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APPENDIX D

Case Studies

Midrange Aircraft (Airbus 320 class)


All computations carried out herein follow the book instructions. The results are not from the Airbus industry. Airbus is not responsible for the gures given here. They are used only to substantiate the book methodology with industry values to gain condence. The industry drag data are not available but, at the end, it will be checked if the payload-range matches the published data. Given: LRC Speed and Altitude: Mach 0.75 at 36,089 ft. Dimensions (to scale the drawing for detailed dimensions) Fuselage length = 123.16 ft (scaled measurement differs slightly from the drawings) Fuselage width = 13.1 ft, Fuselage depth = 13 ft. Wing reference area (trapezoidal part only) = 1,202.5 ft2 ; add yehudi area = 118.8 ft2 1 Span = 11.85 ft; MACwing = 11.64 ft; AR = 9.37; /4 = 25 deg; CR = 16.5 ft, = 0.3 H-tail reference area = 330.5 ft2 ; MACH-tail = 8.63 ft V-tail reference area = 235.6 ft2 ; MACV-tail = 13.02 ft Nacelle length = 17.28 ft; Maximum diameter = 6.95 ft Pylon = measure from the drawing Reynolds number per ft is given by: Reper foot = (V)/ = (a M)/ = [(0.75 968.08)(0.00071)]/ (0.7950 373.718 109 ) = 1.734 106 per foot

Drag Computation Fuselage Table D1 gives the basic average 2D at plate for the fuselage, CFfbasic = 0.00186. Table D2 summarizes the 3D and other shape-effect corrections, CFf , needed to estimate the total fuselage CFf .

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Appendix D

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Figure D1. Airbus 320 three-view with major dimensions (Courtesy of Airbus)

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Table D1. Reynolds number and 2D basic skin friction CFbasic
Reference area (ft2 ) n/a 1,202.5 235 330.5 n/a n/a Wetted area (ft2 ) 4,333 2,130.94 477.05 510.34 2 300 2 58.18 Characteristic length (ft) 123.16 11.64 (MACw ) 13.02 (MACVT ) 8.63 (MACHT ) 17.28 12 (MACp ) Reynolds number 2.136 108 2.02 107 2.26 107 1.5 107 3 107 2.08 107

Appendix D

Parameter Fuselage Wing V-tail H-tail 2 nacelle 2 pylon

2D C Fbasic 0.00186 0.00255 0.00251 0.00269 0.00238 0.00254

Table D2. Fuselage


Item

CFf correction (3D and other shape effects)


CF f 0.00000922 0.0001 0.0000168 0.000127 0 0.000163 0.0000465 0.000093 0.0001116 0.000039 0.0000186 0.0006875 % of CF f basic 0.496 5.36 0.9 6.8 0 8.7 2.5 5 6 2.1 1 36.9

Wrapping Supervelocity Pressure Fuselage-upsweep of 6 deg Fuselage-closure angle of 9 deg Nose-neness ratio Fuselage nonoptimum shape Cabin pressurization/leakage Passenger windows/doors Belly fairing Environmental Control System Exhaust Total CF f

Therefore, the total fuselage CF f = CF f basic + CF f = 0.00186 + 0.0006875 = 0.002547. Flat-plate equivalent ff (see Equation 9.8) = CF f Aw f =0.0025474333= 11.03 ft2 . Add the canopy drag fc = 0.3 ft2 . Therefore, the total fuselage parasite drag in terms of f f +c = 11.33 ft2 . Wing Table D1 gives the basic the average 2D at plate for the wing, CFwbasic = 0.00257, based on the MAC w . The important geometric parameters include the wing reference area (trapezoidal planform) = 1,202.5 ft2 and the gross wing planform area (including Yehudi) = 1,320.8 ft2 . Table D3 summarizes the 3D and other shape-effect corrections needed to estimate the total wing CFw .
Table D3. Wing
Item Supervelocity Pressure Interference (wingbody) Excrescence (aps and slats) Total C Fw

CFw correction (3D and other shape effects)


CFw 0.000493 0.000032 0.000104 0.000257 0.000887 % of C Fwbasic 19.2 1.25 4.08 10 34.53

Therefore, the total wing: CFw = CFwbasic + CFw = 0.00257+0.000889 = 0.00345.

