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# Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Algebra
Chapter 7
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

7
2 2 3 5 7 13 22 24

Vectors

Fundamental Concepts Addition and Subtraction of Vectors Scalar Multiplication Vectors in Three Dimensions Linear Combination and Linear Independence Products of Two Vectors
A. Scalar Product B. Vector Product

## Scalar Triple Product Matrix Transformation*

7.1
1. 2.

Fundamental Concepts
Scalar quantities: mass, density, area, time, potential, temperature, speed, work, etc. Vectors are physical quantities which have the property of directions and magnitude. e.g. Velocity v , weight w , force f , etc.
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3.

## Properties: (a) The magnitude of u is denoted by u . (b) (c)

2 AB = CD if and only if u v s in , and AB and CD has the same direction. 2 2

AB = BA

(d) Null vector, zero vector 0 , is a vector with zero magnitude i.e. 0 = 0 . The direction of a zero vector is indetermine. (e) Unit vector, u or eu , is a vector with magnitude of 1 unit. I.e. u = 1 . u u = u = uu u

(f)

7.2
1.

## Addition and Subtraction of Vectors

Geometric meaning of addition and subtraction.

AB + BC + CD = AD

PQ = q p

2.

Properties:

For any vectors u , v and w , we have (a) u + v = v + u , (b) u + (v + w) = (u + v ) + w , (c) u+0 = 0+u

(d) u + ( u ) = (u ) + u = 0
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N.B.

## (1) u v = u + (v) (2) c = a + b a = c b

7.3

Scalar Multiplication

When a vector a is multiplied by a scalar m, the product ma is a vector parallel to a such that (a) The magnitude of ma is m times that of a . (b) When m > 0 , ma has the same direction as that of a , When m < 0 , ma has the opposite direction as that of a . These properties are illustrated in Figure.

Theorem

Properties of Scalar Multiplication Let m, n be two scalars. For any two vectors a and b , we have (a) m(na ) = (mn)a (b) (m + n)a = ma + na (c) m(a + b) = ma + mb (d) 1a = a (e) 0a = o (f) 0 = 0

Theorem

Section Formula Let A,B and R be three collinear points. If AR m = , then OR = mOB + nOA . RB n m+n

u v s i n
2
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2 2

Example Solution

Page 3

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Properties (a) If a, b are two non-zero vectors, then a // b if and only if a = mb for some m R . (b) a + b a + b , and a b a b

7.4

## Vectors in Three Dimensions

(a) We define i, j , k are vectors joining the origin O to the points (1,0,0) , (0,1,0) , (0,0,1) respectively. (b) i, j and k are unit vectors. i.e. i = j = k = 1 . (c) To each point P (a, b, c) in R 3 , there corresponds uniquely a vector
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## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

OP = p = ai + bj + ck where is called the position vector of P . (d) (e) (f) p = a2 + b2 + c2 a2 + b2 + c2 Properties : Let (i) (ii) (iii) p= ai + bj + ck p1 = x1i + y1 j + z1 k and p 2 = x 2 i + y 2 j + z 2 k . Then p1 = p 2 if and only if x1 = x 2 , y1 = y 2 and z1 = z 2 , p1 + p 2 = ( x1 + x 2 )i + ( y1 + y 2 ) j + ( z1 + z 2 )k p1 = ( x1i + y1 j + z1 k ) = x1i + y1 j + z1 k

N.B.

## For convenience, we write p = ( x, y, z )

Example

Given two points A(6,8,10) and B (1,2,0) . (a) Find the position vectors of A and . B . (b) Find the unit vector in the direction of the position vector of A . (c) If a point P divides the line segment AB in the ration 3 : 2 , find the coordinates of P .

Solution

Example

Let A( 0 ,2 ,6 ) and B( 4 ,2 ,8 ) (a) Find the position vectors of A and B . Hence find the length of AB . (b) If P is a point on AB such that AP = 2PB, find the coordinates of P . (c) Find the unit vector along OP .

Solution

7.5

## Linear Combination and Linear Independence

Consider a given set of vectors v1 , v 2 , , v n . A sum of the form a1v1 + a 2 v 2 + + a n v n where a1 , a 2 , , a n are scalars, is called a linear combination of v1 , v 2 , , v n . If a vector v can be expressed as v = a1v1 + a 2 v 2 + + a n v n Then v is a linear combination of v1 , v 2 , , v n . .
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Definition

## Example Example Solution

r = u 2v + w is a linear combination of the vectors u, v , w . Consider u = (1,2,1), v = (6,4,2) R 3 , show that w = (9,27) is a linear combination of u and v while w1 = (4,1,8) is not.

