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Erste

FIRST

LESSON

(ayr' -ste lek-tsiohn')

Neue Worter für diese Lektion

NEW WORDS FOR THlS LESSON

(noi'-!! vor'-t!!r führ

dee'-zl! lek-tsiohn')

spreehenl

(shpre'-ch!!n)

to Break

bitte (bi'-t!!)

picase

 

er spricht

(ayr shpricht)

he speaks

müssen (mü'-si'!n)

must

ich

spreehe (ich

shpre'-ch!!) 1 speak

nicht wahr? (nicht vahr)

isn't

it

so?

ich

m&hte

(ich

moch'ot!!)

1 should like

~"-""~~":;:

 

del Herr (dayr her)

the ~aster,

gentleman,

~ -

~

"

del"' Dampfer

(dayr dam'opf!!r)

Mlster

the

steamer

v

V

die2 Eisenbahn

(dee i'-zi'!n-bahn) the

railroad

~//"f'1\

~

/

das Flugzeug2 (das flook'otsoik)

auf

Wiedersehen

(owf vee'-

d!!r-zayn)

good-bye the airplane

~,

A

J

/.

ernst (ernst)

serious

jetzt (yetst)

now

nach (nahkh) to, alter

heute (hoi'ot!!) today

daDo (dan)

then

oder (oh'-Mr)

or

nicht (nicht)

not

ja (yah)

res

wie (vee)

as, how

 

. nur (noor)

only

nein

(oin)

no

sehon (shoho) already

sehr (zayr)

very

auch (owkh)

also

sehnell (shnel) fast, quick

spat (shpayt)

late

oft (oft)

often

bald (balt)

soon

 

del Lebrer (dayr lay'-ri'!r)

the teacher

gut (goot)

good, well

babeo (hah'-bi'!n)

to have

schleeht (shlecht)

bad, badly

er hat

wo (voh)

(ayr hat)

wohnen (voh'oni'!n)

he has

where

to live,

irnmer (i'-mi'!r)

danke

gern (gern)

always

(dang'ok!!)

thank you

like, gladly

reside

wenig (vay'-nich)

liule

 

er wohnt (ayr vohnt)

he lives

kommen (ko'.mi'!n)

to come

 

gehen (gay'~n)

er geht (ayr gayt)

to go

he goes

er kommt (ayr komt)

Sic sind (zee zint)

he comes

you are

labren

(fah'-ri'!n)

to ride,

er ist (ayr ist)

he is

 

er fiihrt (ayr fayrt)

travel

he lides

del Tag

warum

(dayr tahk)

the dar

(vah-rum')

why

26

- ---

 

flK" r

I:I:IV

,

 

DIE

FAMILIE

 

THE

FAMILY

(dee

fa-mee'-lie)

del Mann (dayr man)

die Frau (dee frow)

 

the man, husband

the woman, wife, Mrs.

del Junge (dayr yung'-e),

the bay

der Knabe (dayr knah'obi'!)

das Madchen3 (das mayt'-chi'!n)

the girl

der Vater (dayr fah'-ti'!r) father

del Sobo (dayr zohn)

son

die Mutter (dee mu'-ti'!r)mother

del

Gatte (dayr ga' -ti'!)

husband

die Eltern (dee i'!l'-ti'!rn) parents

del Onkel

(dayr ong'-ki'!l)

unele

das Kind (das kint) child

 

die

Tante

(dee tan '-ti'!)

aunt

die Tochter (dee tokh'-ti'!r) daughter

del Bruder (dayr broo'-di'!r) brother

die Schwester (dee shve'-sti'!r)

del Vetter (dayr fe'-ti'!r)

sister

cousin (masc.)

t ~

...

-;-t:'

;?"

- ~

~e

(~

~I

~~

die Kusine (dee koo-zee'-ni'!)

 

cousin (tem.)

 

del Grossvater (dayr grohs'-fah-tt!r)

grandfather

'"" !" ..

~

~

,

--

fi1

..

~

.. ¡-

~

die Grossmutter

(dee grohs'-mu-ti'!r) grandmother

 

~

del Verwandte (H!r-van'-tt!)

