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List of states with nuclear weapons

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Map of nuclear weapons countries of the world. NPT nuclear-weapon States (China, France, Russia, UK, USA) Other States with nuclear weapons (India, Pakistan, North Korea) Other States believed to have nuclear weapons (Israel) NATO nuclear weapons sharing states States suspected of having a nuclear weapons program (Iran, Syria) States formerly possessing nuclear weapons (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, South Africa)

There are currently eight states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear-weapon states" (NWS) under the terms of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, Russia (successor state to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China. Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. Since the NPT entered into force in 1970, three states that were not parties to the Treaty have conductednuclear tests, namely India, Pakistan, and North Korea. North Korea had been a party to the NPT but withdrew in 2003. Israel is also widely believed to have nuclear weapons, though it has refused to confirm or deny this, and is not known to have conducted a nuclear test.[1] South Africa has the unique status of a nation that developed nuclear weapons but has since disassembled its arsenal before joining the NPT.

Chemical. Nuclear. Radiological By country Albania Algeria Argentina Australia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada China France Germany India Libya Mexico Netherlands North Korea Pakistan Poland Romania Russia Saudi Arabia South Africa Sweden Syria .      1 Statistics 2 Five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT 3 Other states declaring they have nuclear weapons 4 Other states believed to have nuclear weapons 5 Nuclear weapons sharing 6 States formerly possessing nuclear weapons o     6.1 Former Soviet countries 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links [edit]Statistics Weapons of mass destruction By type Biological.

and the year they tested their first weapon.S.[citation needed] Country Warheads active/total[nb 1] Year of first test CTBT status[3] . This list is informally known in global politics as the "Nuclear Club." With the exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected their nuclear forces to independent verification under various treaties) these figures are estimates.Iran Iraq Israel Japan Taiwan (ROC) Ukraine United Kingdom United States Proliferation Biological. Nuclear. these figures represent total warheads possessed. the total number was expected to continue to decline by 30%–50% over the next decade. Missiles Treaties List of treaties Book · Category  v  d  e The following is a list of states that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons. The fissile material contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors. From a high of 65. Also.[2] As of 2009. rather than deployed.000 total nuclear warheads in the world in 2010.000 active weapons in 1985. In particular. Many of the decommissioned weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled. nuclear warheads are in inactive stockpiles awaiting processing. under the SORT treaty thousands of Russian and U.000 active nuclear warheads and more than 22. in some cases quite unreliable estimates. Chemical. there are now nearly 8. the approximate number of warheads under their control. not destroyed.

430 / 11. / 80–200[4][5] possibly 1979 (See Vela Incident) Signatory nuclear-weapon states under the NPT See also: History of nuclear weapons .950 / 8.a.500[4] 1945 ("Trinity") Signatory Russia (former Union) Soviet 2.The five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT United States 1. / 90–110[4] 1998 ("Chagai-I") Non-signatory North Korea n.a. / 80–100[4] 1974 ("Smiling Buddha") Non-signatory Pakistan n.000[4] 1949 ("RDS-1") Ratifier United Kingdom 160 / 225[4] 1952 ("Hurricane") Ratifier France 290 / 300[4] 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue") Ratifier China 180 / 240[4] 1964 ("596") Signatory Non-NPT nuclear powers India n.a.a. / <10[4] 2006 (2006 test) Non-signatory Undeclared nuclear powers Israel [edit]Five n.

1945 U.S. 1945–2006 A Trident missile launched from a Royal Navy Vanguard class ballistic missile submarine . the first nuclear explosion.An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles.