Definition

If v1 , v 2 , , v n are vectors in R n and if every vector in R n can be expressed as the linear combination of v1 , v 2 , , v n . Then we say that these vectors span (generate) R n or

{ v1 , v 2 , , v n }
Example Example

{ i, j}

## is the set of basis vectors in R 2 . is the set basis vector in R 3 .

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## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Remark : Definition

The basis vectors have an important property of linear independent which is defined as follow: The set of vector { v1 , v 2 , , v n } is said to be linear independent if and only if the vectors equation k1v1 + k 2 v 2 + + k n v n = 0 has only solution k1 = k 2 = = k n = 0 The set of vector { v1 , v 2 , , v n } is said to be linear dependent if and only if the vectors equation k1v1 + k 2 v 2 + + k n v n = 0 has non-trivial solution. (i.e. there exists some k i such that k i 0 ) Determine whether v1 = (1,2,3), v 2 = (5,6,1), v 3 = (3,2,1) are linear independent or dependent.

Definition

Example Solution

Example

Let a = i + j + k , b = 2i j k and c = j k . Prove that (a) a, b and c are linearly independent. (b) any vector v in R 3 can be expressed as a linear combination of a, b and c .

Solution

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example Solution

If vectors a, b and c are linearly independent, show that a + b, b + c and c + a are also linearly independent.

## Example (a) (b) Solution

Let a = ( 2 ,3 t ,1 ) , b = ( 1 t ,2 ,3 ) and c = ( 0 ,4 ,2 t ). Show that b and c are linearly independent for all real values of t . Show that there is only one real number t so that a , b and c are linearly dependent. For this value of t , express a as a linear combination of b and c .

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Theorem (1) A set of vectors including the zero vector must be linearly dependent. (2) If the vector v can be expressed as a linear combination of v1 , v 2 , v n , then the set of vectors v1 , v 2 , v n and v are linearly dependent. (3) If the vectors v1 , v 2 , v n are linearly dependent, then one of the vectors can expressed as a linear combination of the other vectors. Proof

Example Solution

## Let a = i + 3 j + 5k , b = i and c = 3 j + 5k . Prove that a, b and c are linearly dependent.

Theorem Proof

Two non-zero vectors are linearly dependent if and only if they are parallel.

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Theorem Proof

Three non-zero vectors are linearly dependent if and only if they are coplanar.

7.6
A.

## Products of Two Vectors

Scalar Product
The scalar product or dot product or inner product of two vectors a and b , denoted by a b , is defined as a b = a b cos (0 )

Definition

Remarks

a b . ab

Example

## If a = 3, b = 4 and angle between a and b is 60 , then a b =

Theorem

Properties of Scalar Product Let a, b, c be three vectors and m be a scalar. Then we have (1) a a = a
2

(2) a b = b a (3) a (b + c ) = a b + a c (4) m(a b) = (ma) b = a (mb) (5) a a > 0 if a 0 and a a = 0 if a = 0 Theorem If p = a1i + b1 j + c1 k and q = a 2 i + b2 j + c 2 k . Then (1) p q = a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 pq ( p, q 0) (2) cos = pq = a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 a1 + b1 + c1
2 2 2

a 2 + b2 + c 2

(3) p q = 0 if and only if p q . (4) a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 = 0 if and only if p q . Example Solution Find the angle between the two vectors a = 2i + 2 j k and b = 2i 2k .

Remarks

Two non-zero vectors are said to be orthogonal if their scalar product is zero. Obviously, two perpendicular vectors must be orthogonal since =

## , cos = 0 , and so their scalar product 2

is zero. For example, as i, j and k are mutually perpendicular, we have i j = j k = k i = 0. Also, as i, j and k are unit vectors, i i = j j = k k = 1 .

Example Solution

## State whether the two vectors i 3 j + 4k and i + j + k are orthogonal.

Example

Given two points A = ( 2s, s + 1, s + 3) and B = ( t 2 ,3t 1,t ) and two vectors r1 = 2i + 2 j k and r2 = i + j + 2k If AB is perpendicular to both r1 and r2 , find the values of s and t .

Solution

Example

Let a, b and c be three coplanar vectors. If a and b are orthogonal, show that c= ca c b a+ b aa bb

Solution

Example

Determine whether the following sets of vectors are orthogonal or not. (a) a = 4i 2 j and b = 2i + 3 j (b) a = 5i 2 j + 4k and b = i + 2 j k (c) a = 3i + j 4k and b = 2i + 2 j + 2k

Solution

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

B.