Appendix D

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Flat-plate equivalent: fw (Equation 9.8) = CFw Aww = 0.00345 2,130.94 = 7.35ft2 . Vertical Tail Table D1 gives the basic average 2D at plate for the V-tail: CFVTbasic = 0.00251 based on the MACVT ; V-tail reference area = 235 ft2 Table D4 summarizes the 3D and other shape-effect corrections ( CFVT ) needed to estimate the V-tail CFVT .
Table D4. V-tail
Item Supervelocity Pressure Interference (V-tail body) Excrescence (rudder gap) Total C F VT

CFVT correction (3D and other shape effects)


C F VT 0.000377 0.000015 0.0002 0.0001255 0.000718 % of C F VTbasic 15 0.6 8 5 28.6

Therefore, the V-tail: CF VT = CF VTbasic + CF VT = 0.00251 + 0.000718 = 0.003228 Flat-plate equivalent fVT (see Equation 9.8) = CF VT AwVT = 0.003228 477.05 = 1.54ft2 . Horizotal Tail Table D1 gives the basic average 2D at plate for the H-tail: CFHTbasic = 0.00269, based on the MACHT ; the H-tail reference area SHT = 330.5 ft2 Table D5 summarizes the 3D and other shape-effect corrections ( CFHT ) needed to estimate the H-tail CFHT .
Table D5. H-tail
Item Supervelocity Pressure Interference (H-tail body) Excrescence (elevator gap) Total C F HT

CFHT correction (3D and other shape effects)


CF HT 0.0004035 0.0000101 0.0000567 0.0001345 0.000605 % of C F HTbasic 15 0.3 2.1 5 22.4

Therefore, the H-tail: CF HT = CF HTbasic + CF HT = 0.00269 + 0.000605 = 0.003295 Flat-plate equivalent fHT (see Equation 9.8) = CFHT AwHT = 0.003295510.34 = 1.68 ft2 . Nacelle, CFn Because the nacelle is a fuselage-like axisymmetric body, the procedure follows the method used for fuselage evaluation but needs special attention due to the throttledependent considerations. Important geometric parameters include: Nacelle length = 17.28 ft Maximum nacelle diameter = 6.95 ft

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Appendix D

Average diameter = 5.5 ft Nozzle exit-plane diameter = 3.6 ft Maximum frontal area = 37.92 ft2 Wetted area per nacelle Awn = 300 ft2 Table D1 gives the basic average 2D at plate for the nacelle: CFnbasic = 0.00238, based on the nacelle length Table D6 summarizes the 3D and other shape-effect corrections, estimate the total nacelle CFn for one nacelle.

CFn , needed to

For nacelles, a separate supervelocity effect is not considered because it is accounted for in the throttle-dependent intake drag; pressure drag also is accounted for in the throttle-dependent base drag.
Table D6. Nacelle
Item Wrapping (3D effect) Excrescence (nonmanufacture) Boat tail (aft end) Base drag (aft end) Intake drag Total CFn

CFn correction (3D and other shape effects)


CFn 0.0000073 0.0005 0.00027 0 0.001 0.001777 % of CFnbasic 0.31 20.7 11.7 0 41.9 74.11

Thrust Reverser Drag The excrescence drag of the thrust reverser is included in Table D6 because it does not result from manufacturing tolerances. The nacelle is placed well ahead of the wing; hence, the nacellewing interference drag is minimized and assumed to be zero. Therefore the nacelle: CFn = CFnbasic + CFn = 0.00238 + 0.001777 = 0.00416 Flat plate equivalent fn (Equation 9.8) = CFnt Awn = 0.00416 300 = 1.25 ft2 per nacelle. Pylon The pylon is a wing-like lifting surface and the procedure is identical to the wing parasite-drag estimation. Table D1 gives the basic average 2D at plate for the pylon; CFpbasic = 0.0025 based on the MACp . The pylon reference area = 28.8 ft2 per pylon. Table D7 summarizes the 3D and other shape-effect corrections ( CFp ) needed to estimate CFp (one pylon).
Table D7. Pylon
Item Supervelocity Pressure Interference (pylonwing) Excrescence Total CF p