[9]  Soviet Union / Russian Federation Main article: Russia and weapons of mass destruction The Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon ("Joe-1") in 1949.000 warheads (in 1988). each of which carries nuclear-capable fighter aircraft  United States Main articles: Nuclear weapons and the United States and United States and weapons of mass destruction The United States developed the first atomic weapons during World War II in co-operation with the United Kingdom and Canada as part of the Manhattan Project. It tested its first megaton-range hydrogen bomb ("RDS-37") in 1955. The Soviet Union also tested the most powerful explosive ever detonated by humans. ("Tsar Bomba"). The direct motivation for their weapons development was to achieve a balance of power during the Cold War. during the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It was the first nation to develop the hydrogen bomb. in a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during and after World War II (see: Soviet atomic bomb project). It tested the first nuclear weapon in 1945 ("Trinity"). and remains the only country to have used nuclear weapons against another nation. the Soviet nuclear arsenal is estimated to have contained some 45. out of the fear that Nazi Germany would develop them first.000 warheads (in 1966).French nuclear-powered aircraft carrierCharles de Gaulle (right) and the American nuclear-powered carrier USS Enterprise(left). testing an experimental version in 1952 ("Ivy Mike") and a deployable weapon in 1954 ("Castle Bravo"). Throughout the Cold War it continued to modernize and enlarge its nuclear arsenal. with a theoretical yield of 100 megatons. the Soviet weapons entered officially into the possession of the Russian Federation.[10] At its maximum.[6][7][8] At its Cold War height. The USSR was the second nation to have developed and tested a nuclear weapon. the US nuclear arsenal is estimated to have contained over 32. After its dissolution in 1991.[9] . but from 1992 on has been involved primarily in a program of Stockpile stewardship. intentionally reduced to 50 when detonated.

[13]  China Main article: People's Republic of China and weapons of mass destruction China tested its first nuclear weapon device ("596") in 1964 at the Lop Nur test site. Two years later. while also maintaining its status as a great power. It tested its first hydrogen bomb("Test . China had a fission bomb capable of being put onto a nuclear missile. After the Cold War. However new nuclear weapons are in development and reformed nuclear squadrons were trained during Enduring Freedom operations in Afghanistan. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957 (Operation Grapple). In January 2006. France has disarmed 175 warheads with the reduction and modernization of its arsenal that has now evolved to a dual system based on submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) and medium-range air-to-surface missiles (Rafale fighter-bombers). alongside the United Kingdom. France tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968 ("Opération Canopus"). during the post-colonial Cold War (see: Force de frappe). United Kingdom Main articles: Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom and United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon ("Hurricane") in 1952.[11][12] The UK maintained a fleet of V bomberstrategic bombers and ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) equipped with nuclear weapons during the Cold War. President Jacques Chiracstated a terrorist act or the use of weapons of mass destruction against France would result in a nuclear counterattack. The British government announced a replacement to the current system to take place between 2007-2024. The weapon was developed as a deterrent against both the United States and the Soviet Union. Its programme was motivated to have an independent deterrent against the USSR. It currently maintains a fleet of four'Vanguard' class ballistic missile submarines equipped with Trident II SLBMs. It was also relevant to retain great power status. The United Kingdom was the third country in the world after the USA and USSR to develop and test a nuclear weapon. based mostly on its own research.  France Main article: France and weapons of mass destruction France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue"). making it the third country to do so after the USA and USSR. drawing largely on data gained while collaborating with the United States during the Manhattan Project. It was motivated by the Suez Crisis diplomatic tension vis-à-vis both the USSR and the Free World allies United States and United Kingdom.

