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Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol.

123, 6781, 2012


ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD TRANSMITTED BY DI-
ELECTRIC PLANO CONVEX LENS PLACED IN CHIRAL
MEDIUM
A. Ghaar
1, *
, M. Y. Naz
1
, and Q. A. Naqvi
2
1
Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad,
Pakistan
2
Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad,
Pakistan
AbstractIn this paper, a theoretical investigation of electromag-
netic eld transmission through dielectric plano convex lens placed in
chiral medium is analyzed. The chiral medium is described electro-
magnetically by the constitutive relations D = (E + E) and
B = (H+ H). Transmissions coecients for chiral-dielectric
and dielectric-chiral interfaces are derived analytically. The analytical
eld expressions for right circularly polarized (RCP) and left circularly
polarized (LCP) waves are obtained using Maslovs method. Numerical
computations are made for the eld patterns around the caustic region
using Mathcad software to observe the eect of chirality parameter.
1. INTRODUCTION
In 19th century the chiral medium was rst explored due to its optical
rotation phenomenon. After this discovery, it was experimentally and
theoretically proved that the right circularly polarized (RCP) and the
left circularly polarized (LCP) waves in chiral medium have dierent
refraction indices due to dierent phase velocities [1]. Their dierent
polarization rotations give dierent mode of propagations [2]. Many
researchers have studied the interaction of electromagnetic waves with
chiral slabs and other possible structures of chiral materials [317].
Focussing of electromagnetic waves from focussing systems into
dielectric media is a subject of considerable current interest due to
its applications in hyperthermia, microscopy, and optical data storage.
The focussing of dielectric focussing systems into chiral medium has
Received 26 October 2011, Accepted 5 December 2011, Scheduled 13 December 2011
* Corresponding author: Abdul Ghaar (chabdulghaar@yahoo.com).
68 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi
attained great attention from last decade by many researchers. In this
study, analysis of focussing of electromagnetic waves from dielectric
plano convex lens placed in chiral medium is discussed in detail.
Specically, transmission coecients of chiral- dielectric and dielectric-
chiral are obtained using boundary conditions. The analytical eld
expressions in the caustic region are obtained using Maslovs method.
The analytical expressions are computed and presented for the normal
incidence, dierent lens and dierent chirality parameters. According
to Maslovs method, the eld expression near the caustic can be
constructed by using the geometrical optics information, though we
must perform the integration in the spectrum domain in order to
predict the eld in the space domain [18].
The physical interpretation of the mathematics of Maslovs
method and its relation to other asymptotic ray theory methods have
been discussed by Ziolkowski and Dechamps [19]. This method has
been successfully applied to predict the eld in the focal region of
spherical dielectric interface, plano-convex antenna, inhomogeneous
slab and focussing of lens into uniaxial crystal by Hongo, Ghaar and
co-workers [2023].
2. GEOMETRICAL OPTICS APPROXIMATION AND
MASLOVS METHOD IN DIELECTRIC MEDIUM
Geometrical-optics eld expression is given by [2023]
E
r
(x, y, z) = E
T
(, ) [J(t)]

1
2
exp
_
jk
_
S
0
(, ) + t
__
(1)
In above expressions E
T
(, ) is initial value of amplitude and J(t) =
D(t)/D(0). where D(t) =
(x,y,z)
(,,t)
is the Jacobian of coordinate
transformation from ray coordinates (, , t) to rectangular coordinates
(x, y, z), S
0
(, ) is initial phase and t is parameter along the ray. GO
approximation for waveform modelling is attractive in electromagnetics
because it provides insight into how a wave front responds to a given
structure. In this technique, user can monitor the phase of the
electromagnetic wave as it propagates through the medium. GO is
concerned only with the relatively high frequency component of the
waveform, provided the ray tube does not vanish. However, there
exist regions J(t) = 0 where ray tube shrinks to zero, called caustics
and GO fails there [9]. This drawback of GO is overcome by Maslovs
method. It uses a combination of spatial domain and wave vector
domain and gives rise to a hybrid space. This eliminates the possibility
of occurrence of singularity around the caustic. General expression of
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 69
Maslovs method for eld calculation is given as [2123]:
E
r
(r) =

