 ADP applicants: (i) (ii) Significance of manoeuvering area signs to determine physical location on the airfield; Significance of all markings and markers, e.g., taxiway intersection markings, holding points, exit taxiways, runways and all lightings;

(iii) Correct procedures for entering or crossing taxiways, runways and runway strips; (iv) Correct radio procedures and use of standard phraseologies; (v) Use of radio failure procedures and light signals from ATC. 4.5.5 Refresher training and another written test should be administered to vehicle operators who have repeated infractions of driving rules or failed the practical test. The training and test should be modified to address the shortcomings of the vehicle operators.

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4.6 Conditions of Issue and cancellation of ADP 4.6.1 4.6.2 An ADP should be issued for a limited period of validity. The ADP should only be valid while the holder is in possession of a valid driving license of the country. If for whatever reason, an ADP holders national driving license has been revoked or suspended, he or his employer must immediately advise the airport operator so that his ADP will be accordingly revoked or suspended. The airport operator has the right to revoke/suspend the ADP of a vehicle operator who has violated the rules and regulations on airside.

4.6.3

Practical test may be administered to assess the drivers ability to apply the airside driving rules in the actual operating environment

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Chapter 5

AIRSIDE DRIVING RULES

5.1 Traffic Control 5.1.1 Vehicle operators must drive on the service roads only. Vehicles must not be driven onto or across stands, even when no aircraft is present, unless in conjunction with work on the stands such as servicing of the aircraft on the stand itself. Only vehicles or equipment directly involved in servicing of an aircraft, and vehicles that are required to operate within adjacent aircraft stands should use the service road crossing the taxiways. Vehicle operators must obey all posted signage, road markings, traffic signals, and all instructions on the airside. They must heed warnings like Caution Jet Blast, Give Way To Aircraft.

5.1.2

5.1.3

5.2 Speed Limits The following speed limits are for reference only: (may vary according to rules/regulations of individual airport) 30 km/hr on service / perimeter roads 15 km/hr on aprons between aircraft stands 5 km/hr or walking pace at apron within aircraft stands or when reversing

Speed limits may vary according to rules and regulations at the airport concerned.

5.3 Proximity to Aircraft 5.3.1 No vehicle operator should approach, pass, move on or stand in front or behind an aircraft which is moving or when its engines are running, or red anti-collision lights are on. Vehicle operators should always remain at least 3 meters away from any part of an aircraft, unless they are engaged in a task that specifically requires them to operate closer to the aircraft.

5.3.2

5.4 Reckless Driving No vehicle operator shall drive in a careless manner, with a willful or wanton disregard for the safety of other persons or property. 5.5 Overtaking other Vehicles 5.5.1 A vehicle operator may overtake another vehicle on the airside, except at the service road/taxiway intersections, provided: (i) (ii) he conducts it in a safe manner and he does not breach the speed limit or go beyond the double white line markings on the road.; the overtaking maneuver does not force any other vehicle off the airside road.

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5.6 Right-of-Way 5.6.1 Vehicle operators must yield the right-of-way to aircraft in motion, passengers enplaning or deplaning aircraft, pedestrians, emergency vehicles with working devices operating, maintenance equipment in the performance of their duties, vehicles towing aircraft, and aircraft fuelling vehicles, in that order of priority. No vehicle operator should cross or enter vehicle traffic lanes without yielding the rightof-way to vehicles already in these lanes.

5.6.2

5.7 Guides No vehicle operator should reverse any vehicle or equipment with obstructed view, into a building or in critical or congested areas unless a guide is available to assist him.

5.8 Towing 5.8.1 The following are the maximum numbers of dollies or trailers/trolleys (loaded or empty) allowed to be towed on the service road and aprons for airport operators reference: (i) (ii) Pushcart and Container Dollies - 5 units Pallet Dollies - 4 units

(iii) 20 Ft. Dollies - 1 unit 5.8.2 No vehicle operator should tow a baggage or cargo container unless the container is enclosed on all four sides while actually hauling baggage or cargo. All pallet loads must be secured with pallet nets, canvas or plastic wrap. All carts or pieces of equipment being towed must have reflectors or fluorescent tape or luminous paint on both sides and rear.

5.8.3

5.9 Aircraft Fuel Service Vehicles All aircraft refueling vehicles must comply with regulations as required by ICAO and the local civil aviation regulator. Refer to the ACI Airside Safety Handbook for best practices in refueling.