smaller stockpile with global range (medium blue). Though India maintained that its nuclear capability was primarily "peaceful".[15][16][17] China is the only NPT nuclear-weapon state to give an unqualified negative security assurance due to its "no first use" policy. Please see the talk page for more information. 6") in 1967. such as Canada.[22] the passage of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act by the U. a mere 32 months after testing its first nuclear weapon (the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history). Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.S. though because of the limited information available.S.S.[19] But it was not until 1998 that India tested weaponized nuclear warheads ("Operation Shakti").[21] This came to fruition through a series of steps that included India’s announced plan to separate its civil and military nuclear programs in March 2006. (June 2009) Large stockpile with global range (dark blue).-India nuclear cooperation agreement in July . and created new questions about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to weapons purposes (dual-use technology). It appears to have been primarily motivated as a general deterrent. India tested what it called a "peaceful nuclear explosive" in 1974 (which became known as "Smiling Buddha"). U. it apparently weaponized two dozen nuclear weapons for delivery by air between 1988 and 1990. The test was the first test developed after the creation of the NPT. small stockpile with regional range (pale blue)  India Main article: India and weapons of mass destruction India is not a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. President George W. Congress in December 2006. as well as an attempt to project India as a regional power. Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced plans to conclude an Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement.[20] In July 2005.No. including a thermonuclear device. that had supplied its nuclear reactors for peaceful and power generating needs. India's secret development caused great concern and anger particularly from nations. estimates range from 100 to 400.[18] [edit]Other states declaring they have nuclear weapons Parts of this article (those related to section) are outdated.[14] The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of around 240 warheads. the conclusion of a U.

S.2007.[4]  Pakistan Main article: Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction Pakistan also is not a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. when sanctions were imposed under the Pressler Amendment. but announced a withdrawal on January 10. after the United States accused it of having a secret uranium enrichment program ." The United States continued to certify that Pakistan did not possess nuclear weapons until 1990. 2003.[30] As of June 2011. Over the years. economic and military assistance to Pakistan. the Pakistani metallurgist A.S. Khan. In particular.S. Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto promised in 1965 that if India can build nuclear weapons then Pakistan would too. State Department said it made it "very clear that we will not recognize India as a nuclearweapon state".[32]  North Korea Main article: North Korea and weapons of mass destruction North Korea was a Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. in response to the five tests conducted by India a few weeks before. Iran. The U. a key figure in Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. and was later contradicted by statements from Khan himself. requiring a cutoff of U. India was estimated to have had a stockpile of around 80–100 warheads. beginning in the late 1970s. Congress[26] and culminating in the signature of U. Pakistan covertly developed nuclear weapons over many decades. the Nuclear Suppliers Group reserved the right to consult on any future issues which might trouble it. In 2004. Khan denied complicity by the Pakistani government or Army. and Libya.[23] approval by the IAEA of an India-specific safeguards agreement. Pakistan has developed into a crucial nuclear power. The US had further said it is not its intention to assist India in the design. confessed to heading an international black market ring involved in selling nuclear weapons technology. Khan had been selling gas centrifuge technology to North Korea.[29] In establishing an exemption for India.S.Q.[28] The United States is bound by the Hyde Act with India and may cease all cooperation with India if India detonates a nuclear explosive device.[31] In 1998. construction or operation of sensitive nuclear technologies through the transfer of dual-use items.[24] agreement by theNuclear Suppliers Group to a waiver of export restrictions for India.-India agreement for civil nuclear cooperation[27] in October 2008.[25] approval by the U. Pakistan first delved into nuclear power after the establishment of its first nuclear power plant near Karachi with equipment and materials supplied mainly by western nations in the early 1970s. Pakistan conducted its firstsix nuclear tests at the Chagai Hills. but this has been called into question by journalists and IAEA officials. "even if we have to eat grass.