k
j2
_

E
T
(, )
_
D(t)
D(0)
(q
x
, q
y
)
(x, y)
_

1
2
exp
_
jk
_
S
0
+tx(q
x
, q
y
, z)q
x
y(q
x
, q
y
, z)q
y
+q
x
x+q
y
y
__
dq
x
dq
y
(2)
Equation (2) is derived by applying the stationary phase method to
the conventional Fourier-transform representation for E
r
(r). Thus
the integrand of the inverse Fourier transform of the wave function
is derived through the information of the GO solution. In above
equation [11]
J(t)
(q
x
, q
y
)
(x, y)
=
1
D(0)
(q
x
, q
y
, z)
(x, y, t)
=
1
D(0)
_
q
x

q
y


q
y

q
x

_
z
t
The ray expression of the refracted eld is derived from the solutions
for Hamiltons equations [18] as
x(q
x
, q
y
, z) = + q
x
t, y(q
x
, q
y
, z) = + q
y
t, z(q
x
, q
y
, z) = + q
z
t
It may be noted that (q
x
, q
y
, q
z
) are components of ray.
3. GO FIELD OF PLANO CONVEX LENS PLACED IN
CHIRAL MEDIUM
Consider the geometry which contains a plano convex lens placed in
chiral medium as shown in Figure 1. Prole of the plano convex lens
Figure 1. Plano convex lens placed in chiral medium.
70 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi
is dened as [21]
= g() =
n
n + 1
f
1

n
2
1
_

2
+
n 1
n + 1
f
2
, =
_

2
+
2
(3)
where (, , ) are the Cartesian coordinates of the point on the plano
convex lens and n is the refractive index of plano-convex lens and f
is the focal length. The chiral medium is dened by the following
relations [46]
D = (E+ E) (4)
B = (H+ H) (5)
where is the chirality parameter which is assumed to be positive in
this paper, and are the permittivity and permeability of the chiral
medium, respectively. Some natural and optically chiral media can be
considered as a homogeneous medium.
Let us denote the incident elds propagating in the chiral medium
in the RC polarization by E
1
and H
1
and in the LC polarization by
E
2
and H
2
. Let us denote the reected elds propagating downwards
in the chiral medium in the RC polarization by E
3
and H
3
and in the
LC polarization by E
4
and H
4
. Let us also denote the transmitted
elds propagating upwards in the dielectric medium with an elliptic
polarization by E
5
and H
5
. The various elds are given as follows [5]
E
1
= E
1
i
x
exp(jn
1
kz) (6)
H
1
= jZ
1
E
1
(7)
E
2
= E
2
i
x
exp(jn
2
kz) (8)
H
2
= jZ
1
E
2
(9)
E
3
= E
3
i
x
exp(jn
1
kz) (10)
H
3
= jZ
1
E
3
(11)
E
4
= E
4
i
x
exp(jn
2
kz) (12)
H
4
= jZ
1
E
4
(13)
E
5
= E
5
i
x
exp(jk) (14)
H
5
= j
1
E
5
i
x
exp(jk) (15)
where =
_
(
1
/
1
), Z =
_
(/)/
_
(1 + (/)
2
) and
1
,
1
are the
permittivity and permeability of the dielectric medium. The RCP and
LCP with reective indices n
1
, and n
2
are given by [3].
n
1
=
1
1 k
, n
2
=
1
1 + k
(16)
where k
2
=
2
. For > 0 the right-circularly polarized wave is the
slower mode, whereas for < 0 the left-circularly polarized wave is the
slower mode.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 71
4. TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS AT CHIRAL-
DIELECTRIC INTERFACE
The transmissions coecients for chiral-dielectric interface are derived
analytically [3]
(E
1
+E
2
+E
3
+E
4
) i
z
= E
5
i
z
(17a)
(H
1
+H
2
+H
3
+H
4
) i
z
= H
5
i
z
(17b)
We consider perfect transmission which occurs at = Z. This
condition of totally transmission occurs for =
1
when
1
= +