CFp correction (3D and other shape effects)


CF p 0.000274 0.00001 0.0003 0 0.000584 % of CFpbasic 10.78 0.395 12 0 23

Therefore, the pylon CFp = CFpbasic + CFp = 0.0025 + 0.00058 = 0.00312 Flat-plate equivalent: fp (see Equation 9.8) = CFp Awp = 0.182 ft2 per pylon.

Appendix D

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Roughness Effect The current production standard tolerance allocation provides some excrescence drag. The industry standard uses 3% of the total component parasite drag, which includes the effect of surface degradation in use. The value is froughness = 0.744 ft2 , given in Table D8. Trim Drag Conventional aircraft produce trim drag during cruise and it varies slightly with fuel consumption. For a well-designed aircraft of this class, the trim drag of ftrim = 0.1 ft2 may be used. Aerial and Other Protrusions For this class of aircraft, faerial = 0.005 ft2 . Air-Conditioning This is accounted for in the fuselage drag as ECS exhaust. It could provide a small amount of thrust. Aircraft Parasite Drag Buildup Summary and CDpmin Table D8 provides the aircraft parasite drag buildup summary in tabular form.
Table D8. Aircraft parasite drag buildup summary and CDpmin estimation
Wetted area Aw ft2 Fuselage + undercarriage fairing Canopy Wing V-tail H-tail 2 Nacelle 2 Pylon Rough (3%) Aerial Trim drag 4,333

Basic CF 0.00186

CF 0.00069

Total CF 0.00255

f (ft2 ) 11.03 0.3 7.35 1.54 1.68 2.5 0.362 0.744 0.005 0.1 25.611

CDpmin 0.00918 0.00025 0.00615 0.00128 0.0014 0.00208 0.0003 0.00062 0.000004 0.00008 0.0213

2,130.94 477.05 510.34 2 300 2 58.18

0.00255 0.00251 0.00269 0.00238 0.00254

0.00089 0.00072 0.00061 0.00178 0.000584

0.00346 0.00323 0.0033 0.00415 0.00312

TOTAL

Notes: CDpmin = 0.0213. Wing reference area Sw =1,202 ft2 ; CDpmin = f/Sw ISA day; 36,089-ft altitude; and Mach 0.75.

CDp Estimation The CDp is constructed, corresponding to the CL values, as given in Table D9.
Table D9.
CL CDp

CDp estimation
0.3 0 0.4 0.0004 0.5 0.0011 0.6 0.0019

0.2 0.00044

Induced Drag, CDi The wing aspect ratio: AR = span2 = (111.2)2 /1, 320 = 9.37 gross wing area

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2 L induced drag, CDi = AR = 0.034CL Table D10 gives the CDi corresponding to each CL . C2

Appendix D

Table D10. Induced drag


CL CDi 0.2 0.00136 0.3 0.00306 0.4 0.00544 0.5 0.0085 0.6 0.01224 0.7 0.0167 0.8 0.0218

Total Aircraft Drag Aircraft drag is given as: C D = CDpmin +

CDp + CDi + [CDw = 0]

The total aircraft drag is obtained by adding all the drag components in Table D11. Note that the low and high values of CL are beyond the ight envelope.
Table D11. Total aircraft drag coefcient, CD
CL CDpmin CDp CDi Total aircraft CD 0.2 0.00038 0.00136 0.0231 0.4 0.5 0.0213 from Table 7.9 0 0.0004 0.0011 0.00306 0.00544 0.0085 0.02436 0.02714 0.0309 0.3 0.6 0.0019 0.01224 0.03544

Table D11 is drawn in Figure D2 to show that the PIANO software aircraft drag checks out well with what is manually estimated in this book; hence, the PIANO value is unchanged.

