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Unit 3-Training and Development: Systems & Practices

Understanding and Developing Objectives of Training


Types of Objectives Trainee Reaction Objectives Trainee Learning Objectives Transfer of Training Objectives Organizational Outcome Objective

Components of Objectives 1. Desired Outcome- What should be expected to occur? (Behaviour) 2. Conditions- Under what conditions is the outcome expected to occur? 3. Standards- What criteria signify that the outcome is acceptable? 1. Accuracy 2. Quality 3. Speed Some Examples Using a drop wire, bushing and connector, but without the use of a manual, the trainee will splice a drop wire according to the standards set out in the manual. Using a standard climbing harness and spikes the trainee will climb a standard telephone pole within five minutes following all safety procedures. The trainee will splice according to code, six sets of wires in ten minutes while at the top of a telephone pole wearing all standard safety gear. Training Importance- Various perspectives Trainee The Training Designer The Trainer The Training Evaluator
Dr. Shruti Gupta, Assistant Professor, AIMT, Gr Noida Batch MBA 08 (2011-13) Pg 1 1

Facilitation of Training with focus on Trainee

Training Design & Evaluation Phase

Input
Learning Theory

Process

Output

Determine factors that facilitate learning & transfer Training Needs

Develop Training Objectives


Identify alternative methods of instruction

Organizational Constraints

Evaluation of objectives

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Trainee Readiness - Trainees wont learn if they cant (prerequisite KSAs) Prerequisites Trainability Test - Assess trainees aptitude prior to training
Provides realistic expectations of necessary job KSAs Assesses trainees functional level (baseline) Used to assess training effectiveness

Procedure 1. Using a standardized procedure, the instructor provides training and demonstrations with the applicant free to ask questions. 2. The applicant is asked to perform the task unaided. 3. The applicants performance is recorded according to a standardized checklist. APTITUDE-TREATMENT INTERACTION This approach strives to match alternative modes of instruction to the different characteristics of the individual so that each person uses the most appropriate learning procedure. Cronbach

Trainee Motivation- Trainees wont learn if they dont want to.


Motivation involves psychological processes that cause arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour. Self- efficacy Locus of control Commitment to career Integrative Review

Trainee Issues- Trainee Motivation


Design of Training Environments Theories of Learning and Motivation to create a supportive learning environment Trainees believe they can successfully complete training and that the training will be useful for improving job performance Not every approach is suitable for every situation

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Trainee Issues-Theories of Learning and Motivation 1. Social Learning Theory The cognitive representations of future outcomes generate the
motivation for future behavior. Self-efficacy whether you believe you will succeed affects your behavior Modeling Learn through watching others

Relevance of SLT to training:


Training should develop cognitive, social, & behavioral competencies through modeling Training should improve confidence and self-efficacy Training should improve motivation through establishing goals

Applications
Trainees should experience some level of early success to improve self-efficacy, but also learn to overcome failures Trainees should observe successful models Trainees should receive encouragement to exert effort

Examples
Role playing to train assertiveness, ethics, com skills, etc Use of video to show good examples

2. Goal Setting goals serve to motivate trainee to exert effort in order to attain goal
Goals:
Should be specific and challenging Must be matched to trainee skill level Use intermediate goals to observe progress Must include feedback Must be accepted by trainee Make trainee part of goal setting to increase commitment Athletic training, simulation, gaming, psychomotor

Examples

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3. Expectancy Theory (VIE) trainees will exert effort if they believe they can succeed
and they value the outcome

Assumes:
Effort Performance Reward Goal Expectancy belief that performance is related to effort Instrumentality belief that performance will be rewarded Valence the degree that reward is valued

Application:
Training should ensure high levels of each

Example
Skills training for piece meal jobs where improving output will lead to higher compensation

4. Reinforcement Theory Based on Law of Effect that if consequences of a behavior are


good, the likelihood of repeating that behavior is increased.

Application:
Shape behavior to reduce tardiness and absences, increase productivity, etc. Dr. Shruti Gupta, Assistant Professor, AIMT, Gr Noida Batch MBA 08 (2011-13) Pg 5 5

Example:
Every time worker arrives on time during the week has name put in lottery for Friday drawing

Principles for using Reinforcement:


Should be given immediately after response (KOR or feedback) Reinforce every correct response, UNTIL the behavior is learned When behavior is learned switch to intermittent schedules of reinforcement This will increase resistance to extinction Punishment should not be included in training Often wrong behavior is punished such as trying Punishment suppresses behavior, doesnt eliminate it Leads to negative emotional side effects

5. Need Theories Training only motivating if it meets the needs of trainees


Find out what motivates trainees Ex: If nAch allow early success, If nAff allow teamwork

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Equity Theory -A social comparison theory that asks, Is the ratio of what you receive from your job as
compared to what you put in the same proportion as that of other workers? Is (Input / Outcome) self = (Input / Outcome) other? Inputs education level, intelligence, experience, effort, skill, expertise Outcomes pay, benefits, status, recognition, working conditions Training as an input (I have training in this area) or training as an outcome (I was promised this training)

Facilitation of Training with focus on Training Design


Instructional Design
Instructional Design is defined as set of events that affect trainees so that learning is facilitated. Identifying Learning Outcomes Build an effective instructional program that systematically moves a trainee toward meeting the learning goals of the training.

