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You are on page 1of 15

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD TRANSMITTED BY DI-

ELECTRIC PLANO CONVEX LENS PLACED IN CHIRAL

MEDIUM

A. Ghaar

1, *

, M. Y. Naz

1

, and Q. A. Naqvi

2

1

Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad,

Pakistan

2

Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad,

Pakistan

AbstractIn this paper, a theoretical investigation of electromag-

netic eld transmission through dielectric plano convex lens placed in

chiral medium is analyzed. The chiral medium is described electro-

magnetically by the constitutive relations D = (E + E) and

B = (H+ H). Transmissions coecients for chiral-dielectric

and dielectric-chiral interfaces are derived analytically. The analytical

eld expressions for right circularly polarized (RCP) and left circularly

polarized (LCP) waves are obtained using Maslovs method. Numerical

computations are made for the eld patterns around the caustic region

using Mathcad software to observe the eect of chirality parameter.

1. INTRODUCTION

In 19th century the chiral medium was rst explored due to its optical

rotation phenomenon. After this discovery, it was experimentally and

theoretically proved that the right circularly polarized (RCP) and the

left circularly polarized (LCP) waves in chiral medium have dierent

refraction indices due to dierent phase velocities [1]. Their dierent

polarization rotations give dierent mode of propagations [2]. Many

researchers have studied the interaction of electromagnetic waves with

chiral slabs and other possible structures of chiral materials [317].

Focussing of electromagnetic waves from focussing systems into

dielectric media is a subject of considerable current interest due to

its applications in hyperthermia, microscopy, and optical data storage.

The focussing of dielectric focussing systems into chiral medium has

Received 26 October 2011, Accepted 5 December 2011, Scheduled 13 December 2011

* Corresponding author: Abdul Ghaar (chabdulghaar@yahoo.com).

68 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi

attained great attention from last decade by many researchers. In this

study, analysis of focussing of electromagnetic waves from dielectric

plano convex lens placed in chiral medium is discussed in detail.

Specically, transmission coecients of chiral- dielectric and dielectric-

chiral are obtained using boundary conditions. The analytical eld

expressions in the caustic region are obtained using Maslovs method.

The analytical expressions are computed and presented for the normal

incidence, dierent lens and dierent chirality parameters. According

to Maslovs method, the eld expression near the caustic can be

constructed by using the geometrical optics information, though we

must perform the integration in the spectrum domain in order to

predict the eld in the space domain [18].

The physical interpretation of the mathematics of Maslovs

method and its relation to other asymptotic ray theory methods have

been discussed by Ziolkowski and Dechamps [19]. This method has

been successfully applied to predict the eld in the focal region of

spherical dielectric interface, plano-convex antenna, inhomogeneous

slab and focussing of lens into uniaxial crystal by Hongo, Ghaar and

co-workers [2023].

2. GEOMETRICAL OPTICS APPROXIMATION AND

MASLOVS METHOD IN DIELECTRIC MEDIUM

Geometrical-optics eld expression is given by [2023]

E

r

(x, y, z) = E

T

(, ) [J(t)]

1

2

exp

_

jk

_

S

0

(, ) + t

__

(1)

In above expressions E

T

(, ) is initial value of amplitude and J(t) =

D(t)/D(0). where D(t) =

(x,y,z)

(,,t)

is the Jacobian of coordinate

transformation from ray coordinates (, , t) to rectangular coordinates

(x, y, z), S

0

(, ) is initial phase and t is parameter along the ray. GO

approximation for waveform modelling is attractive in electromagnetics

because it provides insight into how a wave front responds to a given

structure. In this technique, user can monitor the phase of the

electromagnetic wave as it propagates through the medium. GO is

concerned only with the relatively high frequency component of the

waveform, provided the ray tube does not vanish. However, there

exist regions J(t) = 0 where ray tube shrinks to zero, called caustics

and GO fails there [9]. This drawback of GO is overcome by Maslovs

method. It uses a combination of spatial domain and wave vector

domain and gives rise to a hybrid space. This eliminates the possibility

of occurrence of singularity around the caustic. General expression of

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 69

Maslovs method for eld calculation is given as [2123]:

