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A chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made object. It is analogous to an animal'sskeleton.

An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame (on which the body is mounted) with the wheels and machinery. Examples of use Vehicles

1950s Jeep FC cowl and chassis for others to convert into finished vehicles In the case of vehicles, the term chassis means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine, transmission, driveshaft, differential, and suspension. A body (sometimes referred to as "coachwork"), which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. Forcommercial vehicles chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck (without the body) to be ready for operation on the road.[1] The design of a pleasure car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads and constant work use.[2] Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only, cowl and chassis, as well as "chassis cab" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies. These include motor homes, fire engines, ambulances, box trucks, etc. In particular applications, such as school busses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the U.S. defines the design standards of chassis and body conversions.[3]

An armoured fighting vehicle's chassis comprises the bottom part of the AFV that includes the tracks, engine, driver's seat, and crew compartment. This describes the lower hull, although common usage of might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. A chassis serves as basis for platforms on tanks, armored personnel carriers,combat engineering vehicles, etc.

Frame (vehicle) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cross section of a Chevy Silverado HD 2011 frame A frame is the main structure of the chassis of a motor vehicle. All other components fasten to it; a term for this is design is body-on-frameconstruction. In 1920, every motor vehicle other than a few cars based on motorcycles had a frame. Since then, nearly all cars have shifted to unit-body construction, while nearly all trucks and buses still use frames.

Construction There are three main designs for frame rails. Their cross-sections include: 1. 2. 3. C-shaped Boxed Hat

[edit]C-shape By far the most common, the C-rail has been used on nearly every type of vehicle at one time or another. It is made by taking a flat piece of steel (usually ranging in thickness from 1/8" to 3/16") and rolling both sides over to form a c-shaped beam running the length of the vehicle. [edit]Boxed Originally, boxed frames were made by welding two matching c-rails together to form a rectangular tube. Modern techniques, however, use a process similar to making c-rails in that a piece of steel is bent into four sides and then welded where both ends meet.

In the 1960s, the boxed frames of conventional American cars were spot-welded here and there down the seam; when turned into NASCAR "stock car" racers, the box was continuously welded from end to end for extra strength (as was that of the Land-Rover from its first series).

1956 Chevrolet 1/2-ton frame. Notice hat-shaped crossmember in the background, c-shape rails and crossmember in center, and a slight arch over the axle. . [edit]Hat Hat frames resemble a "U" and may be either right-side-up or inverted with the open area facing down. Not commonly used due to weakness and a propensity to rust, however they can be found on 1936-1954 Chevrolet cars and some Studebakers. Abandoned for a while, the hat frame gained popularity again when companies started welding it to the bottom of unibody cars, in effect creating a boxed frame. [edit]Design Features While appearing at first glance as a simple hunk of metal, frames encounter great amounts of stress and are built accordingly. The first issue addressed isbeam height, or the height of the vertical side of a frame. The taller the frame, the better it is able to resist vertical flex when force is applied to the top of the frame. This is the reason semi-trucks have taller frame rails than other vehicles instead of just being thicker. Another factor considered when engineering a frame is torsional resistance, or the ability to resist twisting. This, and diamonding (one rail moving backwards or forwards in relation to the other rail), are countered by crossmembers. While hat-shaped crossmembers are the norm, these forces are best countered with "K" or "X"-shaped crossmembers. As looks, ride quality, and handling became more of an issue with consumers, new shapes were incorporated into frames. The most obvious of these are arches and kick-ups. Instead of running straight over both axles, arched frames sit roughly level with their axles and curve up over the axles and then back down on the other side for bumper placement. Kick-ups do the same thing, but don't curve down on the other side, and are more common on front ends.

On perimeter frames, the areas where the rails connect from front to center and center to rear are weak compared to regular frames, so that section is boxed in, creating what's known as torque boxes. Another feature seen are tapered rails that narrow vertically and/or horizontally in front of a vehicle's cabin. This is done mainly on trucks to save weight and slightly increase room for the engine since the front of the vehicle doesn't bear as much of a load as the back.

2007 Toyota Tundra chassis showing an x-shaped crossmember at the back. The latest design element is frames that use more than one shape in the same frame rail. For example, the new Toyota Tundra uses a boxed frame in front of the cab, shorter, narrower rails underneath the cab for ride quality, and regular c-rails under the bed. [edit]Types [edit]Ladder Frame So named for its resemblance to a ladder, the ladder frame is the simplest and oldest of all designs. It consists merely of two symmetrical rails, or beams, and crossmembers connecting them. Originally seen on almost all vehicles, the ladder frame was gradually phased out on cars around the 1940s in favor of perimeter frames and is now seen mainly on trucks. This design offers good beam resistance because of its continuous rails from front to rear, but poor resistance to torsion or warping if simple, perpendicular crossmembers are used. Also, the vehicle's overall height will be higher due to the floor pan sitting above the frame instead of inside it. [edit]Backbone tube Main article: Backbone chassis Backbone chassis is a type of an automobile construction chassis that is similar to the bodyon-frame design. Instead of a two-dimensional ladder type structure, it consists of a strong tubular backbone (usually rectangular in cross section) that connects the front and rear suspension attachment areas. A body is then placed on this structure. [edit]Perimeter Frame

Similar to a ladder frame, but the middle sections of the frame rails sit outboard of the front and rear rails just behind the rocker panels/sill panels. This was done to allow for a lower floor pan, and therefore lower overall vehicle in passenger cars. This was the prevalent design for cars in the United States, but not in the rest of the world, until the uni-body gained popularity and is still used on US full frame cars. It allowed for annual model changes introduced in the 1950s to increase sales, but without costly structural changes. In addition to a lowered roof, the perimeter frame allows for more comfortable lower seating positions and offers better safety in the event of a side impact. However, the reason this design isn't used on all vehicles is that it lacks stiffness, because the transition areas from front to center and center to rear reduce beam and torsional resistance, hence the use of torque boxes, and soft suspension settings. [edit]Superleggera An Italian term (meaning "super-light") for sports-car construction using a three-dimensional frame that consists of a cage of narrow tubes that, besides being under the body, run up the fenders and over the radiator, cowl, and roof, and under the rear window; it resembles a geodesic structure. The body, which is not stress-bearing, is attached to the outside of the frame and is often made of aluminium. [edit]Unibody Main article: Unibody By far the most common design in use today, sometimes referred to as a sort of frame. But the distinction still serves a purpose: if a unibody is damaged in an accident, getting bent or warped, in effect its frame is too, and the vehicle undrivable. If the body of a body-onframe vehicle is similarly damaged, it might be torn in places from the frame, which may still be straight, in which case the vehicle is simpler and cheaper to repair. [edit]Sub Frame Main article: Subframe The sub frame, or stub frame, is a boxed frame section that attaches to a unibody. Seen primarily on the front end of cars, it's also sometimes used in the rear. Both the front and rear are used to attach the suspension to the vehicle and either may contain the engine and transmission

Basic Engine Parts The core of the engine is the cylinder, with the piston moving up and down inside the cylinder. The engine described above has one cylinder. That is typical of most lawn mowers, but mostcars have more than one cylinder (four, six and eight cylinders are common). In a multi-cylinder engine, the cylinders usually are arranged in one of three ways: inline, V or flat (also known as horizontally opposed or boxer), as shown in the following figures. Different configurations have different advantages and disadvantages in terms of smoothness, manufacturing cost and shape characteristics. These advantages and disadvantages make them more suitable for certain vehicles.

Figure 3. V - The cylinders are arranged in two banks set at an angle to one another.

Figure 4. Flat - The cylinders are arranged in two banks on opposite sides of the engine. Let's look at some key engine parts in more detail. Spark plug

The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly. Valves The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed. Piston A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder. Piston rings Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:

They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.

They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.

Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it because the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly. Connecting rod The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates. Crankshaft The crankshaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does. Sump The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in the bottom of the sump (the oil pan).

Internal combustion engine cooling From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Internal combustion engine cooling refers to the cooling of an internal combustion engine, typically using either air or a liquid. [edit]Overview Heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows, much as a water wheel extracts mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a distance. Engines are inefficient, so more heat energy enters the engine than comes out as mechanical power; the difference is waste heat which must be removed. Internal combustion engines remove waste heat through cool intake air, hot exhaust gases, and explicit engine cooling. Engines with higher efficiency have more energy leave as mechanical motion and less as waste heat. Some waste heat is essential: it guides heat through the engine, much as a water wheel works only if there is some exit velocity (energy) in the waste water to carry it away and make room for more water. Thus, all heat engines need cooling to operate. Cooling is also needed because high temperatures damage engine materials and lubricants. Internal-combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the melting temperature of engine materials, and hot enough to set fire to lubricants. Engine cooling removes energy fast enough to keep temperatures low so the engine can survive. Some high-efficiency engines run without explicit cooling and with only accidental heat loss, a design called adiabatic. For example, 10,000 mile-per-gallon "cars" for the Shell economy challenge[1] are insulated, both to transfer as much energy as possible from hot gases to mechanical motion, and to reduce reheat losses when restarting. Such engines can achieve high efficiency but compromise power output, duty cycle, engine weight, durability, and emissions. [edit]Basic principles Most internal combustion engines are fluid cooled using either air (a gaseous fluid) or a liquid coolant run through a heat exchanger (radiator) cooled by air. Marine engines and some stationary engines have ready access to a large volume of water at a suitable temperature. The water may be used directly to cool the engine, but often has sediment, which can clog coolant passages, or chemicals, such as salt, that can chemically damage the engine. Thus, engine coolant may be run through a heat exchanger that is cooled by the body of water. Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and chemicals such as antifreeze and rust inhibitors. The industry term for the antifreeze mixture is engine coolant. Some antifreezes use no water at all, instead using a liquid with different properties, such as propylene glycol or a combination of propylene glycol and ethylene glycol. Most "air-cooled" engines use some liquid oil cooling, to maintain acceptable temperatures for both critical engine parts and the oil itself. Most "liquid-cooled" engines use some air cooling, with the intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. An exception isWankel engines, where some parts of

the combustion chamber are never cooled by intake, requiring extra effort for successful operation. There are many demands on a cooling system. One key requirement is that an engine fails if just one part overheats. Therefore, it is vital that the cooling system keep all parts at suitably low temperatures. Liquid-cooled engines are able to vary the size of their passageways through the engine block so that coolant flow may be tailored to the needs of each area. Locations with either high peak temperatures (narrow islands around the combustion chamber) or high heat flow (around exhaust ports) may require generous cooling. This reduces the occurrence of hot spots, which are more difficult to avoid with air cooling. Aircooled engines may also vary their cooling capacity by using more closely spaced cooling fins in that area, but this can make their manufacture difficult and expensive. Only the fixed parts of the engine, such as the block and head, are cooled directly by the main coolant system. Moving parts such as the pistons, and to a lesser extent the crank and rods, must rely on the lubrication oil as a coolant, or to a very limited amount of conduction into the block and thence the main coolant. High performance engines frequently have additional oil, beyond the amount needed for lubrication, sprayed upwards onto the bottom of the piston just for extra cooling. Air-cooled motorcycles often rely heavily on oil-cooling in addition to air-cooling of the cylinder barrels. Liquid-cooled engines usually have a circulation pump. The first engines relied on thermosyphon cooling alone, where hot coolant left the top of the engine block and passed to the radiator, where it was cooled before returning to the bottom of the engine. Circulation was powered by convection alone. Other demands include cost, weight, reliability, and durability of the cooling system itself. Conductive heat transfer is proportional to the temperature difference between materials. If engine metal is at 250 C and the air is at 20C, then there is a 230C temperature difference for cooling. An air-cooled engine uses all of this difference. In contrast, a liquid-cooled engine might dump heat from the engine to a liquid, heating the liquid to 135C (Water's standard boiling point of 100C can be exceeded as the cooling system is both pressurised, and uses a mixture with antifreeze) which is then cooled with 20C air. In each step, the liquid-cooled engine has half the temperature difference and so at first appears to need twice the cooling area. However, properties of the coolant (water, oil, or air) also affect cooling. As example, comparing water and oil as coolants, one gram of oil can absorb about 55% of the heat for the same rise in temperature (called the specific heat capacity). Oil has about 90% the density of water, so a given volume of oil can absorb only about 50% of the energy of the same volume of water. The thermal conductivity of water is about 4 times that of oil, which can aid heat transfer. The viscosity of oil can be ten times greater than water, increasing the energy required to pump oil for cooling, and reducing the net power output of the engine.

Comparing air and water, air has vastly lower heat capacity per gram and per volume (4000) and less than a tenth the conductivity, but also much lower viscosity (about 200 times lower: 17.4 106Pas for air vs 8.94 104 Pas for water). Continuing the calculation from two paragraphs above, air cooling needs ten times of the surface area, therefore the fins, and air needs 2000 times the flow velocity and thus a recirculating air fan needs ten times the power of a recirculating water pump. Moving heat from the cylinder to a large surface area for air cooling can present problems such as difficulties manufacturing the shapes needed for good heat transfer and the space needed for free flow of a large volume of air. Water boils at about the same temperature desired for engine cooling. This has the advantage that it absorbs a great deal of energy with very little rise in temperature (called heat of vaporization), which is good for keeping things cool, especially for passing one stream of coolant over several hot objects and achieving uniform temperature. In contrast, passing air over several hot objects in series warms the air at each step, so the first may be over-cooled and the last undercooled. However, once water boils, it is an insulator, leading to a sudden loss of cooling where steam bubbles form (for more, see heat transfer). Unfortunately, steam may return to water as it mixes with other coolant, so an engine temperature gauge can indicate an acceptable temperature even though local temperatures are high enough that damage is being done. An engine needs different temperatures. The inlet including the compressor of a turbo and in the inlet trumpets and the inlet valves need to be as cold as possible. A countercurrent heat exchange with forced cooling air does the job. The cylinder-walls should not heat up the air before compression, but also not cool down the gas at the combustion. A compromise is a wall temperature of 90C. The viscosity of the oil is optimized for just this temperature. Any cooling of the exhaust and the turbine of the turbocharger reduces the amount of power available to the turbine, so the exhaust system is often insulated between engine and turbocharger to keep the exhaust gases as hot as possible. The temperature of the cooling air may range from well below freezing to 50C. Further, while engines in long-haul boat or rail service may operate at a steady load, road vehicles often see widely varying and quickly varying load. Thus, the cooling system is designed to vary cooling so the engine is neither too hot nor too cold. Cooling system regulation includes adjustable baffles in the air flow (sometimes called 'shutters' and commonly run by a pneumatic 'shutterstat); a fan which operates either independently of the engine, such as an electric fan, or which has an adjustable clutch; a thermostatic valve or just 'thermostat' that can block the coolant flow when too cool. In addition, the motor, coolant, and heat exchanger have some heat capacity which smooths out temperature increase in short sprints. Some engine controls shut down an engine or limit it to half throttle if it overheats. Modern electronic engine controls adjust cooling based on throttle to anticipate a temperature rise, and limit engine power output to compensate for finite cooling.