intelligence officials believe that North Korea did. but engages in strategic ambiguity by refusing to confirm or deny a nuclear weapons program or arsenal. in fact.and cut off energy assistance under the 1994 Agreed Framework. higher yield test on May 25. which is much smaller than the first successful tests of other powers.[33] The yield may have been less than a kiloton. in October 2006. it would conduct a nuclear test to confirm its nuclear status. however. 2009 (see 2009 North Korean nuclear test). However.[34] In the late 1960s. [edit]Other states believed to have nuclear weapons On October 5. aircraft.[35] There is extensive evidence Israel has nuclear weapons or a . most agree that the test was probably only partially successful. This policy of "nuclear opacity" has been interpreted as an attempt to get the benefits of deterrence with a minimum political cost. Most U. Israeli Ambassador to the US Yitzhak Rabin informed the United States State Department that "introducing" nuclear weapons would constitute testing and public declaration. 2006 (see 2006 North Korean nuclear test). and mere possession would be excluded from the pledge. 1986. North Korea stated that due to growing intimidation by the USA. which is sufficient to start deuterium-tritium fusion in the boost gas at the center. however. Israel has pledged not to be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons into the region. boosted fission weapons may have an unboosted yield in this range. the Britishnewspaper The Sunday Times ranMordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed – the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal. North Korea conducted a second.S. In February 2005 the North Koreans claimed to possess functional nuclear weapons. North Korea reported a successful nuclear test on October 9. the fast neutrons from fusion then ensure a full fission yield. though their lack of a test at the time led many experts to doubt the claim. test a nuclear device due to radioactive isotopes detected by U."  Israel Main article: Nuclear weapons and Israel Israel is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.S.

S.[citation needed] In May 2008. Netherlands. and adapting non-U. Israel may have tested a nuclear weapon along with South Africa in 1979. former US President Jimmy Carter stated that "Israel has 150 or more [nuclear weapons]." [44] The Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI) has criticized the arrangement for allegedly violating .S. handling.[43] Members of theNon-Aligned Movement have called on all countries to "refrain from nuclear sharing for military purposes under any kind of security arrangements.[41] Italy.[37][38] According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Federation of American Scientists. South Korea until 1991. Under NATO nuclear weapons sharing.[39][5] Imagery analysts can identify weapon bunkers. nuclear bombs. and interpretation of the Vela Incident is controversial. Germany. The stated purpose of the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona is to advance basic nuclear science and applied research on nuclear energy. the United States has provided nuclear weapons for Belgium. theNetherlands. but this has never been confirmed. warplanes to deliver U. and launch sites in satellite photographs.[42] This involves pilots and other staff of the "non-nuclear" NATO states practicing."[40] [edit]Nuclear weapons sharing Nuclear weapons states sharing states Nuclear None of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones the above. and in Greece until 2001 for nuclear sharing purposes. U.[41] Germany. but party to NPT  Belgium.S. Israel likely possesses around 75–200 nuclear weapons.near-ready nuclear weapons capability. nuclear weapons were also deployed in Canada until 1984. and delivering the U. nuclear bombs.S.[41] and Turkey[41] to deploy and store. Turkey Italy.[36] Extensive information about the program in Dimona was disclosed by technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986. mobile missile launchers.

nuclear weapons based in Europe are in the sole possession and under constant and complete custody and control of the United States.Articles I and II of the NPT."[45] NATO has argued that the weapons' sharing is compliant with the NPT because "the U.[47] . but disassembled them in the early 1990s. and it has long been speculated that it was possibly a test by South Africa. though this has never been confirmed (see Vela Incident). However. perhaps in collaboration with Israel.S. in most cases this has been because of special political circumstances. often as staging grounds under control of other powers. South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. in only one instance has a nation given up nuclear weapons after being in control of them. In 1979. The fall of the USSR. for example."[46] [edit]States formerly possessing nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons have been present in many nations. Spare bomb casings from South Africa's nuclear weapon program  South Africa Main article: South Africa and weapons of mass destruction South Africa produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s. left several former Soviet republics in possession of nuclear weapons. arguing that "these Articles do not permit the NWS to delegate the control of their nuclear weapons directly or indirectly to others. there was a putative detection of a clandestine nuclear test in the Indian Ocean.

Kazakhstan has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Ukraine inherited about 5.[50] By 1996. Belarus has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all nuclear weapons within its territory. and transferred them all to Russia by 1995.000 nuclear weapons when it became independent from the USSR in 1991.400 nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union.[48]  Kazakhstan inherited 1. making its nuclear arsenal the thirdlargest in the world.[edit]Former  Soviet countries Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed on its territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.[51] [edit]See also .[49]  Ukraine has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. transferring them to Russia. They were all transferred to Russia by 1996.