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C H A P TER

Bridging Configurations
This chapter describes how to congure bridging for your switch router. For more information about the Cisco IOS commands used in this chapter, refer to the Cisco IOS command references.This chapter includes the following sections:

About Bridging Conguring Bridging Administering Bridging About Integrated Routing and Bridging

Note You are at step 5 in the suggested process for conguring your switch router (see Table 2-1).

You should have already congured the networking and routing protocols, and should be ready to proceed with conguring bridging.

About Bridging
Cisco IOS software supports transparent bridging for Ethernet. In addition, Cisco supports all the mandatory Management Information Base (MIB) variables specied for transparent bridging in RFC 1286. Cisco IOS software bridging functionality combines the advantages of a spanning-tree bridge and a full multiprotocol router. This combination provides the speed and protocol transparency of an adaptive spanning-tree bridge, along with the functionality, reliability, and security of a router. The switch router can be congured to serve as both an IP and IPX router and a MAC-level bridge, bridging any trafc that cannot otherwise be routed. For example, a router routing IP trafc can also bridge the Digital local-area transport (LAT) protocol or NetBIOS trafc. To congure bridging, you must perform the following tasks:

In Global conguration mode: Select Spanning-Tree Protocol. Assign a priority to the bridge (optional).

In Interface conguration mode: Determine which interfaces belong to the same bridge group. These interfaces will be part of the same spanning tree. This allows the switch router to bridge all nonrouted trafc among the network interfaces comprising the bridge group. Interfaces not participating in a bridge group cannot forward bridged trafc.
Bridging Configurations 7-1

Configuring Bridging

If the packet's destination address is known in the bridge table, it is forwarded on a single interface in the bridge group. If the packet's destination is unknown in the bridge table, it is ooded on all forwarding interfaces in the bridge group. The bridge places source addresses in the bridge table as it learns them during the process of bridging. A separate spanning-tree process runs for each congured bridge group. Each bridge group participates in a separate spanning tree. A bridge group establishes a spanning tree based on the BPDUs it receives on only its member interfaces. Assign a cost to the outgoing interface (optional).

Conguring Bridging
Table 7-1 shows an example of conguring bridging for a router and an interface.

Table 7-1 Step


1

Conguring a Bridge Group Description From global conguration mode, assign a bridge group number and dene a Spanning-Tree Protocol as either the IEEE 802.1D standard or DEC.
Note The IEEE 802.1D Spanning-Tree Protocol is the preferred way of running the bridge.

Command
Router(config)# bridge bridge_group_number protocol {ieee | dec} #

Router(config)# bridge bridge_group_number priority number

The bridge priority command assigns a specic priority to the bridge, assisting in the spanning tree root denition. The lower the priority, the more likely the bridge will be selected as the root. Enter Ethernet interface conguration mode to congure the Fast Ethernet interface. Assign a network interface to a bridge group. If you need to assign additional interfaces to a bridge group, then choose the next interface and assign it to a bridge group. Return to privileged EXEC mode. Save your conguration changes to NVRAM.

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Router(config)# interface fa x/0/z

Router(config-if)# bridge-group bridge_group_number Router(config-if)# interface fa x/0/y

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Router(config-if)# Ctrl-Z Router# copy running-config startup-config

For additional transparent bridging conguration tasks, such as conguring bridged VLANs and routing between VLANs, as well as adjusting the Spanning-Tree Protocol, refer to the Cisco IOS documents on those subjects.

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Layer 3 Switching Software Feature and Configuration Guide

Administering Bridging

Administering Bridging
Once you have set up the switch router for bridging, you can administer its operation using the commands in Table 7-2.

Table 7-2 Command

Administering Bridging Displays Remove any learned entries from the forwarding database and clear the transmit and receive counts for any statically congured forwarding entries. Remove virtual LAN statistics from any static or system congured entries. Display classes of entries in the bridge forwarding database. Display the interfaces congured in each circuit group and show whether they are participating in load distribution. Display information about congured bridge groups. Display IEEE 802.10 transparently bridged virtual LAN conguration. Display the spanning-tree topology known to the Catalyst 8500 campus switch router. Display a summary of virtual LAN subinterfaces.

clear bridge bridge_group_number

clear vlan statistics show bridge bridge_group_number | interface address | mask show bridge bridge_group circuit-group circuit_group | src_mac_address | dest_mac_address show bridge group verbose show bridge vlan show span show vlans