Finally, other concerns may dominate cooling system design. As example, air is a relatively poor coolant, but air cooling systems are simple, and failure rates typically rise as the square of the number of failure points. Also, cooling capacity is reduced only slightly by small air coolant leaks. Where reliability is of utmost importance, as in aircraft, it may be a good tradeoff to give up efficiency, durability (interval between engine rebuilds), and quietness in order to achieve slightly higher reliability the consequences of a broken airplane engine are so severe, even a slight increase in reliability is worth giving up other good properties to achieve it. Air-cooled and liquid-cooled engines are both used commonly. Each principle has advantages and disadvantages, and particular applications may favor one over the other. For example, most cars and trucks use liquid-cooled engines, while many small airplane and lowcost engines are air-cooled. [edit]Generalization difficulties It is difficult to make generalizations about air-cooled and liquid-cooled engines. Aircooled Volkswagen kombis are known[who?] for rapid wear in normal use[citation needed] and sometimes sudden failure when driven in hot weather. Alternatively, air-cooled Deutz diesel engines are known for reliability even in extreme heat, and are often used in situations where the engine runs unattended for months at a time. Similarly, it is usually desirable to minimize the number of heat transfer stages in order to maximize the temperature difference at each stage. However, Detroit Diesel 2-stroke cycle engines commonly use oil cooled by water, with the water in turn cooled by air. The coolant used in many liquid-cooled engines must be renewed periodically, and can freeze at ordinary temperatures thus causing permanent engine damage. Air-cooled engines do not require coolant service, and do not suffer engine damage from freezing, two commonly cited advantages for air-cooled engines. However, coolant based on propylene glycol is liquid to -55 C, colder than is encountered by many engines; shrinks slightly when it crystallizes, thus avoiding engine damage; and has a service life over 10,000 hours, essentially the lifetime of many engines. It is usually more difficult to achieve either low emissions or low noise from an air-cooled engine, two more reasons most road vehicles use liquid-cooled engines. It is also often difficult to build large air-cooled engines, so nearly all air-cooled engines are under 500 kW (670 hp), whereas large liquid-cooled engines exceed 80 MW (107000 hp) (WrtsilSulzer RTA96-C 14-cylinder diesel). [edit]Air-cooling Further information: Air cooler Cars and trucks using direct air cooling (without an intermediate liquid) were built over a long period from the very beginning and ending with a small and generally unrecognized technical

change. BeforeWorld War II, water-cooled cars and trucks routinely overheated while climbing mountain roads, creating geysers of boiling cooling water. This was considered normal, and at the time, most noted mountain roads had auto repair shops to minister to overheating engines. ACS (Auto Club Suisse) maintains historical monuments to that era on the Susten Pass where two radiator refill stations remain (See a picture here). These have instructions on a cast metal plaque and a spherical bottom watering can hanging next to a water spigot. The spherical bottom was intended to keep it from being set down and, therefore, be useless around the house, in spite of which it was stolen, as the picture shows. During that period, European firms such as Magirus-Deutz built air-cooled diesel trucks, Porsche built air-cooled farm tractors,[2] and Volkswagen became famous with air-cooled passenger cars. In the USA, Franklin built air-cooled engines. The Czechoslovakia based company Tatra is known for their big size air-cooled V8 car engines, Tatra engineer Julius Mackerle published a book on it. Air-cooled engines are better adapted to extremely cold and hot environmental weather temperatures, you can see air-cooled engines starting and running in freezing conditions that stuck water-cooled engines and continue working when water-cooled ones start producing steam jets. [edit]Liquid cooling Today, most engines are liquid-cooled.[3][4][5]

A fully closed IC engine cooling system

Open IC engine cooling system

Semiclosed IC engine cooling system Liquid cooling is also employed in maritime vehicles (vessels, ...). For vessels, the seawater itself is mostly used for cooling. In some cases, chemical coolants are also employed (in closed systems) or they are mixed with seawater cooling.[6][7] [edit]Transition Away From Air Cooling The change of air cooling to liquid cooling occurred at the start of World War II when the US military needed reliable vehicles. The subject of boiling engines was addressed, researched, and a solution found. Previous radiators and engine blocks were properly designed and survived durability tests, but used water pumps with a leaky graphite-lubricated "rope" seal (gland) on the pump shaft. The seal was inherited from steam engines, where water loss is accepted, since steam engines already expend large volumes of water. Because the pump seal leaked mainly when the pump was running and the engine was hot, the water loss evaporated inconspicuously, leaving at best a small rusty trace when the engine stopped and cooled, thereby not revealing significant water loss. Automobile radiators (or heat exchangers) have an outlet that feeds cooled water to the engine and the engine has an outlet that feeds heated water to the top of the radiator. Water circulation is aided by a rotary pump that has only a slight effect, having to work over such a wide range of speeds that its impeller has only a minimal effect as a pump. While running, the leaking pump seal drained cooling water to a level where the pump could no longer return water to the top of the radiator, so water circulation ceased and water in the engine boiled. However, since water loss led to overheat and further water loss from boil-over, the original water loss was hidden. After isolating the pump problem, cars and trucks built for the war effort (no civilian cars were built during that time) were equipped with carbon-seal water pumps that did not leak and caused no more geysers. Meanwhile, air cooling advanced in memory of boiling engines... even though boil-over was no longer a common problem. Air-cooled engines became popular throughout Europe. After the war, Volkswagen advertised in the USA as not boiling over, even though new water-cooled cars no longer boiled over, but these cars sold well, and without question. But as air quality awareness rose in the 1960s, and laws governing exhaust emissions were passed, unleaded gas replaced leaded gas and leaner fuel mixtures became the norm. These reductions in the cooling effects of both the lead and the formerly rich fuel mixture, led to overheating in the air-cooled engines.[citation needed] Valve failures and other engine damage was the result.[citation needed] Volkswagen responded by abandoning their (flat) horizontally opposed air-cooled engines,[citation needed] while Subaru took a different course and chose liquid-cooling for their (flat) engines. Today practically no air-cooled automotive engines are built, air cooling being fraught with manufacturing expense and maintenance problems. Motorcycles had an additional problem in that a water leak presented a greater threat to reliability, their engines having small cooling

water volume, so they were loath to change; today most larger motorcycles are water-cooled with many relying on convection circulation with no pump.

For the forty years following the first flight of the Wright brothers, airplanes used internal combustion engines to turnpropellers to generate thrust. Today, most general aviation or private airplanes are still powered by propellers and internal combustion engines, much like your automobile engine. We will discuss the fundamentals of the internal combustion engine using the Wright brothers' 1903 engine, shown in the figure, as an example. The brothers' design is very simple by today's standards, so it is a good engine for students to study and learn the fundamentals of engines and their operation. On this page we present a computer drawing of the lubrication system of the Wright brothers' 1903 aircraft engine. Mechanical Operation The figure at the top shows the major components of the lubrication system on the Wright 1903 engine. In any internal combustion engine, fuel and oxygen are combined in a combustion process to produce the power to turn the crankshaft of the engine. The combustion generates high pressure exhaust gas which exerts a force on the face of a piston. The piston moves inside a cylinder and is connected to the crankshaft by a rod which transmits the power. There are many moving parts is this power train as shown in this computer animation: The job of the lubrication system is to distribute oil to the moving parts to reduce friction between surfaces which rub against each other.

The lubrication system used by the Wright brothers is quite simple. An oil pump is located on the bottom of the engine, at the left of the figure. The pump is driven by a worm gear off the main exhaust valve cam shaft. The oil is pumped to the top of the engine, at the right, inside a feed line. Small holes in the feed line allow the oil to drip inside the crankcase. In the figure, we have removed the fuel system and peeled back the covering of the crankcase to see inside. The oil drips onto the pistons as they move in the cylinders, lubricating the surface between the piston and cylinder. The oil then runs down inside the crankcase to the main bearings holding the crankshaft. Oil is picked up and splashed onto the bearings to lubricate these surfaces. Along the outside of the bottom of the crankcase is a collection tube which gathers up the used oil andreturns it to the oil pump to be circulated again. Notice that the brothers did not lubricate the valves and rocker assembly for the combustion chambers. Difference between a turbocharger and a supercharger on a cars engine

Let's start with the similarities. Both turbochargers and superchargers are called forced induction systems. They compress the air flowing into the engine (see How Car Engines Work for a description of airflow in a normal engine). The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine stuff more air into a cylinder. More air means that more fuel can be stuffed in, too, so you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. A turbo/supercharged engine produces more power overall than the same engine without the charging. The typical boost provided by either a turbocharger or a supercharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi). Since normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, you can see that you are getting about 50-percent more air into the engine. Therefore, you would expect to get 50-percent more power. It's not perfectly efficient, though, so you might get a 30percent to 40-percent improvement instead.

The key difference between a turbocharger and a supercharger is its power supply. Something has to supply the power to run the air compressor. In a supercharger, there is a belt that connects directly to the engine. It gets its power the same way that the water pump or alternator does. A turbocharger, on the other hand, gets its power from the exhaust stream. The exhaust runs through a turbine, which in turn spins the compressor (see How Gas Turbine Engines Work for details). There are tradeoffs in both systems. In theory, a turbocharger is more efficient because it is using the "wasted" energy in the exhaust stream for its power source. On the other hand, a turbocharger causes some amount of back pressure in the exhaust system and tends to provide less boost until the engine is running at higher RPMs. Superchargers are easier to install but tend to be more expensive.

Emission Standards

Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. Many emissions standards focus on regulating pollutants released by automobiles (motor cars) and other powered vehicles but they can also regulate emissions from industry, power plants, small equipment such as lawn mowers and diesel generators. Frequent policy alternatives to emissions standards are technology standards (which mandate Standards generally regulate the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, particulate matter (PM) or soot,carbon monoxide (CO), or volatile hydrocarbons (see carbon dioxide equivalent).
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1 Vehicle Emission performance standard 2 Americas 2.1 USA 3 Europe 3.1 European Union 3.2 UK 3.3 Germany 4 Asia 4.1 China

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4.2 Hong Kong 4.3 India 4.3.1 Background 4.3.2 Trucks and Buses 4.3.3 Light duty diesel vehicles 4.3.4 Light duty gasoline vehicles 4-wheel vehicles 3- and 2-wheel vehicles 4.3.5 Overview of the emission norms in India by CDR

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4.4 Japan 5 See also 6 References 7 External links 7.1 EU


Emission performance standard

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2009) An emission performance standard is a limit that sets thresholds above which a different type of emission control technology might be needed. While emission performance standards have been used to dictate limits for conventional pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur (NOx and SOx),[1] this regulatory technique may be used to regulate greenhouse gasses, particularlycarbon dioxide (CO2). In the US, this is given in pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour (lbs. CO2/MWhr), and kilograms CO2/MWhr elsewhere in the world... [edit]Americas
This section requires expansion.

[edit]USA Main article: United States emission standards In the United States, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The state of California has special dispensation to

promulgate more stringent vehicle emissions standards, and other states may choose to follow either the national or California standards. California's emissions standards are set by the California Air Resources Board, known locally by its acronym "CARB". Given that California's automotive market is one of the largest in the world, CARB wields enormous influence over the emissions requirements that major automakers must meet if they wish to sell into that market. In addition, several other U.S. states also choose to follow the CARB standards, so their rulemaking has broader implications within the U.S. How Stuff Works: CARB lists 16 other states adopting CARB rules as of mid 2009. CARB's policies have also influenced EU emissions standards. Federal (National) "Tier 1" regulations went into effect starting in 1994, and "Tier 2" standards are being phased in from 2004 to 2009. Automobiles and light trucks (SUVs, pickup trucks, and minivans) are treated differently under certain standards. California is attempting to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles, but faces a court challenge from the federal government. The states are also attempting to compel the federal EPA to regulate greenhouse gas emissions, which as of 2007 it has declined to do. On May 19, 2009 news reports indicate that the Federal EPA will largely adopt California's standards on greenhouse gas emissions. California and several other western states have passed bills requiring performancebased regulation of greenhouse gases from electricity generation. In an effort to decrease emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines faster, the California Air Resources Board's Carl Moyer Program funds upgrades that are in advance of regulations. The EPA has separate regulations for small engines, such as groundskeeping equipment. The states must also promulgate miscellaneous emissions regulations in order to comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

European Union
Main article: European emission standards The European Union has its own set of emissions standards that all new vehicles must meet. Currently, standards are set for all road vehicles, trains, barges and 'nonroad mobile machinery' (such as tractors). No standards apply to seagoing ships

or airplanes. The emissions standards change based on the test cycle used: ECE R49 (old) and ESC (European Steady Cycle, since 2000). Currently there are no standards for CO2 emissions. The European Parliament has suggested introducing mandatory CO2 emission standards[2] to replace current voluntary commitments by the auto manufacturers (see ACEA agreement) and labeling. In late 2005, the European Commission started working on a proposal for a new law to limit CO2 emissions from cars.[3] The European Commission has received support of the European Parliament for its proposal to promote a broad market introduction of clean and energy efficient vehicles through public procurement.[4] The EU is to introduce Euro 4 effective January 1, 2008, Euro 5 effective January 1, 2010 and Euro 6 effective January 1, 2014. These dates have been postponed for two years to give oil refineries the opportunity to modernize their plants.

