List of states with nuclear weapons

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Map of nuclear weapons countries of the world. NPT nuclear-weapon States (China, France, Russia, UK, USA) Other States with nuclear weapons (India, Pakistan, North Korea) Other States believed to have nuclear weapons (Israel) NATO nuclear weapons sharing states States suspected of having a nuclear weapons program (Iran, Syria) States formerly possessing nuclear weapons (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, South Africa)

There are currently eight states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear-weapon states" (NWS) under the terms of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, Russia (successor state to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China. Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. Since the NPT entered into force in 1970, three states that were not parties to the Treaty have conductednuclear tests, namely India, Pakistan, and North Korea. North Korea had been a party to the NPT but withdrew in 2003. Israel is also widely believed to have nuclear weapons, though it has refused to confirm or deny this, and is not known to have conducted a nuclear test.[1] South Africa has the unique status of a nation that developed nuclear weapons but has since disassembled its arsenal before joining the NPT.

Nuclear.      1 Statistics 2 Five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT 3 Other states declaring they have nuclear weapons 4 Other states believed to have nuclear weapons 5 Nuclear weapons sharing 6 States formerly possessing nuclear weapons o     6.1 Former Soviet countries 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links [edit]Statistics Weapons of mass destruction By type Biological. Chemical. Radiological By country Albania Algeria Argentina Australia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada China France Germany India Libya Mexico Netherlands North Korea Pakistan Poland Romania Russia Saudi Arabia South Africa Sweden Syria .

rather than deployed. there are now nearly 8. From a high of 65. the approximate number of warheads under their control. in some cases quite unreliable estimates.S. and the year they tested their first weapon. In particular. Chemical. The fissile material contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors.[2] As of 2009. Many of the decommissioned weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled. Nuclear. This list is informally known in global politics as the "Nuclear Club.000 active weapons in 1985. not destroyed. nuclear warheads are in inactive stockpiles awaiting processing.Iran Iraq Israel Japan Taiwan (ROC) Ukraine United Kingdom United States Proliferation Biological.000 active nuclear warheads and more than 22. under the SORT treaty thousands of Russian and U. the total number was expected to continue to decline by 30%–50% over the next decade. Missiles Treaties List of treaties Book · Category  v  d  e The following is a list of states that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons.[citation needed] Country Warheads active/total[nb 1] Year of first test CTBT status[3] .000 total nuclear warheads in the world in 2010." With the exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected their nuclear forces to independent verification under various treaties) these figures are estimates. Also. these figures represent total warheads possessed.

/ <10[4] 2006 (2006 test) Non-signatory Undeclared nuclear powers Israel [edit]Five n.The five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT United States 1.a. / 80–200[4][5] possibly 1979 (See Vela Incident) Signatory nuclear-weapon states under the NPT See also: History of nuclear weapons . / 80–100[4] 1974 ("Smiling Buddha") Non-signatory Pakistan n. / 90–110[4] 1998 ("Chagai-I") Non-signatory North Korea n.950 / 8.000[4] 1949 ("RDS-1") Ratifier United Kingdom 160 / 225[4] 1952 ("Hurricane") Ratifier France 290 / 300[4] 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue") Ratifier China 180 / 240[4] 1964 ("596") Signatory Non-NPT nuclear powers India n.430 / 11.a.a.500[4] 1945 ("Trinity") Signatory Russia (former Union) Soviet 2.a.

1945–2006 A Trident missile launched from a Royal Navy Vanguard class ballistic missile submarine . the first nuclear explosion.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles. 1945 U.An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball.