 

relative

'-'

d'

  • /"1- ;

ó,)

/,'.r ....

Die Nationalitaten4

und

(dee nah-tsioh-nah-lee-tay'-ten

die Spraehen4 uní dee shprah'-khen)

1

11

,

DIE NATIONALITaT(Nationality) DIE SPRACHE(Language)

del Deutsche5 (dayr doit'-sht!)

Deutsch (doitsh)

 

the German

German

Amerikaner

(a-may-ree-kah'-nt!r)

Englisch (eng'-lish)

the American

English

Spanier

(shpah'-nit!r)

Spanisch (shpah'-nish)

the Spaniard

Spanish

Italiener

(ee-tah-liay'-ni'!r)

Italienisch

(ee-tah-liay'-nish)

the Italian

Italian

Franzose (fran-tsoh'-zi'!)

Franzosisch (fran-tsoh'-zish)

the Frenchman

French

Die Lander (len'-d!!r) Countries

Deutschland (doitsh'-lant) Spanien (shpah'-nit!n) Frankreich (frangk'-rich)

Germany

Spain

France

Amerika (a-may'-ree-ka) Italíen (ee-tah'-li!!n) England (eng'-lant)

America

ltaly

England

 

-

-

  • 28 THE CORTINA METHOD

CONVERSATION

1 Guten Tag, Herr Miller.

  • 2 Guten Tag, Herr Smith.

  • 3 Warum sind8 Sie

so ernst?

  • 4 Ich spreche nicht gut8 Deutsch.s

  • 5 Sic sprechen sehr gut Deutsch.

~

  • 6 Danke sehr. Die deutsche Sprache'l ist nicht so schwer.

7

Wir

~"(-.

sprechen jetzt nur Deutsch. Ich bin Ihr Lehrer. seh

.

'

~

8

r

gut.

Sprechen

SiC

vie l

~~7{

/~

I"'~\

\~

¡[(-

~ - , ~
~
-
,
~

~ ~

,

Deutsch

zu Hause?10

9 Wir

,

sprecheo oft

zo

Hanse

,

"

Deutsch.n

~"">,.

~

~

10 Ibre"

Motter,

kommt

wahr?

Deutschland,

nicht

oos"

  • 11 meine2

Nein,

Mutter

  • 12 Und ihre12 Eltern?

kornmt

aus1~ New Jersey.

  • 13 mein12 Grossvater

Ihre Eltern,

kommen

aus1~ Berlin.

und meine12 Grossmutter,

  • 14 und Ihr Bruder

Sprechen

wie Sic?

Ihre Schwester

so gut Deutsch

  • 15 spricht

Mein Bruder

so gut.

gut. Meine Schwester spricht

nicht14

FOOTNOTES: 1. This is the infinitive

of the verb

"to speak."

The

personal

endings

of

the

present

tense

of

most

yerba,

attached

to

the

infinitive

stem,

are

the

same

in

German;

namely,

ich

(I)-e;

du

(you-familiar

 

sing.)-st;

er

(he),

sie

(she),

es (itrt;

wir

(we)-en;

ihr

(you-familiar

pl.)-t;

sie (they)-en;

Sie

(you

-poli

te

sing.

and

pl.)-en

[§61].

However,

Borne yerba

change

their

infinitive

stem

vowd

in

the

second

and

third

persona

singular:

 

ich

spreche,

1 Break;

du sprichst,

you (thou)

Break; er,

sie, es spricht,

he,

she,

it

speaks;

wir sprechen,

we Break;

ihr sprecht

(plural

of du),

you

speak;sie

sprechen,

they

speak;

Sie

FIRST LESSON

29

PRONUNCIATION

  • 1 goo'-tl!n

tahk,

her

Miller.

  • 2 goo'-t~n tahk, her Smith.

:3vah-rum' zint lee zoh emst?

  • 4 ich shpre'-ch~ nicht

goal doitsh.

  • 5 lee shpre'-chl!n zayr goal doitsh.

TRANSLATION

Good dar

(Heno,

How

do

you

do), MI. Miller. Heno, Mr. Smith.