The British Parliament proposed legislation regulating CO2 emissions from electricity generation via emission performance standards.[5] This bill was even more stringent than that of the western American states in that it limited production to the equivalent of 400 kg CO2/MWh, which would effectively preclude the construction of any traditional coal-fired power plants.

According to the German federal automotive office 37.3 % (15.4 million) cars in Germany (total car population 41.3 million) conform to the Euro 4 standard from Jan 2009.

Due to rapidly expanding wealth and prosperity, the number of coal power plants and cars on China's roads is rapidly growing, creating an ongoing pollution problem. China enacted its first emissions controls on automobiles in 2000, equivalent to Euro I standards. China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) upgraded emission controls again on July 1, 2004 to the Euro II standard.[6] More stringent emission standard, National Standard III, equivalent to Euro III standards, went into effect on July 1, 2007.[7] Plans are for Euro IV standards to take effect in 2010. Beijing introduced the Euro IV standard in advance on January 1, 2008, became the first city in mainland China to adopt this standard.[8]

Hong Kong
From Jan 1, 2006, all new passenger cars with spark-ignition engines in Hong Kong must meet either Euro IV petrol standard, Japanese Heisei 17 standard or US

EPA Tier 2 Bin 5 standard. For new passenger cars with compression-ignition engines, they must meet US EPA Tier 2 Bin 5 standard.

The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both petrol (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-dc. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Current requirement is that all transport vehicles carry a fitness certificate that is renewed each year after the first two years of new vehicle registration. On October 6, 2003, the National Auto Fuel Policy has been announced, which envisages a phased program for introducing Euro 2 - 4 emission and fuel regulations by 2010. The implementation schedule of EU emission standards in India is summarized in Table 1.[9] Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles)





India 2000

Euro 1




NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai

Bharat Stage II

Euro 2


NCR*, 12 Cities



2005.04 Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2010.04

NCR*, 12 Cities


Bharat Stage IV

Euro 4


NCR*, 12 Cities

* National Capital Region (Delhi) Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, and Agra The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities. For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force preferably from April 1, 2008, but not later than April 1, 2010.[10] [edit]Trucks and Buses Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel enginesapplicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kgare listed in Table 1. Emissions are tested over the ECE R49 13mode test (through the Euro II stage) Table 2 Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh















Euro I






Euro II






Euro III





* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 More details on Euro I-III regulations can be found in the EU heavy-duty engine standards page. [edit]Light duty diesel vehicles Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). Table 3 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, g/km














Euro 1




2005 Euro 2




The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle. Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 4. Table 4 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Engines, g/kWh
















Euro I






Euro II





* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 [edit]Light duty gasoline vehicles [edit]4-wheel vehicles Emissions standards for gasoline vehicles (GVW 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 5. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes of light commercial vehicles (compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). Table 5 Emission Standards for Gasoline Vehicles (GVW 3,500 kg), g/km
















Euro 1




Euro 2



* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000). [edit]3- and 2-wheel vehicles Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel gasoline vehicles are listed in the following tables.[11] Table 6 Emission Standards for 3-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km














2005 (BS II)



Table 7 Emission Standards for 2-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km












[edit]Overview of the emission norms in India by CDR 1991 - Idle CO Limits for Gasoline Vehicles and Free Acceleration Smoke for Diesel Vehicles, Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline Vehicles.

1992 - Mass Emission Norms for Diesel Vehicles.

1996 - Revision of Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles, mandatory fitment of Catalytic Converter for Cars in Metros on Unleaded Gasoline.

1998 - Cold Start Norms Introduced .

2000 - India 2000 (Eq. to Euro I) Norms, Modified IDC (Indian Driving Cycle), Bharat Stage II Norms for Delhi. 2001 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for All Metros, Emission Norms for CNG & LPG Vehicles.

2003 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for 11 major cities. 2005 - From 1 April Bharat Stage III (Eq. to Euro III) Norms for 11 major cities.

2010 - Bharat Stage III Emission Norms for 4-wheelers for entire country whereas Bharat Stage - IV (Eq. to Euro IV) for 13 major cities. Bharat Stage IV also has norms on OBD (similar to Euro III but diluted) [edit]Japan Background In 1973 the first installment of four sets of new emissions standards were introduced. Interim standards were introduced on January 1, 1975 and again for 1976. The final set of standards were introduced for 1978.[12] While the standards were introduced they were not made immediately mandatory, instead tax breaks were offered for cars which passed them.[13] The standards were based on those adopted by the original US Clean Air Act of 1970, but the test cycle included more slow city driving to correctly reflect the Japanese situation.[14] The 1978 limits for mean emissions during a "Hot Start Test" of CO, hydrocarbons, and NOx were 2.1 grams per kilometre (0.00 g/mi) of CO, .25 grams per kilometre (0.00 g/mi) of HC, and .25 grams per kilometre (0.00 g/mi) of NOx respectively.[14]Maximum limits are 2.7 grams per kilometre (0.00 g/mi) of CO, .39 grams per kilometre (0.00 g/mi) of HC, and .48 grams per kilometre (0.00 g/mi) of NOx. The "10 - 15 Mode Hot Cycle" test, used to determine

individual fuel economy ratings and emissions observed from the vehicle being tested, use a specific testing regime. [15][16][17] In 1992, to cope with NOx pollution problems from existing vehicle fleets in highly populated metropolitan areas, the Ministry of the Environment adopted the Law Concerning Special Measures to Reduce the Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides Emitted from Motor Vehicles in Specified Areas, called in short The Motor Vehicle NOx Law. The regulation designated a total of 196 communities in the Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures as areas with significant air pollution due to nitrogen oxides emitted from motor vehicles. Under the Law, several measures had to be taken to control NOx from in-use vehicles, including enforcing emission standards for specified vehicle categories. The regulation was amended in June 2001 to tighten the existing NOx requirements and to add PM control provisions. The amended rule is called the Law Concerning Special Measures to Reduce the Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter Emitted from Motor Vehicles in Specified Areas, or in short the Automotive NOx and PM Law. Emission Standards The NOx and PM Law introduces emission standards for specified categories of inuse highway vehicles including commercial goods (cargo) vehicles such as trucks and vans, buses, and special purpose motor vehicles, irrespective of the fuel type. The regulation also applies to diesel powered passenger cars (but not to gasoline cars). In-use vehicles in the specified categories must meet 1997/98 emission standards for the respective new vehicle type (in the case of heavy duty engines NOx = 4.5 g/kWh, PM = 0.25 g/kWh). In other words, the 1997/98 new vehicle standards are retroactively applied to older vehicles already on the road. Vehicle owners have two methods to comply: 1. 2. Replace old vehicles with newer, cleaner models Retrofit old vehicles with approved NOx and PM control devices

Vehicles have a grace period, between 9 and 12 years from the initial registration, to comply. The grace period depends on the vehicle type, as follows:

Light commercial vehicles (GVW 2500 kg): 8 years Heavy commercial vehicles (GVW > 2500 kg): 9 years Micro buses (11-29 seats): 10 years Large buses ( 30 seats): 12 years

Special vehicles (based on a cargo truck or bus): 10 years Diesel passenger cars: 9 years

Furthermore, the regulation allows fulfillment of its requirements to be postponed by an additional 0.5-2.5 years, depending on the age of the vehicle. This delay was introduced in part to harmonize the NOx and PM Law with the Tokyo diesel retrofit program. The NOx and PM Law is enforced in connection with Japanese vehicle inspection program, where non-complying vehicles cannot undergo the inspection in the designated areas. This, in turn, may trigger an injunction on the vehicle operation under the Road Transport Vehicle Law.

Vehicle emissions control is the study and practice of reducing the motor vehicle emissions -- emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines. Emissions of many air pollutants have been shown to have variety of negative effects on public health and the natural environment. Emissions that are principal pollutants of concern include: Hydrocarbons - A class of burned or partially burned fuel, hydrocarbons are toxins. Hydrocarbons are a major contributor to smog, which can be a major problem in urban areas. Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbons contributes to asthma, liver disease, , lung disease, and cancer. Regulations governing hydrocarbons vary according to type of engine and jurisdiction; in some cases, "non-methane hydrocarbons" are regulated, while in other cases, "total hydrocarbons" are regulated. Technology for one application (to meet a nonmethane hydrocarbon standard) may not be suitable for use in an application that has to meet a total hydrocarbon standard. Methane is not directly toxic, but is more difficult to break down in a catalytic converter, so in effect a "non-methane hydrocarbon" regulation can be considered easier to meet. Since methane is a greenhouse gas, interest is rising in how to eliminate emissions of it.

Carbon monoxide (CO) - A product of incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen; overexposure (carbon monoxide poisoning) may be fatal. Carbon Monoxide poisoning is a major killer.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - Generated when nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen at the high temperature and pressure inside the engine. NOx is a precursor to smog and acid rain. NOx is a mixture of NO, N2O, and NO2. NO2 is extremely reactive. It destroys resistance to respiratory infection. NOx production is increased when an engine runs at its most efficient (i.e. hottest) part of the cycle.

Particulate matter Soot or smoke made up of particles in the micrometre size range: Particulate matter causes negative health effects, including but not limited to respiratory disease and cancer.

Sulfur oxide (SOx) - A general term for oxides of sulfur, which are emitted from motor vehicles burning fuel containing sulfur. Reducing the level of fuel sulfur reduces the level of Sulfur oxide emitted from the tailpipe. Refineries generally fight requirements to do this because of the increased costs to them, ignoring the increased costs to society as a whole.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - Organic compounds which typically have a boiling point less than or equal to 250 C; for example chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and formaldehyde. Volatile organic compounds are a subsection of Hydrocarbons that are mentioned separately because of their dangers to public health.

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, various federal, state and local governments in the United States conducted studies into the numerous sources of air pollution. These studies ultimately attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, and concluded air pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, such minimal emission control regulations as existed in the U.S. were promulgated at the municipal or, occasionally, the state level. The ineffective local regulations were gradually supplanted by more comprehensive state and federal regulations. By 1967 theState of California created the California Air Resources Board, and in 1970, the federal United States Environmental Protection Agency was established. Both agencies, as well as other state agencies, now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles in the United States. Similar agencies and regulations were contemporaneously developed and implemented in Canada, Western Europe,Australia, and Japan. The first effort at controlling pollution from automobiles was the PCV (positive crankcase ventilation) system. This draws crankcase fumes heavy in unburned hydrocarbons a precursor tophotochemical smog into the engine's intake tract so they are burned rather than released unburned from the crankcase into the atmosphere. Positive crankcase ventilation was first installed on a widespread basis by law on all new 1961-model cars first sold in California. The following year, New York required it. By 1964, most new cars sold in the U.S. were so equipped, and PCV quickly became standard equipment on all vehicles worldwide.[1] The first legislated exhaust (tailpipe) emission standards were promulgated by the State of California for 1966 model year for cars sold in that state, followed by the United States as a whole in model year 1968. The standards were progressively tightened year by year, as mandated by the EPA. By the 1974 model year, the emission standards had tightened such that the detuning techniques used to meet them were seriously reducing engine efficiency and thus increasing fuel usage. The new emission standards for 1975 model year, as well as the increase in fuel usage, forced the invention of the catalytic converter for aftertreatment of the exhaust gas. This was not possible with existingleaded gasoline, because the lead residue contaminated the platinum catalyst. In 1972, General Motors proposed to the American Petroleum Institute the elimination of leaded fuels for 1975 and later model year cars. The production and distribution of unleaded fuel was a major challenge, but it was completed successfully in time for the 1975 model

year cars. All modern cars are now equipped with catalytic converters and leaded fuel is nearly impossible to buy in most First World countries. [edit]Regulatory


The agencies charged with regulating exhaust emissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, even in the same country. For example, in the United States, overall responsibility belongs to the EPA, but due to special requirements of the State of California, emissions in California are regulated by the Air Resources Board. In Texas, the Texas Railroad Commission is responsible for regulating emissions from LPGfueled rich burn engines (but not gasoline-fueled rich burn engines). [edit]North


California Air Resources Board - California, United States (most sources) Environment Canada - Canada (most sources) Environmental Protection Agency - United States (most sources) Texas Railroad Commission - Texas, United States (LPG-fueled engines only) Transport Canada - Canada (trains and ships)

[edit]Europe Ultimately, the European Union has control over regulation of emissions in EU member states; however, many member states have their own government bodies to enforce and implement these regulations in their respective countries. In short, the EU forms the policy (by setting limits such as the European emission standard) and the member states decide how to best implement it in their own country. [edit]United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, matters concerning environmental policy are what is known as "devolved powers" which means, each of the constituent countries deals with it separately through their own government bodies set up to deal with environmental issues in their respective country:

Environment Agency - England and Wales Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) - Scotland Department of the Environment - Northern Ireland

However, many UK-wide policies are handled by the Department of the Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and they are still subject to EU regulations. [edit]Emissions


Engine efficiency has been steadily improved with improved engine design, more precise ignition timing and electronic ignition, more precise fuel metering, and computerized engine management. Advances in engine and vehicle technology continually reduce the toxicity of exhaust leaving the engine, but these alone have generally been proved insufficient to meet emissions goals. Therefore, technologies to detoxify the exhaust are an essential part of emissions control. [edit]Air


Main article: Secondary air injection One of the first-developed exhaust emission control systems is secondary air injection. Originally, this system was used to inject air into the engine's exhaust ports to provide oxygen so unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons in the exhaust would finish burning. Air injection is now used to support the catalytic converter's oxidation reaction, and to reduce emissions when an engine is started from cold. After a cold start, an engine needs a fuel-air mixture richer than what it needs at operating temperature, and the catalytic converter does not function efficiently until it has reached its own operating temperature. The air injected upstream of the converter supports combustion in the exhaust headpipe, which speeds catalyst warmup and reduces the amount of unburned hydrocarbon emitted from the tailpipe. Air Injection is a secondary technology, used in support of the main technologies on some engines. [edit]Exhaust

gas recirculation

Main article: Exhaust gas recirculation In the United States and Canada, many engines in 1973 and newer vehicles (1972 and newer in California) have a system that routes a metered amount of exhaust into the intake tract under particular operating conditions. Exhaust neither burns nor supports combustion, so it dilutes the air/fuel charge to reduce peak combustion chamber temperatures. This, in turn, reduces the formation of NOx. [edit]Catalytic


