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Los verbos auxiliares modales son estos cinco (los 4 primeros van en pareja).

CAN (pasado COULD) MAY (pasado MIGHT) SHALL (pasado SHOULD) WILL (pasado WOULD) MUST, que no tiene pasado y slo se utiliza en presente. Estos verbos son los ms especiales del ingls, porque tienen funcin de auxiliar siempre, y se conjugan distinto que los dems verbos. Ampliando un poco la pregunta, puedes inclur los llamados "marginal modal auxiliaries", o sea verbos modales marginales. USED TO OUGHT TO DARE NEED Estos cuatro comparten algunas caractersticas con los modales, aunque no todas. Por cierto, que DO/DOES/DID y HAVE/HAS/HAD no son modales, son AUXILIARES a secas. GRADOS DE CERTEZA: - Certeza total: must, mustn't, will, won't, can, can't. - Probabilidad, posibilidad: Should, shouldn't, may, may not - Dbil probabilidad o posibilidad: might, might not, could, couldn't - Condicionalidad o posibilidad: Would, wouldn't, could, couldn't.

GRADOS DE OBLIGACIN: - Obligacin fuerte: must - Prohibicin: must not, can't - Obligacin dbil: should, might, may - voluntad, insistencia y ofrecimientos: will, would - Permiso: can, may, might - Habilidad: can

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: can I can drive
Puedo/s conducir

May Might

Will Would
Negative: can't / cannot I cannot read
No puedo/s leer

Shall Should

Must Ought to

p.ej. I can: (puedo/s) Interrogative Can ...? Can you speak Spanish?
Pods/sabs hablar espaol?

You can play chess


T puedes/sabes jugar al ajedrez

You can't say that


No puedes decir eso

Can you play chess?


Pods/Sabs jugar al ajedrez?

He can go if he wants
l puede ir si quiere

He can't finish this now


l no puede terminar esto ahora

Can we tell you something?


Podemos decirte algo?

That can be very difficult


Eso puede ser muy difcil

She can't read without glasses


Ella no puede leer sin anteojos

Can she go out tonight?


Puede ella salir esta noche?

It can be raining
Puede estar lloviendo

It cannot be so easy
(algo) No puede ser tan fcil

Can it fly?
(algo)Puede volar?

We can do that very easily


Podemos hacer eso muy facilmente

We can't understand this


No podemos entender esto

Can we start tomorrow?


Podemos empezar maana?

Anybody can have bad luck


Cualquiera puede tener mala suerte

You can't be so crazy


No puedes estar tan loco

Can I be with you?


Puedo estar contigo?

The film can be very boring


El film puede ser muy aburrido

They cannot live here


Ellos no pueden vivir aqu

Can they stay with us?


Pueden ellos quedrse con nosotros?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

can

Negative I You He She It We You They

cannot

go come work live speak ...

can't

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

Can

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: could I could finish tomorrow
Podra terminar maana

May Might

Will Would
Neg: couldn't /could not I couldn't finish tomorrow
No podra terminar maana

Shall Should

Must Ought to

p.ej. I could : (pude/podra) Depende del contexto Interrogative: Could ...? Could I finish tomorrow?
Podra terminar maana?

You could work here


T podras trabajar aqu

That couldn't be possible


Eso no podra ser posible

Could you come here, please?


Podras venir aqu por favor?

He could win, if he tried


l podra ganar si tratara

He couldn't get there on time


l no podra llegar all a tiempo

Could he lend me his car?


Podra l prestarme su auto?

She could know that


Ella podra saber eso

She couldn't dance last night


Ella no pudo bailar anoche

Could she dance last night?


Pudo bailar ella anoche?

It could be very raining


Podra estar lloviendo

It coudn't fly
(algo) No pudo/podra volar

Could we get a discount?


Podramos obtener un descuento?

That could be a good business


Ese podra ser un buen negocio

They couldn't run so fast


Ellos no podran correr tan rpido

Could we start tomorrow?


Podramos empezar maana?

This could be a good idea


Esta podra ser una gran idea

You couldn't call me


Uds. no pudieron/podran llamarme

Could you call me?


Podran/pudieron llamarme?

They could live here


Ellos pudieron/podran vivir aqu

They could be kidding


Ellos podran estar bromeando

Could they live here?


Podran ellos vivir aqu?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

could

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

could not couldn't

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

Could

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: may I may finish tomorrow
Puede que termine maana (quiz)

May Might

Will Would
Negative: may not I may not work tomorrow
Puede que no trabaje maana

Shall Should

Must Ought to

May: (puede que, podra, quiz). Se usa para expresar Possibility/Permission


Interrogative: May ...? May I use your telephone?
Podra usar su telfono?

You may be wrong


T podras estar equivocado

He may not be right


Quiz l no tenga razn

May you tell me something?


