List of states with nuclear weapons

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Map of nuclear weapons countries of the world. NPT nuclear-weapon States (China, France, Russia, UK, USA) Other States with nuclear weapons (India, Pakistan, North Korea) Other States believed to have nuclear weapons (Israel) NATO nuclear weapons sharing states States suspected of having a nuclear weapons program (Iran, Syria) States formerly possessing nuclear weapons (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, South Africa)

There are currently eight states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear-weapon states" (NWS) under the terms of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, Russia (successor state to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China. Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. Since the NPT entered into force in 1970, three states that were not parties to the Treaty have conductednuclear tests, namely India, Pakistan, and North Korea. North Korea had been a party to the NPT but withdrew in 2003. Israel is also widely believed to have nuclear weapons, though it has refused to confirm or deny this, and is not known to have conducted a nuclear test.[1] South Africa has the unique status of a nation that developed nuclear weapons but has since disassembled its arsenal before joining the NPT.

Radiological By country Albania Algeria Argentina Australia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada China France Germany India Libya Mexico Netherlands North Korea Pakistan Poland Romania Russia Saudi Arabia South Africa Sweden Syria .      1 Statistics 2 Five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT 3 Other states declaring they have nuclear weapons 4 Other states believed to have nuclear weapons 5 Nuclear weapons sharing 6 States formerly possessing nuclear weapons o     6. Nuclear.1 Former Soviet countries 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links [edit]Statistics Weapons of mass destruction By type Biological. Chemical.

This list is informally known in global politics as the "Nuclear Club. in some cases quite unreliable estimates.[2] As of 2009. rather than deployed. and the year they tested their first weapon. under the SORT treaty thousands of Russian and U.000 active nuclear warheads and more than 22. Chemical.Iran Iraq Israel Japan Taiwan (ROC) Ukraine United Kingdom United States Proliferation Biological. Many of the decommissioned weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled. nuclear warheads are in inactive stockpiles awaiting processing.[citation needed] Country Warheads active/total[nb 1] Year of first test CTBT status[3] . Nuclear. the approximate number of warheads under their control. Also.S. the total number was expected to continue to decline by 30%–50% over the next decade. Missiles Treaties List of treaties Book · Category  v  d  e The following is a list of states that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons. these figures represent total warheads possessed. From a high of 65." With the exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected their nuclear forces to independent verification under various treaties) these figures are estimates. not destroyed.000 active weapons in 1985. The fissile material contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors. In particular. there are now nearly 8.000 total nuclear warheads in the world in 2010.

a. / 80–200[4][5] possibly 1979 (See Vela Incident) Signatory nuclear-weapon states under the NPT See also: History of nuclear weapons . / 80–100[4] 1974 ("Smiling Buddha") Non-signatory Pakistan n.000[4] 1949 ("RDS-1") Ratifier United Kingdom 160 / 225[4] 1952 ("Hurricane") Ratifier France 290 / 300[4] 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue") Ratifier China 180 / 240[4] 1964 ("596") Signatory Non-NPT nuclear powers India n.a. / <10[4] 2006 (2006 test) Non-signatory Undeclared nuclear powers Israel [edit]Five n.a. / 90–110[4] 1998 ("Chagai-I") Non-signatory North Korea n.a.The five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT United States 1.430 / 11.950 / 8.500[4] 1945 ("Trinity") Signatory Russia (former Union) Soviet 2.