Vector Product
If u = (u1 , u 2 , u 3 ) and v = (v1 , v 2 , v3 ) are vectors in R 3 , then the vector product and cross product u v is the vector defined by uv = (u 2 v3 u 3 v 2 , u 3 v1 u1v3 , u1v 2 u 2 v1 ) i u1 v1 j u2 v2 k u3 v3

Definition

Example Solution

Example

## Let (a) (e) (g) (i) (k)

a = i + k , b = 2i + j k and c = i + 2 j 2k . Find a b (b) b c (c) a b (d) a c ( a b )c (f) a (b c ) ab + bc + ca (h) (a b) c (c b) a [(a + b) c] a (j) [(a + b) (c + a )] b a (b c) (l) (a b) c

Solution

Theorem

2 2 2

Proof

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Remarks

(i)

By (c)

uv

= = = =

u v (u v ) 2
2 2 2 2 u v u v cos 2 , where is angle between u and v .

2 2

uv

## The another definition of u v is u v = u v sin en where en is a unit vector

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## perpendicular to the plane containing u and v . (ii) u v = v u and u v = v u (iii) i j = jk = k j =

Definition

The vector product (cross product) of two vectors a and b , denoted by a b , is a vector such that (1) its magnitude is equal to a b sin , where is angle between a and b. (2) perpendicular to both a and b and a, b, a b form a right-hand system. If a unit vector in the direction of a b is denoted by en , then we have a b = a b sin en (0 )

Geometrical Interpretation of Vector Product (1) a b is a vector perpendicular to the plane containing a and b . (2) The magnitude of the vector product of a and b is equal to the area of parallelogram with a and b as its adjacent sides. Corollary (a) Two non-zero vectors are parallel if and only if their vector product is zero. (b) Two non-zero vectors are linearly dependent if and only if their vector product is zero. Theorem Properties of Vector Product (1) a (b + c) = a b + a c (2) m(a b) = (ma) b = a (mb)

Example Solution

Find a vector perpendicular to the plane containing the points A(1,2,3), B (1,4,8) and C (5,1,2) .

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example Solution

If a + b + c = 0, show that a b = b c = c a

Example Solution

Find the area of the triangle formed by taking A(0,2,1), B (1,1,2) and C (1,1,0) as vertices.

Example

Let OA = i + 2 j + k , OB = 3i + j + 2k and OC = 5i + j + 3k . (a) Find AB AC . (b) Find the area of ABC. Hence, or otherwise, find the distance from C to AB .

Solution

Example

## Let a and b be two vectors in R 3 such that

a a = b b = 1 and a b = 0

Let S = a + b R 3 : , R . (a) Show that for all u S , u = (u a )a + (u b)b (b) For any v R 3 , let w = (v a )a + (v b)b. Show that for all u S , (v w) u = 0 . Solution

Example Solution

## Let a, b, c R 3 . If a (b c) = (a b) c = 0 , prove that a b = b c = c a = 0 .

Example

Let u , v and w be linearly independent vectors in R 3 . Show that : (a) If u = (u1 , u 2 , u 3 ) , v = (v1 , v 2 , v3 ) and w = ( w1 , w2 , w3 ) , u1 then u 2 u3 v1 v2 v3 w1 w2 0 w3

(b) If s R 3 such that s u = s v = s w = 0 , then s = 0 . (c) If u (v w) = (u v) w = 0 , then u v = v w = w u = 0 . (d) If u v = v w = w u = 0 , then r = r u r v rw u+ v+ w for all r R 3 . u u vv w w
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Solution

7.7

## Scalar Triple Product

The scalar triple product of 3 vectors a, b and c is defined to be (a b) c .

Definition

Let the angle between a and b be and that between a b and c be . As shown in Figure, when 0 < <

, we have 2

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Volume of Parallelepiped

= =

## Base Area Height

( a b) c

= = = =

Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar Triple Product The absolute value of the scalar triple product (a b) c is equal to the volume of the parallelepiped with a, b and c as its adjacent sides. Theorem Properties of Vector Product Let a , b and c be three vectors. Then ( a b ) c = (b c ) a = ( c a ) b

Remarks

Volume of Parallelepiped

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2

a3 b3 c3

Example

Let A(3,5,6), B (2,3,2) , C ( 1,8,8) (a) Find the volume of parallelepiped with sides OA, OB and OC . (b) What is the geometrical relationship about point O, A, B, C in (a).

Solution

Example

A, B, C are the points (1,1,0) , (2,1,1), (1,1,1) respectively and O is the origin. Let a = OA, b = OB and c = OC .