Main article: Catalytic converter The catalytic converter is a device placed in the exhaust pipe, which converts hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and NOx into less harmful gases by using a combination of platinum, palladium and rhodium as catalysts. There are two types of catalytic converter, a two-way and a three-way converter. Twoway converters were common until the 1980s, when three-way converters replaced

them on most automobile engines. See the catalytic converter article for further details. [edit]Evaporative

emissions control

"EVAP" redirects here. EVAP may also refer to Evaporation. Evaporative emissions are the result of gasoline vapors escaping from the vehicle's fuel system. Since 1971, all U.S. vehicles have had fully sealed fuel systems that do not vent directly to the atmosphere; mandates for systems of this type appeared contemporaneously in other jurisdictions. In a typical system, vapors from the fuel tank and carburetor bowl vent (on carbureted vehicles) are ducted to canisters containing activated carbon. The vapors are adsorbed within the canister, and during certain engine operational modes fresh air is drawn through the canister, pulling the vapor into the engine,where it burns. [edit]Emission


In 1966, the first emission test cycle was enacted in the State of California measuring tailpipe emissions in PPM (parts per million). Some cities are also using a technology developed by Dr. Donald Stedman of the University of Denver, which uses lasers to detect emissions while vehicles pass by on public roads, thus eliminating the need for owners to go to a test center. Stedman's laser detection of exhaust gases is commonly used in metropolitan areas.[2] [edit]Use

of emission test data

Emission test results from individual vehicles are in many cases compiled to evaluate the emissions performance of various classes of vehicles, the efficacy of the testing program and of various other emission-related regulations (such as changes to fuel formulations) and to model the effects of auto emissions on public health and the environment. For example, the Environmental Working Groupused California ASM emissions data to create an "Auto Asthma Index" that rates vehicle models according to emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, chemical precursors to photochemical smog. Catalytic convertor A catalytic converter (colloquially, "cat" or "catcon") is a device used to convert toxic exhaust emissions from an internal combustion engine into non-toxic substances. Inside a catalytic converter, a catalyst stimulates a chemical reaction in which noxious byproducts of combustion are converted to less toxic substances by dint of catalysed chemical reactions. The specific reactions vary with the type of

catalyst installed. Most present-day vehicles that run ongasoline are fitted with a "three way" converter, so named because it converts the three main pollutants in automobile exhaust: an oxidising reaction convertscarbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and a reduction reaction converts oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen(N2), and water (H2O).[1] The first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United States market, where 1975 model year automobiles were so equipped to comply with tightening U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations on automobile exhaust emissions. The catalytic converters fitted were two-way models, combining carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Two-way catalytic converters of this type are now considered obsolete except on lean burn engines.[citation needed] Since most vehicles at the time used carburetors that provided a relatively richair-fuel ratio, oxygen (O2) levels in the exhaust stream were in general insufficient for the catalytic reaction to occur. Therefore, most such engines were also equipped with secondary air injection systems to induct air into the exhaust stream to allow the catalyst to function. Catalytic converters are still most commonly used on automobile exhaust systems, but are also used on generator sets, forklifts, mining equipment, trucks,buses, locomotives, airplanes and other engine fitted devices. This is usually in response to government regulation, either through direct environmental regulation or through Health and Safety regulations.


Metal-core converter

Ceramic-core converter

The catalytic converter consists of several components: The catalyst core, or substrate. For automotive catalytic converters, the core is usually a ceramic monolith with a honeycomb structure. Metallic foil monoliths made of FeCrAl are used in some applications. This is partially a cost issue. Ceramic cores are inexpensive when manufactured in large quantities. Metallic cores are less expensive to build in small production runs. Either material is designed to provide a high surface area to support the catalyst washcoat, and therefore is often called a "catalyst support".[citation needed] The cordierite ceramic substrate used in most catalytic converters was invented by Rodney Bagley, Irwin Lachman and Ronald Lewis at Corning Glass, for which they were inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2002.[citation needed]

The washcoat. A washcoat is a carrier for the catalytic materials and is used to disperse the materials over a high surface area. Aluminum oxide,Titanium dioxide, Silicon dioxide, or a mixture of silica and alumina can be used. The catalytic materials are suspended in the washcoat prior to applying to the core. Washcoat materials are selected to form a rough, irregular surface, which greatly increases the surface area compared to the smooth surface of the bare substrate. This maximizes the catalytically active surface available to react with the engine exhaust.

The catalyst itself is most often a precious metal. Platinum is the most active catalyst and is widely used, but is not suitable for all applications because of unwanted additional reactions[vague] and high cost. Palladium and rhodium are two other precious metals used. Rhodium is used as areduction catalyst, palladium is used as an oxidation catalysts, and platinum is used both for reduction and oxidation. Cerium, iron, manganese andnickel are also used, although each has its own limitations. Nickel is not legal for use in the European Union (because of its reaction with carbon monoxide into nickel tetracarbonyl). Copper can be used everywhere except North America,[clarification needed] where its use is illegal because of the formation of dioxin.

[edit]Types [edit]Two-way A two-way (or "oxidation") catalytic converter has two simultaneous tasks:

Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 2CO2

Oxidation of hydrocarbons (unburnt and partially-burnt fuel) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2] O2 xCO2 + (x+1) H2O (a combustion reaction)

This type of catalytic converter is widely used on diesel engines to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. They were also used on gasoline engines in American- and Canadian-market automobiles until 1981. Because of their inability to control oxides of nitrogen, they were superseded by three-way converters. [edit]Three-way Since 1981, three-way (oxidation-reduction) catalytic converters have been used in vehicle emission control systems in the United States and Canada; many other countries have also adopted stringentvehicle emission regulations that in effect require three-way converters on gasoline-powered vehicles. A three-way catalytic converter has three simultaneous tasks:
1. 2. 3.

Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx xO2 + N2 Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 2CO2

Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2]O2 xCO2 + (x+1)H2O These three reactions occur most efficiently when the catalytic converter receives exhaust from an engine running slightly above the stoichiometric point. This point is between 14.6 and 14.8 parts air to 1 part fuel, by weight, for gasoline. The ratio for Autogas (or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)), natural gas and ethanol fuels is each slightly different, requiring modified fuel system settings when using those fuels. In general, engines fitted with 3-way catalytic converters are equipped with a computerized closed-loop feedback fuel injection system using one or more oxygen sensors, though early in the deployment of three-way converters, carburetors equipped for feedback mixture control were used. Three-way catalysts are effective when the engine is operated within a narrow band of air-fuel ratios near stoichiometry, such that the exhaust gas oscillates between rich (excess fuel) and lean (excess oxygen) conditions. However, conversion efficiency falls very rapidly when the engine is operated outside of that band of air-fuel ratios. Under lean engine operation, there is excess oxygen and the reduction of NOx is not favored. Under rich conditions, the excess fuel consumes all of the available oxygen prior to the catalyst, thus only stored oxygen is available for the oxidation function. Closed-loop control systems are necessary because of the conflicting requirements for effective NOx reduction and HC oxidation. The control system must prevent the

NOx reduction catalyst from becoming fully oxidized, yet replenish the oxygen storage material to maintain its function as an oxidation catalyst. [edit]Oxygen storage Three-way catalytic converters can store oxygen from the exhaust gas stream, usually when the air-fuel ratio goes lean.[6] When insufficient oxygen is available from the exhaust stream, the stored oxygen is released and consumed (see cerium(IV) oxide). A lack of sufficient oxygen occurs either when oxygen derived from NOx reduction is unavailable or when certain maneuvers such as hard acceleration enrich the mixture beyond the ability of the converter to supply oxygen. [edit]Unwanted


Unwanted reactions can occur in the three-way catalyst, such as the formation of odoriferous hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Formation of each can be limited by modifications to the washcoat and precious metals used. It is difficult to eliminate these byproducts entirely. Sulfur-free or low-sulfur fuels eliminate or reduce hydrogen sulfide. For example, when control of hydrogen-sulfide emissions is desired, nickel or manganese is added to the washcoat. Both substances act to block the absorption of sulfur by the washcoat. Hydrogen sulfide is formed when the washcoat has absorbed sulfur during a low-temperature part of the operating cycle, which is then released during the high-temperature part of the cycle and the sulfur combines with HC. [edit]For

diesel engines

For compression-ignition (i.e., diesel engines), the most-commonly-used catalytic converter is the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). This catalyst uses O2 (oxygen) in the exhaust gas stream to convert CO (carbon monoxide) to CO2 (carbon dioxide) and HC (hydrocarbons) to H2O (water) and CO2. These converters often operate at 90 percent efficiency, virtually eliminating diesel odor and helping to reduce visible particulates (soot). These catalyst are not active for NOx reduction because any reductant present would react first with the high concentration of O2 in diesel exhaust gas. Reduction in NOx emissions from compression-ignition engine has previously been addressed by the addition of exhaust gas to incoming air charge, known as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In 2010, most light-duty diesel manufactures in the U.S. added catalytic systems to their vehicles to meet new federal emissions requirements. There are two techniques that have been developed for the catalytic reduction of

NOx emissions under lean exhaust condition - selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and the lean NOx trap or NOx adsorber. Instead of precious metal-containing NOx adsorbers, most manufacturers selected base-metal SCR systems that use a reagent such as ammonia to reduce the NOx into nitrogen. Ammonia is supplied to the catalyst system by the injection of urea into the exhaust, which then undergoes thermal decomposition and hydrolysis into ammonia. One trademark product of urea solution, also referred to as Diesel Emission Fluid (DEF), is AdBlue. Diesel exhaust contains relatively high levels of particulate matter (soot), consisting in large part of elemental carbon. Catalytic converters cannot clean up elemental carbon, though they do remove up to 90 percent of the soluble organic fraction[citation needed] , so particulates are cleaned up by a soot trap or diesel particulate filter (DPF). A DPF consists of a Cordierite or Silicon Carbide substrate with a geometry that forces the exhaust flow through the substrate walls, leaving behind trapped soot particles. As the amount of soot trapped on the DPF increases, so does the back pressure in the exhaust system. Periodic regenerations (high temperature excursions) are required to initiate combustion of the trapped soot and thereby reducing the exhaust back pressure. The amount of soot loaded on the DPF prior to regeneration may also be limited to prevent extreme exotherms from damaging the trap during regeneration. In the U.S., all on-road light, medium and heavy-duty vehicles powered by diesel and built after January 1, 2007, must meet diesel particulate emission limits that means they effectively have to be equipped with a 2-Way catalytic converter and a diesel particulate filter. Note that this applies only to the diesel engine used in the vehicle. As long as the engine was manufactured before January 1, 2007, the vehicle is not required to have the DPF system. This led to an inventory runup by engine manufacturers in late 2006 so they could continue selling pre-DPF vehicles well into 2007.[7] [edit]Lean

Burn Spark Ignition Engines

For Lean Burn spark-ignition engines, an oxidation catalyst is used in the same manner as in a diesel engine. Emissions from Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines are very similar to emissions from a Diesel Compression Ignition engine. [edit]Installation Many vehicles have a close-coupled catalysts located near the engine's exhaust manifold. This unit heats up quickly due to its proximity to the engine, and reduces cold-engine emissions by burning off hydrocarbons from the extra-rich mixture used to start a cold engine.

In the past, some three-way catalytic converter systems used an air-injection tube between the first (NOx reduction) and second (HC and CO oxidation) stages of the converter. This tube was part of asecondary air injection system. The injected air provided oxygen for the oxidation reactions. An upstream air injection point was also sometimes present to provide oxygen during engine warmup, which caused unburned fuel to ignite in the exhaust tract before reaching the catalytic converter. This cleaned up the exhaust and reduced the engine runtime needed for the catalytic converter to reach its "light-off" or operating temperature. Most modern catalytic converter systems do not have air injection systems.[citation needed] Instead, they provide a constantly varying air-fuel mixture that quickly and continually cycles between lean and rich exhaust. Oxygen sensors are used to monitor the exhaust oxygen content before and after the catalytic converter and this information is used by the Electronic control unit to adjust the fuel injection so as to prevent the first (NOx reduction) catalyst from becoming oxygen-loaded while ensuring the second (HC and CO oxidization) catalyst is sufficiently oxygen-saturated. The reduction and oxidation catalysts are typically contained in a common housing, however in some instances they may be housed separately.

Catalyst poisoning occurs when the catalytic converter is exposed to exhaust containing substances that coat the working surfaces, encapsulating the catalyst so that it cannot contact and treat the exhaust. The most-notable contaminant is lead, so vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be run only on unleaded gasoline. Other common catalyst poisons include fuel sulfur, manganese(originating primarily from the gasoline additive MMT), and silicone, which can enter the exhaust stream if the engine has a leak, allowing coolant into the combustion chamber. Phosphorus is another catalyst contaminant. Although phosphorus is no longer used in gasoline, it (and zinc, another low-level catalyst contaminant) was until recently widely used in engine oil antiwear additives such aszinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP). Beginning in 2006, a rapid phaseout of ZDDP in engine oils began.[citation needed] Depending on the contaminant, catalyst poisoning can sometimes be reversed by running the engine under a very heavy load for an extended period of time. The increased exhaust temperature can sometimes liquefy or sublime the contaminant, removing it from the catalytic surface. However, removal of lead deposits in this manner is usually not possible because of lead's high boiling point.


