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Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Algebra
Chapter 7
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

7
2 2 3 5 7 13 22 24

Vectors

Fundamental Concepts Addition and Subtraction of Vectors Scalar Multiplication Vectors in Three Dimensions Linear Combination and Linear Independence Products of Two Vectors
A. Scalar Product B. Vector Product

Scalar Triple Product Matrix Transformation*

7.1
1. 2.

Fundamental Concepts
Scalar quantities: mass, density, area, time, potential, temperature, speed, work, etc. Vectors are physical quantities which have the property of directions and magnitude. e.g. Velocity v , weight w , force f , etc.
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Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

3.

Properties: (a) The magnitude of u is denoted by u . (b) (c)


2 AB = CD if and only if u v s in , and AB and CD has the same direction. 2 2

AB = BA

(d) Null vector, zero vector 0 , is a vector with zero magnitude i.e. 0 = 0 . The direction of a zero vector is indetermine. (e) Unit vector, u or eu , is a vector with magnitude of 1 unit. I.e. u = 1 . u u = u = uu u

(f)

7.2
1.

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors


Geometric meaning of addition and subtraction.

AB + BC + CD = AD

PQ = q p

2.

Properties:

For any vectors u , v and w , we have (a) u + v = v + u , (b) u + (v + w) = (u + v ) + w , (c) u+0 = 0+u

(d) u + ( u ) = (u ) + u = 0
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N.B.

(1) u v = u + (v) (2) c = a + b a = c b

7.3

Scalar Multiplication

When a vector a is multiplied by a scalar m, the product ma is a vector parallel to a such that (a) The magnitude of ma is m times that of a . (b) When m > 0 , ma has the same direction as that of a , When m < 0 , ma has the opposite direction as that of a . These properties are illustrated in Figure.

Theorem

Properties of Scalar Multiplication Let m, n be two scalars. For any two vectors a and b , we have (a) m(na ) = (mn)a (b) (m + n)a = ma + na (c) m(a + b) = ma + mb (d) 1a = a (e) 0a = o (f) 0 = 0

Theorem

Section Formula Let A,B and R be three collinear points. If AR m = , then OR = mOB + nOA . RB n m+n

u v s i n
2
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2 2

Example Solution

Prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

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Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Properties (a) If a, b are two non-zero vectors, then a // b if and only if a = mb for some m R . (b) a + b a + b , and a b a b

7.4

Vectors in Three Dimensions

(a) We define i, j , k are vectors joining the origin O to the points (1,0,0) , (0,1,0) , (0,0,1) respectively. (b) i, j and k are unit vectors. i.e. i = j = k = 1 . (c) To each point P (a, b, c) in R 3 , there corresponds uniquely a vector
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OP = p = ai + bj + ck where is called the position vector of P . (d) (e) (f) p = a2 + b2 + c2 a2 + b2 + c2 Properties : Let (i) (ii) (iii) p= ai + bj + ck p1 = x1i + y1 j + z1 k and p 2 = x 2 i + y 2 j + z 2 k . Then p1 = p 2 if and only if x1 = x 2 , y1 = y 2 and z1 = z 2 , p1 + p 2 = ( x1 + x 2 )i + ( y1 + y 2 ) j + ( z1 + z 2 )k p1 = ( x1i + y1 j + z1 k ) = x1i + y1 j + z1 k

N.B.

For convenience, we write p = ( x, y, z )

Example

Given two points A(6,8,10) and B (1,2,0) . (a) Find the position vectors of A and . B . (b) Find the unit vector in the direction of the position vector of A . (c) If a point P divides the line segment AB in the ration 3 : 2 , find the coordinates of P .

Solution

Example

Let A( 0 ,2 ,6 ) and B( 4 ,2 ,8 ) (a) Find the position vectors of A and B . Hence find the length of AB . (b) If P is a point on AB such that AP = 2PB, find the coordinates of P . (c) Find the unit vector along OP .

Solution

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7.5

Linear Combination and Linear Independence


Consider a given set of vectors v1 , v 2 , , v n . A sum of the form a1v1 + a 2 v 2 + + a n v n where a1 , a 2 , , a n are scalars, is called a linear combination of v1 , v 2 , , v n . If a vector v can be expressed as v = a1v1 + a 2 v 2 + + a n v n Then v is a linear combination of v1 , v 2 , , v n . .
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Definition

Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example Example Solution

r = u 2v + w is a linear combination of the vectors u, v , w . Consider u = (1,2,1), v = (6,4,2) R 3 , show that w = (9,27) is a linear combination of u and v while w1 = (4,1,8) is not.

Definition

If v1 , v 2 , , v n are vectors in R n and if every vector in R n can be expressed as the linear combination of v1 , v 2 , , v n . Then we say that these vectors span (generate) R n or

{ v1 , v 2 , , v n }
Example Example

is the set of the basis vector.