## (a) Show that a, b and c are linearly independent.

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## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

(b) Find (i) the area of OAB , and (ii) the volume of tetrahedron OABC . Solution

Matrix Transformation*
Linear transformation of a plane (reflections, rotation) Consider the case with the point P ( x, y ) P' ( x' , y ' ) such that x = x' , y = y ' x' 1 0 x = y' 0 1 y 1 0 Ar , = where A = r' 0 1 A is a matrix of transformation of reflection. In general, any column vector pre-multiplied by a 2 2 matrix, it is transformed or mapped ( x' , y ' ) into another column vector. a b x' a b x A= c d , y ' = c d y We have x' = ax + by y ' = cx + dy If using the base vector in R 2 , i.e (1,0), (0,1) .
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Example

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

a b 1 a a b 0 b c d 0 = c , c d 1 = d then a, b, c, d can be found. The images of the points (1,0), (0,1) under a certain transformation are known. Therefore, the matrix is known.

## Eight Simple Transformation I. Reflection in x-axis

II.

Reflection in y-axis

III.

Reflection in x = y .

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

## Three quarter turn about the origin

VIII.

Identity Transformation

Some Special Linear Transformations on R2 I. Enlargement If OP = r , then OP ' = kr . k 0 A= 0 k II. (a) Shearing Parallel to the x-axis The y-coordinate of a point is unchanged but the x-coordinate is changed by adding to it a quantity which is equal to a multiple of the value of its y-coordinate.

III.

Rotation

IV.

## Reflection about the line y = (tan ) x

Example Solution

If the point P (4,2) is rotated clockwise about the origin through an angle 60 , find its final position

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

x A translation on R 2 which transforms every point P whose position vector is p = y x' To another point Q with position vector q = defined by y' x' x 2 = + y' y 3 Find the image of (a) the point (4,2) (b) the line 2 x + y = 0

Solution

Linear Transformation Definition Let V and U be two sets. A mapping : V U is called a linear transformation from V to U if and only if it satisfies the condition: (au + bv) = a (u ) + b (v), u , v V and a, b R. Let V be the set of 3 1 matrices and A be any real 3 3 matrix. A mapping f : V V Such that f ( x) = Ax, x V . Show that f is linear.

Example Solution

In R 3 , consider a linear transformation : R 3 R 3 , let v R 3 , v = (a, b, c ) = ai + bj + ck . We are going to find the image of v under .

(v) = (ai + bj + ck ) = a (i ) + b ( j ) + c (k )
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Vectors

Therefore, (v) can be found if (i ), ( j ) and (k ) are known. That is to say, to specify completely, it is only necessary to define (i ), ( j ) and (k ) . For instance, we define a linear transformation

: R 3 R 3 by (i ) = 2i j 3k , ( j ) = i + 2k , (k ) = 3i 2 j + 2k .

(3i + 2 j 4k )

= = = 4i + 5 j 13k

## We form a matrix A such that

( (i )

( j ) (k ) )

2 1 3 1 0 2 3 2 2 4 5 13

Consider

3 A 2 = 4

2 1 3 3 1 0 2 2 3 2 2 4

The result obtained is just the same as (3i + 2 j 4k ) . The matrix A representing the linear transformation is called the matrix representation of the linear transformation Example Let : R 3 R 2 , defined by (i ) = i + 2 j , ( j ) = j , (k ) = 4i 3 j. 4 1 0 The matrix represent representation of a linear transformation is 2 1 3 . 23

Example

## 1 2 The matrix B = 0 1 represents a linear transformation 1 1

: R 2 R 3 , defined by (i ) = i + k , ( j ) = 2i j + k .

Example

Let , : R 3 R 3 be two linear transformations whose matrix representations are respectively 1 0 1 0 2 1 A = 0 1 2 and B = 1 1 0 . 1 1 0 2 1 1

Example

## a b c d is said to be the matrix representation

of the transformation which transforms ( x, y ) to ( x' , y ' ) . Find the matrix representation of (a) the transformation which transforms any point ( x, y ) to ( x, y ) , (b) the transformation which transforms any point ( x, y ) to ( y, x ) Solution

Example

It is given that the matrix representing the reflection in the line y = (tan ) x is

## Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

cos 2 sin 2

sin 2 cos 2 1 x. 2

## Let T be the reflection in the line y =

(a) Find the matrix representation of T . (b) The point (4,7) is transformed by T to another point ( x1 , y1 ) . Find x1 , y1 . (c) The point (4,10) is reflected in the line y = Find x 2 and y 2 . Solution 1 x + 3 to another point ( x 2 , y 2 ) . 2