Figure D2. Aircraft drag polar at LRC

Engine Rating Uninstalled sea-level static thrust = 25,000 lb per engine. Installed sea-level static thrust = 23,500 lb per engine. Weight Breakdown (with variations) Design cruise speed, VC = 350 KEAS Design dive speed, VD = 403 KEAS Design dive Mach number, MD = 0.88

Appendix D

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Limit load factor = 2.6 Ultimate load factor = 3.9 Cabin differential pressure limit = 7.88 psi Component Wing Flaps + slats Spoilers Aileron Winglet Weight (lb) 14,120 2,435 380 170 265 17,370 17,600 1,845 1,010 6,425 44,250 15,220 2,280 630 1,215 1,945 1,250 945 1,450 10,650 4,055 83,890 1,520 5,660 91,070 30,000 41,240 162,310 Percentage of MTOW

Wing group total Fuselage group H-tail group V-tail Undercarriage group Total structure weight Power plant group (two) Control systems group Fuel systems group Hydraulics group Electrical systems group Avionics systems group APU ECS group Furnishing Miscellaneous MEW Crew Operational items OEW Payload (150 200) Fuel (see range calculation) MTOW

(above subcomponent weights from [10]) (Torenbeeks method)

This gives: Wing-loading = 162,310/1,202.5 = 135 lb/ft2 Thrust-loading = 50, 000/162310 = 0.308 The aircraft is sized to this with better high-lift devices. Payload Range (150 Passengers) MTOM 162,000 lb Onboard fuel mass: 40,900 lb Payload 200 150 = 30,000 lb LRC: Mach 0.75, 36,086 feet (constant condition) Initial cruise thrust per engine: 4,500 lb Final cruise thrust per engine: 3,800 lb Average specic range: 0.09 nm/lb fuel Climb at 250 KEAS reaching to Mach 0.7

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Appendix D

Figure D3. Aircraft performance

Summary of the Mission Sector


Sector Fuel consumed (lb) Distance covered (nm) Time elapsed (min) 0 0 177 2,560 105 0 0 2,842 8 1 30 357 20 3 5 424

Taxi out 200 Takeoff 300 Climb 4,355 Cruise 28,400 Descent 370 Approach/land 380 Taxi in 135 Total 34,140

Diversion-fuel calculation: diversion distance = 2,000 nm, cruising at Mach 0.675 and at 30,000-ft altitude Diversion fuel = 2,800 lb; contingency fuel (5% of mission fuel) = 1,700 lb Holding-fuel calculation: Holding time = 30 min at Mach 0.35 and at a 5,000-ft altitude Holding fuel = 2,600 lb Total reserve fuel carried = 2,800 + 1,700 + 2,600 = 7,100 lb. Total onboard fuel carried = 7,100 + 34,140 = 41,240 lb. Cost Calculations (U.S.$ Year 2000) Number of passengers Yearly utilization Mission (trip) block time Mission (trip) block distance Mission (trip) block fuel 150 497 trips per year 7.05 hrs 2,842 nm 34,140 lb (6.68 lbs/U.S. gallons)

Appendix D

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Fuel cost = 0.6 U.S.$ per U.S. gallon Airframe price = $38 million Two engines price = $9 million Aircraft price = $47 million Operating costs per trip AEA 89 ground rules for medium jet-transport aircraft:
Depreciation Interest Insurance Flight crew Cabin crew Navigation Landing fees Ground handling $6,923 $5,370 $473 $3,482 $2,854 $3,194 $573 $1,365

Airframe maintenance $2,848 Engine maintenance $1,208 Fuel cost Total DOC DOC/block hour DOC/seat DOC/seat/nm $3,066 (5,110.8 U.S. gallons) $31,356 $4,449 $209 0.0735 U.S.$/seat/nm

Readers may compare this with data available in the public domain.