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AERODYNAMICS

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AF10 to AF18

Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories

A mobile bench with a wide range of optional modules for experiments in air flow The
A mobile bench with a wide
range of optional modules for
experiments in air flow
The optional Multitube
Manometer (AF10a)

Air flow bench with variable air flow control and a wide range of optional experiment modules available for a complete course in air flow

Small-scale wind tunnel, ideal for student experiments, lecture theatre demonstrations and project work

Versatile, easy to fit and change experiment modules

Includes a textbook “A First Course in Airflow” by Professor E. Markland

Compact and mobile, with a worktop and shelves

No installation – only single-phase electrical supply needed (and a simple exhaust for waste smoke for the AF17)

TecQuipment Ltd, Bonsall Street, Long Eaton, Nottingham NG10 2AN, UK T +44 115 972 2611 • F +44 115 973 1520 • E info@tecquipment.com • W www.tecquipment.com An ISO 9001 certified company

AERODYNAMICS Page 1 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories A mobile
AERODYNAMICS Page 1 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories A mobile

PE/DB/0411

AERODYNAMICS

Page 2 of 5

AF10 to AF18

Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories

Description – General

Professor E Markland devised this equipment for an introductory course in air flow. Professor Markland is the former Head of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Cardiff. Supplied with the equipment is the textbook, written by Professor Markland. It includes theory, experiments and typical results.

The main (essential) part of the equipment is the Air Flow Bench (AF10). This is a small-scale wind tunnel with an electric fan and adjustable air flow control. You need this first. You then choose and buy the additional experiment modules (AF11 to AF18) that you need, fitting them to the Air Flow Bench to do the experiments.

Description – Airflow Bench AF10

A fan delivers atmospheric air through a flow-control valve to a plenum chamber. Some of the optional experiment modules fit to the opening in the plenum chamber. Alternatively, supplied as standard (and fitted), there is an aerodynamically shaped contraction that provides a smaller opening for other experiments. Strong but easy-to-use toggle fasteners hold the experiment modules to the plenum or the contraction, so that users need no extra tools to fit most experiments.

Discharge from the experiments is normally downwards. The air passes down through an outlet in the benchtop and exhausts at the back of the bench. For experiments with smoke, users can fit flexible ducting to the exhaust to direct waste smoke safely away.

Standard Features

Supplied with a comprehensive textbook

Two-year warranty

Manufactured in accordance with the latest European Union directives

Recommended Ancillaries

Multitube Manometer (AF10a) – A multitube manometer to measure several pressures at the same time. It is useful for most of the experiment modules.

Experiments

When used with the optional experiment modules:

• Demonstration of Bernoulli’s equation (AF11) Determination of drag force (AF12) Demonstration of a turbulent jet (of air) (AF13) Demonstration of boundary layer (AF14) Flow around a bend (AF15) Jet attachment (AF16) Flow visualisation (smoke) (AF17) Pressure distribution around a symmetrical aerofoil

(AF18)

Essential Services

Floor space needed:

1.5 m x 1.5 m

Electrical supply:

Single-phase 230 VAC 50 Hz (other supplies available – specify on order)

Extraction or ventilation system:

If you use the Flow Visualisation Module (AF17), you must connect the air exhaust to a suitable air extractor, window or ventilation system.

Compressed carbon dioxide:

For the Flow Visualisation Module (AF17). You must fill its gas bottle with compressed carbon dioxide.

Operating Conditions

Operating environment:

Laboratory environment

Storage temperature range:

–25°C to +55°C (when packed for transport)

Operating temperature range:

+5°C to +40°C

Operating relative humidity range:

80% at temperatures < 31°C decreasing linearly to 50% at

40°C

TecQuipment Ltd, Bonsall Street, Long Eaton, Nottingham NG10 2AN, UK T +44 115 972 2611 • F +44 115 973 1520 • E info@tecquipment.com • W www.tecquipment.com An ISO 9001 certified company

AERODYNAMICS Page 2 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Description –
AERODYNAMICS Page 2 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Description –

AERODYNAMICS

Page 3 of 5

AF10 to AF18

Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories

Bernoulli’s Equation Apparatus AF11

AERODYNAMICS Page 3 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Bernoulli’s Equation

A transparent duct that fits on the contraction. It has removable liners which give a simple convergent- divergent passage. Students can move a Pitot-static tube along the axis of the duct to show constant total pressure and the rise and fall of static pressure.

The significant pressure changes give a convincing demonstration of Bernoulli’s equation. The geometry allows students to compare calculations against measurement. Experiments include:

• Confirmation of Bernoulli’s equation How to use a Pitot-static tube

Drag Force Apparatus AF12

AERODYNAMICS Page 3 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Bernoulli’s Equation

Fits on the contraction and shows and compares drag force on a cylinder, flat plate and aerofoil, each of the same projected frontal area. The cylinder has a radial pressure tapping. Students may rotate it within the transparent working section.

Experiments include:

Determination of drag force by measurement of the pressure distribution around the cylinder.

Determination of drag force by wake traverse, using a Pitot tube to infer the velocity distribution and momentum flux in the wake.

Comparison of the drag force from pressure distribution and wake traverse with that from the drag balance.

Comparison of the results for the cylinder with those for the flat plate and aerofoil, using the drag balance.

Round Turbulent Jet Apparatus AF13

AERODYNAMICS Page 3 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Bernoulli’s Equation

Experiments include:

A cylindrical tube with an aerodynamically rounded entrance. It fits to the plenum chamber. The total pressure in the emerging jet may be measured by means of a Pitot tube mounted in a traverse gear, which is arranged so that a diametrical traverse may be made at various sections along the jet axis. Several diameters may be traversed to check the symmetry of the jet.