Any condition that causes abnormally high levels of unburned hydrocarbons raw or partially burnt fuel to reach the converter will tend to significantly elevate its temperature, bringing the risk of a meltdown of the substrate and resultant catalytic deactivation and severe exhaust restriction. Vehicles equipped with OBD-II diagnostic systems are designed to alert the driver to a misfire condition by means of flashing the "check engine" light on the dashboard. Emissions regulations vary considerably from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The earliest on-road regulations which forced the use of Catalytic converters were the California For Non-Road regulations California led the way with its 2001 Large Spark Ignition Engine Regulation. This was followed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency 50 State Program forNon-Road spark-ignition engines of over 25 brake horsepower (19 kW) output built after January 1, 2004, are equipped with three-way catalytic converters. In Japan, a similar set of regulations came into effect January 1, 2007. The European Union has regulations[8] beginning with Euro 1 regulations in 1992 and becoming progressively more stringent in subsequent years.[9] Most automobile spark-ignition engines in North America have been fitted with catalytic converters since the mid-1970s, and the technology used in non-automotive applications is generally based on automotive technology. Regulations for diesel engines are similarly varied, with some jurisdictions focusing on NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) emissions and others focusing on particulate (soot) emissions. This regulatory diversity is challenging for manufacturers of engines, as it may not be economical to design an engine to meet two sets of regulations. Regulations of fuel quality vary across jurisdictions. In North America, Europe, Japan and Hong Kong, gasoline and diesel fuel are highly regulated, and compressed natural gas and LPG (Autogas) are being reviewed for regulation. In most of Asia and Africa, the regulations are often lax in some places sulfur content of the fuel can reach 20,000 parts per million (2%). Any sulfur in the fuel can be oxidized to SO2 (sulfur dioxide) or even SO3 (sulfur trioxide) in the combustion chamber. If sulfur passes over a catalyst, it may be further oxidized in the catalyst, i.e., SO2 may be further oxidized to SO3. Sulfur oxides are precursors to sulfuric acid, a major component of acid rain. While it is possible to add substances such as vanadium to the catalyst washcoat to combat sulfur-oxide formation, such addition will reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. The most effective solution is to further refine fuel at the refinery to produce ultra-low sulfur diesel. Regulations in Japan, Europe and North America tightly restrict the amount of sulfur permitted in motor fuels. However, the expense of producing such clean fuel may make it impractical for use in developing

countries. As a result, cities in these countries with high levels of vehicular traffic suffer from acid rain, which damages stone and woodwork of buildings, poisons humans and other animals, and damages local ecosystems.

Negative aspects
Some early converter designs greatly restricted the flow of exhaust, which negatively affected vehicle performance, driveability, and fuel economy.[10] Because they were used with carburetors incapable of precise fuel-air mixture control, they could overheat and set fire to flammable materials under the car.[11] Removing a modern catalytic converter in new condition will not increase vehicle performance without retuning,[12] but their removal or "gutting" continues.[10][13] The exhaust section where the converter was may be replaced with a welded-in section of straight pipe, or a flanged section of "test pipe" legal for off-road use that can then be replaced with a similarly fitted converter-choked section for legal on-road use, or emissions testing. [12] In the U.S. and many other jurisdictions, it is illegal to remove or disable a catalytic converter for any reason other than its immediate replacement[citation needed]. It is a violation of Section 203(a)(3)(A) of the 1990 Clean Air Act for a vehicle owner to remove a converter from their own vehicle. Section 203(a)(3)(B) makes it illegal for any person to sell or to install any part where a principle effect would be to bypass, defeat, or render inoperative any device or element of design of a vehicles emission control system. Vehicles without functioning catalytic converters generally fail emission inspections. The automotive aftermarket supplies high-flow converters for vehicles with upgraded engines, or whose owners prefer an exhaust system with larger-than-stock capacity.[14]

Warm-up period
Most of the pollution put out by a car occurs during the first five minutes before the catalytic converter has warmed up sufficiently.[15] In 1999, BMW introduced the Electric Catalytic Convert, or "E-CAT", in their flagship E38 750iL sedan. Coils inside the catalytic converter assemblies are heated electrically just after engine start, bringing the catalyst up to operating temperature much faster than traditional catalytic converters can, providing cleaner cold starts and low emission vehicle (LEV) compliance.[citation needed]

Environmental impact
Catalytic converters have proven to be reliable and effective in reducing noxious tailpipe emissions. However, they may have some adverse environmental impacts in use:

The requirement for an internal combustion engine equipped with a three-way catalyst to run at the stoichiometric point means it is less efficient than if it were operated lean. Thus, there is an increases the amount of fossil fuel consumed and the carbon-dioxide emissions from the vehicle. However, NOx control on lean-burn engines is problematic and requires special lean NOx catalysts to meet U.S. emissions regulations.[citation needed]

Although catalytic converters are effective at removing hydrocarbons and other harmful emissions, they do not solve the fundamental problem created by burning a fossil fuel. In addition to water, the main combustion product in exhaust gas leaving the engine through a catalytic converter or not is carbon dioxide (CO2).[16] Carbon dioxide produced from fossil fuels is one of the greenhouse gases indicated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to be a "most likely" cause of global warming.[17] Additionally, the U.S. EPA has stated catalytic converters are a significant and growing cause of global warming, because of their release of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas over three hundred times more potent than carbon dioxide.[18]

Catalytic converter production requires palladium or platinum; part of the world supply of these precious metals is produced near Norilsk, Russia, where the industry (among others) has caused Norilsk to be added to Time magazine's list of most-polluted places.[19]

Because of the external location and the use of valuable precious metals including platinum, palladium, and rhodium, converters are a target for thieves. The problem is especially common among late-model Toyota trucks and SUVs, because of their high ground clearance and easily removed bolt-on catalytic converters. Welded-in converters are also at risk of theft from SUVs and trucks, as they can be easily removed.[20][21] Theft removal of the converter can often inadvertently damage the car's wiring or fuel line resulting in dangerous consequences. Rises in metal costs in the U.S. during recent years have led to a large increase in theft incidents of the converter,[22] which can then cost well over $1,000 to replace.[23]

Various jurisdictions now legislate on-board diagnostics to monitor the function and condition of the emissions-control system, including the catalytic converter. On-board diagnostic systems take several forms.

Temperature sensors

Temperature sensors are used for two purposes. The first is as a warning system, typically on two-way catalytic converters such as are still sometimes used on LPG forklifts. The function of the sensor is to warn of catalytic converter temperature above the safe limit of 750 C (1,380 F). More-recent catalytic-converter designs are not as susceptible to temperature damage and can withstand sustained temperatures of 900 C (1,650 F).[citation needed] Temperature sensors are also used to monitor catalyst functioning usually two sensors will be fitted, with one before the catalyst and one after to monitor the temperature rise over the catalytic-converter core. For every 1% of CO in the exhaust gas stream, the exhaust gas temperature will rise by 100 C.[citation

Oxygen sensors
The oxygen sensor is the basis of the closed-loop control system on a spark-ignited rich-burn engine; however, it is also used for diagnostics. In vehicles with OBD II, a second oxygen sensor is fitted after the catalytic converter to monitor the O2 levels. The on-board computer makes comparisons between the readings of the two sensors. If both sensors show the same output, the computer recognizes that the catalytic converter either is not functioning or has been removed, and will operate a "check engine" light and retard engine performance. Simple "oxygen sensor simulators" have been developed to circumvent this problem by simulating the change across the catalytic converter with plans and pre-assembled devices available on the Internet. Although these are not legal for on-road use, they have been used with mixed results. [24] Similar devices apply an offset to the sensor signals, allowing the engine to run a more fuel-economical lean burn that may, however, damage the engine or the catalytic converter.[25]

NOx sensors
NOx sensors are extremely expensive and are in general used only when a compression-ignition engine is fitted with a selective catalytic-reduction (SCR) converter, or a NOx absorber catalyst in a feedback system. When fitted to an SCR system, there may be one or two sensors. When one sensor is fitted it will be precatalyst; when two are fitted, the second one will be post-catalyst. They are used for the same reasons and in the same manner as an oxygen sensor the only difference is the substance being monitored.

Electronic Engine Management GM Powertrain has long been a pioneer in offering electronic engine management for industrial engines,adapting the technology that has transformed the automotive industry to the specific needs of the industrial environment. The "brain" in every GM Powertrain engine management system is an Electronic Control Module (ECM) which was developed specifically for the industrial engine market. The ECM takes input from various sensors and then uses that data to continually optimize engine operation and performance. For example, if the engine knock sensor indicates there is premature detonation, the ECM instantly adjusts spark timing to eliminate the problem. In industrial applications, this can greatly increase the service life of the engine

For maximum reliability, GM Powertrain's commercial ECMs are manufactured using thick-film hybrid technology, a technology more advanced than what is used in much of the automotive industry. The circuits are formed by printing layers of conductive and nonconductive ink onto a ceramic substrate. The result is an extremely rugged and durable module that can handle very high temperatures and severe vibrations. This enables the OEM to mount the ECM directly onto the engine. It is one example of GM Powertrain's dedication to meeting the specific needs of the industrial engine market


The carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, and the higher its dynamic pressure. The throttle (accelerator) linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being pulled into the engine. The speed of this flow, and therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Later engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted (as opposed to fuel-injected) engines have a single carburetor and a matching intake manifold that divides and transports the air fuel mixture to the intake valves, though some engines (like motorcycle engines) use multiple carburetors on split heads. Multiple carburetor engines were also common enhancements for modifying engines in the USA from the 1950s to mid-1960s, as well as during the following decade of high-performance muscle cars fueling different chambers of the engine's intake manifold. Older engines used updraft carburetors, where the air enters from below the carburetor and exits through the top. This had the advantage of never "flooding" the engine, as any liquid fuel droplets would fall out of the carburetor instead of into the intake manifold; it also lent itself to use of an oil bath air cleaner, where a pool of oil below a mesh element below the carburetor is sucked up into the mesh and the air is drawn through the oil-covered mesh; this was an effective system in a time when paper air filters did not exist. Beginning in the late 1930s, downdraft carburetors were the most popular type for automotive use in the United States. In Europe, the sidedraft carburetors replaced downdraft as free space in the engine bay decreased and the use of the SU-type carburetor (and similar units from other manufacturers) increased. Some small propeller-driven aircraft engines still use the updraft carburetor design. Outboard motor carburetors are typically sidedraft, because they must be stacked one on top of the other in order to feed the cylinders in a vertically oriented cylinder block.

1979 Evinrude Type I marine sidedraft carburetor

The main disadvantage of basing a carburetor's operation on Bernoulli's principle is that, being a fluid dynamic device, the pressure reduction in a venturi tends to be proportional to the square of the intake air speed. The fuel jets are much smaller and limited mainly by viscosity, so that the fuel flow tends to be proportional to the pressure difference. So jets sized for full power tend to starve the engine at lower speed and part throttle. Most commonly this has been corrected by using multiple jets. In SU and other movable jet carburetors, it was corrected by varying the jet size. For cold starting, a different principle was used, in multi-jet carburetors. A flow resisting valve called a choke, similar to the throttle valve, was placed upstream of the main jet to reduce the intake pressure and suck additional fuel out of the jets. [edit]Operation Fixed-venturi, in which the varying air velocity in the venturi alters the fuel flow; this architecture is employed in most carburetors found on cars.

Variable-venturi, in which the fuel jet opening is varied by the slide (which simultaneously alters air flow). In "constant depression" carburetors, this is done by a vacuum operated piston connected to a tapered needle which slides inside the fuel jet. A simpler version exists, most commonly found on small motorcycles and dirt bikes, where the slide and needle is directly controlled by the throttle position. The most common variable venturi (constant depression) type carburetor is the sidedraft SU carburetor and similar models from Hitachi, Zenith-Stromberg and other makers. The UK location of the SU and Zenith-Stromberg companies helped these carburetors rise to a position of domination in the UK car market, though such carburetors were also very widely used on Volvos and other non-UK makes. Other similar designs have been used on some European and a few Japanese automobiles. These carburetors are also referred to as "constant velocity" or "constant vacuum" carburetors. An interesting variation was Ford's VV (Variable

Venturi) carburetor, which was essentially a fixed venturi carburetor with one side of the venturi hinged and movable to give a narrow throat at low rpm and a wider throat at high rpm. This was designed to provide good mixing and airflow over a range of engine speeds, though the VV carburetor proved problematic in service.

A high performance 4-barrel carburetor.

Under all engine operating conditions, the carburetor must:

Measure the airflow of the engine

Deliver the correct amount of fuel to keep the fuel/air mixture in the proper range (adjusting for factors such as temperature)

Mix the two finely and evenly

This job would be simple if air and gasoline (petrol) were ideal fluids; in practice, however, their deviations from ideal behavior due to viscosity, fluid drag, inertia, etc. require a great deal of complexity to compensate for exceptionally high or low engine speeds. A carburetor must provide the proper fuel/air mixture across a wide range of ambient temperatures, atmospheric pressures, engine speeds and loads, and centrifugal forces:

Cold start Hot start Idling or slow-running Acceleration High speed / high power at full throttle Cruising at part throttle (light load)

In addition, modern carburetors are required to do this while maintaining low rates of exhaust emissions. To function correctly under all these conditions, most carburetors contain a complex set of mechanisms to support several different operating modes, called circuits.


Cross-sectional schematic of a downdraft carburetor

A carburetor basically consists of an open pipe through which the air passes into the inlet manifold of the engine. The pipe is in the form of a venturi: it narrows in section and then widens again, causing the airflow to increase in speed in the narrowest part. Below the venturi is a butterfly valve called the throttle valve a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to the airflow, so as to hardly restrict the flow at all, or can be rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. This valve controls the flow of air through the carburetor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver, thereby regulating engine power and speed. The throttle is connected, usually through a cable or a mechanical linkage of rods and joints or rarely by pneumatic link, to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control on other vehicles or equipment. Fuel is introduced into the air stream through small holes at the narrowest part of the venturi and at other places where pressure will be lowered when not running on full throttle. Fuel flow is adjusted by means of precisely calibrated orifices, referred to as jets, in the fuel path. [edit]Off-idle


As the throttle is opened up slightly from the fully closed position, the throttle plate uncovers additional fuel delivery holes behind the throttle plate where there is a low pressure area created by the throttle plate blocking air flow; these allow more fuel to flow as well as compensating for the reduced vacuum that occurs when the throttle is opened, thus smoothing the transition to metering fuel flow through the regular open throttle circuit. [edit]Main

open-throttle circuit

As the throttle is progressively opened, the manifold vacuum is lessened since there is less restriction on the airflow, reducing the flow through the idle and off-idle circuits.