 

Why are you so serious7

1 do not Break German well (lit.,

1 Break not well German).

You Break German very well (lit., very well German).

dang'-k~

  • 6 zayr.

dee

shprah'-kM

ist nicht

zoh ShVa)T.

  • 7 shpre'ochen

veer

yetst

doitsh. ich biD eer lay'-rer.

doit'osM

noor

Thanks

very mucho The German

language is not so difficult.

Now we shan Break only German

(lit.,

we

Break

now

only

German). 1 aro your teacher.

  • 8 zayr goot. shpre'-cMn

lee

doitsh tsoo how' -le

feel

Very

good. Do

you

Break (lit.,

Bpeak ron)

home?

muro

German

at

 

We often Break German at home

  • 9 veer shpre'- chl!n oft tsoo how'-z~ doitsh.

(lit., we Break often German).

at home

10

ee'-r~ mu'-tl!r komt

lant, nicht vahr?

ows doitsh'-

Your

mother

comes

from

many,

doesn't

she

(lit.,

Ger-

not

true)?

  • 11 nin, mi'-ne mu'-t~r .komt ows

No, my mother comes fram New Jersey.

NeUJ Jersey-

  • 12 And her parents?

uní ee'-r~ el'-tem?

  • 13 ee'-rl! el'ot~m, min grohs'ofah-t~r uní mi'-ne grohs'-mu-t~r, ko'- men ows ber-Ieen'.

Rer parents.

my grandfather

grandmother,

Berlin.

come

and

from

 

Do your sisterand

brother

Bpeak

  • 14 shpre'-cMn ee'-re shve'-ster uní eer broo'-der zoh goot doitsh vee

lee?

15 mili broo'-d~r shpricht goal. mi'-

n~ shve' "ster shpricht nicht zoh

goot.

German

as

well

as

you

(lit.,

Break your sister and brother

so well German

as you)?

My brother

speaks well. My gis-

(lit., speaks

ter does not Break

not) so well.

sprechen

(formal

address) , youspeak.

Whenever

there

is

such

a vowel

change,

the

third

person

singular

wil!

be

given

in

the

vocabulary.

2. There

are

three

genders

in

German,

not

only

of

the

pronouns,

er

(he), sie

(she),

es

(it),

as

in

English,

but

also

of nouns.

The

gender

of

nouns

is indicated

by

the

definite

artide,

der, masculine;

die, feminine;

das, neuter;

as shown

by

the

nouns

given.

When

a pronoun

is used

instead

of

a noun,

the

pronoun

must

be

of

the

same

grammatical

gender

as

the

noun:

der DamPfer,

the

steamer:

er (he);

die Eisen-

bahn, {he Tailroad~ sie (she); das Flugzeug,

the airplane:

es

(it).

3.

The

gender

  • 30 THE CORTINA METHOD

 

16

Sprechen

Sie auch Franzosisch?

 

17

Nein, ich15 spreche nicht Franzosisch;

und Sie?

 

18

Ich

spreche

Franzosisch,

Italienisch

und

ein

 

Spanisch.

 
 

19

Cut.

Sie sind16 dann

mein Lehrer

in Frankreich.

 

20

lch biD gern

lhr

Lehrer.

 

21

Mein Valer ist jetzt in Berlin.

 

22

1st lhr

Valer nicht

Deutscher17?

 

23

M:ein Valer war Deutscher.17 Er ist jetzt Amerikaner.17

24

Haben

Sie noch Verwandte

in Deutschland?

 

25

Ja, ich habe einen18 Onke1

und eine18 Tante

in Hamburg.

26

Haben

sie Kinder?

 

27

Ja, sie haben einen18 Sohn

und eine18 Tochter.

 

28

Wo wohnen

sie?

29

Mein

Onke1,

meine

Tante

und

'<t~~.,$

 

meine

K usine

wohnen

in

Ham-

..

,s, ..~t'

~

.

V7

 

- ~

30

burgo

Wo wohnfL9der Sohn?

 

Z

'f~:}J>

'l~.""

\.

.