E

r

(r) =

k

j2

_

E

T

(, )

_

D(t)

D(0)

(q

x

, q

y

)

(x, y)

_

1

2

exp

_

jk

_

S

0

+tx(q

x

, q

y

, z)q

x

y(q

x

, q

y

, z)q

y

+q

x

x+q

y

y

__

dq

x

dq

y

(2)

Equation (2) is derived by applying the stationary phase method to

the conventional Fourier-transform representation for E

r

(r). Thus

the integrand of the inverse Fourier transform of the wave function

is derived through the information of the GO solution. In above

equation [11]

J(t)

(q

x

, q

y

)

(x, y)

=

1

D(0)

(q

x

, q

y

, z)

(x, y, t)

=

1

D(0)

_

q

x

q

y

q

y

q

x

_

z

t

The ray expression of the refracted eld is derived from the solutions

for Hamiltons equations [18] as

x(q

x

, q

y

, z) = + q

x

t, y(q

x

, q

y

, z) = + q

y

t, z(q

x

, q

y

, z) = + q

z

t

It may be noted that (q

x

, q

y

, q

z

) are components of ray.

3. GO FIELD OF PLANO CONVEX LENS PLACED IN

CHIRAL MEDIUM

Consider the geometry which contains a plano convex lens placed in

chiral medium as shown in Figure 1. Prole of the plano convex lens

Figure 1. Plano convex lens placed in chiral medium.

70 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi

is dened as [21]

= g() =

n

n + 1

f

1

n

2

1

_

2

+

n 1

n + 1

f

2

, =

_

2

+

2

(3)

where (, , ) are the Cartesian coordinates of the point on the plano

convex lens and n is the refractive index of plano-convex lens and f

is the focal length. The chiral medium is dened by the following

relations [46]

D = (E+ E) (4)

B = (H+ H) (5)

where is the chirality parameter which is assumed to be positive in

this paper, and are the permittivity and permeability of the chiral

medium, respectively. Some natural and optically chiral media can be

considered as a homogeneous medium.

Let us denote the incident elds propagating in the chiral medium

in the RC polarization by E

1

and H

1

and in the LC polarization by

E

2

and H

2

. Let us denote the reected elds propagating downwards

in the chiral medium in the RC polarization by E

3

and H

3

and in the

LC polarization by E

4

and H

4

. Let us also denote the transmitted

elds propagating upwards in the dielectric medium with an elliptic

polarization by E

5

and H

5

. The various elds are given as follows [5]

E

1

= E

1

i

x

exp(jn

1

kz) (6)

H

1

= jZ

1

E

1

(7)

E

2

= E

2

i

x

exp(jn

2

kz) (8)

H

2

= jZ

1

E

2

(9)

E

3

= E

3

i

x

exp(jn

1

kz) (10)

H

3

= jZ

1

E

3

(11)

E

4

= E

4

i

x

exp(jn

2

kz) (12)

H

4

= jZ

1

E

4

(13)

E

5

= E

5

i

x

exp(jk) (14)

H

5

= j

1

E

5

i

x

exp(jk) (15)

where =

_

(

1

/

1

), Z =

_

(/)/

_

(1 + (/)

2

) and

1

,

1

are the

permittivity and permeability of the dielectric medium. The RCP and

LCP with reective indices n

1

, and n

2

are given by [3].

n

1

=

1

1 k

, n

2

=

1

1 + k

(16)

where k

2

=

2

. For > 0 the right-circularly polarized wave is the

slower mode, whereas for < 0 the left-circularly polarized wave is the

slower mode.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 71

4. TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS AT CHIRAL-

DIELECTRIC INTERFACE

The transmissions coecients for chiral-dielectric interface are derived

analytically [3]