1945–2006 A Trident missile launched from a Royal Navy Vanguard class ballistic missile submarine . and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles. the first nuclear explosion.An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball. 1945 U.S.

in a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during and after World War II (see: Soviet atomic bomb project). After its dissolution in 1991. out of the fear that Nazi Germany would develop them first.French nuclear-powered aircraft carrierCharles de Gaulle (right) and the American nuclear-powered carrier USS Enterprise(left). with a theoretical yield of 100 megatons. Throughout the Cold War it continued to modernize and enlarge its nuclear arsenal. during the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[10] At its maximum. ("Tsar Bomba"). each of which carries nuclear-capable fighter aircraft  United States Main articles: Nuclear weapons and the United States and United States and weapons of mass destruction The United States developed the first atomic weapons during World War II in co-operation with the United Kingdom and Canada as part of the Manhattan Project. testing an experimental version in 1952 ("Ivy Mike") and a deployable weapon in 1954 ("Castle Bravo"). and remains the only country to have used nuclear weapons against another nation.[9] . but from 1992 on has been involved primarily in a program of Stockpile stewardship. The direct motivation for their weapons development was to achieve a balance of power during the Cold War.000 warheads (in 1988). the Soviet nuclear arsenal is estimated to have contained some 45. It was the first nation to develop the hydrogen bomb.[6][7][8] At its Cold War height. intentionally reduced to 50 when detonated. It tested the first nuclear weapon in 1945 ("Trinity"). the US nuclear arsenal is estimated to have contained over 32.000 warheads (in 1966). The USSR was the second nation to have developed and tested a nuclear weapon.[9]  Soviet Union / Russian Federation Main article: Russia and weapons of mass destruction The Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon ("Joe-1") in 1949. It tested its first megaton-range hydrogen bomb ("RDS-37") in 1955. the Soviet weapons entered officially into the possession of the Russian Federation. The Soviet Union also tested the most powerful explosive ever detonated by humans.

However new nuclear weapons are in development and reformed nuclear squadrons were trained during Enduring Freedom operations in Afghanistan.  France Main article: France and weapons of mass destruction France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue"). Its programme was motivated to have an independent deterrent against the USSR. United Kingdom Main articles: Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom and United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon ("Hurricane") in 1952. It tested its first hydrogen bomb("Test . while also maintaining its status as a great power. It was motivated by the Suez Crisis diplomatic tension vis-à-vis both the USSR and the Free World allies United States and United Kingdom. Two years later.[13]  China Main article: People's Republic of China and weapons of mass destruction China tested its first nuclear weapon device ("596") in 1964 at the Lop Nur test site. China had a fission bomb capable of being put onto a nuclear missile. alongside the United Kingdom. President Jacques Chiracstated a terrorist act or the use of weapons of mass destruction against France would result in a nuclear counterattack. After the Cold War. The United Kingdom was the third country in the world after the USA and USSR to develop and test a nuclear weapon. It currently maintains a fleet of four'Vanguard' class ballistic missile submarines equipped with Trident II SLBMs. based mostly on its own research. The British government announced a replacement to the current system to take place between 2007-2024. France tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968 ("Opération Canopus"). drawing largely on data gained while collaborating with the United States during the Manhattan Project. during the post-colonial Cold War (see: Force de frappe). In January 2006. It was also relevant to retain great power status. making it the third country to do so after the USA and USSR. The weapon was developed as a deterrent against both the United States and the Soviet Union.[11][12] The UK maintained a fleet of V bomberstrategic bombers and ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) equipped with nuclear weapons during the Cold War. France has disarmed 175 warheads with the reduction and modernization of its arsenal that has now evolved to a dual system based on submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) and medium-range air-to-surface missiles (Rafale fighter-bombers). It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957 (Operation Grapple).

