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Chapter 7

Transverse Shear Stresses in Beams

7.0 SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS (SI&4 th :363-365; 5 th : 363-365) In addition to the pure bending case, beams are often subjected to transverse loads which generate both bending moments M(x) and shear forces V(x) along the beam as discussed in Chapter 5. The bending moments cause bending normal stresses σ to arise through the depth of the beam, and the shear forces cause transverse shear-stress distribution through the beam cross section as shown in Fig. 7.1.

P Transverse Force a a x Area A Resultant Shear
P
Transverse Force
a
a
x
Area A
Resultant Shear

Force V(x)

Cross-section a-a

Area A τ= 0 at the top surface Shear stress τ
Area A
τ= 0 at the
top surface
Shear stress τ

Fig. 7.1 Transverse shear force and transverse shear stress over cross-section of beam

If we look at a typical beam section with a transverse stress as in Fig. 7.1, the top and bottom surfaces of the beam carries no longitudinal load, hence the shear stresses must be zero here. In

other words, at top and bottom surfaces of beam section τ = 0. As a consequence of this, the shear stress distribution is not uniform and the formula of average shear stress is no longer valid

τ

avg

=

V

()

x

A

(7.1)

7.1 SHEAR FORMULA (SI&4 th : 365-367; 5 th : 365-367) Recall that in the development of the flexure formula, we assumed that the cross section must remain plane and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam after deformation. Although this is violated when the beam is subjected to both bending and shear, we can generally assume the cross-sectional warping described above is small enough so that it can be neglected. This assumption is particularly true for the most common cases of a slender beam, i.e. one that has a small depth compared with its length. To determine the shear stress distribution equation, consider a loaded beam as Fig. 7.2:

F F 1 2 w(x) M 1 M 2 x dx
F
F 1
2
w(x)
M 1
M 2
x
dx

Fig. 7.2 Beam with applied loads

Look at a FBD of the element dx with the bending moment stress distribution only, Fig. 7.3, in which we do not need to look transverse forces if only horizontal equilibrium is considered.

M(x)

N.A. dx
N.A.
dx

M(x)+

M(x)+

dM(x) dM(x)

dx

dx

dx

dx

Fig. 7.3 Length of beam dx with normal stress distribution due to bending moment

Summing the forces horizontally on this infinitesimal element, the stresses due to the bending moments only form a couple, therefore the force resultant is equal to zero horizontally. Consider now a segment of this element a distance y above the N.A. up to the top of the element. In order for it to be in equilibrium, a shear stress τ xy must be present, as shown in Fig. 7.4.

σ x1 σ x2 dy y top τ xy y dM(x) dM(x) M(x) N.A. M(x)+
σ x1
σ x2
dy
y
top
τ xy
y
dM(x) dM(x)
M(x)
N.A.
M(x)+ M(x)+
dx dx
dx dx
dx
dx t(y) dy y top y N.A.
dx
t(y)
dy
y top
y
N.A.

Fig. 7.4 Segment of length dx cut a distance y from N.A., with equilibrating shear stress τ xy

Let the width of the section at a distance y from the N.A. be a function of y and call it “t(y)”. Applying the horizontal equilibrium equation, gives:

+→

F x

=

0 =

y

top

σ

x 1

t

()

y dy

y

top

σ

x

2

t

()

y dy

y y

xy

t

()

y dx

= 0

(7.2)

Substituting for the magnitude of the stresses using ETB gives:

y

top

y

M

()

x

y

I

t

()

y dy

y

top

y

( ()

M x

+

())

dM x

y

I

t

()

y dy

xy

t

()

y dx = 0

Simplifying and dividing by dx and t(y) gives:

()

dM x

1

y

top

y

()

yt y dy

τ xy

V

(

x

)

=

dx

dM x

()

It y

()

dx

=

But since

then, the Shear Stress Distribution is given by:

τ xy

=

V

()

x

()

It y

y

top

y

()

yt y dy

=

V

()()

x Q

y

VQ

It y )

(

It

=

where:

(7.3)

V(x)

the shear force carried by the section, found from the shear force diagram

I

the second moment of area the sectional width at the distance y from the N.A.

t(y)

Q()y

=

y

y

top

yt()y dy

= ′′

y A

Ais the top (or bottom) portion of the member’s cross-sectional

   

area, defined from the section where t(y) is measured, and yis the distance to the centroid of A , measured from the Neutral Axis.

7.2 SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS (SI&4 th : 368-376; 5 th : 368-376)

Consider the beam to have a rectangular cross section of width b and height h as in Fig. 7.5

Centroid of A’ A’ y’ h h/2 y NA b
Centroid of A’
A’
y’
h
h/2
y
NA
b
Parabolic curve τ = 0 τ max τ max NA
Parabolic
curve
τ = 0
τ max
τ max
NA

Shear Stress distribution

Fig. 7.5 Computation and distribution of shear stress in a rectangular beam

The distribution of the shear stress throughout the cross section due to a shear force V can be determined by computing the shear stress at an arbitrary height y from the Neutral Axis.