(E

1

+E

2

+E

3

+E

4

) i

z

= E

5

i

z

(17a)

(H

1

+H

2

+H

3

+H

4

) i

z

= H

5

i

z

(17b)

We consider perfect transmission which occurs at = Z. This

condition of totally transmission occurs for =

1

when

1

= +

2

. We neglect the reection coecients and obtained transmissions

coecients using above conditions as

E

5

=

2

+ Z

(E

1

+ E

2

), E

5

=

2

+ Z

(E

1

+ E

2

) (18)

This transmitted wave into dielectric lens propagate towards the curved

surface of lens at z = . We apply again boundary conditions at

dielectric-chiral interface.

5. TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS AT DIELECTRIC-

CHIRAL INTERFACE

When a plane wave again incident on curved dielectric-chiral interface,

it is partially transmitted into chiral medium and partially reected

as shown in Figure 3. We ignore the reection, the transmitted wave

into chiral medium will split into two waves designated as RCP and

LCP waves making angles of

1

and

2

with the normal, respectively.

The transmissions coecients for dielectric-chiral interface are derived

analytically as [4]

_

E

R

E

L

_

=

_

T

c11

T

c12

T

c21

T

c22

__

E

5

E

5

_

(19)

where

T

c11

=

A

i

A

1

2j cos (g cos + cos

2

)

(1 + g

2

) cos (g cos

1

+ cos

2

)+2g(cos

1

cos

2

+cos

2

)

T

c12

=

A

i

A

1

2 cos (cos + g cos

2

)

(1 + g

2

) cos (g cos

1

+ cos

2

)+2g(cos

1

cos

2

+cos

2

)

T

c21

=

A

i

A

2

2j cos (g cos + cos

1

)

(1 + g

2

) cos (g cos

1

+ cos

2

)+2g(cos

1

cos

2

+cos

2

)

T

c22

=

A

i

A

2

2 cos (cos + g cos

1

)

(1 + g

2

) cos (g cos

1

+ cos

2

)+2g(cos

1

cos

2

+cos

2

)

72 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi

A

i

= exp(jk)

A

2

= exp(jn

1

k)

A

3

= exp(jn

2

k)

g =

_

(

1

/

1

)

2

+ (

1

/

1

)

GO eld expressions for plano convex lens placed in chiral medium may

be obtained in similar manner as in dielectric medium by combining

the contributions of both RCP and LCP waves. Unit normal N of the

surface is given by [20]

N = sincos i

x

+ sinsini

y

+ cos i

z

(20)

where (, ) are angular polar coordinates of the point (, , ) dened

by

= cos

= sin

= g()

=

(n 1)f tan

_

1 (n

2

1) tan

2

sin =

g()

_

1 + (g())

2

cos =

1

_

1 + (g())

2

tan =

The ray vector of the refracted ray by plano convex lens may be

obtained using the relation q = np

i

+

_

n

2

1

n

2

+ n

2

(p N)

2

Nn(p

N)N, which is derived from Snells law with n is the refractive indices

of the lens. The ray vectors of the rays refracted by the plano convex

lens are given by

n

1

q = K

1

() sincos i

x

+ K

1

() sinsini

y

+ (n + K

1

() cos )i

z

= Q

1t

cos i

x

+ Q

1t

sini

y

+ Q

1z

i

z

(21a)

n

2

q = K

2

() sincos i

x

+ K

2

() sinsini

y

+ (n + K

2

() cos )i

z

= Q

2t

cos i

x

+ Q

2t

sini

y

+ Q

2z

i

z

(21b)

where

K

1

() =

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

ncos , K

2

() =

_

n

2

2

n

2

sin

2

ncos

The plano convex lens will refract into chiral medium consist of two

wave, RCP and LCP, each making an angle

1

and

2

with normal to

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 73

lens surface, where

1

= sin

1

_

k

1

n

1

sin

_

,

2

= sin

1

_

k

1

n

2

sin

_

Geometrical-optics solution for RCP and LCP are derived as

E

R

(x, y, z) = E

t

R

(, ) [J

1

(t

1

)]