000 warheads (in 1988).[9] . After its dissolution in 1991. The direct motivation for their weapons development was to achieve a balance of power during the Cold War.French nuclear-powered aircraft carrierCharles de Gaulle (right) and the American nuclear-powered carrier USS Enterprise(left). The USSR was the second nation to have developed and tested a nuclear weapon. It tested its first megaton-range hydrogen bomb ("RDS-37") in 1955. It was the first nation to develop the hydrogen bomb.[9]  Soviet Union / Russian Federation Main article: Russia and weapons of mass destruction The Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon ("Joe-1") in 1949. out of the fear that Nazi Germany would develop them first. intentionally reduced to 50 when detonated.[6][7][8] At its Cold War height.000 warheads (in 1966).[10] At its maximum. the US nuclear arsenal is estimated to have contained over 32. testing an experimental version in 1952 ("Ivy Mike") and a deployable weapon in 1954 ("Castle Bravo"). and remains the only country to have used nuclear weapons against another nation. The Soviet Union also tested the most powerful explosive ever detonated by humans. but from 1992 on has been involved primarily in a program of Stockpile stewardship. the Soviet weapons entered officially into the possession of the Russian Federation. the Soviet nuclear arsenal is estimated to have contained some 45. It tested the first nuclear weapon in 1945 ("Trinity"). in a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during and after World War II (see: Soviet atomic bomb project). each of which carries nuclear-capable fighter aircraft  United States Main articles: Nuclear weapons and the United States and United States and weapons of mass destruction The United States developed the first atomic weapons during World War II in co-operation with the United Kingdom and Canada as part of the Manhattan Project. ("Tsar Bomba"). with a theoretical yield of 100 megatons. Throughout the Cold War it continued to modernize and enlarge its nuclear arsenal. during the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

China had a fission bomb capable of being put onto a nuclear missile. Its programme was motivated to have an independent deterrent against the USSR. Two years later. making it the third country to do so after the USA and USSR. In January 2006. based mostly on its own research. while also maintaining its status as a great power.[13]  China Main article: People's Republic of China and weapons of mass destruction China tested its first nuclear weapon device ("596") in 1964 at the Lop Nur test site. It was motivated by the Suez Crisis diplomatic tension vis-à-vis both the USSR and the Free World allies United States and United Kingdom. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957 (Operation Grapple). France has disarmed 175 warheads with the reduction and modernization of its arsenal that has now evolved to a dual system based on submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) and medium-range air-to-surface missiles (Rafale fighter-bombers). It was also relevant to retain great power status. drawing largely on data gained while collaborating with the United States during the Manhattan Project. The weapon was developed as a deterrent against both the United States and the Soviet Union. It currently maintains a fleet of four'Vanguard' class ballistic missile submarines equipped with Trident II SLBMs. President Jacques Chiracstated a terrorist act or the use of weapons of mass destruction against France would result in a nuclear counterattack. The United Kingdom was the third country in the world after the USA and USSR to develop and test a nuclear weapon. alongside the United Kingdom. It tested its first hydrogen bomb("Test . France tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968 ("Opération Canopus").[11][12] The UK maintained a fleet of V bomberstrategic bombers and ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) equipped with nuclear weapons during the Cold War. However new nuclear weapons are in development and reformed nuclear squadrons were trained during Enduring Freedom operations in Afghanistan. The British government announced a replacement to the current system to take place between 2007-2024.  France Main article: France and weapons of mass destruction France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue"). After the Cold War. during the post-colonial Cold War (see: Force de frappe). United Kingdom Main articles: Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom and United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon ("Hurricane") in 1952.