Learning Outcomes
Gagnes Instructional Theory Different categories of things to be learned require different learning conditions. Five Categories Dr. Shruti Gupta, Assistant Professor, AIMT, Gr Noida Batch MBA 08 (2011-13) Pg 7 7

1. Intellectual Skills (procedural knowledge) How to rules 2. Verbal Information (declarative knowledge) What 3. Cognitive Strategies Knowing when and how to use procedural or declarative knowledge 4. Motor Skills Muscle activity, sports, driving, etc. 5. Attitudes Preferences

Stages of Learning
ACT* Model of Learning three stage model of progression from novice to expertise 1. Declarative Learning facts, book knowledge Performance is slow and choppy, relies on verbal memory 2. Knowledge Compilation apply rules to the declarative knowledge Performance is deliberate, learner is occupied w/following rules 3. Procedural Knowledge knowing how Smooth performance, frees up cognitive resources to do other things

Objectives
Training objectives have 3 components Statement of what employee is expected to do (desired terminal behavior). Statement of the quality or level of performance that is acceptable Statement of the conditions under which the trainee is expected to perform

Plan of Instruction
Selecting and Preparing the Training Site It is comfortable and accessible. It is quiet, private, and free from interruptions. It has sufficient space for trainers to move easily around in, offers enough room for trainers, and has good visibility for trainees. Details to be considered in the Training Room Seating Arrangement Fan Type Classroom Type Conference Type Horseshoe Arrangement Dr. Shruti Gupta, Assistant Professor, AIMT, Gr Noida Batch MBA 08 (2011-13) Pg 8 8

Examples of Seating Arrangement

Program Design Course Parameters Objectives Detailed Lesson Plan Lesson Plan Overview

Course Parameter

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Objectives Program Objectives Lesson Objectives Detailed Lesson Plan

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Features of an Effective Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Overview

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Learning Principles
Massed vs. Spaced/Distributive Practice Distributive practice better because 1. Learner avoids fatigue (not practicing wrong behavior) 2. Gives learner chance to consolidate information 3. Better recall likely if learned under variety of settings Application Cramming for a test may benefit immediate response, but hinders retention. Distributive study allows information to be consolidated and built upon Practicing free throws or pitching while fatigued means practicing bad mechanics Organizers Cues that allow learner to take advantage of existing knowledge Advanced Organizers prior to training to prepare trainee Comparative Organizers later in training to help clarify distinctions Organizers Focus attention on important components of information Organize incoming information Show relationship between new and existing information Application Providing initial outline of what is to come Whole vs. Part task learning Whole practice task as a single unit Application use w/ high inter-relationship among parts Ex: learning to ride a bicycle (steering, balance, pedaling must be learned at same time) Part memory

learn individual components of task separately, then join together later (segmentation) Identify task components that are NOT interdependent Identify most important components De-emphasize certain components Application use w/ low inter-relationship among components, or when tapping different types o Ex: learning to build cabinets (cutting, joining, finishing learned and mastered separately)

Guided Training - (training wheels) prevents learner from making catastrophic errors Avoids confusion in learning complex tasks Dr. Shruti Gupta, Assistant Professor, AIMT, Gr Noida Batch MBA 08 (2011-13) Pg 13 13

Dont eliminate errors altogether (theyre learning material), but keep from making errors that impair learning Overlearning - practice above & beyond that necessary for errorless performance Increases resistance to extinction (improves retention) Increases the ease of re-learning Decreases reaction time May lead to automaticity Application Motor skill training

Above Real-Time Training - practice trials that are faster than would be experienced on the job Difficulty of practice assumed to make actual task seem easier. Like swinging a weighted baseball bat in warm-ups then switching to standard bat in the game Equivocal results in the research Violates other principles for enhancing transfer (train as you fight) Mental Models how people mentally represent the task they are performing Represent & organize info by interconnected chunks (schema) Experts organize schemata into larger, more meaningful/ easy to access chunks. Novices may no see all relevant connections Use mnemonic devices to help novices organize and retrieve info Dr. Shruti Gupta, Assistant Professor, AIMT, Gr Noida Batch MBA 08 (2011-13) Pg 14 14

Feedback knowledge of results (KOR) Provides Information: allows learner to adjust response Motivation: provides goal to decrease diff between actual and ideal performance Reinforcement: praise or self-satisfaction in being right Practice by itself is not training must include feedback Practice w/out feedback may teach wrong skills Feedback Applications Must be perceived accurately (negative feedback may be seen as personal attack) Belief in accuracy of feedback Too much feedback may lead to external LOC Negative feedback often delayed Individual differences in acceptance of feedback

Schmidt & Bjork (1992) challenge the basic tenets of feedback focus on maximizing training performance may be harmful in long run Increased task variability in practice leads to worse training performance, but improved generalizability Transfer and retention (behavior criteria) may be better indicators of training effectiveness than skill acquisition (learning criteria) Immediate feedback better, but Infrequent feedback improves retention (intermittent schedule of reinforcement) Too frequent feedback becomes integrated part of task making it artificial and preventing normal cognitive processing May use guided training to wean trainee off of feedback Delayed feedback aids in generalizing to other stimulus events

Instructional Guidelines

Use Advance Organizers: At beginning of training, the material/media should clearly inform the trainee of the learning objectives Provide Knowledge of Results: During practice provide students with immediate knowledge of results about correct and incorrect answers Develop Mental Models: Emphasize distinctive features which can be remembered in the form of menta pictures instead of abstract words e.g. diagrams, pictures, charts, acronyms Segment Training: Break down the overall learning task into manageable steps or unit when any of the following conditions exist: lower ability students, complex material, & overall task composed of small parts Part-task / Whole-task Training: Provide learner practice on specific components of the task for: a) simple task-practice in entirety, & b) complex task-practice in parts and then in entirety Dr. Shruti Gupta, Assistant Professor, AIMT, Gr Noida Batch MBA 08 (2011-13) Pg 15 15

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