2
. We neglect the reection coecients and obtained transmissions
coecients using above conditions as
E
5
=
2
+ Z
(E
1
+ E
2
), E
5
=
2
+ Z
(E
1
+ E
2
) (18)
This transmitted wave into dielectric lens propagate towards the curved
surface of lens at z = . We apply again boundary conditions at
dielectric-chiral interface.
5. TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS AT DIELECTRIC-
CHIRAL INTERFACE
When a plane wave again incident on curved dielectric-chiral interface,
it is partially transmitted into chiral medium and partially reected
as shown in Figure 3. We ignore the reection, the transmitted wave
into chiral medium will split into two waves designated as RCP and
LCP waves making angles of
1
and
2
with the normal, respectively.
The transmissions coecients for dielectric-chiral interface are derived
analytically as [4]
_
E
R
E
L
_
=
_
T
c11
T
c12
T
c21
T
c22
__
E
5
E
5
_
(19)
where
T
c11
=
A
i
A
1
2j cos (g cos + cos
2
)
(1 + g
2
) cos (g cos
1
+ cos
2
)+2g(cos
1
cos
2
+cos
2
)
T
c12
=
A
i
A
1
2 cos (cos + g cos
2
)
(1 + g
2
) cos (g cos
1
+ cos
2
)+2g(cos
1
cos
2
+cos
2
)
T
c21
=
A
i
A
2
2j cos (g cos + cos
1
)
(1 + g
2
) cos (g cos
1
+ cos
2
)+2g(cos
1
cos
2
+cos
2
)
T
c22
=
A
i
A
2
2 cos (cos + g cos
1
)
(1 + g
2
) cos (g cos
1
+ cos
2
)+2g(cos
1
cos
2
+cos
2
)
72 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi
A
i
= exp(jk)
A
2
= exp(jn
1
k)
A
3
= exp(jn
2
k)
g =
_
(
1
/
1
)
2
+ (
1
/
1
)
GO eld expressions for plano convex lens placed in chiral medium may
be obtained in similar manner as in dielectric medium by combining
the contributions of both RCP and LCP waves. Unit normal N of the
surface is given by [20]
N = sincos i
x
+ sinsini
y
+ cos i
z
(20)
where (, ) are angular polar coordinates of the point (, , ) dened
by
= cos
= sin
= g()
=
(n 1)f tan
_
1 (n
2
1) tan
2

sin =
g()
_
1 + (g())
2
cos =
1
_
1 + (g())
2
tan =

The ray vector of the refracted ray by plano convex lens may be
obtained using the relation q = np
i
+
_
n
2
1
n
2
+ n
2
(p N)
2
Nn(p
N)N, which is derived from Snells law with n is the refractive indices
of the lens. The ray vectors of the rays refracted by the plano convex
lens are given by
n
1
q = K
1
() sincos i
x
+ K
1
() sinsini
y
+ (n + K
1
() cos )i
z
= Q
1t
cos i
x
+ Q
1t
sini
y
+ Q
1z
i
z
(21a)
n
2
q = K
2
() sincos i
x
+ K
2
() sinsini
y
+ (n + K
2
() cos )i
z
= Q
2t
cos i
x
+ Q
2t
sini
y
+ Q
2z
i
z
(21b)
where
K
1
() =
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2
ncos , K
2
() =
_
n
2
2
n
2
sin
2
ncos
The plano convex lens will refract into chiral medium consist of two
wave, RCP and LCP, each making an angle
1
and
2
with normal to
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 73
lens surface, where

1
= sin
1
_
k
1
n
1
sin
_
,
2
= sin
1
_
k
1
n
2
sin
_
Geometrical-optics solution for RCP and LCP are derived as
E
R
(x, y, z) = E
t
R
(, ) [J
1
(t
1
)]