This is where the venturishape of the carburetor throat comes into play, due to Bernoulli's principle (i.e., as the velocity increases, pressure falls). The venturi raises the air velocity, and this high speed and thus low pressure sucks fuel into the airstream through a nozzle or nozzles located in the center of the venturi. Sometimes one or more additional booster venturis are placed coaxially within the primary venturi to increase the effect. As the throttle is closed, the airflow through the venturi drops until the lowered pressure is insufficient to maintain this fuel flow, and the idle circuit takes over again, as described above. Bernoulli's principle, which is a function of the velocity of the fluid, is a dominant effect for large openings and large flow rates, but since fluid flow at small scales and low speeds (low Reynolds number) is dominated by viscosity, Bernoulli's principle is ineffective at idle or slow running and in the very small carburetors of the smallest model engines. Small model engines have flow restrictions ahead of the jets to reduce the pressure enough to suck the fuel into the air flow. Similarly the idle and slow running jets of large carburetors are placed after the throttle valve where the pressure is reduced partly by viscous drag, rather than by Bernoulli's principle. The most common rich mixture device for starting cold engines was the choke, which works on the same principle. [edit]Power


For open throttle operation a richer mixture will produce more power, prevent preignition detonation, and keep the engine cooler. This is usually addressed with a spring-loaded "power valve", which is held shut by engine vacuum. As the throttle opens up, the vacuum decreases and the spring opens the valve to let more fuel into the main circuit. On two-stroke engines, the operation of the power valve is the reverse of normal it is normally "on" and at a set rpm it is turned "off". It is activated at high rpm to extend the engine's rev range, capitalizing on a two-stroke's tendency to rev higher momentarily when the mixture is lean. Alternative to employing a power valve, the carburetor may utilize a metering rod or step-up rod system to enrich the fuel mixture under high-demand conditions. Such systems were originated by Carter Carburetor[citation needed] in the 1950s for the primary two venturis of their four barrel carburetors, and step-up rods were widely used on most 1-, 2-, and 4-barrel Carter carburetors through the end of production in the 1980s. The step-up rods are tapered at the bottom end, which extends into the main metering jets. The tops of the rods are connected to a vacuum piston and/or a mechanical linkage which lifts the rods out of the main jets when the throttle is opened

(mechanical linkage) and/or when manifold vacuum drops (vacuum piston). When the step-up rod is lowered into the main jet, it restricts the fuel flow. When the step-up rod is raised out of the jet, more fuel can flow through it. In this manner, the amount of fuel delivered is tailored to the transient demands of the engine. Some 4-barrel carburetors use metering rods only on the primary two venturis, but some use them on both primary and secondary circuits, as in the Rochester Quadrajet. [edit]Accelerator


Liquid gasoline, being denser than air, is slower than air to react to a force applied to it. When the throttle is rapidly opened, airflow through the carburetor increases immediately, faster than the fuel flow rate can increase. This transient oversupply of air causes a lean mixture, which makes the engine misfire (or "stumble")an effect opposite what was demanded by opening the throttle. This is remedied by the use of a small piston or diaphragm pump which, when actuated by the throttle linkage, forces a small amount of gasoline through a jet into the carburetor throat.[4] This extra shot of fuel counteracts the transient lean condition on throttle tip-in. Most accelerator pumps are adjustable for volume and/or duration by some means. Eventually the seals around the moving parts of the pump wear such that pump output is reduced; this reduction of the accelerator pump shot causes stumbling under acceleration until the seals on the pump are renewed. The accelerator pump is also used to prime the engine with fuel prior to a cold start. Excessive priming, like an improperly adjusted choke, can cause flooding. This is when too much fuel and not enough air are present to support combustion. For this reason, most carburetors are equipped with an unloader mechanism: The accelerator is held at wide open throttle while the engine is cranked, the unloader holds the choke open and admits extra air, and eventually the excess fuel is cleared out and the engine starts. [edit]Choke When the engine is cold, fuel vaporizes less readily and tends to condense on the walls of the intake manifold, starving the cylinders of fuel and making the engine difficult to start; thus, a richer mixture (more fuel to air) is required to start and run the engine until it warms up. A richer mixture is also easier to ignite. To provide the extra fuel, a choke is typically used; this is a device that restricts the flow of air at the entrance to the carburetor, before the venturi. With this restriction in place, extra vacuum is developed in the carburetor barrel, which pulls extra fuel through the main metering system to supplement the fuel being pulled from the idle

and off-idle circuits. This provides the rich mixture required to sustain operation at low engine temperatures. In addition, the choke can be connected to a cam (the fast idle cam) or other such device which prevents the throttle plate from closing fully while the choke is in operation. This causes the engine to idle at a higher speed. Fast idle serves as a way to help the engine warm up quickly, and give a more stable idle while cold by increasing airflow throughout the intake system which helps to better atomize the cold fuel. In many carbureted cars, the choke is controlled by a cable connected to a pull-knob on the dashboard operated by the driver. In some carbureted cars it is automatically controlled by a thermostatemploying a bimetallic spring, which is exposed to engine heat, or to an electric heating element. This heat may be transferred to the choke thermostat via simple convection, via engine coolant, or via air heated by the exhaust. More recent designs use the engine heat only indirectly: A sensor detects engine heat and varies electrical current to a small heating element, which acts upon the bimetallic spring to control its tension, thereby controlling the choke. A choke unloader is a linkage arrangement that forces the choke open against its spring when the vehicle's accelerator is moved to the end of its travel. This provision allows a "flooded" engine to be cleared out so that it will start. Some carburetors do not have a choke but instead use a mixture enrichment circuit, or enrichener. Typically used on small engines, notably motorcycles, enricheners work by opening a secondary fuel circuit below the throttle valves. This circuit works exactly like the idle circuit, and when engaged it simply supplies extra fuel when the throttle is closed. Classic British motorcycles, with side-draft slide throttle carburetors, used another type of "cold start device", called a "tickler". This is simply a spring-loaded rod that, when depressed, manually pushes the float down and allows excess fuel to fill the float bowl and flood the intake tract. If the "tickler" is held down too long it also floods the outside of the carburetor and the crankcase below, and is therefore a fire hazard. [edit]Other


The interactions between each circuit may also be affected by various mechanical or air pressure connections and also by temperature sensitive and electrical components. These are introduced for reasons such as response, fuel efficiency or automobile emissions control. Various air bleeds (often chosen from a precisely calibrated range, similarly to the jets) allow air into various portions of the fuel passages to enhance fuel delivery and vaporization. Extra refinements may be

included in the carburetor/manifold combination, such as some form of heating to aid fuel vaporization such as anearly fuel evaporator. [edit]Fuel [edit]Float


Holley "Visi-Flo" model #1904 carburetors from the 1950s, factory equipped with transparent glass bowls.

To ensure a ready mixture, the carburetor has a "float chamber" (or "bowl") that contains a quantity of fuel at near-atmospheric pressure, ready for use. This reservoir is constantly replenished with fuel supplied by a fuel pump. The correct fuel level in the bowl is maintained by means of a float controlling an inletvalve, in a manner very similar to that employed in a cistern (e.g. a toilet tank). As fuel is used up, the float drops, opening the inlet valve and admitting fuel. As the fuel level rises, the float rises and closes the inlet valve. The level of fuel maintained in the float bowl can usually be adjusted, whether by a setscrew or by something crude such as bending the arm to which the float is connected. This is usually a critical adjustment, and the proper adjustment is indicated by lines inscribed into a window on the float bowl, or a measurement of how far the float hangs below the top of the carburetor when disassembled, or similar. Floats can be made of different materials, such as sheet brass soldered into a hollow shape, or of plastic; hollow floats can spring small leaks and plastic floats can eventually become porous and lose their flotation; in either case the float will fail to float, fuel level will be too high, and the engine will not run unless the float is replaced. The valve itself becomes worn on its sides by its motion in its "seat" and will eventually try to close at an angle, and thus fails to shut off the fuel completely; again, this will cause excessive fuel flow and poor engine operation. Conversely, as the fuel evaporates from the float bowl, it leaves sediment, residue, and varnishes behind, which clog the passages and can interfere with the float operation. This is particularly a problem in automobiles operated for only part of the year and left to stand with full float chambers for months at a time; commercial fuel stabilizer additives are available that reduce this problem. Usually, special vent tubes allow air to escape from the chamber as it fills or enter as it empties, maintaining atmospheric pressure within the float chamber; these usually

extend into the carburetor throat. Placement of these vent tubes can be somewhat critical to prevent fuel from sloshing out of them into the carburetor, and sometimes they are modified with longer tubing. Note that this leaves the fuel at atmospheric pressure, and therefore it cannot travel into a throat which has been pressurized by a supercharger mounted upstream; in such cases, the entire carburetor must be contained in an airtight pressurized box to operate. This is not necessary in installations where the carburetor is mounted upstream of the supercharger, which is for this reason the more frequent system. However, this results in the supercharger being filled with compressed fuel/air mixture, with a strong tendency to explode should the engine backfire; this type of explosion is frequently seen in drag races, which for safety reasons now incorporate pressure releasing blow-off plates on the intake manifold, breakaway bolts holding the supercharger to the manifold, and shrapnelcatching ballistic nylon blankets surrounding the superchargers. If the engine must be operated in any orientation (for example a chain saw), a float chamber cannot work. Instead, a diaphragm chamber is used. A flexible diaphragm forms one side of the fuel chamber and is arranged so that as fuel is drawn out into the engine the diaphragm is forced inward by ambient air pressure. The diaphragm is connected to the needle valve and as it moves inward it opens the needle valve to admit more fuel, thus replenishing the fuel as it is consumed. As fuel is replenished the diaphragm moves out due to fuel pressure and a small spring, closing the needle valve. A balanced state is reached which creates a steady fuel reservoir level, which remains constant in any orientation. [edit]Multiple

carburetor barrels

Holley model #2280 2-barrel carburetor

Colombo Type 125 "Testa Rossa" engine in a 1961 Ferrari 250TR Spider with six Weber two-barrel carburetors inducting air through 12 air horns; one individually adjustable barrel for each cylinder.

While basic carburetors have only one venturi, many carburetors have more than one venturi, or "barrel". Two barrel and four barrel configurations are commonly used to accommodate the higher air flow rate with large engine displacement. Multi-barrel carburetors can have non-identical primary and secondary barrel(s) of different sizes and calibrated to deliver different air/fuel mixtures; they can be actuated by the linkage or by engine vacuum in "progressive" fashion, so that the secondary barrels do not begin to open until the primaries are almost completely open. This is a desirable characteristic which maximizes airflow through the primary barrel(s) at most engine speeds, thereby maximizing the pressure "signal" from the venturis, but reduces the restriction in airflow at high speeds by adding cross-sectional area for greater airflow. These advantages may not be important in high-performance applications where part throttle operation is irrelevant, and the primaries and secondaries may all open at once, for simplicity and reliability; also, V-configuration engines, with two cylinder banks fed by a single carburetor, may be configured with two identical barrels, each supplying one cylinder bank. In the widely seen V8 and 4-barrel carburetor combination, there are often two primary and two secondary barrels. The spread-bore 4-barrel carburetor, first released by Rochester in the 1965 model year as the "Quadrajet"[citation needed] has a much greater spreadbetween the sizes of the primary and secondary throttle bores. The primaries in such a carburetor are quite small relative to conventional 4-barrel practice, while the secondaries are quite large. The small primaries aid low-speed fuel economy and drivability, while the large secondaries permit maximum performance when it is called for. To tailor airflow through the secondary venturis, each of the secondary throats has an air valve at the top. This is configured much like a choke plate, and is lightly spring-loaded into the closed position. The air valve opens progressively in response to engine speed and throttle opening, gradually allowing more air to flow through the secondary side of the carburetor. Typically, the air valve is linked to metering rods which are raised as the air valve opens, thereby adjusting secondary fuel flow.

Multiple carburetors can be mounted on a single engine, often with progressive linkages; two four-barrel carburetors (often referred to as "dual-quads") were frequently seen on high performance American V8s, and multiple two barrel carburetors are often now seen on very high performance engines. Large numbers of small carburetors have also been used (see photo), though this configuration can limit the maximum air flow through the engine due to the lack of a common plenum; with individual intake tracts, not all cylinders are drawing air at once as the engine's crankshaft rotates.[5] [edit]Carburetor


Too much fuel in the fuel-air mixture is referred to as too rich, and not enough fuel is too lean. The mixture is normally adjusted by one or more needle valveson an automotive carburetor, or a pilot-operated lever on piston-engined aircraft (since mixture is air density (altitude) dependent). The (stoichiometric) air togasoline ratio is 14.7:1, meaning that for each weight unit of gasoline, 14.7 units of air will be consumed. Stoichiometric mixture are different for various fuels other than gasoline. Ways to check carburetor mixture adjustment include: measuring the carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and oxygen content of the exhaust using a gas analyzer, or directly viewing the colour of the flame in the combustion chamber through a special glass-bodied spark plug sold under the name "Colortune"; the flame colour of stoichiometric burning is described as a "bunsen blue", turning to yellow if the mixture is rich and whitish-blue if too lean. The mixture can also be judged by removing and scrutinizing the spark plugs. black, dry, sooty plugs indicate a mixture too rich; white to light gray plugs indicate a lean mixture. A proper mixture is indicated by brownish-gray plugs. In the 1980s, many American-market vehicles used special "feedback" carburetors that could change the base mixture in response to signals from an exhaust gas oxygen sensor. These were mainly used because they were less expensive than fuel injection systems; they worked well enough to meet 1980s emissions requirements and were based on existing carburetor designs. Eventually, however, falling hardware prices and tighter emissions standards caused fuel injection to supplant carburetors in new-vehicle production. Where multiple carburetors are used the mechanical linkage of their throttles must be synchronized for smooth engine running.

In this tutorial we will be looking at the Electronic Fuel Injection system, with particular focus upon the sensors and actuators, and their inputs and outputs to and from the vehicle's ECM. The tutorial looks at the multi-point injection system, with single-point being covered in a later tutorial.