{ i, j}

is the set of basis vectors in R 2 . is the set basis vector in R 3 .


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{ (1,0,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1)}

Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Remark : Definition

The basis vectors have an important property of linear independent which is defined as follow: The set of vector { v1 , v 2 , , v n } is said to be linear independent if and only if the vectors equation k1v1 + k 2 v 2 + + k n v n = 0 has only solution k1 = k 2 = = k n = 0 The set of vector { v1 , v 2 , , v n } is said to be linear dependent if and only if the vectors equation k1v1 + k 2 v 2 + + k n v n = 0 has non-trivial solution. (i.e. there exists some k i such that k i 0 ) Determine whether v1 = (1,2,3), v 2 = (5,6,1), v 3 = (3,2,1) are linear independent or dependent.

Definition

Example Solution

Example

Let a = i + j + k , b = 2i j k and c = j k . Prove that (a) a, b and c are linearly independent. (b) any vector v in R 3 can be expressed as a linear combination of a, b and c .

Solution

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Example Solution

If vectors a, b and c are linearly independent, show that a + b, b + c and c + a are also linearly independent.

Example (a) (b) Solution

Let a = ( 2 ,3 t ,1 ) , b = ( 1 t ,2 ,3 ) and c = ( 0 ,4 ,2 t ). Show that b and c are linearly independent for all real values of t . Show that there is only one real number t so that a , b and c are linearly dependent. For this value of t , express a as a linear combination of b and c .

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Theorem (1) A set of vectors including the zero vector must be linearly dependent. (2) If the vector v can be expressed as a linear combination of v1 , v 2 , v n , then the set of vectors v1 , v 2 , v n and v are linearly dependent. (3) If the vectors v1 , v 2 , v n are linearly dependent, then one of the vectors can expressed as a linear combination of the other vectors. Proof

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Example Solution

Let a = i + 3 j + 5k , b = i and c = 3 j + 5k . Prove that a, b and c are linearly dependent.

Theorem Proof

Two non-zero vectors are linearly dependent if and only if they are parallel.

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Theorem Proof

Three non-zero vectors are linearly dependent if and only if they are coplanar.

7.6
A.

Products of Two Vectors


Scalar Product
The scalar product or dot product or inner product of two vectors a and b , denoted by a b , is defined as a b = a b cos (0 )

Definition

where is the angle between a and b .

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Remarks

By definition of dot product, we can find by cos =

a b . ab

Example

If a = 3, b = 4 and angle between a and b is 60 , then a b =

Theorem

Properties of Scalar Product Let a, b, c be three vectors and m be a scalar. Then we have (1) a a = a
2

(2) a b = b a (3) a (b + c ) = a b + a c (4) m(a b) = (ma) b = a (mb) (5) a a > 0 if a 0 and a a = 0 if a = 0 Theorem If p = a1i + b1 j + c1 k and q = a 2 i + b2 j + c 2 k . Then (1) p q = a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 pq ( p, q 0) (2) cos = pq = a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 a1 + b1 + c1
2 2 2

a 2 + b2 + c 2

(3) p q = 0 if and only if p q . (4) a1 a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 = 0 if and only if p q . Example Solution Find the angle between the two vectors a = 2i + 2 j k and b = 2i 2k .

Remarks

Two non-zero vectors are said to be orthogonal if their scalar product is zero. Obviously, two perpendicular vectors must be orthogonal since =

, cos = 0 , and so their scalar product 2

is zero. For example, as i, j and k are mutually perpendicular, we have i j = j k = k i = 0. Also, as i, j and k are unit vectors, i i = j j = k k = 1 .

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Example Solution

State whether the two vectors i 3 j + 4k and i + j + k are orthogonal.

Example

Given two points A = ( 2s, s + 1, s + 3) and B = ( t 2 ,3t 1,t ) and two vectors r1 = 2i + 2 j k and r2 = i + j + 2k If AB is perpendicular to both r1 and r2 , find the values of s and t .

Solution

Example

Let a, b and c be three coplanar vectors. If a and b are orthogonal, show that c= ca c b a+ b aa bb

Solution

Example

Determine whether the following sets of vectors are orthogonal or not. (a) a = 4i 2 j and b = 2i + 3 j (b) a = 5i 2 j + 4k and b = i + 2 j k (c) a = 3i + j 4k and b = 2i + 2 j + 2k

Solution

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B.

Vector Product
If u = (u1 , u 2 , u 3 ) and v = (v1 , v 2 , v3 ) are vectors in R 3 , then the vector product and cross product u v is the vector defined by uv = (u 2 v3 u 3 v 2 , u 3 v1 u1v3 , u1v 2 u 2 v1 ) i u1 v1 j u2 v2 k u3 v3

Definition

Example Solution

Find a b , a (a b) and b (a b) if a = 3i + 2 j k and b = i + 4 j + k .

