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When a ship is 800 nautical miles from port, its speed is reduced by 20%, thereby reducing the daily fuel consumption by 42 t, and arriving with 50 t on board. If fuel consumption, in tone/hr is given by the expression (0.136 + .001V3), where V is the ships speed in knots, estimate: a. reduced consumption per day (b) the amount of fuel on board, when speed was reduced (c) the percentage decrease in consumption, for the later part of the voyage (d) the percentage increase in time for the later part of the voyage. Distance = 800 nM. The speed is given as V. Let us say the original speed as V1 and the new speed as V2. So, V1 = V, and V2 = 0.8 V (speed reduced by 20%) Let the original fuel consumption/ day be C1 and the new fuel consumption / day be C2 Fuel remaining on arrival port = 50 tonne and given that consumption / hr = 0.136 + 0.001V3 Consumption is proportional to (spped)3 Hence C1 / C2 = {V1 / V2}3 = { V / 0.8V}3 = 1.95 Therefore C1 = 1.95 C2 .(1) Given that the daily consumption is reduced by 42 tonnes, meaning C1 - C2 = 42 t Substituting for C1 in equation 1, we get 1.95 C2 - C2 = 42, or C2 = 44.2 t/ day = reduced consumption / day = 44.2 t/day .. (a) Then C1 = 44.2 + 42 = 86.2 t/day Now fuel consumption / day = 44.2 t/day Hence total consumption = 44.2 x 800 x 24 / 0.8V Given that consumption / hr = 0.136 + 0.001 (0.8V)3 Consumption / day = consumption / hr x 24 Hence 44.2 = = [0.136 + 0.001 (0.8V)3] x 24 Solving for V, we get V = 15 knots Hence original speed V = V1 = 15 knots Reduced speed = 0.8V = V2 = 12 knots No. of days = distance / speed x 24 = 800 / 12 x 24 = 2.78 days Hence fuel consumed in total = 44.2 x 2.78 = 122.87 t ROB on arrival = 50 t Hence fuel at the time of reduction of speed = 50 + 122.87 = 172.87 t (b) No. of days with the original speed of 15 knots will be = 800 / 24 x 15 = 2.22 days Total consumption with original speed of 15 knots will be 86.2 x 2.22 = 191.36 t

Hence decrease in consumption = 191.36 122.87 = 68.49 t Hence % decrease in consumption = 68.49 / 191.36 = 0.3579 or 35.79%...............(c) No. of days with decreased speed = 800 / 12x24 = 2.78 days No. of days that should have been with original speed of 15 knots = 2.22 days Hence increase in time taken = 2.78 2.22 = 0.56 days So the % increase in time = 0.56 / 2.22 = 0.2522 or 25.22% 2. a. A ships speed is increased by 20% above normal for 8 hours, reduced by 10% below normal for 10 hours and for the remaining 6 hours of the day the speed is normal. Calculate the percentage variation in fuel consumption in that day from normal. b. briefly define the following terms i) specific fuel consumption (ii) maximum continuous rating (iii) pitch (iv) real slip Let V = normal speed, C = normal hourly consumption Hence daily consumption = 24C Consumption / hr varies as the cube of the speed So, C1 / C2 = [V1 / V2]3 For the first 8 hours, speed is 20% above normal, i.e. speed will be 1.2V For this consumption/hr will be = C [1.2V/V]3 = 1.728C For 8 hours the consumption = 8 x 1.728C = 13.824C For the next 10 hrs, speed is 10% below normal, hence speed = 0.9V Hence consumption for this 10 hrs will be = C[0.9V/V] x 10 = 7.29C For the remaining 6 hrs , consumption is normal, hence consumption for this 6 hrs = 6C Total consumption for the day = [ 13.84 + 7.29 + 6] C = 27.114C But normal consumption should have been = 24C Hence % change in consumption = [(27.114 24)C / 24C] = 12.97% In this case there was a increase in daily consumption by 12.97% i) specific fuel consumption It is the rate of fuel consumption divided by the power produced. (ii) maximum continuous rating : T h e r a t e d o r m a x i m u m c o n tinuous power of a diesel engine. (iii) pitch : Is the displacement a propeller makes in a complete spin of 360 degrees. This means that if we have a propeller of 40 pitch it will advance 40 inches for every complete spin as long as this is made in a solid surface; in a liquid enviroment, the propeller will obviously slide with less displacement. (iv) real slip: is the difference between the propeller theoretical speed and the speed of advance (contribution by the propeller), expressed as a ratio or percentage of theoretical speed.

