Introduction The mechanical design of this transmission line includes pole structure, wind load pressure, sag and the tensions on the conductor and also the guy wires. Some details on the line insulators and the line accessories are further discussed in this part.

Determination of Conductor Sag and Tension in Overhead Lines: While erecting an overhead line, it is very important that conductors are safe tension. If the conductors are too much stretched between supports in a bid to save conductor material, the stress in the conductor may reach unsafe value and in certain cases the conductor may break due to excessive tension. In order to permit safe tension in the conductors, they are not fully stretched but are allowed to have a dip or sag. The difference in level between points of supports and the lowest point on the conductor is called sag.

Conductor Sag and Tension: This is an important consideration in the mechanical design of overhead lines. The conductor sag should be kept to a minimum in order to reduce the conductor material required and to avoid extra pole height for sufficient clearance above ground level. It is also desirable that tension in the conductor should be low to avoid mechanical failure of conductor and to permit the use of less strong supports. However, low conductor tension and minimum sag are not possible. It is because low sag means a tight wire and high tension, whereas a low means a loose wire and increased sag. Therefore, in actual pratise, a compromise in made between the two.


Conservative load assumptions should be made for a transmission line which is the only tie to important load centers. . Wind load and wind pressure affecting the tension of the line: Formula: Wind load = p x [D/12] Where: p = wind pressure lb/ft p = 0.The strength to be designed into a transmission line depends to a large extent on wind and ice loads that may be imposed on the conductor. previous line operation experience and the importance of the line to the system. When selecting appropriate design loads. the engineer should evaluate climatic conditions.00256 (V)2 KzGRFCf For Basic Wind Speed 200 km /hr considering the Transmission Line is at zone II *the value for basic wind speed came from the “New Wind Load Provisions in Philippine Structural Code” shown in the image below. overhead ground wire and supporting structure.


3 (KV) = 30 +0.3(345kv) = 133.70 (for 750 to 1000 span length in ft.5) Where h = height of the wire at the structure and is between 33 feet and 900 feet h = 30 + 0.34 V = basic wind speed V = 124.) .5 ft Kz = 2.Where Kz = velocity pressure exposure coefficient Kz = 2.27 miles/hr GRF = gust response factor GRF= 0.01(h/900)(2/9.01 x = 1.

08 lb/ft2 Wind load .Cf = the force coefficient = 1.34)(0.70)(1.0 for stranded wires D = diameter of wire * The constants found here are all based on the Electrical Engineering Handbook tables for corresponding data. Solution: P = 0.00256 (124.27)2(1.0) P = 37.

.e. The tension is governed by conductor weight. effects of wind.Conductor Load From Table. the sag should be adjusted that in the conductors is within safe limits. minimum factor of safety in respect to conductor should be 2. /ft Effective Weight of Conductor Considering the Wind Load √ √ Calculation of Sag and Tension In an overhead line. the nominal weight is 1165/1000 ft. We shall now calculate sag and tension of a conductor when (i) supports are at equal level (ii) supports are at unequal levels. ice loading and temperature variations. The conductor ORTOLAN w/ a cross sectional area of 1033 Kcmil. It is standard practice to keep conductor tension less than 50 % of its ultimate tensile strength i.

It can be proved that the lowest point will be at the mid span. If the sag is large. S = The sag is as result of the tensioning of the line and must not be too low otherwise the safety clearances may not be met. L = Length of span W = Weight per unit length of conductor T = tension in the conductor Sag. Also. if the sag is low. then the sag will further increase and branch the safety clearances. Similarity. and the line becomes heavily loaded.(i) When supports are at equal level Consider a conductor between two equilevel supports A and B with O as the lowest point is shown in the Fig. then . the sag had to be such that it caters for ice loading in the winter of temperate climates.

when the line contracts in the winter. Horizontal clearances at support between line conductors based on sag. Working Tension Given: Conductor Name = ORTOLAN Ultimate Strength = 27. Clearance of conductors passing by buildings 2. Minimum clearances of conductors above ground or rails 3. low sag will indicate a high tension. Required Clearances: 1.21 ft. span length T= T= = 13850lb Sag of Conductor a. Crossing clearances of wires carried of wires carried on different supports 4.700 lb Safety Factor = 2 L = 250 m  820. the line may snap. and as a result of this contraction. Consider conductor load only .

or 4. where value of θ is given by: θ = tan-1 = tan-1 = 72. Consider both conductor and wind load This is the slant sag in a direction making an angle θ with the vertical.14 ft.74o .3 m b.07 ft x 2 Sag = 14.For bundling Sag = 7.

The lowest point of the conductor is O.(ii) When supports are unequal levels In hilly areas. we generally come across conductors suspended between supports at unequal levels. Let l = Span Length h = Difference in levels between two supports x1 = Distance of supports at lower level x2 = Distance of supports at higher level T = Tension S1 = Sag using distance X1 S2 = Sag using distance X2 . Fig. shows a conductor suspended between supports A and B which at different levels.