Decay of centre-line velocity

Velocity profile at various distances along the jet and the development and spread of the jet.

Analysis of the velocity profiles, to show how the mass flux in the jet increases, the kinetic energy flux decreases and the momentum flux remains constant along the length.

Boundary Layer Apparatus AF14

AERODYNAMICS Page 3 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Bernoulli’s Equation

A flat plate is in a transparent working section so that a boundary layer forms along it. A sensitive, wedge-shaped Pitot tube mounted in a micrometer traverse allows students to measure velocity in the boundary layer. Both laminar and turbulent layers may be formed.

Experiments include measurement of the velocity profile:

in laminar and turbulent boundary layers;

in the boundary layer on rough and smooth plates;

in the boundary layer at various distances from the leading edge of the plate; and

in the boundary layer on plates subject to an increasing or decreasing pressure gradient in the direction of flow (using the removable duct liners supplied).

TecQuipment Ltd, Bonsall Street, Long Eaton, Nottingham NG10 2AN, UK T +44 115 972 2611 • F +44 115 973 1520 • E info@tecquipment.com • W www.tecquipment.com An ISO 9001 certified company

AERODYNAMICS Page 3 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Bernoulli’s Equation
AERODYNAMICS Page 3 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Bernoulli’s Equation

AERODYNAMICS

Page 4 of 5

AF10 to AF18

Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories

Flow Around a Bend AF15

Flow Visualisation Apparatus AF17

AERODYNAMICS Page 4 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Flow Around

A bend fits to the contraction. Pressure tappings are at important places along the wall of the bend.

Students connect the tappings to a suitable manometer (for example the optional AF10a) and take readings.

Experiments include:

Pressure distribution along the curved inner and outer walls.

Radial pressure distribution and comparison with that predicted assuming free vortex velocity distribution.

Jet Attachment Apparatus AF16

AERODYNAMICS Page 4 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Flow Around

The technology of fluidics has evolved from a variety of devices that exploit phenomena of fluid mechanics such as transition from laminar to turbulent flow and jet attachment to a solid wall.

In this experiment, a jet emerging from a slit flows against a wall to which it attaches. The wall may be swung to deflect the jet through a large angle without jet attachment. A second wall may be introduced at the other side of the jet, which may be switched from one side to the other, as is done in the fluidic switch of the type called a flip-flop.

Experiments include:

• Demonstration of the Coanda effect Demonstration of the fluidic ‘flip-flop’

A working section fits to the bench to give flow visualisation facilities. Non- toxic smoke, produced in a generator (supplied), passes into a rake of tubes that produce smoke filaments which flow through the working section. They show the pattern of flow around obstacles or through restrictions. This apparatus makes lots of smoke, so you must vent the exhaust to the open air. We provide a flexible duct for this purpose.

AERODYNAMICS Page 4 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Flow Around

Note: The smoke generator uses compressed carbon dioxide. Its gas bottle is shipped empty for transport regulations. You must fill the bottle before use.

Experiments with the models supplied:

Flow around a cylinder, around an aerofoil and through a sharp-edged slit (orifice).

Tapped Aerofoil Module AF18

AERODYNAMICS Page 4 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Flow Around

Investigates the

pressure

distribution

around an

aerofoil. It includes a NACA

0020

symmetrical

aerofoil mounted

in a

duct with

transparent sides. The duct fits onto the contraction of the Air Flow Bench.

The aerofoil has pressure tappings on its upper and lower surfaces, six on each surface. These tappings connect to an integral manifold, for connection to a suitable manometer (not included). Students find the pressure distribution around the aerofoil and calculate the lift force. The angle of incidence of the aerofoil is adjustable and shown by a protractor scale.

Experiments include:

• Pressure distribution around an aerofoil Lift characteristics and stall angle of an aerofoil

TecQuipment Ltd, Bonsall Street, Long Eaton, Nottingham NG10 2AN, UK T +44 115 972 2611 • F +44 115 973 1520 • E info@tecquipment.com • W www.tecquipment.com An ISO 9001 certified company

AERODYNAMICS Page 4 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Flow Around
AERODYNAMICS Page 4 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Flow Around

AERODYNAMICS

Page 5 of 5

AF10 to AF18

Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories

Specifications (AF10)

Air flow:

30 m/s in l00 x 50 mm working section (9 m 3 /min)

Nett dimensions and weight:

1000 mm x 800 mm x 2000 mm high and 120 kg

Packed dimensions and weight:

  • 2.43 m 3 and 260 kg

Specifications (AF11/12/14/15/16/18)

Packed dimensions and weight:

0.2 m 3 ; 10 kg

AF11, AF12, AF14, AF15, AF18:

100 mm x 50 mm transparent duct

AF15:

Inner wall: 10 tappings Outer wall: 10 tappings, 45° radial section: 9 tappings, reference at inlet: 1 tapping.

Specifications (AF13)

Packed dimensions and weight:

  • 0.08 m 3 ; 15 kg

Specifications (AF17)

Packed dimensions and weight:

  • 0.10 m 3 ; 17 kg

TecQuipment Ltd, Bonsall Street, Long Eaton, Nottingham NG10 2AN, UK T +44 115 972 2611 • F +44 115 973 1520 • E info@tecquipment.com • W www.tecquipment.com An ISO 9001 certified company

AERODYNAMICS Page 5 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Specifications (AF10)
AERODYNAMICS Page 5 of 5 AF10 to AF18 Modular Air Flow Bench and Accessories Specifications (AF10)