Aircraft Refueling Vehicles

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5.10 Vehicle Occupants 5.10.1 No vehicle operator should allow any passenger to ride in such vehicle or equipment other than those authorized or authorized under escort to enter the airport security perimeter. 5.10.2 No vehicle operator shall transport personnel unless there is a seat for them. Riding in or on any other part of the vehicle or trailer should not be allowed. 5.11 Mobile Phones 5.11.1 No vehicle operator should answer or use, a hand-held phone (mobile) while driving, unless a suitable hands-free device is available. 5.11.2 No mobile phone should be used within 6 meters from fuelling equipment during fuelling activity.

No vehicle operator should use mobile phone in while driving unless a suitable hands-free device is available

5.12 Repair and Location of Disabled Vehicles 5.12.1 No cleaning, repair, maintenance, and/or overhaul of any vehicle or equipment should be carried out in an area not approved by the airport operator except for repairs necessary to transport the vehicle or equipment to a repair facility. 5.12.2 No stalled or disabled vehicle should be left abandoned on the airfield 5.13 Smoking No person should be allowed to smoke on the airside.

5.14 Lighting Requirements

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Vehicle operators must switch on dipped headlights whenever their vehicles are moving during hours of darkness or at low or reduced visibility.

5.15 Hazardous Conditions 5.15.1 Vehicle operators should be reminded of the danger of jet blast, exercising caution and obeying all posted airfield signage warning about jet blast when working near running aircraft engines. 5.15.2 Vehicle operators should also be reminded of exercising extra caution when working on the airfield because it is difficult to hear a warning from another vehicle or persons, due to the background airfield noise or the use of ear protection. Vehicle operators must always look both ways twice and behind before crossing all taxiways and before moving any equipment. 5.15.3 Reduced visibility at night or due to bad weather increases the hazards associated with airfield conditions. Vehicle operators must always exercise extreme caution when driving on the airfield at night and during reduced visibility conditions. 5.16 Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Control Measures 5.16.1 Any foreign object debris or FOD on airside can seriously damage aircraft engines. All airside personnel should be responsible for keeping the movement and non-movement areas clear of FOD by removing any FOD encountered on airside and placing it in specifically marked receptacles. 5.16.2 Vehicle operators should be responsible for making sure that items on their vehicles cannot blow out onto the airfield, subsequently becoming FOD. 5.16.3 To ensure that no object is dropped on the movement area, all doors and shutters on vehicles must be closed while the vehicle is moving in the airside area. All loads and equipment, and all parts of the vehicle must be properly secured before a vehicle enters the movement area. 5.16.4 Vehicle operators should check the wheels and tyres of their vehicles before they enter the airside to make sure they are free of mud and gravel deposits.

5.17 Surface Markings 5.17.1 Vehicle operators should be made aware of the various markings and signs on the movement areas that serve to control both aircraft and the vehicles on the airside. 5.17.2 Recommended designs for apron markings and signs, please refer to the Apron Markings and Signs Handbook published by ACI.

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Vehicle operator should be made aware of signs and markings

5.18 Fuel Spillage 5.18.1 Vehicle operators should report fuel spillage from vehicles being operated immediately to the airport operator and/or the airport fire services department. Hence, necessary clean-up activities can be undertaken promptly. 5.18.2 The operator that caused the spillage must switch off his engine and remain with his equipment until the substance is cleaned up and the area is safe. 5.18.3 Driving through the spillage area should be prohibited.

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Chapter 6

MANOEUVERING AREA OPERATIONS

Vehicle operators who are required to drive on the manoeuvering area require more training and vigilance since there are dangers associated with this area that are not present on nonmovement areas and perimeter roads. In addition to the principles for driving on manoeuvering areas, vehicle operators who have access to the movement area must be conversant with airfield signs, markings, and airfield configurations. Of equal importance is that they should be able to communicate with ATC and be able to follow ATC instructions. Vehicle traffic within manoeuvering areas should be restricted to necessary operational use only.

6.1 Parking 6.1.1 6.1.2 Vehicles or equipment should be parked only in designated parking areas. No vehicle or equipment may be left unattended in the airside with the engine running. No vehicle operator should park a vehicle or equipment in an aircraft parking area or safety area in a manner that obstructs or interferes with operations in the aircraft movement or apron area. No vehicle operator should park, or leave unattended, vehicles or equipment that interfere with the use of a facility by others or prevent movement or passage of aircraft, emergency vehicles, or other vehicles or equipment. No vehicle operator should park a vehicle or equipment within three (3) meters of any fire hydrant.

6.1.3

6.1.4

6.2 Guides 6.2.1 Vehicles may only be driven in reverse gear when it is essential for the task in hand. When this is on an occupied stand, a guide must be positioned outside the vehicle to assist the vehicle operator.