S. a mere 32 months after testing its first nuclear weapon (the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history). Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced plans to conclude an Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. President George W. that had supplied its nuclear reactors for peaceful and power generating needs. estimates range from 100 to 400. as well as an attempt to project India as a regional power. India's secret development caused great concern and anger particularly from nations. and created new questions about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to weapons purposes (dual-use technology). it apparently weaponized two dozen nuclear weapons for delivery by air between 1988 and 1990. the conclusion of a U. India tested what it called a "peaceful nuclear explosive" in 1974 (which became known as "Smiling Buddha").[21] This came to fruition through a series of steps that included India’s announced plan to separate its civil and military nuclear programs in March 2006. 6") in 1967. It appears to have been primarily motivated as a general deterrent.S. Congress in December 2006. including a thermonuclear device. U. (June 2009) Large stockpile with global range (dark blue).[14] The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of around 240 warheads. small stockpile with regional range (pale blue)  India Main article: India and weapons of mass destruction India is not a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.No.[18] [edit]Other states declaring they have nuclear weapons Parts of this article (those related to section) are outdated. such as Canada.-India nuclear cooperation agreement in July . The test was the first test developed after the creation of the NPT.[20] In July 2005. Though India maintained that its nuclear capability was primarily "peaceful". Please see the talk page for more information.[19] But it was not until 1998 that India tested weaponized nuclear warheads ("Operation Shakti"). though because of the limited information available.S.[22] the passage of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act by the U.[15][16][17] China is the only NPT nuclear-weapon state to give an unqualified negative security assurance due to its "no first use" policy. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. smaller stockpile with global range (medium blue).

confessed to heading an international black market ring involved in selling nuclear weapons technology. Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto promised in 1965 that if India can build nuclear weapons then Pakistan would too.[23] approval by the IAEA of an India-specific safeguards agreement. beginning in the late 1970s. construction or operation of sensitive nuclear technologies through the transfer of dual-use items. Over the years.[24] agreement by theNuclear Suppliers Group to a waiver of export restrictions for India. Congress[26] and culminating in the signature of U. State Department said it made it "very clear that we will not recognize India as a nuclearweapon state". the Nuclear Suppliers Group reserved the right to consult on any future issues which might trouble it. Iran. but this has been called into question by journalists and IAEA officials. In particular.S.[30] As of June 2011.2007.[31] In 1998.S. Khan. The U. a key figure in Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.[29] In establishing an exemption for India. "even if we have to eat grass. requiring a cutoff of U. after the United States accused it of having a secret uranium enrichment program . In 2004. and was later contradicted by statements from Khan himself. Khan denied complicity by the Pakistani government or Army. Khan had been selling gas centrifuge technology to North Korea. and Libya. The US had further said it is not its intention to assist India in the design. Pakistan has developed into a crucial nuclear power. Pakistan first delved into nuclear power after the establishment of its first nuclear power plant near Karachi with equipment and materials supplied mainly by western nations in the early 1970s.-India agreement for civil nuclear cooperation[27] in October 2008.[28] The United States is bound by the Hyde Act with India and may cease all cooperation with India if India detonates a nuclear explosive device.S." The United States continued to certify that Pakistan did not possess nuclear weapons until 1990.[32]  North Korea Main article: North Korea and weapons of mass destruction North Korea was a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. when sanctions were imposed under the Pressler Amendment. Pakistan covertly developed nuclear weapons over many decades.Q. in response to the five tests conducted by India a few weeks before. Pakistan conducted its firstsix nuclear tests at the Chagai Hills. India was estimated to have had a stockpile of around 80–100 warheads. the Pakistani metallurgist A.S.[25] approval by the U. but announced a withdrawal on January 10. economic and military assistance to Pakistan.[4]  Pakistan Main article: Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction Pakistan also is not a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. 2003.