 

1 h

    h

 

1   h

2

Q =

y' A'

=

+

b

=

 

y

2

2

y    ×

 

   

2

The second moment of entire area:

I =

bh

3

y

 

 

2

4

12

y

2

b

(7.4)

With t = b, applying the shear formula, Eq. (7.3), we have

τ=

VQ

It

=

2 1  2 V ×   h − y  b  
2
1
2
V ×
  h
− y
 b
2
4
3
bh
× b

12

=

6

bh

V

3

h

2

4

2

y

(7.5)

The result indicates that the shear stress distribution over the cross section is parabolic, as plotted in Fig. 7.5. The shear force intensity varies from zero at the top and bottom, y = ± h/2, to a maximum value at the neutral axis at y = 0 (Please comparing this with the normal stress distribution in Chapter 6, Fig. 6.6).

From Eq. (7.5), the maximum shear stress that occurs at the Neutral Axis is computed as

τ

max

= 1 5

.

V

A

(7.6)

This same value for τ max can be obtained directly from the shear formula τ = VQ/It, by realizing that τ max occurs where Q is largest. By inspection, Q will be a maximum when the

area above (or below) the neutral axis is considered, that is A’ = bh/2 and y' = h / 4 .

By comparison, τ max is 50% greater than the average shear stress determined from Eq. (7.1).

Example 7.1: Determine shear stress distribution in the following “I beam”, with a shear force of V = 25 kN applied.

10 N.A. 100 10 SS 10 100
10
N.A.
100
10
SS
10
100

Ref

0.05 11 0.04 y 1 = 45 y = 45 1 22 N.A. 0 y
0.05
11
0.04
y 1 = 45
y
= 45
1
22
N.A.
0
y
y 2 = 0
= 0
2
y 3 =
y
=
-45
-45
3
-0.04
33
-0.05

Parallel Axis Theorem to find global I

Step 1: Determine the sectional geometric properties

Neutral Axis Location:

Parallel Axis Theorem:

I = 

100

×

10

3

12

+

(

45

)

2

×

s A

S =

i

i

A

i

I

=

(

I

i local

100

×

10

   +   

95

×

(

100

×

10

)

+

50

×

(

80

×

10

)(

+ ×

5

100

×

10

)

=

(

100

×

10

)(

+

80

×

10

)(

+

100

×

10

2

)

(

)

+

(

I

3

45

loc

)

2

+

y

2

3

×

100

A

×

3

= 50 mm

)

10

+

10

y

×

2

i

A

80

i

)

3

=

(

I

1

2

loc

+

y

2

1

A

1

)

+

(

I

2

loc

100

+

×

y

10

2

2

3

 

+

0

×

10

×

80

 
   

12

 

   +   

 

12

A

+−

I = 4.493×10 +6 mm 4 =4.493×10 -6 m 4

Step 2: Determine shear stress distribution using Eq. (7.3). Start the integration from the top and work yourself down through all sub-sections of constant thickness, ALWAYS integrating about the Neutral Axis. The shear stress equation is:

τ xy

=

V

()

x

It

()

y

y

top

y

()

yt y dy

=

VQ

It

We need to express shear stress segment by segment as divided in Step1. i) For the range between 0.04 y 0.05, i.e. Area 1, the shear stress is given by:

25

×

10

3

0 05

.

9

(

0 0025

.

τ xy

=

ydy

0 1

ii) Range -0.04 y 0.04, i.e. Area 2, the shear stress is given by:

.

4 493

.

×

10

6

×

y

0 1

.

=

2 782

.

×

10

2

y

)

 

25

×

10

3

0

.

4

 

493

×

10

6

0 . 01

0

.

.

 

×

 

10

0 . 05

2

τ xy

=

=

5 . 564

×

10

0 . 1

×

2

05

0 . 1

04

ydy

0 04

.

2

2

+

0 04

.

y

 +

.

  

0 . 04

0 . 01

0 01

×

ydy

2

2

y

2

=

iii) Range -0.05 y -0.04, i.e. Area 3, the shear stress is given by:

2

τ

xy

=

25

×

10

3

4 493

.

×

10

6

×

0 1

.

0

0

.

05

0 1

.

.

04

ydy

+

0 04

.

0 04

.

0 01

.

ydy

+

0 04

.

y

0 1

.

ydy

=

2 . 782

×

2 782

.

×

10

9

(

0 0106

.

10

9

(

0 0025

.