!!!r

-

-

=

~<3"~r

.6

31

M

.

eIn

V

etter

wo

h

nt

.

In

B

l

er In. .

 

;/

-

:'f;l

,$.

i';':'

61

-=-

,

j

-['"1:;. -:-

;:--

o: - ~ /'

32

Wir fabren'" nnn bald

mil dem"

-~ --

eN-

Dampfer

nach Hamburg.

 

---

-.-

of nouns

does not

always

correspond

to

the

natural

gender

of

the

substantive.

4.

The

plurals

of nouns

in

German

are

variously

formed.

The

feminine

nouns

die Nationalitiit

and

die Sprache

add

-en and

-n respectively

to form

the plural.

5.

The

feminine

forma of the nationalities

given are as follows: die Deutsche;

die

Amerikanerin;

die SPanierin;

die Italienerin;

die Franz6sin.

6. sind

(are)

is one

of the plural

forma of the irregular

verb sein

(to be).

The

complete

present

tense

of sein:

SINGULAR:ich

bin,

I

am;

du

bist, you

are

(familiar

form);

er,

sic,

es

ist,

he, she, it is; PLURAL:wir sind,

we are;

ihr seid,

you

are

(familiar

form); sic sind,

they

are;

Sic sind,

you

are

(sing. and

pl.,

poli te form).

The

familiar

forma du

(you-sing.)

and ihr (you-pl.)

are used in addressing

the Deity, relatives, children,

clase friendo,

a

peto The

poli te form

Sic

(you-sing.

and pl.)

is used

in speaking

wemg

~

 

FIRST LESSON

 

31

  • 16 lee owkh fran-tsOh'-

shpre'-ch~n

zisb?

Do you algo Break (lit., Break you

also) French?

  • 17 ich

nin,

shpre'-chl! nicht

fran-

No,

1 do

not

Break (lit., Break

tsOh'-zish; unt lee?

not)

French;

and you?

  • 18 ich shpre'-chl fran-tsoh'ozish, ee-

1 Break French,

Italian,

and

a

tab-liay'-nisb unt in vay'-nich

little Spanish.

shpah'onish.

  • 19 goot.zee zint dan min lay'-rl!r in frangk'orich.

  • 20 ich biD gem eer lay'-rl!r.

Finel Then

I'll

gladly be

your teacher.

you will be

(lit., you

are then) my teacher in France.

(lit.,

1 am gIadly)

  • 21 min fab'-tl!r ist yetst in ber-leen'.

My father

is now in Berlin.

 
  • 22 ist eer fah'-tl!r nicht doit'oshl!r?

Isn't your father German?

  • 23 min fab'-tl!r vabr doit'oshl!r. ayr

My father

was a German.

He

is

ist yetst a-may-ree-kah'-n/!r.

now an American.

 
  • 24 lee nokh

hab'-bl!n

f/!r-van'-tl! in

Do you still have relatives in Ger-

doitsh' -lant?

many?

  • 25 yab, ich hah'-bl! i'-nl!n ong'-kl!l

Yes, 1 have an linde

and

an aunt

unt i'-n~ tan'-tl! in ham'oburk.

in Hamburg.

  • 26 hab'-bl!n lee kin'-dl!r?

Have they any children?

 
  • 27 yab, lee hah'obe!n i'-nl!n zobn unt

Yes, they have a son and a daugho

. i'-ne! tokh'-tl!r.

ter.

  • 28 voh voh'one!n lee?

Where

do

they live

(lit., where

live they)?

  • 29 min ong'oke!l, mi'-nl! tan'tl! unt

My linde,

my aunt,

and

[girI]

mi'-ne! koo-zee'onl! vob'-nl!n in

cousin live in Hamburg.

ham'-burk.

  • 30 vob vohnt dayr zohn?

Where does the son live?

  • 31 min fe'-te!r vohnt in beroleen'.

My

[bar]

cousin lives in Berlin.

  • 32 veer fab'-rl!n noon balt mit daym

We will

soon be going

to Ham-

 

dam'-pfl!r nakh ham'-burk.

burg

by steamer

(lit.,

we ride

 

now soon with

Hamburg).

the steamer

to

to acquaintances,

strangers,

etc. [§25].