3. a. A ships propeller has a pitch of 5.1m. After 24 hours of steaming at propeller speed of 91 revs/min, it was found that vessel has actually moved 331 nautical miles. Find the percentage slip. b. A ships propeller has a pitch of 5.4 m. After 24 hours of steaming, at a propeller speed of 6540 revs/hour, it was found that vessel has actually moved 386 nautical miles. Find the percentage slip. a. Theoretical speed VT = Actual speed Hence slip = pitch x rev/min x 60 / 1852 knots = 5.1 x 91 x60 / 1852 = 15.04 knots = 331 / 24 = 13.79 knots 15.04 13.79 / 15.04 = 0.08312 or 8.312%

b. theoretical speed VT = 5.4 x 6540 x 60 / 60 x 1852 = 19.069 knots distance travelled = 386 nM, hence actual speed = 386 / 24 = 16.08 knots hence slip = 19.07 16.08 / 19.07 = 0.15679 or 15.679% 4. A ships propeller has a pitch of 2.96m. the true slip is 32% and the ships speed is 1.4 times the speed of advance. If the ship uses 22 tonnes of fuel per day at 12 knots, determine the daily consumption when the propeller is turning a 98 rpm. State all assumptions made. Fuel consumption / day [ship speed]3 Let consumption / day be denoted by C and the ships peed by V C1 / C 2 = [V1 / V2]3 ..[1] C1 = 22t; C2 = to be found, V1 = 12 knots To find out V2: V2 = is given as 1.4 times the speed of advance Va Real slip = 32% 0r 0.32 = VT Va / VT VT = 2.96 x 98 x 60 / 1852 = 9.398 knots Hence Va = 0.68 x 9.398 = 6.39 knots V2 = 1.4 x 6.39 = 8.946 knots From equation 1 we have, 22 / C2 = [12/9.398]3 = 2.082 Hence C2 = 22 / 2.082 = 10.89 t Daily fuel consumption = 10.89t 5. The fuel consumption of a ship at 16 knots is 42 tonne / day. The speed is reduced and the consumption is reduced to 27 tonne/day. At the reduced speed the consumption per unit power is 21% greater than at 16 knots. (i) find the reduced speed of the ship (ii) the percentage saving of fuel on a voyage of 4000 nautical mile (iii) the percentage increase in the time taken. At 16 knots consumption per day = 42t At reduced speed, say V knots, consumption per day = 27 t But at V knots, consumption per day = 1.21 x 42

Generally, C2 / C1 = [V2 / V1]3 Assuming the consumption at reduced speed be C, then C/42 = [V2/16]3 So, 27 / 1.21 x 42 = [V2 / 16]3 Resolving V2 = 12.96 knots Voyage distance = 4000 nM No.of days taken to complete the voyage at this reduced speed = 4000 / 12.96 x 24 = 12.86 days No. of days that would have taken at 16 knots speed = 4000 / 16 x 24 = 10.42 days Percentage increase in time = 12.86 10.42 / 10.42 = 0.2341 or 23.41% Fuel consumed at reduced speed = 12.86 x 27 = 347.22 t Fuel that would have got consumed at 16knots = 10.42 x 42 = 437.64 t Hence saving in fuel = 90.42 t Percentage saving = 90.42 / 437.64 = 20.66% 6. A vessel loads bunkers for a voyage of 4500 miles at 16 knots. The main engine consumes 50 tonnes per day at this speed, the auxiliary plant requiring 2 tonnes per day, which is independent of speed. Just before sailing at 1824 hours on 3rd March, the vessel is ordered to proceed on voyage at 14 knots. At 0624 hours on 11th March, orders are received to proceed for the rest of voyage at 16.2 knots. Calculate: a. the estimated time of arrival (b) the bunkers remaining on arrival. Given: voyage distance = 4500 miles Main engine consumption : 50 t / day Auxiliary engine consumption : 2t / day

3rd March 11th March, distance covered @ 14 knots = 14 x 24 x7.5 = 2520 miles Balance to cover = 1980 miles Fuel consumption @ 14 knots C2 : C1 / C2 = [V1 / V2]3 50 / C2 = [16/14]3 C2 = 33.489 t say 33.5 t Hence bunker consumed till 11th March = 33.489 x 7.5 + 15 = 266.172 t Let C3 be the consumption at 16.2 knots Therefore C1 / C3 = [V1 / V3]3 ; 50 / C3 = [16/16.2]3 C3 = 51.899 t Distance to be covered = 1982 miles, speed = 16.2 knots Therefore time taken = 122.3456 hrs or 5.1 days approx Arrival time will be = 16th March, 0848 hours Bunker consumed = 51.889 x 5.1 + 10.2 = 274.885 t Hence total bunker consumption = 541.057 t