1

2

exp

_

jn

1

k

_

S

0

(, ) + t

__

(22)

E

L

(x, y, z) = E

t

L

(, ) [J

2

(t

2

)]

1

2

exp

_

jn

2

k

_

S

0

(, ) + t

__

(23)

where J

1

(t

1

) and J

2

(t

2

) are the Jacobian of coordinate transformation

from ray coordinates (, , t

1

) and (, , t

2

) to rectangular coordinates

(x, y, z) for RCP and LCP elds

J

1

(t

1

) =

D(t

1

)

D(0)

=

1

D(0)

(x, y, z)

(, , t

1

)

=

_

P

U

1

E

1

t

1

+ 1

__

Q

1t

()

t

1

+ 1

_

J

2

(t

2

) =

D(t

2

)

D(0)

=

1

D(0)

(x, y, z)

(, , t

2

)

=

_

P

U

2

E

2

t

2

+ 1

__

Q

2t

()

t

2

+ 1

_

where

P =

_

n

2

1

_

n1

n+1

f

2

[n

2

2

+ (n

2

1)

2

f

2

]

_

2

+

n

2

1

n+1

f

2

_1

2

=

(n 1)f tan

_

1 (n

2

1) tan

2

U

1

= Q

1t

Q

1z

Q

1z

Q

1t

()

E

1

= Q

1z

+ Q

1t

tan

U

2

= Q

2t

Q

2z

Q

2z

Q

2t

E

2

= Q

2z

+ Q

2t

tan

Q

1z

=

sin

_

n

2

1

+ n

2

cos 2

_

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

+ nsin

2

Q

1t

=

_

n

2

1

2n

2

sin

2

_

cos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

ncos 2

Q

2z

=

sin

_

n

2

2

+ n

2

cos 2

_

_

n

2

2

n

2

sin

2

+ nsin

2

Q

2t

=

_

n

2

2

2n

2

sin

2

_

cos

_

n

2

2

n

2

sin

2

ncos 2

and E

t

R

and E

t

L

are the vector amplitudes of the refracted rays at

the refraction points. It is readily seen that the GO eld expression

becomes innity at the points F

1

and F

2

as are expected. According

to Maslovs method, the expressions for the eld that is valid near the

caustic for RCP and LCP elds are given by [10, 11].

E

R

(x, y, z) =

n

1

k

2

_

T

0

_

2

0

E

t

R

(, )

_

Q

1t

()

U

1

Q

1t

PQ

1z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

1

k

_

K

1

()r sinsin

0

cos(

0

)

__

exp

_

jn

1

k

_

(n+K

1

() cos )zK

1

()( sin+ cos )

__

dd (24a)

E

L

(x, y, z) =

n

2

k

2

_

T

0

_

2

0

E

t

L

(, )

_

Q

2t

()

U

2

Q

2t

PQ

2z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

2

k

_

K

2

()r sinsin

0

cos(

0

)

__

exp

_

jn

2

k

_

(n + K

2

() cos )z K

2

()( sin + cos )

__

dd (24b)

Subtended angle T of lens is given by

T = arctan

_

1

n 1

a

_

(n + 1)a

2

+ (n 1)f

2

_

The transmitted eld for RCP eld by lens at dielectric-chiral interface

is related with the incident eld by the relation [21].