7.

The

personal

pronoun

Sic, "you,"

in

direct address

is always

written

with

a capital

letter

to distinguish

it

from

sic,

"they." The

possessive adjective

of direct address

in

the poli te form

is algo written

with

a capital

letter:

lhre

Mutter,

"your

mother";

lhr

Lehrer,

"your

teacher";

but,

ihre Eltern,

"her

(their)

parents."

8. Almost

any adjective

can

be used

as

an adverb without

any change in form or ending;

e.g., gut meaDa "good"

as well

as

"well";

schlecht,

"bad"

or "badly";

leicht,

"easy"

or "easily".

Gern

is one

of

the

few real

adverbs

and

can

be used

only

as such.

9.

lch

spreche

Deutsch.

Here

the word Deutsch

is used

as a noun,

meaning

the language.

In die deutsche

Sprache

(the

German

language),

however

deutsche

is

an

adjective

modifying

the

noun

Sprache, and

is, therefore,

written

with

a smaIl

letter

like

aIl other

adjectives.

"<

  • 32 THE

CORTINA

METHOD

  • 33 Mein

Onkel,

meine

Tante

und

meine

Kusine

warten

 

schon auf22 uns.

  • 34 ist

Hamburg

sehr

interessant.

  • 35 Meine Kusine wil123uns24 Ham-

burg

zeigen.

  • 36 Fahren wir van Hamburg nach

Berlin

mit dem21 Flugzeug

oder

mit der Eisenbahn?

  • 37 Wie Sic wollen,23 mit dem Schnellzug

oder dem Flugzeug.

  • 38 Es ist auch mit dem Automobil sehr interessant.

  • 39 mit dem Auto. Es ist spat. Ich muss gehen.

Cut, wir fahren

  • 40 Sie25 bitte

Kommen

Sonntag

zu Kaffee und

Kuchen!

  • 41 Ach! Zum26Kaffeeklatsch! Ich komme gern.

  • 42 Auf Wiedersehen, Herr Smith!

  • 43 Auf Wiedersehen, Herr Miller!

Adjectives

referring

to nationality

are not capitalized

in German.

10. zu Hause

(at home),

referring

to one's

own borne. There

are

expressions

in every language

which canDor be translated

literally,

that

is word

by word,

and

if thus

translated

would make

no sense. These

expressions

are

called

idioms,

and

will be referred

to

in

the

footnotes

by

the

abbreviation

"ID." They

should

be leamed

by heart.

11. The

word order

in German

difIera in several respects

from

English.

Note the

difference

in

the

translation.

In German,

the

adverb

or

any other

part

of speech

does not

come between

the

subject

and

the

verb

in a declarative

sentence.

The

adverb

of time precedes

all other

adverbs

or

adverbial

phrases:

Wir sprechen

oft

zu Hause

Deulsch.

Mein

Valer

isl

jetzl

in

Berlin.

[§79].

12. The

possessive

adjectives

refer

in stem

to the possessor (me;n,

my;

sein, bis;

ihr,

her;

ete.), but

must

agree in gender,

case, and

number

with

the noun

they modify:

meine

(my)

Mutter;

ihre (her, their)

Eltern;

mein Bruder;

meine

Schwester;

cte.

[§8, a,

1-3; b,

c]. Since

Grossvater

is

masculine

and

Grossmutter

is

feminine,

the

possessive

adjective

must

be repeated

before

each.

13. aus Deutschland.

ID., a native

of

Germany,

lit.

"out

of Gcrmany:'

14. The

negative

in German

is expressed

by

llichi (not), which foIlows the verbo 15. The personal pronoun of the lirst person,

ich (1), is always written

with a smallletter,

 

except

at the beginning

of a sentence.

16. The

present

tense

is often

used

to expresa

the

future,

especially

in

conver-

sational

indelinite

German.

artide,

except

17. Nouns

when

referring

preceded

to nationality by an adjective.

are Er i.t Amerikaner,

used

without

the

"He

FIRST LESSON 33

  • 33 min ong'-kl!l, mi'.nl! tan'-tl!, unt mi'onl! koo-zee'-nl! vahr'otl!n

moho owf UDS.