2

y

2

y

)

)

Plotting these distributions between their limits, gives the following discontinuous parabolic distribution of shear stress:

y 2.5MPa 25.04MPa N.A. 25.04MPa 2.5MPa
y
2.5MPa
25.04MPa
N.A.
25.04MPa
2.5MPa

29.49MPa

Shear Stress

Distribution

7.3 COMBINED LOADS (SI&4 th : 416-427; 5 th : 416-427) In the previous chapters, we developed methods for determining the stress distribution in a member subjected to different types of load such as an axial force or a transverse shear force (Chapter 2), a torsional moment (Chapter 4), and a bending moment (Chapter 6). Most often, the cross section of a member is subjected to several of these loadings simultaneously. As we shall see presently, we may combine the knowledge that we have acquired in the previous chapters. As long as the relationship between stress and the loads is linear and the geometry of the member would not undergo significant change when the loads are applied, the principle of superposition can be used as shown in Chapter 6. Here we are going to discuss the situation due to tensile force F, torque T and transverse load P, as shown in Table 7.1.

Table 7.1 Superposition of individual loads

Stress Stresses Produced by Each Load Individually Stresses Distributions B B Torsional Torsional shear A
Stress
Stresses Produced by Each Load Individually
Stresses
Distributions
B
B
Torsional
Torsional shear
A
Load
C
stress
A
x
T
τ T = Tρ/J
(Torque T)
D
D
T
Axial
B
B
Tensile average
F
Load
A
A
σ
normal stress
avg
(Force F)
σ
D
D
avg =F/A
B
σ
Bending normal
M
P
N.A.
A,C
B
stress
Bending
D
σ M = -My/I
Load
y
N.A.
(Transverse
A
x
B
τ
Force P)
Transverse
A
C
D
N.A.
shear stress
τ V = VQ/It
D
B
B
Total normal
A,C
stress
P
C
σ =F/A -My/I
A
D
Combined
y
B
Loads
D
N.A.
Total shear
A
C
stress at N.A.
F
N.A.
τ = VQ/It±Tρ/J
x
T
D

Example 7.2: Two forces P=18kN and F=15kN are applied to the shaft with a radius of R=20mm as shown. Determine the maximum normal and shear stresses developed in the shaft.

y b=100mm B C N.A. A z z R D F x P a=50mm
y
b=100mm
B
C
N.A.
A
z
z
R
D
F x
P
a=50mm
b=100mm N.A. y B C A D F T=Pa P
b=100mm
N.A.
y
B
C
A
D
F
T=Pa
P

Step 0: Determine the geometrical properties of cross section:

Area of cross section:

Polar moment of inertia:

I

Second moment of area:

/ 4

A

=π =

R

2

4

3.1416

×

0.02

=

3.1416

×

=

3.1416

×

2

=

1.257

=

/ 2

=

J

R

R

4

/ 2

/ 4

0.02

4

0.02

4

First moment of semicircle:

Q =

'

'

= π  R

2

4

 

× 

A y

2

3

π

R  =

5 33

.

×

10

251.3

3

125.7

×

10

6

m

×

2

10

9

4

m

×

10

9

4

m

3

m

125 . 7 × 10 − 6 m × 2 10 − 9 4 m ×

x

Step 1: Move eccentric force P to the center of the shaft This causes a uniform torsional moment (Torque) about axis x by T=Pa=18000×0.05=900Nm as shown. Centric force P also will produce a varying bending moment M(x) along axis x. Axial force F leads to a constant average compressive normal stress at cross sections along the shaft. Step 2: Determine the maximum bending moment M max and maximum shear force V max

B

A

y

N.A.

D

 

Loading Diagram

P

x

x

0.1

0.1 Shear Force Diagram

Shear Force Diagram

0.1 Shear Force Diagram
0.1 Shear Force Diagram
0.1 Shear Force Diagram

V(x)

-P

M(x) M max Pb x 0.1
M(x)
M max
Pb
x
0.1

Bending Moment Diagram

From the shear force and bending moment diagrams, one can identify that the shear force is uniform along the shaft with V=P=18000N, and the maximum bending moment occurs at the section ABCD with a magnitude of M max = Pb=18000×0.1=1800Nm. So the critical section is ABCD. Step 3: Apply the superposition for determining the maximum normal stress The maximum compressive stress occurs at point B, where both the maximum bending moment M max and axial force F will form a highest combined compressive stress as

σ

max

P

M

max

y

15000

1800

×

0 02

.

=σ = −

B

A

max

I

1 257

.

×

10

3

125 7

.

×

10

=

9 =−

11 93

.

286 40

.

=−

298 33

.

MPa

Step 4: Apply the superposition for determining the maximum shear stresses As shown in table 7.1, the maximum shear stress occurs at point C, where both the transverse shear force V=P and the torsional moment T=Pa give a highest combined shear stress as

The max twist shear stress

=

TR

=

900

×

0 02 9

.

 

=

.

71 63

MPa

 
 
 

J

251 3

.

×

10

 

V

=

VQ

=

(

18000

)

×

(

5 33

.

×

10

6

)

τ

max

It

(

125 7

.

T

×

10

9

V

)(

×

2

×

0 02

.

)

 

τ

max

= τ = τ

C

max

+ τ

max

 

.

τ

T

max

(at outer surface)

= 19 08

.

MPa

The max shear stress in bending

(at N.P.)

MPa

The total combined max shear stress:

= 71 36 + 19 08 = 90 44

.

.