E

t

R

=

T E

1

=

_

T

R

i

t

i

i

+ T

R

i

t

i

i

_

E

1

(25)

where

T denotes the dyadic transmission coecients. The subscripts

, denotes components with respect to the plane of incidence, and

subscripts t, i represents transmitted and incident waves, respectively

E

t

R

=

_

T

R

sin

2

+

_

nsin

2

+ cos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

_

T

R

cos

2

_

i

x

sin cos

_

T

R

+

_

nsin

2

+ cos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

_

T

R

_

i

y

+T

R

_

ncos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

_

sincos i

z

(26)

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 75

where

T

R

=

2n(E

1

E

2

)

+ Z

T

c11

, T

R

=

2n(E

1

+ E

2

)

+ Z

T

c12

The integration with respect to may be carried out using the integral

representation of Bessel function. The results are expressed as

E

Rx

=

n

1

k

2

_

P

R

(r,

0

) R

R

(r,

0

) cos 2

0

)

_

(27)

E

Ry

=

n

1

k

2

[Q

R

(r,

0

) sin2

0

] (28)

E

Rz

= jn

1

k[R

R

(r,

0

) sin

0

(29)

where

P

R

(r,

0

) =

_

T

0

_

T

R

+

_

nsin

2

+ cos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

_

T

R

_

J

0

(n

1

kK

1

()r sin

0

sin)

_

Q

1t

()

U

1

Q

1t

PQ

1z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

1

k

_

(n+K() cos )zK

1

()( sin+ cos )

__

d

Q

R

(r,

0

) =

_

T

0

_

_

T

R

(ncos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

)

_

sin

_

J

1

(n

1

kK

1

()r sin

0

sin)

_

Q

1t

()

U

1

Q

1t

PQ

1z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

1

k

_

(n+K

1

() cos )z K

1

()( sin+ cos )

__

d

R

R

(r,

0

) =

_

T

0

_

_

T

R

+ (nsin

2

+ cos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

)T

R

_

J

2

(n

1

kK

1

()r sin

0

sin)

_

Q

1t

()

U

1

Q

1t

PQ

1z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

1

k

_

(n+K

1

() cos )zK

1

()( sin+ cos )

__

d

The transmitted eld for LCP eld by lens at dielectric-chiral interface

is related with the incident eld by the relation [21]

E

t

L

=

T E

2

=

_

T

R

i

t

i

i

+ T

R

i

t

i

i

_

E

2

(30a)

76 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi

E

t

L

=

_

T

L

sin

2

+

_

nsin

2

+ cos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

_

T

L

cos

2

_

i

x

sin cos

_

T

L

+

_

nsin

2

+ cos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

_

T

L

_

i

y

+T

L

_

ncos

_

n

2

1

n

2

sin

2

_

sincos i

z

(30b)

where

T

L

=

2n(E

1

E

2

)

+ Z

T

c21

, T

L

=

2n(E

1

+ E

2

)

+ Z

T

c22

The integration with respect to again carried out and the results are

E

Lx

=

n

2

k

2

_

P

L

(r,

0

) R

L

(r,

0

) cos 2

0

)

_

(31)

E

Ly

=

n

2

k

2

[Q

L

(r,

0

) sin2

0

] (32)

E

Lz

= jn

2

k[R

L

(r,

0

) sin

0

(33)

where

P

L

(r,

0

) =

_

T

0

_

T

L

+

_

nsin

2

+ cos

_

n

2

2

n

2

sin

2

_

T

L

_

J

0

(n

2

kK

2

()r sin

0

sin)

_

Q

2t

()

U

2

Q

2t

PQ

2z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

2

k

_

(n+K

2

() cos )zK

2

()( sin+ cos )

__

d

Q

L

(r,

0

) =

_

T

0

_

_

T

L

_

ncos

_

n

2

2

n

2

sin

2

_

_

sin

_

J

1

(n

2

kK

2

()r sin

0

sin)

_

Q

2t

()

U

2

Q

2t

PQ

2z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

2

k

_

(n+K

2

() cos )zK

2

()( sin+ cos )

__

d

R

L

(r,

0

) =

_

T

0

_

_

T

L

+

_

nsin

2

+ cos

_

1 n

2

sin

2

_

T

L

_

J

2

(n

2

kK

2

()r sin

0

sin)

_

Q

2t

()

U

2

Q

2t

PQ

2z

_1

2

exp

_

jn

2

k

_

(n+K

2

() cos )zK

2

()( sin+ cos )

__

d

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 77

Figure 2. Field intensity around

focal point along z-axis for RCP at

ka = 10, kf = 10.