X2 For h = 20 ft (to assume that there’s a distance difference level of the 2 towers) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) .Calculations: Span 820. X1 = 820.12 ft X1 + X2 = 820.12 .12.

the line support should have the following properties: a. Rail or Water Suface) . The line supports used for transmission and distribution of electric power are of various types including wooden poles. Roadway. cross-sectional area. longer life and permit longer spans to be used. b. RCC poles. High mechanical strength to withstand the weight of conductor and wind loads etc. e. In general. steel poles. Such poles are generally used for distribution purposes in the cities. This type of supports need galvanized or painted in order to prolong its life. Easy accessibility of conductors for maintenance. Vertical Clearance . (i)rail poles (ii) tubular poles and (iii)rolled steel joints. The steel poles are three types. Cheap in cost and economical to maintain.LINE SUPPORTS The supporting structure for overhead line conductors are various type of pole towers called line supports. Light in weight without the loss of mechanical strength c. cost and local conditions.NESCode 232 Vertical Clearance (Above Ground. line voltage. The steel poles are often used as a substitute for wooden poles.. Spacing and Clearance 1. They possess greater mechanical strength. and lattice steel towers. d. The choice od supporting structure for a particular case depends upon the line span. Longer life. Steel Poles.

2.28ft Pole Structure: Pole Height: H = 30 + 0.30(Kv) H = 30 + 0.Ground clearance required for a 345KV transmission voltage is 48 ft. At Tension = T = 13. Space between OHGW and Top Phase Conductor Standard 1m for Neutral to top phase conductor = 3.5 ft. Spacing of Phase Conductors S = 27.30(345) H = 133.3 ft 3.850 lbs .

850)(133.3 = 102.36 lb/ in2 √ √ Butt Diameter: Butt Diameter = 54.92 + 130.542 lb-in Circumference (c) bottom: Where s = ultimate fiber stress using 46.54 in x x = 1.62 ft + 27.350.92 ft H3 = 75.465.Where: H1 = height starting from the ground to the 1st phase conductor H2 = height starting from the ground to the 2nd phase conductor H3 = height starting from the ground to the 3rd phase conductor H4 = height starting from the ground to the OHGW H1 = 133.22 ft H4 = 75.62+ 102.68 = 133.62 ft + 57.5 ft Mass: Where: M = T1H1 + T2H2 + T3H3 + [(10% x T)(H4)] M = [(13850) (75.22)] + (0.3 – 3.3 – 27.5 – 27.62 ft H2 = 75.5) M = 4.378 lb-ft = 53.1) (13.38 m .28 = 75.6 = 130.62 ft + 54.584.

60 Top Diameter = 0. Taper Projected Area: ( ( ) )( )( )( ) POLE SETTING DEPTHS It is indicated that the 10% of the total length of the pole above the ground is depth of the portion of the pole to be on the ground. The total length of pole above the ground is 133. so the 10% of the 133.8 in. Top Diameter= 32. .54 in.72 in Top Diameter = 32.5 ft.72 x C = 102.5 ft pole is 13.35 ft pole. Top: C = top diameter x C = 32.72 in x x = 0.6 x 54.Top Diameter: Ratio of the top to bottom is 0.83 m Pole Circumference.

13.850 Cos 40 Fh = 1384. CORNER POLE: The Angle 30˚ & 40˚ of two cables Since T1 = T2 = 13.60 Horizontal Force: Fh = T1 Cos 30 – T2 Cos 40 Fh = 13.850 Sin 30 – 13.35 H = 146.The additional 13.850 Cos 30 .850 Sin 40 Fv= -1977.74 Resultant Force: √ √( 0 ) ( ) Angle: .35 ft will be the depth of the pole to be under the ground. These giving the total length of the pole to: H = 133.5 + 13.850 Kg is already computed ∑ Vertical Force: Fv = T1 Sin 30 – T2 Sin 40 Fv=13.85 ft.

551 (146. The ultimate strength for each size and grade is given. GUY WIRE TENSIONS D = 0.551 x H D = 0. In transmission construction a factor of safety of 2 is general for guys. although this may be somewhat reduced.91 ft Length of guy √ √ √ √ . GUY REQUIREMENT: IEEE C2-1997 (EE Handbook pp(18-66)) Distance dig from the pole not less than ¼ or more than 1 to 1 ½ of the height of the guy attachment. The so-called double galvanized is commonly used.85) D= 80.GUY WIRES The various grades of guy strand are almost universally furnished in accordance with ASTM specifications.

241.02lb D 80.422.91 L  T 156.88  1385   1898.91 L  T 153.58lb D 80.56lb D 80.86lb D 80.10  13850 T4  4   26.720.√ √ √ √ L1  T 110.91 T1  .30  13850 T3  31   26.91 L  T 130.99  13850 T2  2   22.

67% of the ultimate strength of the guy used.200 lbs Nominal Breaking Strength Guy at Static Wire Siemens-Martin grade Guy Mild Plow Steel Diameter of 3/4 35. the allowable stressed must be less than 66.900 lbs Nominal Breaking Strength . Guy at Phase Conductors Siemens-Martin grade Guy Plow Steel Diameter of 3/4 inch 26.DESIGN DATA FOR GUYS According to the guy requirements. for dead ends.

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