6.3 6.3.1

Crossing Service Road/Taxiway Intersections Taxiing aircraft should always have the right of way. Vehicle operators should yield the right-of-way to an aircraft in motion or any emergency vehicle at the intersections between the service road and the taxiways. Vehicle operators should always stay alert and should not cross taxiways without bringing the vehicle to a complete stop first: (i) (ii) to observe airside traffic in all directions; and to determine if the crossing could be accomplished without being stalled at the intersection.

6.3.2

6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5

Vehicle operators should not attempt to cross a taxiway if that would force another approaching vehicle to stop. Vehicle operators should not cross white double solid centerline markings on service roads to pass/overtake other vehicles at the intersections. Vehicle operators should not drive onto or across apron stands, even when no aircraft is present, unless in connection with servicing of an aircraft. No short cuts should be allowed.

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6.3.6

The vehicle operator should be responsible for determining when to start the taxiway crossing and should be held accountable for failure to adhere to the procedures.

Aircraft should always have the right of way


6.4 Driving on Manoeuvring Area 6.4.1 General Vehicle operators on the manoeuvring area (Runways & Taxiways)require more training and vigilance since there are dangers associated with this area that are not present on non-manoeuvring areas. Vehicle operators driving in manoeuvring areas should observe the following rules in addition to those operating a vehicle in the nonmanoeuvring areas: (i) (ii) The vehicle operator entering the manoeuvring area must first obtain permission and clearance from ATC to enter the manoeuvring area. Vehicle operators on the manoeuvring area must maintain two-way radio communications between their vehicle and ATC and follow ATC directions.

(iii) Any authorized escort vehicle with a two-way radio must maintain communication with ATC to accompany a vehicle without a radio. (iv) Vehicles not equipped with strobes or rotating/flashing amber beacon lights should be prohibited from entering the manoeuvring areas. Such vehicles, if authorized to enter the manoeuvring areas, must be escorted by a vehicle so equipped. (v) Rotating/flashing amber beacon lights must be switched on whenever the vehicle is on the manoeuvring area

Vehicle entering the maneuvering area should be equipped with appropriate equipment

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6.4.2

Safety and Communication Equipment

All vehicles operating on the maneuvering area should be equipped with: (i) a strobe or an rotating amber beacon light visible to the ATC tower (ii) a portable fire extinguisher; and (iii) a VHF radio capable of contacting ATC on the ground frequency and alternate frequency 6.4.3 Runway Hold Short Instructions (i) Whenever ATC issues an instruction to hold short of a runway, the vehicle operator should read back the instruction to ATC to confirm that the instruction was received and understood. Until given the permission to enter the runway, the vehicle should remain behind the yellow taxiway holding line for that runway.

6.5 Advisory Area Operations 6.5.1 Radio Frequencies (i) A radio used for accessing any manoeuvering area must be capable of communicating in the standard ground frequency of the airport. While in the manoeuvering area, the vehicle must continuously monitor the working ATC frequency.

6.5.2

ATC Radio Instructions (i) (ii) Before proceeding into a manoeuvering area, the vehicle operator must contact the ATC for permission to proceed to a specific location. Vehicle operators must only use approved call signs.

(iii) A group of vehicles moving together shall assign one vehicle operator to lead the movement of the group and communicate with ATC. (iv) The vehicle operator should acknowledge all instructions as understood or request that the instructions be repeated if not understood. The vehicle should only proceed to the requested location along the route specified by ATC. (v) When instructed to leave the runway, the vehicle operator should acknowledge the instruction, immediately leave the runway and report to ATC when off the runway and beyond the taxiway holding line or the appropriate distance if not marked. (vi) In all cases, the vehicle operator should report to ATC immediately after leaving the maneuvering area.

6.5.3

Equipment Failure (i) A vehicle operator should immediately inform ATC if his vehicle fails, and request for assistance.

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(ii)

If the radio of a vehicle fails while in a manoeuvring area, the vehicle operator should turn the vehicle to face the tower and flash the headlights on and off, or switch between high and low beams. ATC should respond by flashing the runway lights on and off when it is safe to proceed off the manoeuvring area.

(iii) In the course of leaving the manoeuvring area under runway light signals, the vehicle operator must hold short of each runway encountered and wait for permission to cross the runway with a flash of the runway lights. (iv) If both the radio and the vehicle fail while in the manoeuvring area, the vehicle operator should activate any flashing lights available and stay with the vehicle.

6.6 Radio Procedures


6.6.1 Phonetic Alphabet

The ICAO Phonetic Alphabet, tabled below, should be used in radio communications on the airside.

Letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M

Word Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike

Pronounced AL fah BRAVOH CHAR lee DELL ta ECK ho FOKS trot GOLF hoh TELL Indeeah JEW lee ETT KEY loh LEE mah MIKE

Letter N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Word November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-Ray Yankee Zulu

Pronounced No VEM ber OSS ca Pah PAH keh BECK ROW me oh se AIR rah TANG go YOU nee form VIK tah WISS key ECKS ray YANG kee ZOO loo

Numbers are pronounced as follows: Number 0 1 2 3 4 Pronounced ZERO WUN TOO TREE FOW er Number 5 6 7 8 9 Pronounced FIFE SIKS SEV en AIT NIN er

Each digit, except the thousands, should be pronounced separately. Add the word thousand after the digit to indicate a thousand. Add the word decimal in between digits to indicate a decimal. Number Spoken As

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10 50 100 427 15000 121.9

ONE ZERO FIVE ZERO ONE ZERO ZERO FOUR TWO SEVEN ONE FIVE THOUSAND ONE TWO ONE DECIMAL NINE

6.6.2

Standard Words and Phrases Word or Phrase ACKNOWLEDGE AFFIRMATIVE CONFIRM CORRECTION HOLD SHORT (runway identifier) HOW DO YOU READ? I SAY AGAIN NEGATIVE OUT READ BACK ROGER SAY AGAIN SPEAK SLOWER STANDBY THAT IS CORRECT VERIFY WHAT IS YOUR REQUEST/MESSAGE Meaning Let me know if you have received and understood this message. Yes, or permission granted. My version is . . . is that correct? An error has been made in this transmission (or message indicated). My correct version is . . . Do not cross the runway . (This instruction must be read back to ATC to confirm vehicle operator understanding). Can you hear and understand me? I will now repeat my last word (or sentence) for clarification. No, or permission not granted, or THAT is not correct, or I do not agree. This conversation is ended and no response is expected. (Normally used only under poor communication conditions). Repeat all, or the specified part, or this message back to me exactly as received. I have received all or your last transmission. Repeat all, or the following part, or your last transmission. (Do not use the word repeat). (self-explanatory) Wait and listen. I will call you again. (self-explanatory) Check text with originator and send correct version. (self-explanatory)

6.6.3

Conversing on the Radio

Before calling on a radio, listen out to make sure the frequency is not in use. To establish communication with ATC, the vehicle operator will use the call-up procedure. This is:

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call sign of the station called call sign of the station calling Example Vehicle: [Your Airport] Ground, Safety 01

If there is no response, the vehicle operator should wait a few moments to re-try. An acknowledgment means a transmission has been received and fully understood with a read back of the message to ATC. If the instructions are not fully understood, the vehicle operator should request a repeat of the message. Example Vehicle: [Your Airport] Ground, Safety 01, Roger or [Your Airport] Ground, Safety 01, Say Again

To end any communication, say the call sign of the calling station. Example Vehicle: Safety 01

A radio test should be done when you are unsure of your radios performance. Tests must be short and not interfere with other transmissions. Readability of transmissions will be reported on the following scale: 1 2 3 4 5 (one) (two) (three) (four) (five) Unreadable Readable now and then Readable but with difficulty Readable Perfectly readable Vehicle: [Your Airport] Ground, Safety 01, Radio Check ATC: Safety 01, [Your Airport] Ground, Radio Check or Safety 01,[Your Airport] Ground, Commence Test Count Vehicle: Test Count One, Two, Three, Two, One ATC: Read You Five

Example

During communications with ATC, standard phraseologies should be used to make transmissions more efficient and to avoid misunderstandings. The following are examples of standard radio transmissions. Authorization request and response: Example Vehicle: [Your Airport] Ground, Safety 01 ATC: Safety 01, [Your Airport] Ground Vehicle: Safety 01 on Apron A14, request permission to proceed on Runway 27 via Taxiway Charlie for runway inspection ATC: Safety 01, proceed on Runway 27 via Taxiway Charlie for runway inspection or Safety 01, negative, hold your position Vehicle: Safety 01, Roger

Authorization request and response when accompanying a non-radio equipped vehicle: Example Vehicle: [Your Airport] Ground, Safety 01 escorting one (vehicle type/no.) ATC: Safety 01 escorting one (vehicle type/no.), [Your Airport] Ground Vehicle: Safety 01 escorting one (vehicle type/no.), request permission to proceed on Runway 27 via Taxiway Charlie for