Both the multi-point and the single-point systems operate in a very similar fashion, having an electromechanically operated injector or injectors opening for a predetermined length of time called the injector pulse width. The pulse width is determined by the engines Electronic Control Module (ECM and depends on the engine temperature, the engine load and the information from the oxygen (lambda) sensor. The fuel is delivered from the tank through a filter, and a regulator determines its operating pressure. The fuel is delivered to the engine in precise quantities and in most cases is injected into the inlet manifold to await the valves opening, then drawn into the combustion chamber by the incoming air.

The Fuel Tank

This is the obvious place to start in any full system explanation. Unlike the tanks on early carburettor-equipped vehicles, it is a sealed unit that allows the natural gassing of the fuel to aid delivery to the pump by slightly pressurising the system. When the filler cap is removed, pressure is heard to escape because the fuel filler caps are no longer vented.

The Fuel Pump

This type of high-pressure fuel pump (Fig 1.0) is called a roller cell pump, with the fuel entering the pump and being compressed by rotating cells which force it through the pump at a high pressure. The pump can produce a pressure of 8 bar (120 psi) with a delivery rate of approximately 4 to 5 litres per minute. Within the pump is a pressure relief valve that lifts off its seat at 8 bar to arrest the pressure if a blockage in the filter or fuel lines or elsewhere causes it to become obstructed. The other end of the pump (output) is home to a non-return valve which, when the voltage to the pump is removed, closes the return to the tank and maintains pressure within the system. The normal operating pressure within this system is approximately 2 bar (30 psi), at which the current draw on the pump is 3 to 5 amps. Fuel passing across the fuel pump's armature is subjected to sparks and arcing; this sounds quite dangerous, but the absence of oxygen means that there will not be an explosion!

Figure 1.0
The majority of fuel pumps fitted to todays motor vehicles are fitted within the vehicles petrol tank and are referred to as submerged fuel pumps. The pump is invariably be located with the fuel sender unit and both units can sometimes be accessed through an inspection hole either in the boot floor or under the rear seat. Mounted vertically, the pump comprises an inner and outer gear assembly that is called the gerotor. The combined assembly is secured in the tank using screws and sealed with a rubber gasket, or a bayonet-type locking ring. On some models, there are two fuel pumps, the submerged pump acting as a lift pump to the external roller cell pump.

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2
The waveform illustrated in Fig 1.1 shows the current for each sector of the commutator. The majority of fuel pumps have 6 to 8 sectors, and a repetitive point on the waveform can indicate wear and an impending failure. In the illustration waveform it can be seen that there is a lower current draw on one sector and this is repeated when the pump has rotated through 720. This example has 8 sectors per rotation. Fig 1.2 shows typical access to the fuel-submerged pump to measure current draw. The current drawn by the fuel pump depends upon the fuel pressure but should be no more than 8 amps, as found on the Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection which has a system pressure of 75 psi.

Fuel Supply
A conventional flow and return system has a supply of fuel delivered to the fuel rail, and the unwanted fuel is passed through the pressure regulator back to the tank. It is the restriction in the fuel line created by the pressure regulator that provides the system operational pressure.

Returnless Fuel Systems

Have been adopted by several motor manufacturers and differ from the conventional by having a delivery pipe only to the fuel rail with no return flow back to the tank. The returnless systems, both the mechanical and the electronic versions, were necessitated by emissions laws. The absence of heated petrol returning to the fuel tank reduces the amount of evaporative emissions, while the fuel lines are kept short, thus reducing build costs.

Mechanical Returnless Fuel Systems

The returnless system differs from the norm by having the pressure regulator inside the fuel tank. When the fuel pump is activated, fuel flows into the system until the required pressure is obtained; at this point excess fuel is bled past the pressure regulator and back into the tank. The flow and return system has a vacuum supply to the pressure regulator: this enables the fuel pressure to be increased whenever the manifold vacuum drops, providing fuel enrichment under acceleration. The returnless system has no mechanical compensation affecting the fuel pressure, which remains at a higher than usual 44 to 50 psi. By increasing the delivery pressure, the ECM (Electronic Control Module) can alter the injection pulse width to give the precise delivery, regardless of the engine load and without fuel pressure compensation.

Electronic Returnless Fuel Systems

This version has all the required components fitted within the one unit of the submersible fuel pump. It contains a small particle filter (in addition to the strainer), pump, electronic pressure regulator, fuel level sensor and a sound isolation system. The electronic pressure regulator allows the pressure to be increased under acceleration conditions, and the pumps output can be adjusted to suit the engine's fuel demand. This prolongs the pumps life as it is no longer providing a larger than required output delivery. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) supplies the required pressure information, while the fuel pumps output signal is supplied in the form of a digital squarewave. Altering the squarewaves duty cycle affects the pumps delivery output. To compensate for the changing viscosity of the fuel with changing fuel temperature, a fuel rail temperature sensor is installed. A pulsation damper may also be fitted ahead of or inside the fuel rail.

The injector is an electromechanical device, which is fed by a 12 volt supply from either the fuel injection relay or the ECM. The voltage is present only when the engine is cranking or running, because it is controlled by a tachometric relay. The injector is supplied with fuel from a common fuel rail. The injector pulse width depends on the input signals seen by the ECM from its various engine sensors, and varies to compensate for cold engine starting and warm-up periods, the initial wide pulse getting narrower as the engine warms to operating

temperature. The pulse width also expands under acceleration and contracts under light load conditions. The injector has constant voltage supply while the engine is running and the earth path is switched via the ECM. An example of a typical waveform is shown below in Fig 1.3.

Figure 1.3
Multi-point injection may be either sequential or simultaneous. A simultaneous system fires all 4 injectors at the same time with each cylinder receiving 2 injection pulses per cycle (720 crankshaft rotation). A sequential system receives just 1 injection pulse per cycle, timed to coincide with the opening of the inlet valve. As a very rough guide the injector pulse widths for an engine at normal operating temperature at idle speed are around 2.5 ms for simultaneous and 3.5 ms for sequential. An electromechanical injector of course takes a short time to react, as it requires a level of magnetism to build before the pintle is lifted off its seat. This time is called the solenoid reaction time. This delay is important to monitor and can sometimes occupy a third of the total pulse width. A good example of the delay in opening can be seen in the example waveform shown below in Fig 1.4. The waveform is split into two clearly defined areas. The first part of the waveform is responsible for the electromagnetic force lifting the pintle, in this example taking approximately 0.6 ms. At this point the current can be seen to level off before rising again as the pintle is held open. With this level off ind it can be seen that the amount of time that the injector is held open is not necessarily

the same as the time measured. It is not however possible to calculate the time taken for the injectors spring to fully close the injector and cut off the fuel flow. This test is ideal for identifying an injector with an unacceptably slow solenoid reaction time. Such an injector would not deliver the required amount of fuel and the cylinder in question would run lean.

Figure 1.4
Fig 1.5 shows both the injector voltage and current displayed simultaneously.

Figure 1.5

Fuel injection

Fuel rail connected to the injectors that are mounted just above the intake manifold on a four cylinder engine.
Fuel injection is a system for admitting fuel into an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used inautomotive petrol engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s. A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle. Most fuel injection systems are for gasoline ordiesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI's programmablefirmware has permitted common hardware to be used with different fuels. Carburetors were the predominant method used to meter fuel on gasoline engines before the widespread use of fuel injection. A variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine. The primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on suction created by intake air rushing through a venturi to draw the fuel into the airstream.

The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. There are several competing objectives such as:

power output fuel efficiency emissions performance ability to accommodate alternative fuels reliability driveability and smooth operation

initial cost maintenance cost diagnostic capability range of environmental operation Engine tuning

Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting, and it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. In practice, automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. The modern digital electronic fuel injection system is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives consistently than a carburetor. Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better (see Pogue and Allen Caggiano patents).

Engine operation
Operational benefits to the driver of a fuel-injected car include smoother and more dependable engine response during quick throttle transitions, easier and more dependable engine starting, better operation at extremely high or low ambient temperatures, increased maintenance intervals, and increased fuel efficiency. On a more basic level, fuel injection does away with the choke which on carburetorequipped vehicles must be operated when starting the engine from cold and then adjusted as the engine warms up. An engine's air/fuel ratio must be precisely controlled under all operating conditions to achieve the desired engine performance, emissions, driveability, and fuel economy. Modern electronic fuel-injection systems meter fuel very accurately, and use closed loop fuel-injection quantity-control based on a variety of feedback signals from an oxygen sensor, a mass airflow (MAF) or manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor, a throttle position (TPS), and at least one sensor on the crankshaft and/or camshaft(s) to monitor the engine's rotational position. Fuel injection systems can react rapidly to changing inputs such as sudden throttle movements, and control the amount of fuel injected to match the engine's dynamic needs across a wide range of operating conditions such as engine load, ambient air temperature, engine temperature, fuel octane level, and atmospheric pressure. A multipoint fuel injection system generally delivers a more accurate and equal mass of fuel to each cylinder than can a carburetor, thus improving the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution. Exhaustemissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the

engine, and because exhaust cleanup devices such as the catalytic converter can be optimized to operate more efficiently since the exhaust is of consistent and predictable composition. Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency. With the improved cylinderto-cylinder fuel distribution, less fuel is needed for the same power output. When cylinder-to-cylinder distribution is less than ideal, as is always the case to some degree with a carburetor or throttle body fuel injection, some cylinders receive excess fuel as a side effect of ensuring that all cylinders receive sufficientfuel. Power output is asymmetrical with respect to air/fuel ratio; burning extra fuel in the rich cylinders does not reduce power nearly as quickly as burning too little fuel in the lean cylinders. However, rich-running cylinders are undesirable from the standpoint of exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, engine wear, and engine oil contamination. Deviations from perfect air/fuel distribution, however subtle, affect the emissions, by not letting the combustion events be at the chemically ideal (stoichiometric) air/fuel ratio. Grosser distribution problems eventually begin to reduce efficiency, and the grossest distribution issues finally affect power. Increasingly poorer air/fuel distribution affects emissions, efficiency, and power, in that order. By optimizing the homogeneity of cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution, all the cylinders approach their maximum power potential and the engine's overall power output improves. A fuel-injected engine often produces more power than an equivalent carbureted engine. Fuel injection alone does not necessarily increase an engine's maximum potential output. Increased airflow is needed to burn more fuel, which in turn releases more energy and produces more power. The combustion process converts the fuel's chemical energy into heat energy, whether the fuel is supplied by fuel injectors or a carburetor. However, airflow is often improved with fuel injection, the components of which allow more design freedom to improve the air's path into the engine. In contrast, a carburetor's mounting options are limited because it is larger, it must be carefully oriented with respect to gravity, and it must be equidistant from each of the engine's cylinders to the maximum practicable degree. These design constraints generally compromise airflow into the engine. Furthermore, a carburetor relies on a restrictive venturi to create a local air pressure difference, which forces the fuel into the air stream. The flow loss caused by the venturi, however, is small compared to other flow losses in the induction system. In a well-designed carburetor induction system, the venturi is not a significant airflow restriction. Fuel is saved while the car is coasting because the car's movement is helping to keep the engine rotating, so less fuel is used for this purpose. Control units on modern cars

react to this and reduce or stop fuel flow to the engine reducing wear on the brakes[citation needed].

History and development

Herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first system laid out on modern lines (with a highly accurate 'jerk pump' to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector. This system was used on the hot bulb engine and was adapted and improved by Robert Bosch and Clessie Cummins for use on diesel engines Rudolf Diesel's original system employed a cumbersome[citation needed] 'air-blast' system using highly compressed air[clarification needed]. The first use of direct gasoline injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925.[1][2] Hesselman engines use the ultra lean burn principle; fuel is injected toward the end of the compression stroke, then ignited with a spark plug. They are often started on gasoline and then switched to diesel or kerosene.[3] Fuel injection was in widespread commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s. Because of its greater immunity to wildly changing gforces on the engine, the concept was adapted for use in gasoline-powered aircraft during World War II, and direct injection was employed in some notable designs like the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB 601, the BMW 801, the Shvetsov ASh82FN (M-82FN) and later versions of the Wright R-3350used in the B-29 Superfortress. Alfa Romeo tested one of the very first electric injection systems (Caproni-Fuscaldo) in Alfa Romeo 6C2500 with "Ala spessa" body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high pressure circulating fuel pump system.[4]

The term Mechanical when applied to fuel injection is used to indicate that metering functions of the fuel injection (how the correct amount of fuel for any given situation is determined and delivered) is not achieved electronically but rather through mechanical means alone. In the 1940s, hot rodder Stuart Hilborn offered mechanical injection for racers, salt cars, and midgets.[5] One of the first commercial gasoline injection systems was a mechanical system developed by Bosch and introduced in 1952 on the Goliath GP700 and Gutbrod Superior 600. This was basically a high pressure diesel direct-injection pump with an intake throttle valve set up. (Diesels only change amount of fuel injected to vary

output; there is no throttle.) This system used a normal gasoline fuel pump, to provide fuel to a mechanically driven injection pump, which had separate plungers per injector to deliver a very high injection pressure directly into the combustion chamber. Another mechanical system, also by Bosch, but injecting the fuel into the port above the intake valve was later used by Porsche from 1969 until 1973 for the 911 production range and until 1975 on the Carrera 3.0 in Europe. Porsche continued using it on its racing cars into the late seventies and early eighties. Porsche racing variants such as the 911 RSR 2.7 & 3.0, 904/6, 906, 907, 908, 910, 917 (in its regular normally aspirated or 5.5 Liter/1500 HP Turbocharged form), and 935 all used Bosch or Kugelfischer built variants of injection. The Kugelfischer system was also used by the BMW 2000/2002 Tii and some versions of the Peugeot 404/504 and Lancia Flavia. Lucas also offered a mechanical system which was used by some Maserati, Aston Martin and Triumph models between ca. 1963 and 1973. A system similar to the Bosch inline mechanical pump was built by SPICA for Alfa Romeo, used on the Alfa Romeo Montreal and on US market 1750 and 2000 models from 1969 to 1981. This was specifically designed to meet the US emission requirements, and allowed Alfa to meet these requirements with no loss in performance and a reduction in fuel consumption. Chevrolet introduced a mechanical fuel injection option, made by General Motors' Rochester Products division, for its 283 V8 engine in 1956 (1957 US model year). This system directed the inducted engine air across a "spoon shaped" plunger that moved in proportion to the air volume. The plunger connected to the fuel metering system which mechanically dispensed fuel to the cylinders via distribution tubes. This system was not a "pulse" or intermittent injection, but rather a constant flow system, metering fuel to all cylinders simultaneously from a central "spider" of injection lines. The fuel meter adjusted the amount of flow according to engine speed and load, and included a fuel reservoir, which was similar to a carburetor's float chamber. With its own high-pressure fuel pump driven by a cable from the distributor to the fuel meter, the system supplied the necessary pressure for injection. This was "port" injection, however, in which the injectors are located in the intake manifold, very near the intake valve. (Direct fuel injection is a fairly recent innovation for automobile engines. As recent as 1954 in the aforementioned Mercedes-Benz 300SL or the Gutbrod in 1953.) The highest performance version of the fuel injected engine was rated at 283 bhp (211.0 kW) from 283 cubic inches (4.6 L). This made it among the early production engines in history to exceed 1 hp/in (45.5 kW/L), after Chrysler's Hemi engine and a number of others. General Motors' fuel injected engine usually referred to as the "fuelie" was optional on the Corvette for the 1957 model year.