Podra Ud. decirme algo?

He may go to Paris tomorow


l puede que vaya a Pars maana

They may not know that


Ellos quiz no sepan eso

May I ask you a question?


Podra hacerle un pregunta?

That may be a mistake


Eso podra ser un error

It may not be so easy


Puede no ser tan fcil

May I interrupt you?


Puedo interrumpirlo?

It may be very raining


Podra estar lloviendo

It may not be a good idea


Podra no ser una buena idea

May we suggest something?


Podramos sugerir algo?

That may be a good sign


Esa podra ser una buena seal

It may not be permitted


Quiz no est permitido

May they come to my house?


Podramos ellos venir a mi casa?

She may give us a surprise


Esta podra darnos una sorpresa

He may not play in the street


l no puede jugar en la calle

May you call me later?


Podra Ud. llamarme ms tarde?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

may

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

may not

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

May

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: might I might finish tomorrow
Podra terminar maana (quiz)

May Might

Will Would
Negative: might not

Shall Should

Must Ought to

Might : (podra, quiz). Se usa para expresar Remote Possibility (casi igual que el may)
Interrogative: Might...? Might I use your telephone?
Podra usar su telfono?

I might be resting tomorrow


Podra estar descansando maana

You might be wrong


T podras estar equivocado

He might not be right


Quiz l no tenga razn

Might you tell me something?


Podra Ud. decirme algo?

He might go to Paris tomorow


l podra ir a Pars maana

They might not know that


Ellos podran no saber eso

Might I ask you a question?


Podra hacerle un pregunta?

That might be a mistake


Eso podra ser un error

It might not be so easy


Podra no ser tan fcil

Might I interrupt you?


Puedo interrumpirlo?

It might be very raining


Podra estar lloviendo

It might not be a good idea


Podra no ser una buena idea

Might we suggest something?


Podramos sugerir algo?

That might be a good sign


Esa podra ser una buena seal

It might not be permitted


Quiz no est permitido

Might they come to my house?


Podramos ellos venir a mi casa?

She might give us a surprise


Esta podra darnos una sorpresa

He might not want that


l podra no querer eso

Might you call me later?


Podra Ud. llamarme ms tarde?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

might

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

might not

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

Might

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: will I will speak English
Hablar ingls

May Might

Will Would
Negative: will not/ won't I will not say that
No dir eso

Shall Should

Must Ought to

Will Modifica al verbo que sigue: p.ej. I will go = Ir , She will work = Ella trabajar
Interrogative Will ...? Will you come to the party?
Vendrs a la fiesta?

You will understand soon


T entenders pronto

You won't be here tomorrow


No estars aqu maana

Will you play chess with me?


Jugars al ajedrez conmigo?

He will go to Paris
l ir a Pars

He won't go to Madrid
l no ir a Madrid

Will he visit the Eiffel Tower?


Visitar l la torre Eiffel?

That will be very exciting


Eso ser muy emocionante

It won't be boring
No ser aburrido

Will she go out tonight?


Saldr ella esta noche?

It will be raining in a minute


Estar lloviendo en un minuto

We will not stay inside


No nos quedaremos adentro

Will it fly?
Volar?

We will do that very easily


Haremos eso muy facilmente

They won't understand this


Ellos no entendern esto

Will they start tomorrow?


Empezarn ellos maana?

Everybody will see this


Todo el mundo ver esto

She won't call anybody


Ella no llamar a nadie

Will I be with you?


Estar contigo?

We will be very tired


Estaremos muy cansados

They will not live here


Ellos no vivirn aqu

Will they stay with us?


Se quedarn con nosotros?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

will

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

will not won't

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

Will

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: would I would speak English
Hablara ingls

May Might

Will Would

Shall Should

Must Ought to

Would Modifica al verbo que le sigue . p.ej. I would go = Ira, She would work = Ella trabajara
Neg: would not/ wouldn't I wouldn't say that
No dira eso

Interrogative Would ...? Would you come to the party?


Vendras a la fiesta?

You would understand soon


T entenderas pronto

You won't be here tomorrow


No estaras aqu maana

Would you play chess with me?


Jugaras al ajedrez conmigo?

He would go to Paris
l ira a Pars

He wouldn't go to Madrid
l no ira a Madrid

Would he study French?


Estudiara francs l?

That would be very exciting


Eso sera muy emocionante

It wouldn't be boring
No sera aburrido

Would she go out tonight?


Saldra ella esta noche?

It would be expensive
Sera muy caro

We wouldn't stay inside


No nos quedaramos adentro

Would it fly?
Volara?

We would do that very easily


Haramos eso muy facilmente

They wouldn't see me


Ellos no me veran

Would they start tomorrow?


Empezaran ellos maana?

Everybody would see this


Todo el mundo vera esto

She wouldn't call anybody


Ella no llamara a nadie

Would I be with you?