About Integrated Routing and Bridging


Your network may require you to bridge local trafc within several segments while having hosts on the bridged segments reach the hosts or routers on routed networks. For example, if you are migrating bridged topologies into routed topologies, you may want to start by connecting some of the bridged segments to the routed networks. Using the integrated routing and bridging (IRB) feature, you can route a given protocol between routed interfaces and bridge groups within a single switch router. Specically, local or unroutable trafc will be bridged among the bridged interfaces in the same bridge group, while routable trafc will be routed to other routed interfaces or bridge groups. Because bridging is in the data-link layer (Layer 2) and routing is in the network layer (Layer 3), they have different protocol conguration models. With IP, for example, bridge group interfaces belong to the same network and have a collective IP network address. In contrast, each routed interface represents a distinct network and has its own IP network address. Integrated routing and bridging uses the concept of a Bridge-Group Virtual Interface (BVI) to enable these interfaces to exchange packets for a given protocol. A BVI is a virtual interface within the campus switch router that acts like a normal routed interface. A BVI does not support bridging, but it actually represents the corresponding bridge group to routed interfaces within the switch router. The interface number is the link between the BVI and the bridge group. Layer 3 switching software supports the routing of IP and IPX between routed interfaces and bridged interfaces in the same router, in both fast-switching and process-switching paths.

Bridging Configurations 7-3

About Integrated Routing and Bridging

Before Conguring IRB


Consider the following before conguring IRB:

The default route/bridge behavior in a bridge group (when IRB is enabled) is to bridge all packets. Make sure you explicitly congure routing on the BVI for protocols that you want routed. Packets of nonroutable protocols such as local-area transport (LAT) are always bridged. You cannot disable bridging for the nonroutable trafc. When using IRB to bridge and route a given protocol, no protocol attributes should be congured on the bridged interfaces. Bridging attributes cannot be congured on the BVI. Because bridges link several segments into one big and at network and you want to bridge the packet coming from a routed interface among bridged interfaces, the whole bridge group should be represented by one network-layer segmentin the switch router, an interface. The BVI has default data-link and network-layer encapsulations. These encapsulations are the same as on the Ethernet, except that you can congure the BVI with some encapsulations that are not supported on a normal Ethernet interface.

Conguring IRB
Conguring integrated routing and bridging consists of the following two key tasks and subtasks:
Step 1

Congure bridge groups and routed interfaces.


(a) (b) (c)

Enable bridging. Assign bridge groups to interfaces. Congure routing for desired protocols.

Step 2

Congure IRB and the BVI.


(a) (b) (c) (d)

Enable IRB. Congure the BVI. Enable the BVI to accept routed packets. Enable routing on the BVI for desired protocols.

Step 3

Verify IRB conguration.

When you congure the BVI and enable routing on it, packets that come in on a routed interface destined for a host on a segment that is in a bridge group complete the following process. The packet is routed to the BVI and forwarded to the bridging engine. From the bridging engine, the packet exits through a bridged interface. Similarly, packets that come in on a bridged interface but are sent to a host on a routed interface go rst to the BVI. Then the BVI forwards the packets to the routing engine before sending them out on the routed interface. Table 7-3 shows an example of dening a bridge group and conguring an interface.

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Layer 3 Switching Software Feature and Configuration Guide

Configuring IRB

Table 7-3 Step


1 2

Conguring Bridge Groups and Routed Interfaces Description From global conguration mode, dene one or more bridge groups. Enter Ethernet interface conguration mode to congure the Fast Ethernet interface.

Command
Router(config)# bridge bridge_group protocol ieee Router(config)# interface fa x/0/z Router(config-if)#

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Router(config-if)# bridge-group bridge_group Router(config-if)# exit

Assign a bridge group number to the designated interface. Return to global conguration mode.

Table 7-4 shows an example of enabling and conguring IRB and BVI.

Table 7-4 Step


1 2

Conguring IRB and BVI Description Enable IRB. Allows routing of trafc from the bridged interfaces. Congure the BVI by assigning the corresponding bridge groups number to the BVI. Each bridge group can only have one corresponding BVI. Enable a BVI to accept and route routable packets received from its corresponding bridge group. You must issue this command for each protocol that you want the BVI to route from its corresponding bridge group to other routed interfaces.

Command
Router(config)# bridge irb

Router(config)# interface bvi bridge_group

Router(config)# bridge bridge_group route protocol

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Router(config-if)# ip address ip_address_mask Router(config)#

Congure protocol addresses on routed interfaces. This step shows an example for IP. Optionally, you can congure additional routing attributes to the BVI. Save your conguration changes to NVRAM.

Router# copy running-config startup-config

Table 7-5 shows an example of verifying the IRB conguration.

Table 7-5 Command

Verifying the IRB Conguration Displays BVI information, such as the BVI MAC address and processing statistics BVI information: Protocols that this bridged interface can route to the other routed interface if this packet is routable Protocols that this bridged interface bridges Entries in the software MAC-address lter Bridging Configurations 7-5

show interfaces bvi interface_name show interfaces irb

About Integrated Routing and Bridging

When you have completed the conguration tasks for bridging, see Chapter 8, EtherChannel Congurations.

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Layer 3 Switching Software Feature and Configuration Guide