  • 34 ham'-burk ist zayr in-tl!-re-sant',

  • 35 mi'-nl! koo-zee'onl! vil UDSham'-

burk tsi' -gl!n.

fah'-rl!n veer

  • 36 ton

ham'-burk

nahkh ber-leen' mil daym flook'-

tsoik oh' -dl!r mil dayr i' -zl!n-bahn?

  • 37 vee lee vo'-ll!n, mil daym shnel'- tsook oh'-dl!r daym flook'-tsoik,

38

es

ist

owkh

mil

daym

ow-toh-

moh-beel' zayr in-tl!-re-sant'.

  • 39 goal, veer f;¡h'.rl!n mil daym ow'- tobo es ist shpayt. ich mus gay'-l!n.

  • 40 ko'-ml!n lee bi'-tl! zon'-tahk tsoo ka'.fay unt koo'-khl!n.

  • 41 akh. tsum ka'-fay-klatsh.ich ko'. rol!gern.

  • 42 owf vee'-dl!r-zayn, her Smith.

  • 43 owf vee'-dl!r-zayn, her Miller.

My uncle,

aunt,

and cousin

are

already waiting for USo

Hamburg

is very interesting.

My cousin wants to show us (lit.,

wants to us show) Hamburg.

Will we travel from Hamburg

to

Berlin

by

(lit.,

with

the)

air-

plane or

(the)

railroad?

As you wish; by express trajo,

or

airplane.

It is also very interesting by auto-

mobile.

All right

(lit., good) , we'll

go by

auto.

lt

is late.

1 must

go.

Please come for coffee and cake

on

Sunday

(lit.,

Come

you

please

Sunday

to

coffee and

cake).

Ahl

For

a

(lit.,

to)

"Kaffee-

klatsch"

(lit., coffee

gossip) 1 I'll

gladly come.

Good-bye, Mr. Smithl

Good-bye, Mr. Millerl

is an American:'

Er

ist

eín

guter

Ameríkaner,

"He

is

a

good

American."

18.

The

delinite

artide

ein

(a),

the

negative

kein

(no), also take endings,

as

do

the

possessive adjectives:

einen

Onkel

is in the masculine

accusative case because

it

is

the

direct

object

of

the

verb;

eine

Tanle

is

the

feminine

accusative

case.

19.

There

is only

one form

for the present

and

past

tenses in German;

for example,

er wohnt,

"he lives," also means

"he is living,"

"he

does live:'

Also, the formation

of questions

and

negatives

differs in German

from

English.

The

"do"

or "does"

of

the

question

in

English

("Where

does

the

son

live?"

Wo wohnt

der

Sohn1)

and

of

the

negative

("1

do

not

speak

German."

lch

spreche

nicht

Deutsch.)

 

is

never

translated

in

German.

20, Distinguish

between

fahren

(to

travel,

ride)

and

gehen

(to walk).

 

21. dem

is

the

dative

case of

 

der,

the

masculine

artide,

and

also the

dative

of the

neuter

artide

das.

22.

warten

auto ID: "to

wait for,"

lit.,

"to

wait

on."

23.

sie

will,

"she wants,

wishes;"

Sie wollen,

"you

want,

you

wish:'

Wollen

is a

verb

like

"will,"

"can,"

"must"

in

English.

Such verbs require

an

inlinitive

to complete

the

thought:

Sie will

UDS zeigen.

"She

wiIl show

us."

These

yerba

belong

to

the

small

group

whose

present

singular

endings

do

not

follow

the general

partero

of German

yerba [§71, a-d].

 

24. uns

(us) dative

case

of wir

(we) ("show

lo us").

The

forms

of the

dative

and

acCllsative cases of wir

are the salDe in German-uns.

25. Kommen

Sie! lit" "Come

you,"

is an impera-

tive form of formal

address.

26. zum,

"to

the,"

is a contraction

of

zu

+

dem.

~

1

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