Estara yo contigo?

We would be very tired


Estaramos muy cansados

They wouldn't live here


Ellos no viviran aqu

Would they stay with us?


Se quedaran con nosotros?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

would

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

would not wouldn't

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

Wouldn't

Verbos Modales
Can Could May Might Will Would Shall Should Must Ought to

Shall Este auxiliar es igual que will - pero se est perdiendo en el ingls moderno-

Affirmative: shall I shall speak English


Hablar Ingls

Negative: shall not I shall not say that


No dir eso No estaremos aqu maana

Interrogative Shall ...? Shall I drive you home?


Te llevo a tu casa? Comemos ahora?

We shall go to the movies


Iremos al cine

We shall not be here tomorrow Shall we eat now?

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: should I should study more
Debera estudiar ms

May Might

Will Would

Shall Should

Must Ought to

Should (debera). Se usa para expresar una obligacin menor


Neg: should not/ shouldn't I shouldn't waste my time
No debera desperdiciar mi tiempo

Interrogative Should ...? Should you go there now?


Deberas ir ah ahora?

You should drive carefully


T deberas conducir con cuidado

You shouldn't drink so much


No deberas tomar tanto

Should I help them?


Debera ayudarlos?

He should eat less


l debera comer menos

She shouldn't go alone


l no debera ir sola

Should he study this?


Debera l estudiar esto?

That should be prohibited


Eso debera estar prohibido

It shouldn't be permitted
No debera estar permitido

Should she stay in bed?


Debera ella quedarse en cama?

It should be closed
Debera estar cerrado

We shouldn't stay outside


No deberamos quedarnos afuera

Should it fly?
Debera volar?

We should hurry
Deberamos apurarnos

They shouldn't know this


Ellos no deberan saber esto

Should they start tomorrow?


Deberan ellos empezar maana?

Everybody should see this


Todo el mundo debera ver esto

She shouldn't say that


Ella no debera decir eso

Should I be with you?


Debera yo estar contigo?

They should be working


Ellos deberan estar trabajando

They shoudn't live here


Ellos no deberan vivir aqu

Should they stay here?


Deberan ellos quedarse aqu?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

should

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

should not shouldn't

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

Should

Verbos Modales
Can Could
Affirmative: must A student must study
Un estudiante debe estudiar

May Might

Will Would
Neg: must not/ mustn't I must not waste my time
No debo desperdiciar mi tiempo

Shall Should

Must Ought to

Must (deber). p.ej. I must = (debo). p/ Obligation/Assumption (obligacin ms fuerte que should)
Interrogative Must...? Must you go there now?
Debes ir ah ahora?

An athlete must train hard


Un atleta debe entrenar duro

You mustn't drink and drive


No debes beber y conducir

Must I call them?


Debo llamarlos?

He must follow a diet


l debe seguir una dieta

She mustn't see this


Ella no debe ver esto

Must he study this?


Debe l estudiar esto?

That must be near


Eso debe de estar cerca (supongo)

You must not tell lies


No debes decir mentiras

Must she stay in bed?


Debe ella quedarse en cama?

It must be closed
Debe de estar cerrado (supongo)

We must not steal


No debemos robar

Must it be sent today?


Debe ser enviado hoy?

We must hurry
Debemos apurarnos

They mustn't speak that way


Ellos no deben hablar de esa forma

Must they start tomorrow?


Deben ellos empezar maana?

Everybody must pay taxes


Todos deben pagar impuestos

She mustn't arrive late


Ella no deber llegar tarde

Must I be with you?


Debo estar contigo?

They must get up early


Ellos deben levantarse temprano

The kids must not play here


Los nios no deben jugar aqu

Must they stay here?


Deben ellos quedarse aqu?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

must

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

must not mustn't

Interrogative I you he she it we you they go ? come ? work ? live ? speak ? ...

Must

1999 Adolfo E. Bieri Todos los Derechos Reservados www.sherton.com.ar adolfo@sherton.com.ar

Verbos Modales
Can Could May Might Will Would
Negative: ought not to He ought not to drink
l no debera beber

Shall Should

Must Ought to

Ought to (debera). Se usa de forma similar al should


Affirmative: ought to I ought to study more
Debera estudiar ms

Inte: Ought + S + to ...? Ought I to be here early?


Debera estar aqu temprano?

We ought to finish this now


Deberamos termionar esto ahora

They oughtn't to play at work


Ellos no deberan jugar en el trabajo

Ought we to leave now?


Deberamos irnos ahora?

Affirmative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

ought to

Negative I You He She It We You They go come work live speak ...

ought not to oughtn't to

Interrogative I you he she it we you they to go ? to come ? to work ? to live ? to speak ? ...

Ought

1999 Adolfo E. Bieri