1
2
exp
_
jn
1
k
_
S
0
(, ) + t
__
(22)
E
L
(x, y, z) = E
t
L
(, ) [J
2
(t
2
)]

1
2
exp
_
jn
2
k
_
S
0
(, ) + t
__
(23)
where J
1
(t
1
) and J
2
(t
2
) are the Jacobian of coordinate transformation
from ray coordinates (, , t
1
) and (, , t
2
) to rectangular coordinates
(x, y, z) for RCP and LCP elds
J
1
(t
1
) =
D(t
1
)
D(0)
=
1
D(0)
(x, y, z)
(, , t
1
)
=
_
P
U
1
E
1
t
1
+ 1
__
Q
1t
()

t
1
+ 1
_
J
2
(t
2
) =
D(t
2
)
D(0)
=
1
D(0)
(x, y, z)
(, , t
2
)
=
_
P
U
2
E
2
t
2
+ 1
__
Q
2t
()

t
2
+ 1
_
where
P =
_

n
2
1
_
n1
n+1
f
2
[n
2

2
+ (n
2
1)
2
f
2
]
_

2
+
n
2
1
n+1
f
2
_1
2
=
(n 1)f tan
_
1 (n
2
1) tan
2

U
1
= Q
1t
Q
1z

Q
1z
Q
1t
()

E
1
= Q
1z
+ Q
1t
tan
U
2
= Q
2t
Q
2z

Q
2z
Q
2t

E
2
= Q
2z
+ Q
2t
tan
Q
1z

=
sin
_
n
2
1
+ n
2
cos 2
_
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

+ nsin
2

Q
1t

=
_
n
2
1
2n
2
sin
2

_
cos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

ncos 2
Q
2z

=
sin
_
n
2
2
+ n
2
cos 2
_
_
n
2
2
n
2
sin
2

+ nsin
2

74 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi


Q
2t

=
_
n
2
2
2n
2
sin
2

_
cos
_
n
2
2
n
2
sin
2

ncos 2
and E
t
R
and E
t
L
are the vector amplitudes of the refracted rays at
the refraction points. It is readily seen that the GO eld expression
becomes innity at the points F
1
and F
2
as are expected. According
to Maslovs method, the expressions for the eld that is valid near the
caustic for RCP and LCP elds are given by [10, 11].
E
R
(x, y, z) =
n
1
k
2
_
T
0
_
2
0
E
t
R
(, )
_
Q
1t
()

U
1
Q
1t
PQ
1z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
1
k
_
K
1
()r sinsin
0
cos(
0
)
__
exp
_
jn
1
k
_
(n+K
1
() cos )zK
1
()( sin+ cos )
__
dd (24a)
E
L
(x, y, z) =
n
2
k
2
_
T
0
_
2
0
E
t
L
(, )
_
Q
2t
()

U
2
Q
2t
PQ
2z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
2
k
_
K
2
()r sinsin
0
cos(
0
)
__
exp
_
jn
2
k
_
(n + K
2
() cos )z K
2
()( sin + cos )
__
dd (24b)
Subtended angle T of lens is given by
T = arctan
_
1

n 1
a
_
(n + 1)a
2
+ (n 1)f
2
_
The transmitted eld for RCP eld by lens at dielectric-chiral interface
is related with the incident eld by the relation [21].
E
t
R
=

T E
1
=
_
T
R
i
t

i
i

+ T
R
i
t

i
i

_
E
1
(25)
where

T denotes the dyadic transmission coecients. The subscripts
, denotes components with respect to the plane of incidence, and
subscripts t, i represents transmitted and incident waves, respectively
E
t
R
=
_
T
R
sin
2
+
_
nsin
2
+ cos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

_
T
R
cos
2

_
i
x
sin cos
_
T
R
+
_
nsin
2
+ cos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