[edit]Other states believed to have nuclear weapons On October 5. though their lack of a test at the time led many experts to doubt the claim. which is much smaller than the first successful tests of other powers. intelligence officials believe that North Korea did. boosted fission weapons may have an unboosted yield in this range. 2006 (see 2006 North Korean nuclear test). North Korea reported a successful nuclear test on October 9.[35] There is extensive evidence Israel has nuclear weapons or a ."  Israel Main article: Nuclear weapons and Israel Israel is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. North Korea stated that due to growing intimidation by the USA. This policy of "nuclear opacity" has been interpreted as an attempt to get the benefits of deterrence with a minimum political cost.and cut off energy assistance under the 1994 Agreed Framework. the fast neutrons from fusion then ensure a full fission yield. Israel has pledged not to be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons into the region. In February 2005 the North Koreans claimed to possess functional nuclear weapons. it would conduct a nuclear test to confirm its nuclear status.[34] In the late 1960s.[33] The yield may have been less than a kiloton. 1986. aircraft. North Korea conducted a second. in October 2006. most agree that the test was probably only partially successful. but engages in strategic ambiguity by refusing to confirm or deny a nuclear weapons program or arsenal. 2009 (see 2009 North Korean nuclear test). the Britishnewspaper The Sunday Times ranMordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed – the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal. test a nuclear device due to radioactive isotopes detected by U. Israeli Ambassador to the US Yitzhak Rabin informed the United States State Department that "introducing" nuclear weapons would constitute testing and public declaration.S.S. which is sufficient to start deuterium-tritium fusion in the boost gas at the center. and mere possession would be excluded from the pledge. Most U. However. however. higher yield test on May 25. in fact. however.

near-ready nuclear weapons capability. Israel may have tested a nuclear weapon along with South Africa in 1979. Netherlands. Turkey Italy. but this has never been confirmed. U. theNetherlands. Germany. former US President Jimmy Carter stated that "Israel has 150 or more [nuclear weapons].[citation needed] In May 2008. handling.S. the United States has provided nuclear weapons for Belgium.[42] This involves pilots and other staff of the "non-nuclear" NATO states practicing. nuclear bombs. warplanes to deliver U. and interpretation of the Vela Incident is controversial." [44] The Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI) has criticized the arrangement for allegedly violating . and delivering the U.S. Under NATO nuclear weapons sharing.[39][5] Imagery analysts can identify weapon bunkers.[43] Members of theNon-Aligned Movement have called on all countries to "refrain from nuclear sharing for military purposes under any kind of security arrangements. and in Greece until 2001 for nuclear sharing purposes. and adapting non-U.[41] Italy. and launch sites in satellite photographs. nuclear weapons were also deployed in Canada until 1984. but party to NPT  Belgium. The stated purpose of the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona is to advance basic nuclear science and applied research on nuclear energy.[41] and Turkey[41] to deploy and store.S. South Korea until 1991.[41] Germany.[36] Extensive information about the program in Dimona was disclosed by technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986."[40] [edit]Nuclear weapons sharing Nuclear weapons states sharing states Nuclear None of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones the above.[37][38] According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Federation of American Scientists. Israel likely possesses around 75–200 nuclear weapons.S. mobile missile launchers. nuclear bombs.

perhaps in collaboration with Israel.Articles I and II of the NPT. often as staging grounds under control of other powers. there was a putative detection of a clandestine nuclear test in the Indian Ocean.S. Spare bomb casings from South Africa's nuclear weapon program  South Africa Main article: South Africa and weapons of mass destruction South Africa produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s."[46] [edit]States formerly possessing nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons have been present in many nations. for example. in most cases this has been because of special political circumstances. arguing that "these Articles do not permit the NWS to delegate the control of their nuclear weapons directly or indirectly to others. South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. but disassembled them in the early 1990s. and it has long been speculated that it was possibly a test by South Africa. nuclear weapons based in Europe are in the sole possession and under constant and complete custody and control of the United States. in only one instance has a nation given up nuclear weapons after being in control of them.[47] . though this has never been confirmed (see Vela Incident). In 1979. The fall of the USSR. left several former Soviet republics in possession of nuclear weapons. However."[45] NATO has argued that the weapons' sharing is compliant with the NPT because "the U.

Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all nuclear weapons within its territory.[edit]Former  Soviet countries Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed on its territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. transferring them to Russia. Ukraine inherited about 5.[48]  Kazakhstan inherited 1. and transferred them all to Russia by 1995. Kazakhstan has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Belarus has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[50] By 1996.[49]  Ukraine has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. making its nuclear arsenal the thirdlargest in the world.000 nuclear weapons when it became independent from the USSR in 1991.[51] [edit]See also . They were all transferred to Russia by 1996.400 nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union.