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runway Inspection ATC: Safety 01 escorting one (vehicle type/no.), negative, hold your position Vehicle: Safety 01 escorting one (vehicle type/no.), holding position ATC instructions to hold short of a runway must be read back: Example Vehicle: [Your Airport] Ground, Safety 01 ATC: Safety 01, [Your Airport] Ground Vehicle: Safety 01 on Apron A14, request permission to proceed on Runway 27 via Taxiway Charlie for runway inspection ATC: Safety 01, proceed on taxiway Charlie. Hold short of Runway 27 Vehicle: Safety 01, roger, hold short of Runway 27

Chapter 7 7.1 General

LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS

Low Visibility Operations is a mode of operation declared by ATC, when the prevailing meteorological conditions cause the management of aircraft movement to be severely restricted. During this period, positive traffic management of both aircraft and the vehicles on the manoeuvring area is under the direct control of ATC. All vehicles not directly involved in the servicing of aircraft at that time must: (i) (ii) be positioned in an area approved for that purpose; be positioned in such other area as directed by the airport operator; or

(iii) be removed from the airside, Until such time that the low visibility operations mode is declared ended.

7.2 Access to Manoeuvering Area Only essential vehicles may enter the maneuvering area during low visibility operations. Under declared low visibility conditions, several types of vehicles may be classified as essential and may, under ATC direction, be cleared to enter the maneuvering area, e.g.: (i) (ii) Airport Rescue Fire Fighting vehicles Maintenance and inspection vehicles

(iii) Other emergency vehicles 7.3 Vehicle Operation on/near Apron Aircraft servicing vehicles which need to operate on or near the apron areas during low visibility operations should be under the close supervision of ground handlers.

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Chapter 8

RUNWAY SAFETY

8.1 All drivers who drive in the airside within the vicinity of a runway must exercise extreme caution, as runway incursions represent the most serious threat to airside safety. 8.2 Runway incursions have sometimes led to serious accidents. Since many runway incursion incidents involve vehicles, airside vehicle drivers must be well trained to be aware of the risks of runway incursions and to avoid runway incursions. 8.3 ICAO defines runway incursion as any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft. 8.4 ICAO defines the following types of runway incursions: Severity Classification A B C

Description A serious incident in which a collision is narrowly avoided. An incident in which separation decreases and there is significant potential for collision, which may result in a time-critical corrective/evasive response to avoid a collision. An incident characterized by ample time and/or distance to avoid a collision. An incident that meets the definition of runway incursion such as the incorrect presence of a single vehicle, person or aircraft on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft but with no immediate safety consequences. Insufficient information or inconclusive or conflicting evidence precludes a severity assessment.

8.5 All drivers who drive in the airside within the vicinity of a runway must exercise extreme caution, as runway incursions represent the most serious threat to airside safety.

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Chapter 9 9.1 General

GROUND VEHICLE ACCIDENT/INCIDENT

It is the responsibility of everyone working or operating at an airport to report any circumstances affecting health and safety and to comply with the mandatory requirements for the reporting of accidents or incidents. 9.2 Initial Reporting Procedures 9.2.1 Any person operating a ground vehicle that is involved in an airside accident at an airport that results in injury to a person or damage to an aircraft, airport property, or another vehicle should: (i) (ii) Immediately stop and remain at the scene of the accident to find out what emergency services are required; Render reasonable assistance, if capable, to any person injured in the accident;

(iii) Report the accident immediately to his superior/employer and airport operator who may call the airport police: *Appendix 4 is a specimen of accident/incident report for reference. (iv) Remain at the scene of the accident until a full report has been provided to the investigating officer; (v) Such person should, upon request and if physically able, show to the investigating officer his: Name and Airport Identification Card Airside Vehicle Operators Permit Driving License, Registration papers and other documents relevant to the accident or the persons or property involved that are needed to complete a motor vehicle accident report.

9.2.2

The scene of the accident should be isolated and the vehicles involved in the accident/incident should not be normally moved until the investigating officer is in attendance. However, if in the judgment of the senior person present their removal is necessary in the interest of safety or to affect a rescue, this may be done. The scene should preferably be photographed before being disturbed if possible.

9.3 Accident/Incident Investigation 9.3.1 All accidents and incidents, should be thoroughly investigated to identify the root causes. This is essential to finding solutions to prevent future accidents, incidents and near-misses. For more information on accident/incident investigation, please refer to ACI Airside Safety Handbook. Vehicle operators should report near miss accidents/incidents to the airport operator so that appropriate remedial action can be taken to prevent future accidents. Appendix 5 is an example of a report for such purpose.

9.3.2

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