_
T
R
_
i
y
+T
R
_
ncos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

_
sincos i
z
(26)
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 75
where
T
R
=
2n(E
1
E
2
)
+ Z
T
c11
, T
R
=
2n(E
1
+ E
2
)
+ Z
T
c12
The integration with respect to may be carried out using the integral
representation of Bessel function. The results are expressed as
E
Rx
=
n
1
k
2
_
P
R
(r,
0
) R
R
(r,
0
) cos 2
0
)
_
(27)
E
Ry
=
n
1
k
2
[Q
R
(r,
0
) sin2
0
] (28)
E
Rz
= jn
1
k[R
R
(r,
0
) sin
0
(29)
where
P
R
(r,
0
) =
_
T
0
_
T
R
+
_
nsin
2
+ cos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

_
T
R
_
J
0
(n
1
kK
1
()r sin
0
sin)
_
Q
1t
()

U
1
Q
1t
PQ
1z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
1
k
_
(n+K() cos )zK
1
()( sin+ cos )
__
d
Q
R
(r,
0
) =
_
T
0
_
_
T
R
(ncos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2
)
_
sin
_
J
1
(n
1
kK
1
()r sin
0
sin)
_
Q
1t
()

U
1
Q
1t
PQ
1z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
1
k
_
(n+K
1
() cos )z K
1
()( sin+ cos )
__
d
R
R
(r,
0
) =
_
T
0
_
_
T
R
+ (nsin
2
+ cos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2
)T
R
_
J
2
(n
1
kK
1
()r sin
0
sin)
_
Q
1t
()

U
1
Q
1t
PQ
1z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
1
k
_
(n+K
1
() cos )zK
1
()( sin+ cos )
__
d
The transmitted eld for LCP eld by lens at dielectric-chiral interface
is related with the incident eld by the relation [21]
E
t
L
=

T E
2
=
_
T
R
i
t

i
i

+ T
R
i
t

i
i

_
E
2
(30a)
76 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi
E
t
L
=
_
T
L
sin
2
+
_
nsin
2
+ cos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

_
T
L
cos
2

_
i
x
sin cos
_
T
L
+
_
nsin
2
+ cos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

_
T
L
_
i
y
+T
L
_
ncos
_
n
2
1
n
2
sin
2

_
sincos i
z
(30b)
where
T
L
=
2n(E
1
E
2
)
+ Z
T
c21
, T
L
=
2n(E
1
+ E
2
)
+ Z
T
c22
The integration with respect to again carried out and the results are
E
Lx
=
n
2
k
2
_
P
L
(r,
0
) R
L
(r,
0
) cos 2
0
)
_
(31)
E
Ly
=
n
2
k
2
[Q
L
(r,
0
) sin2
0
] (32)
E
Lz
= jn
2
k[R
L
(r,
0
) sin
0
(33)
where
P
L
(r,
0
) =
_
T
0
_
T
L
+
_
nsin
2
+ cos
_
n
2
2
n
2
sin
2

_
T
L
_
J
0
(n
2
kK
2
()r sin
0
sin)
_
Q
2t
()

U
2
Q
2t
PQ
2z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
2
k
_
(n+K
2
() cos )zK
2
()( sin+ cos )
__
d
Q
L
(r,
0
) =
_
T
0
_
_
T
L
_
ncos
_
n
2
2
n
2
sin
2

_
_
sin
_
J
1
(n
2
kK
2
()r sin
0
sin)
_
Q
2t
()

U
2
Q
2t
PQ
2z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
2
k
_
(n+K
2
() cos )zK
2
()( sin+ cos )
__
d
R
L
(r,
0
) =
_
T
0
_
_
T
L
+
_
nsin
2
+ cos
_
1 n
2
sin
2

_
T
L
_
J
2
(n
2
kK
2
()r sin
0
sin)
_
Q
2t
()

U
2
Q
2t
PQ
2z
_1
2
exp
_
jn
2
k
_
(n+K
2
() cos )zK
2
()( sin+ cos )
__
d
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 77