[14] The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of around 240 warheads. and created new questions about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to weapons purposes (dual-use technology). smaller stockpile with global range (medium blue).-India nuclear cooperation agreement in July .[19] But it was not until 1998 that India tested weaponized nuclear warheads ("Operation Shakti"). President George W. a mere 32 months after testing its first nuclear weapon (the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history). (June 2009) Large stockpile with global range (dark blue).S. The test was the first test developed after the creation of the NPT. Please see the talk page for more information. Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced plans to conclude an Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement.[18] [edit]Other states declaring they have nuclear weapons Parts of this article (those related to section) are outdated. that had supplied its nuclear reactors for peaceful and power generating needs. Congress in December 2006.[21] This came to fruition through a series of steps that included India’s announced plan to separate its civil and military nuclear programs in March 2006. It appears to have been primarily motivated as a general deterrent. small stockpile with regional range (pale blue)  India Main article: India and weapons of mass destruction India is not a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. the conclusion of a U.[15][16][17] China is the only NPT nuclear-weapon state to give an unqualified negative security assurance due to its "no first use" policy. such as Canada.S. estimates range from 100 to 400. it apparently weaponized two dozen nuclear weapons for delivery by air between 1988 and 1990.No. though because of the limited information available. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. India's secret development caused great concern and anger particularly from nations. India tested what it called a "peaceful nuclear explosive" in 1974 (which became known as "Smiling Buddha"). as well as an attempt to project India as a regional power.[20] In July 2005. U.S.[22] the passage of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act by the U. Though India maintained that its nuclear capability was primarily "peaceful". including a thermonuclear device. 6") in 1967.

[30] As of June 2011. and Libya.[25] approval by the U. the Nuclear Suppliers Group reserved the right to consult on any future issues which might trouble it.2007. 2003. construction or operation of sensitive nuclear technologies through the transfer of dual-use items.-India agreement for civil nuclear cooperation[27] in October 2008.[32]  North Korea Main article: North Korea and weapons of mass destruction North Korea was a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.S. when sanctions were imposed under the Pressler Amendment. Khan had been selling gas centrifuge technology to North Korea. in response to the five tests conducted by India a few weeks before. In particular. beginning in the late 1970s. but this has been called into question by journalists and IAEA officials. The U. Khan.[31] In 1998. Khan denied complicity by the Pakistani government or Army.S. a key figure in Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.[28] The United States is bound by the Hyde Act with India and may cease all cooperation with India if India detonates a nuclear explosive device. confessed to heading an international black market ring involved in selling nuclear weapons technology. Iran. Congress[26] and culminating in the signature of U.[4]  Pakistan Main article: Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction Pakistan also is not a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Pakistan covertly developed nuclear weapons over many decades.[24] agreement by theNuclear Suppliers Group to a waiver of export restrictions for India. and was later contradicted by statements from Khan himself. the Pakistani metallurgist A.Q.S. Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto promised in 1965 that if India can build nuclear weapons then Pakistan would too. State Department said it made it "very clear that we will not recognize India as a nuclearweapon state".[29] In establishing an exemption for India. but announced a withdrawal on January 10. In 2004. "even if we have to eat grass. Over the years. Pakistan has developed into a crucial nuclear power.S. India was estimated to have had a stockpile of around 80–100 warheads. after the United States accused it of having a secret uranium enrichment program ." The United States continued to certify that Pakistan did not possess nuclear weapons until 1990.[23] approval by the IAEA of an India-specific safeguards agreement. Pakistan conducted its firstsix nuclear tests at the Chagai Hills. economic and military assistance to Pakistan. requiring a cutoff of U. The US had further said it is not its intention to assist India in the design. Pakistan first delved into nuclear power after the establishment of its first nuclear power plant near Karachi with equipment and materials supplied mainly by western nations in the early 1970s.