Example

Let (a) (e) (g) (i) (k)

a = i + k , b = 2i + j k and c = i + 2 j 2k . Find a b (b) b c (c) a b (d) a c ( a b )c (f) a (b c ) ab + bc + ca (h) (a b) c (c b) a [(a + b) c] a (j) [(a + b) (c + a )] b a (b c) (l) (a b) c

Solution

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Theorem

If u and v are vectors, then (a) u (u v) = 0 (b) v (u v) = 0 (c) u v = u v (u v) 2


2 2 2

Proof

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Remarks

(i)

By (c)

uv

= = = =

u v (u v ) 2
2 2 2 2 u v u v cos 2 , where is angle between u and v .

u v (1 cos 2 ) u v sin 2 u v sin


2 2

uv

The another definition of u v is u v = u v sin en where en is a unit vector


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Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

perpendicular to the plane containing u and v . (ii) u v = v u and u v = v u (iii) i j = jk = k j =

Definition

The vector product (cross product) of two vectors a and b , denoted by a b , is a vector such that (1) its magnitude is equal to a b sin , where is angle between a and b. (2) perpendicular to both a and b and a, b, a b form a right-hand system. If a unit vector in the direction of a b is denoted by en , then we have a b = a b sin en (0 )

Geometrical Interpretation of Vector Product (1) a b is a vector perpendicular to the plane containing a and b . (2) The magnitude of the vector product of a and b is equal to the area of parallelogram with a and b as its adjacent sides. Corollary (a) Two non-zero vectors are parallel if and only if their vector product is zero. (b) Two non-zero vectors are linearly dependent if and only if their vector product is zero. Theorem Properties of Vector Product (1) a (b + c) = a b + a c (2) m(a b) = (ma) b = a (mb)

Example Solution

Find a vector perpendicular to the plane containing the points A(1,2,3), B (1,4,8) and C (5,1,2) .

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Example Solution

If a + b + c = 0, show that a b = b c = c a

Example Solution

Find the area of the triangle formed by taking A(0,2,1), B (1,1,2) and C (1,1,0) as vertices.

Example

Let OA = i + 2 j + k , OB = 3i + j + 2k and OC = 5i + j + 3k . (a) Find AB AC . (b) Find the area of ABC. Hence, or otherwise, find the distance from C to AB .

Solution

Example

Let a and b be two vectors in R 3 such that


a a = b b = 1 and a b = 0

Let S = a + b R 3 : , R . (a) Show that for all u S , u = (u a )a + (u b)b (b) For any v R 3 , let w = (v a )a + (v b)b. Show that for all u S , (v w) u = 0 . Solution

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Example Solution

Let a, b, c R 3 . If a (b c) = (a b) c = 0 , prove that a b = b c = c a = 0 .

Example

Let u , v and w be linearly independent vectors in R 3 . Show that : (a) If u = (u1 , u 2 , u 3 ) , v = (v1 , v 2 , v3 ) and w = ( w1 , w2 , w3 ) , u1 then u 2 u3 v1 v2 v3 w1 w2 0 w3

(b) If s R 3 such that s u = s v = s w = 0 , then s = 0 . (c) If u (v w) = (u v) w = 0 , then u v = v w = w u = 0 . (d) If u v = v w = w u = 0 , then r = r u r v rw u+ v+ w for all r R 3 . u u vv w w
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Solution

7.7

Scalar Triple Product


The scalar triple product of 3 vectors a, b and c is defined to be (a b) c .

Definition

Let the angle between a and b be and that between a b and c be . As shown in Figure, when 0 < <

, we have 2

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Volume of Parallelepiped

= =

Base Area Height

( a b) c

= = = =

Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar Triple Product The absolute value of the scalar triple product (a b) c is equal to the volume of the parallelepiped with a, b and c as its adjacent sides. Theorem Properties of Vector Product Let a , b and c be three vectors. Then ( a b ) c = (b c ) a = ( c a ) b

Remarks

Volume of Parallelepiped

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2

a3 b3 c3

Example

Let A(3,5,6), B (2,3,2) , C ( 1,8,8) (a) Find the volume of parallelepiped with sides OA, OB and OC . (b) What is the geometrical relationship about point O, A, B, C in (a).

Solution

Example

A, B, C are the points (1,1,0) , (2,1,1), (1,1,1) respectively and O is the origin. Let a = OA, b = OB and c = OC .

(a) Show that a, b and c are linearly independent.