Figure 2. Field intensity around
focal point along z-axis for RCP at
ka = 10, kf = 10.
Figure 3. Field intensity around
focal point along z-axis for RCP
at ka = 100, kf = 100.
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this section, above analytical Expressions (27)(29) and (31)(33)
are used in calculating refracted electromagnetic eld of dielectric plano
convex lens placed in chiral medium for RCP and LCP by solving
numerically. All the equations give similar results but we will present
here results obtained from Equations (27)and (31). This problem
has been studied by Hongo using Maslovs method for focussing of
plano convex lens placed in free space [21]. Our expressions reduces
to Hongo results at = 0 which verify validity of our expressions.
Incident electric elds are assumed to be plane waves RCP and LCP.
The dielectric lens has refractive index 2.5. Field intensity of LCP and
RCP waves are obtained for dierent chirality parameters = 0.0,
0.005, 0.02 and 0.1.
Figure 2 represents the response for case of eld intensity
distribution around focal region of RCP eld along z-axis at ka = 10
and kf = 10, = 0 (solid line), = 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02
(dashed line) and = 0.1 (dotted line). Figure 3 represents the
response for case of eld intensity distribution around focal point of
RCP along z-axis at = 0 (solid line), = 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02
(dashed line) and = 0.1 (dotted line), ka = 100 and kf = 100.
Figure 4 represents the response for case of eld intensity distribution
around focal region of RCP eld along z-axis at = 0 (solid line),
= 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02 (dashed line) and = 0.1 (dotted
line), ka = 100 and kf = 200. Figure 5 represents the response for case
of eld intensity distribution around focal region of RCP eld along
z-axis at = 0 (solid line), = 0.005 (dadot line), = 0.02 (dashed
line) and = 0.1 (dotted line), ka = 100 and kf = 100.
78 Ghaar, Naz, and Naqvi
Figure 4. Field intensity around
focal point along z-axis for RCP
at ka = 100, kf = 200.
Figure 5. Field intensity around
focal point along z-axis for LCP
waves at ka = 100, kf = 100.
Figure 6. Comparison of eld intensity around focal point at ka =
100, kf = 100 between RCP (Solid) and LCP (dotted) waves.
Figure 6 represents the response for cases of comparison eld
intensity distribution around focal region of LCP wave (dadot line)
and RCP wave (solid line) along z-axis with variations of chirality
parameters = 0.005, = 0.02 and = 0.1, ka = 100 and kf = 100
respectively.
We have imposed the condition for impedance matching for = Z.
At this condition there are no reected waves in chiral medium, and all
the eld is transmitted into dielectric plano convex lens. This occurs
for =
1
when
1
= +
1

2
. It is concluded from Figure 3
to Figure 6. that eld intensity decreases as chirality parameters
increase.The variation in eld behaviors also observed by replacing
dierent dielectric lens. The comparison of LCP wave and RCP wave
show that focal region of RCP wave is displaced toward lens and focal
region of LCP wave is displaced away from lens. It is also observed
that eld intensity of LCP wave is smaller than RCP wave.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 2012 79
7. CONCLUSION
Explicit analytical expressions have been obtained around the caustic
region of plano convex lens placed in chiral medium. Eect of
chiral-dielectric and dielectric-chiral interfaces have been studied using
Maslovs method in the focal region of plano convex lens. The eect
of chirality on the amplitude of transmitted eld by lens in caustic
region are shown and discussed. It is observed that eld intensity in
the caustic region of a plano convex lens decreases by increasing the
chirality parameter. This study is helpful for remote sensing as a sensor
and its practical interest is emerging from an engineering applications
viewpoint. In remote sensing, the vegetation layer can be design as
chiral lens. These results obtained can be used to analyze radar data
from such vegetation layers and to obtain the physical properties of
the layers.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors would like to thank Higher Education Commission (HEC) for
startup research grant under IPFP.
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