In February 2005 the North Koreans claimed to possess functional nuclear weapons. which is sufficient to start deuterium-tritium fusion in the boost gas at the center.[33] The yield may have been less than a kiloton. and mere possession would be excluded from the pledge. Israeli Ambassador to the US Yitzhak Rabin informed the United States State Department that "introducing" nuclear weapons would constitute testing and public declaration. However.[35] There is extensive evidence Israel has nuclear weapons or a . Most U. North Korea conducted a second. however. 1986. however. it would conduct a nuclear test to confirm its nuclear status. higher yield test on May 25. North Korea reported a successful nuclear test on October 9. but engages in strategic ambiguity by refusing to confirm or deny a nuclear weapons program or arsenal.S. which is much smaller than the first successful tests of other powers. most agree that the test was probably only partially successful. though their lack of a test at the time led many experts to doubt the claim. boosted fission weapons may have an unboosted yield in this range. 2006 (see 2006 North Korean nuclear test). test a nuclear device due to radioactive isotopes detected by U. in fact. in October 2006."  Israel Main article: Nuclear weapons and Israel Israel is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[34] In the late 1960s.and cut off energy assistance under the 1994 Agreed Framework.S. the fast neutrons from fusion then ensure a full fission yield. 2009 (see 2009 North Korean nuclear test). [edit]Other states believed to have nuclear weapons On October 5. the Britishnewspaper The Sunday Times ranMordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed – the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal. aircraft. North Korea stated that due to growing intimidation by the USA. Israel has pledged not to be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons into the region. This policy of "nuclear opacity" has been interpreted as an attempt to get the benefits of deterrence with a minimum political cost. intelligence officials believe that North Korea did.

"[40] [edit]Nuclear weapons sharing Nuclear weapons states sharing states Nuclear None of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones the above.[39][5] Imagery analysts can identify weapon bunkers. U.[37][38] According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Federation of American Scientists. theNetherlands. warplanes to deliver U. handling.[42] This involves pilots and other staff of the "non-nuclear" NATO states practicing. South Korea until 1991. Under NATO nuclear weapons sharing. Turkey Italy.S. nuclear bombs.[43] Members of theNon-Aligned Movement have called on all countries to "refrain from nuclear sharing for military purposes under any kind of security arrangements. former US President Jimmy Carter stated that "Israel has 150 or more [nuclear weapons]. but this has never been confirmed.[41] Germany. and interpretation of the Vela Incident is controversial.S. Germany. Israel likely possesses around 75–200 nuclear weapons. nuclear bombs. and in Greece until 2001 for nuclear sharing purposes.near-ready nuclear weapons capability.[41] and Turkey[41] to deploy and store. Israel may have tested a nuclear weapon along with South Africa in 1979. and delivering the U. mobile missile launchers.S. and launch sites in satellite photographs. but party to NPT  Belgium. and adapting non-U.[41] Italy.S. The stated purpose of the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona is to advance basic nuclear science and applied research on nuclear energy." [44] The Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI) has criticized the arrangement for allegedly violating . nuclear weapons were also deployed in Canada until 1984. Netherlands. the United States has provided nuclear weapons for Belgium.[36] Extensive information about the program in Dimona was disclosed by technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986.[citation needed] In May 2008.

nuclear weapons based in Europe are in the sole possession and under constant and complete custody and control of the United States.S."[45] NATO has argued that the weapons' sharing is compliant with the NPT because "the U. Spare bomb casings from South Africa's nuclear weapon program  South Africa Main article: South Africa and weapons of mass destruction South Africa produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s. left several former Soviet republics in possession of nuclear weapons. there was a putative detection of a clandestine nuclear test in the Indian Ocean. but disassembled them in the early 1990s. though this has never been confirmed (see Vela Incident).[47] . In 1979. for example."[46] [edit]States formerly possessing nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons have been present in many nations. South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. in only one instance has a nation given up nuclear weapons after being in control of them. arguing that "these Articles do not permit the NWS to delegate the control of their nuclear weapons directly or indirectly to others. perhaps in collaboration with Israel.Articles I and II of the NPT. in most cases this has been because of special political circumstances. often as staging grounds under control of other powers. However. and it has long been speculated that it was possibly a test by South Africa. The fall of the USSR.

and transferred them all to Russia by 1995. Ukraine inherited about 5. Belarus has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. making its nuclear arsenal the thirdlargest in the world. They were all transferred to Russia by 1996.400 nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union.000 nuclear weapons when it became independent from the USSR in 1991.[48]  Kazakhstan inherited 1. Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all nuclear weapons within its territory.[edit]Former  Soviet countries Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed on its territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.[51] [edit]See also .[49]  Ukraine has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[50] By 1996. transferring them to Russia. Kazakhstan has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.