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(b) Find (i) the area of OAB , and (ii) the volume of tetrahedron OABC . Solution

Matrix Transformation*
Linear transformation of a plane (reflections, rotation) Consider the case with the point P ( x, y ) P' ( x' , y ' ) such that x = x' , y = y ' x' 1 0 x = y' 0 1 y 1 0 Ar , = where A = r' 0 1 A is a matrix of transformation of reflection. In general, any column vector pre-multiplied by a 2 2 matrix, it is transformed or mapped ( x' , y ' ) into another column vector. a b x' a b x A= c d , y ' = c d y We have x' = ax + by y ' = cx + dy If using the base vector in R 2 , i.e (1,0), (0,1) .
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Example

Vectors Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

a b 1 a a b 0 b c d 0 = c , c d 1 = d then a, b, c, d can be found. The images of the points (1,0), (0,1) under a certain transformation are known. Therefore, the matrix is known.

Eight Simple Transformation I. Reflection in x-axis

II.

Reflection in y-axis

III.

Reflection in x = y .

IV.

Reflection in the line y = x

V.

Quarter turn about the origin

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VI.

Half turn about the origin

VII.

Three quarter turn about the origin

VIII.

Identity Transformation

Some Special Linear Transformations on R2 I. Enlargement If OP = r , then OP ' = kr . k 0 A= 0 k II. (a) Shearing Parallel to the x-axis The y-coordinate of a point is unchanged but the x-coordinate is changed by adding to it a quantity which is equal to a multiple of the value of its y-coordinate.

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(b) Shearing Parallel to the y-axis

III.

Rotation

IV.

Reflection about the line y = (tan ) x

Example Solution

If the point P (4,2) is rotated clockwise about the origin through an angle 60 , find its final position

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Example

x A translation on R 2 which transforms every point P whose position vector is p = y x' To another point Q with position vector q = defined by y' x' x 2 = + y' y 3 Find the image of (a) the point (4,2) (b) the line 2 x + y = 0

Solution

Linear Transformation Definition Let V and U be two sets. A mapping : V U is called a linear transformation from V to U if and only if it satisfies the condition: (au + bv) = a (u ) + b (v), u , v V and a, b R. Let V be the set of 3 1 matrices and A be any real 3 3 matrix. A mapping f : V V Such that f ( x) = Ax, x V . Show that f is linear.

Example Solution

In R 3 , consider a linear transformation : R 3 R 3 , let v R 3 , v = (a, b, c ) = ai + bj + ck . We are going to find the image of v under .

(v) = (ai + bj + ck ) = a (i ) + b ( j ) + c (k )
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Vectors

Therefore, (v) can be found if (i ), ( j ) and (k ) are known. That is to say, to specify completely, it is only necessary to define (i ), ( j ) and (k ) . For instance, we define a linear transformation

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

: R 3 R 3 by (i ) = 2i j 3k , ( j ) = i + 2k , (k ) = 3i 2 j + 2k .

(3i + 2 j 4k )

= = = 4i + 5 j 13k

We form a matrix A such that

( (i )

( j ) (k ) )

2 1 3 1 0 2 3 2 2 4 5 13

Consider

3 A 2 = 4

2 1 3 3 1 0 2 2 3 2 2 4

The result obtained is just the same as (3i + 2 j 4k ) . The matrix A representing the linear transformation is called the matrix representation of the linear transformation Example Let : R 3 R 2 , defined by (i ) = i + 2 j , ( j ) = j , (k ) = 4i 3 j. 4 1 0 The matrix represent representation of a linear transformation is 2 1 3 . 23

Example

1 2 The matrix B = 0 1 represents a linear transformation 1 1

: R 2 R 3 , defined by (i ) = i + k , ( j ) = 2i j + k .

Example

Let , : R 3 R 3 be two linear transformations whose matrix representations are respectively 1 0 1 0 2 1 A = 0 1 2 and B = 1 1 0 . 1 1 0 2 1 1

Find the matrix representation of . Solution

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Example

x' a b x 2 If = y ' c d y for any ( x, y ) R , then

a b c d is said to be the matrix representation

of the transformation which transforms ( x, y ) to ( x' , y ' ) . Find the matrix representation of (a) the transformation which transforms any point ( x, y ) to ( x, y ) , (b) the transformation which transforms any point ( x, y ) to ( y, x ) Solution

Example

It is given that the matrix representing the reflection in the line y = (tan ) x is

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cos 2 sin 2

sin 2 cos 2 1 x. 2

Let T be the reflection in the line y =

(a) Find the matrix representation of T . (b) The point (4,7) is transformed by T to another point ( x1 , y1 ) . Find x1 , y1 . (c) The point (4,10) is reflected in the line y = Find x 2 and y 2 . Solution 1 x + 3 to another point ( x 2 , y 2 ) . 2

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