Figure 3. Field intensity around

focal point along z-axis for RCP

at ka = 100, kf = 100.

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this section, above analytical Expressions (27)(29) and (31)(33)

are used in calculating refracted electromagnetic eld of dielectric plano

convex lens placed in chiral medium for RCP and LCP by solving

numerically. All the equations give similar results but we will present

here results obtained from Equations (27)and (31). This problem

has been studied by Hongo using Maslovs method for focussing of

plano convex lens placed in free space [21]. Our expressions reduces

to Hongo results at = 0 which verify validity of our expressions.

Incident electric elds are assumed to be plane waves RCP and LCP.

The dielectric lens has refractive index 2.5. Field intensity of LCP and

RCP waves are obtained for dierent chirality parameters = 0.0,

0.005, 0.02 and 0.1.

Figure 2 represents the response for case of eld intensity

distribution around focal region of RCP eld along z-axis at ka = 10

and kf = 10, = 0 (solid line), = 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02

(dashed line) and = 0.1 (dotted line). Figure 3 represents the

response for case of eld intensity distribution around focal point of

RCP along z-axis at = 0 (solid line), = 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02

(dashed line) and = 0.1 (dotted line), ka = 100 and kf = 100.

Figure 4 represents the response for case of eld intensity distribution

around focal region of RCP eld along z-axis at = 0 (solid line),

= 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02 (dashed line) and = 0.1 (dotted

line), ka = 100 and kf = 200. Figure 5 represents the response for case

of eld intensity distribution around focal region of RCP eld along

z-axis at = 0 (solid line), = 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02 (dashed

line) and = 0.1 (dotted line), ka = 100 and kf = 100.

78 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi

Figure 4. Field intensity around

focal point along z-axis for RCP

at ka = 100, kf = 200.

Figure 5. Field intensity around

focal point along z-axis for LCP

waves at ka = 100, kf = 100.

Figure 6. Comparison of eld intensity around focal point at ka =

100, kf = 100 between RCP (Solid) and LCP (dotted) waves.

Figure 6 represents the response for cases of comparison eld

intensity distribution around focal region of LCP wave (dadot line)

and RCP wave (solid line) along z-axis with variations of chirality

parameters = 0.005, = 0.02 and = 0.1, ka = 100 and kf = 100

respectively.

We have imposed the condition for impedance matching for = Z.

At this condition there are no reected waves in chiral medium, and all

the eld is transmitted into dielectric plano convex lens. This occurs

for =

1

when

1

= +

1

2

. It is concluded from Figure 3

to Figure 6. that eld intensity decreases as chirality parameters

increase.The variation in eld behaviors also observed by replacing

dierent dielectric lens. The comparison of LCP wave and RCP wave

show that focal region of RCP wave is displaced toward lens and focal

region of LCP wave is displaced away from lens. It is also observed

that eld intensity of LCP wave is smaller than RCP wave.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 79

7. CONCLUSION

Explicit analytical expressions have been obtained around the caustic

region of plano convex lens placed in chiral medium. Eect of

chiral-dielectric and dielectric-chiral interfaces have been studied using

Maslovs method in the focal region of plano convex lens. The eect

of chirality on the amplitude of transmitted eld by lens in caustic

region are shown and discussed. It is observed that eld intensity in

the caustic region of a plano convex lens decreases by increasing the

chirality parameter. This study is helpful for remote sensing as a sensor

and its practical interest is emerging from an engineering applications

viewpoint. In remote sensing, the vegetation layer can be design as

chiral lens. These results obtained can be used to analyze radar data

from such vegetation layers and to obtain the physical properties of

the layers.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Authors would like to thank Higher Education Commission (HEC) for

startup research grant under IPFP.

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