Assuming the bunkers were taken for this 4500 miles @ 16 knots speed, the days that would have taken to reach the destination would be = 4500 / 16 x24 = 11.718 @ 50 t/day for main engine and 2t/day for AE, the bunkers taken would be 585.9375 + 23.4375 = 609.375t Hence ROB on arrival = 609.375 -541.057 = 68.318t

7 The pitch angle of propeller blade measured at radii of 1, 1.5,2,2.5 & 3 meters are respectively 42,32,26,22 and 19 degrees. The propeller turns at 105 rpm and drives the ship at 22 knots. If the wake fraction is 0.22, calculate: (i) pitch of propeller (ii) apparent slip (iii) real slip What are the interpretations of the result? Pitch of propeller = 2 x raidus x tan At Position 1, P1 = 2 x 1 x tan 42 2, P2 = 2 x 1.5 x tan 32 3, P3 = 2 x 2 x tan 26 4, P4 = 2 x 2.5 x tan 22 5, P5 = 2 x 3 x tan 19 = 5.65 m = 5.89 m = 6.13 m = 6.34 m = 6.49 m

Average pitch = sum of all pitches / number of readings = 30.5 /5 = 6.1 m Theoretical speed = VT = P x N x 60 / 1852 = 6.1 x 105 x 60 / 1852 = 20.75 knots Actual speed = V = 22 knots Hence apparent slip = VT V / VT = 20.75 22 / 20.75 = - 0.06 or 6%

Wake fraction w = 0.22 = V - VA / V = 22 - VA / 22 Hence speed of advance VA = 17.16 knots Real slip = VT - VA / VT = 20.75 - 17.16 / 20.75 = 17.30 %

8. A vessel left port with 280 tonnes of fuel in bunkers, covered a journey of 2250 nautical miles at a speed of 12 knots and arrived at her destination with 40 tonnes of fuel in hand. What (i) speed would have enabled the ship to arrive at her destination with the same reserve of fuel if she started off from port with 201 tonnes in the bunkers? What would be the (ii) daily consumption of fuel at this new speed? Fuel used for voyage in first case = 280 40 Fuel used in the second case = 201 - 40 Voyage consumptrion1 / voyage consumption 2 voy. Dist2 V1 = 12 knots, voy. Dist1, and voy. Dist2 V2 = to be found = 240t = 161 t = [ 1 / 2]2/3 x [V1 / V2]2 x voy. Dist1 / = 2250 knots

240 / 161 = [12 / V2]2 x 2250 / 2250 Hence V2 = 9.828 knots Daily consumption at this speed = 161 / no. of days to cover 2250 miles = 161 / [2250 / 24 x 9.828] = 16.87 t 9. The daily fuel consumption of a ship at 156 knots is 40 tonnes. 1100 nautical miles from the port, it is found that the bunkers are reduced to 115 tonnes. The ship speed is reduced, and if the ship reaches the port with 20 tonnes of fuel on board, calculate the reduced speed and the time taken in hours to complete the voyage.
ship speed 15 Kn Total fuel used = 115-20 = 95t at 15 Kn, total consumption for 1100 miles = 40 x 1100 / 15x24 = 122.3t total consumption is proportional to V power 3 hence, 95 / 122.3 = V power 3 / 15 power 3 V = 13.22 Kn Time taken = 1100 miles / 13.22 = 83.18 hrs.

10. Area of indicator diagram taken off one cylinder of a four cylinders, two stroke, IC engine was 378 mm2. Length of the diagram is 70mm. Indicator spring constant is 1mm = 1 bar. The diameters of the cylinders is 250 mm, stroke is 300mm and rotational speed is 5 revs / sec. Calculate the indicated power of the engine, assuming all cylinders develop equal power. In dicated power / cylinder = Pm L A N Pm = 378 / 70 x 1 = 5.4 bar L = 300 mm = 0.3m A = d2 / 4 = /4 x [250/1000]2 = 0.04910 m2 N = 5 rev/sec (two stroke engine) Substituting in the above formula, indicated power / cylinder = 5.4 x 0.300 x 0.04910 x 5 = 39.776 kW Engine has 4 cylinders, hence indicated power of the engine = 4 x 39.776 = 159.1 kW

11. A ship covers 2500 nautical miles in 9 days, during a voyage between 2 ports. During this voyage, the engine has made 830000 revolutions. The propeller pitch is 6 meters. Calculate percentage propeller slip. (1 nautical mile = 1852m = 1.852 km) Theoretical distance = pitch (m/rev) x total no. of revolutions = 830000 x 6 m = 83000 x 6 / 1852 nautical miles = 2689 nautical miles % slip = Theoretical distance actual distance / theoretical distance % = 2689 2500 / 2689 = 0.070 or 7% Ans