During the 1960s, other mechanical injection systems such as Hilborn were occasionally used on modified American V8 engines in various racing applications such as drag racing, oval racing, and road racing.[6] These racing-derived systems were not suitable for everyday street use, having no provisions for low speed metering or often none even for starting (fuel had to be squirted into the injector tubes while cranking the engine in order to start it). However they were a favorite in the aforementioned competition trials in which essentially wide-open throttle operation was prevalent. Constant-flow injection systems continue to be used at the highest levels of drag racing, where full-throttle, high-RPM performance is key.[7]

The first commercial electronic fuel injection (EFI) system was Electrojector, developed by the Bendix Corporation and was to be offered by American Motors (AMC) in 1957.[8][9] A special muscle carmodel, the Rambler Rebel, showcased AMC's new 327 cu in (5.4 L) engine. The Electrojector was an option and rated at 288 bhp (214.8 kW).[10] With no Venturi effect or heated carburetor (to help vaporize the gasoline) AMC's EFI equipped engine breathed easier with denser cold air to pack more power sooner, reaching peak torque at 500 rpm lower than the equivalent nofuel injection engine.[6]The Rebel Owners Manual described the design and operation of the new system.[11] Initial press information about the Bendix system in December 1956 was followed in March 1957 by a price bulletin that pegged the option at US$395, but due to supplier difficulties, fuel-injected Rebels would only be available after June 15.[12] This was to have been the first production EFI engine, but Electrojector's teething problems meant only pre-production cars were so equipped: thus, very few cars so equipped were ever sold[13] and none were made available to the public.[14] The EFI system in the Rambler was a far more-advanced setup than the mechanical types then appearing on the market and the engines ran fine in warm weather, but suffered hard starting in cooler temperatures.[12] Chrysler offered Electrojector on the 1958 Chrysler 300D, Dodge D500, Plymouth Fury, and DeSoto Adventurer, arguably the first series-production cars equipped with an EFI system. It was jointly engineered by Chrysler and Bendix. The early electronic components were not equal to the rigors of underhood service, however, and were too slow to keep up with the demands of "on the fly" engine control. Most of the 35 vehicles originally so equipped were field-retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors. The Electrojector patents were subsequently sold to Bosch. Bosch developed an electronic fuel injection system, called D-Jetronic (D for Druck, German for "pressure"), which was first used on the VW 1600TL/E in 1967. This was a speed/density system, using engine speed and intake manifold air density to

calculate "air mass" flow rate and thus fuel requirements. This system was adopted by VW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Citron, Saab, and Volvo. Lucas licensed the system for production with Jaguar. Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic system with the K-Jetronic and L-Jetronic systems for 1974, though some cars (such as the Volvo 164) continued using D-Jetronic for the following several years.

Chevrolet Cosworth Vega engine showing Bendix electronic fuel injection

The Cadillac Seville was introduced in 1975 with an EFI system made by Bendix and modelled very closely on Bosch's D-Jetronic. L-Jetronic first appeared on the 1974 Porsche 914, and uses a mechanical airflow meter (L for Luft, German for "air") that produces a signal that is proportional to "air volume". This approach required additional sensors to measure the atmospheric pressure and temperature, to ultimately calculate "air mass". L-Jetronic was widely adopted on European cars of that period, and a few Japanese models a short time later. The limited production Chevrolet Cosworth Vega was introduced in March 1975 using a Bendix EFI system with pulse-time manifold injection, four injector valves, an electronic control unit (ECU), five independent sensors and two fuel pumps. The EFI system was developed to satisfy stringent emission control requirements and market demands for a technologically advanced responsive vehicle. 5000 hand-built Cosworth Vega engines were produced but only 3508 cars were sold through 1976.[15] A major milestone was reached in 1980 when Motorola Corporation introduced the first engine computer with microprocessor (digital) control, the EEC III module, which is now the standard approach. The advent of the digital microprocessor permitted the integration of all powertrain sub-systems into a single control module. [16] In 1981 Chrysler Corporation introduced an EFI system featuring a sensor that directly measures the air mass flow into the engine, on the Imperial automobile (5.2L V8) as standard equipment. The mass air sensor utilizes a heated platinum wire placed in the incoming air flow. The rate of the wire's cooling is proportional to the air mass flowing across the wire. Since the hot wire sensor directly measures air mass, the need for additional temperature and pressure sensors was eliminated. This system was

independently developed and engineered in Highland Park, Michigan and manufactured at Chrysler's Electronics division in Huntsville, Alabama, USA.[17][18]

Supersession of carburetors
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (May 2010) When efficient combustion takes place in an internal combustion engine, the proper number of fuel molecules and oxygen molecules are sent to the engine's combustion chamber(s), where fuel combustion (i.e., fuel oxidation) takes place. When efficient combustion takes place, neither extra fuel or extra oxygen molecules remain: each fuel molecule is matched with the appropriate number of oxygen molecules. This balanced condition is called stoichiometry. In the 1970s and 1980s in the US, the federal government imposed increasingly strict exhaust emission regulations. During that time period, the vast majority of gasoline-fueled automobile and light truck engines did not use fuel injection. To comply with the new regulations, automobile manufacturers often made extensive and complex modifications to the engine carburetor(s). While a simple carburetor system has certain advantages compared to the fuel injection systems that were available during the 1970s and 1980s (including lower manufacturing cost), the more complex carburetor systems installed on many engines beginning in the early 1970s did not usually have these advantages. So in order to more easily comply with government emissions control regulations, automobile manufacturers, beginning in the late 1970s, furnished more of their gasoline-fueled engines with fuel injection systems, and fewer with complex carburetor systems. There are three primary types of toxic emissions from an internal combustion engine: Carbon Monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). CO and HC result from incomplete combustion of fuel due to insufficient oxygen in the combustion chamber. NOx, in contrast, results from excessive oxygen in the combustion chamber. The opposite causes of these pollutants makes it difficult to control all three simultaneously. Once the permissible emission levels dropped below a certain point, catalytic treatment of these three main pollutants became necessary. This required a particularly large increase in fuel metering accuracy and precision, for simultaneous catalysis of all three pollutants requires that the fuel/air mixture be held within a very narrow range of stoichiometry. The open loop fuel injection systems had already improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution and engine operation over a wide temperature range, but did not offer

sufficient fuel/air mixture control to enable effective exhaust catalysis. Closed loop fuel injection systems improved the air/fuel mixture control with an exhaust gas oxygen sensor. The O2 sensor is mounted in the exhaust system upstream of the catalytic converter, and enables the engine management computer to determine and adjust the air/fuel ratio precisely and quickly. Fuel injection was phased in through the latter '70s and '80s at an accelerating rate, with the US, French and German markets leading and the UK and Commonwealth markets lagging somewhat, and since the early 1990s, almost all gasoline passenger cars sold in first world markets like the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and Australia have come equipped with electronic fuel injection (EFI). Many motorcycles still utilize carbureted engines, though all current high-performance designs have switched to EFI. Fuel injection systems have evolved significantly since the mid-1980s. Current systems provide an accurate, reliable and cost-effective method of metering fuel and providing maximum engine efficiency with clean exhaust emissions, which is why EFI systems have replaced carburetors in the marketplace. EFI is becoming more reliable and less expensive through widespread usage. At the same time, carburetors are becoming less available, and more expensive. Even marine applications are adopting EFI as reliability improves. Virtually all internal combustion engines, including motorcycles, off-road vehicles, and outdoor power equipment, may eventually use some form of fuel injection. The carburetor remains in use in developing countries where vehicle emissions are unregulated and diagnostic and repair infrastructure is sparse. Fuel injection is gradually replacing carburetors in these nations too as they adopt emission regulations conceptually similar to those in force in Europe, Japan, Australia and North America. NASCAR will legalize and adopt fuel injectors to take the place of carburetors starting at the 2012 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season.[19][20][21]

Basic function
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (May 2010) The process of determining the necessary amount of fuel, and its delivery into the engine, are known as fuel metering. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to meter fuel (non electronic, or mechanical fuel injection). Modern systems

are nearly all electronic, and use an electronic solenoid (the injector) to inject the fuel. An electronic engine control unit calculates the mass of fuel to inject. Modern fuel injection schemes follow much the same setup. There is a mass airflow sensor or manifold absolute pressure sensor at the intake, typically mounted either in the air tube feeding from the air filter box to the throttle body, or mounted directly to the throttle body itself. The mass airflow sensor does exactly what its name implies; it senses the mass of the air that flows past it, giving the computer an accurate idea of how much air is entering the engine. The next component in line is the Throttle Body. The throttle body has a throttle position sensor mounted onto it, typically on the butterfly valve of the throttle body. The throttle position sensor (TPS) reports to the computer the position of the throttle butterfly valve, which the ECM uses to calculate the load upon the engine. The fuel system consists of a fuel pump (typically mounted in-tank), a fuel pressure regulator, fuel lines (composed of either high strength plastic, metal, or reinforced rubber), a fuel rail that the injectors connect to, and the fuel injector(s). There is a coolant temperature sensor that reports the engine temperature to the ECM, which the engine uses to calculate the proper fuel ratio required. In sequential fuel injection systems there is a camshaft position sensor, which the ECM uses to determine which fuel injector to fire. The last component is the oxygen sensor. After the vehicle has warmed up, it uses the signal from the oxygen sensor to perform fine tuning of the fuel trim. The fuel injector acts as the fuel-dispensing nozzle. It injects liquid fuel directly into the engine's air stream. In almost all cases this requires an external pump. The pump and injector are only two of several components in a complete fuel injection system. In contrast to an EFI system, a carburetor directs the induction air through a venturi, which generates a minute difference in air pressure. The minute air pressure differences both emulsify (premix fuel with air) the fuel, and then acts as the force to push the mixture from the carburetor nozzle into the induction air stream. As more air enters the engine, a greater pressure difference is generated, and more fuel is metered into the engine. A carburetor is a self-contained fuel metering system, and is cost competitive when compared to a complete EFI system. An EFI system requires several peripheral components in addition to the injector(s), in order to duplicate all the functions of a carburetor. A point worth noting during times of fuel metering repair is that early EFI systems are prone to diagnostic ambiguity. A single carburetor replacement can accomplish what might require numerous repair attempts to identify which one of the several EFI system components is malfunctioning. Newer EFI systems since the advent of OBD II diagnostic systems, can be very easy to diagnose due to the increased ability to monitor the realtime data

streams from the individual sensors. This gives the diagnosing technician realtime feedback as to the cause of the drivability concern, and can dramatically shorten the number of diagnostic steps required to ascertain the cause of failure, something which isn't as simple to do with a carburetor. On the other hand, EFI systems require little regular maintenance; a carburetor typically requires seasonal and/or altitude adjustments.

Detailed function
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (May 2010) Note: These examples specifically apply to a modern EFI gasoline engine. Parallels to fuels other than gasoline can be made, but only conceptually.

Typical EFI components

Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector.

Injectors Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Regulator

ECM - Engine Control Module; includes a digital computer and circuitry to communicate with sensors and control outputs.

Wiring Harness Various Sensors (Some of the sensors required are listed here.)

Crank/Cam Position: Hall effect sensor Airflow: MAF sensor, sometimes this is inferred with a MAP sensor Exhaust Gas Oxygen: Oxygen sensor, EGO sensor, UEGO sensor

Functional description
Central to an EFI system is a computer called the Engine Control Unit (ECU), which monitors engine operating parameters via varioussensors. The ECU interprets these parameters in order to calculate the appropriate amount of fuel to be injected, among other tasks, and controls engine operation by manipulating fuel and/or air flow as well as other variables. The optimum amount of injected fuel depends on conditions such as engine and ambient temperatures, engine speed and workload, and exhaust gas composition. The electronic fuel injector is normally closed, and opens to inject pressurized fuel as long as electricity is applied to the injector's solenoid coil. The duration of this operation, called the pulse width, is proportional to the amount of fuel desired. The electric pulse may be applied in closely controlled sequence with the valve events on each individual cylinder (in a sequential fuel injection system), or in groups of less than the total number of injectors (in a batch fire system). Since the nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts, and since the nature of the 4-stroke engine has discrete induction (air-intake) events, the ECU calculates fuel in discrete amounts. In a sequential system, the injected fuel mass is tailored for each individual induction event. Every induction event, of every cylinder, of the entire engine, is a separate fuel mass calculation, and each injector receives a unique pulse width based on that cylinder's fuel requirements. It is necessary to know the mass of air the engine "breathes" during each induction event. This is proportional to the intake manifold's air pressure/temperature, which is proportional to throttle position. The amount of air inducted in each intake event is known as "air-charge", and this can be determined using several methods. (See MAF sensor, and MAP sensor.) The three elemental ingredients for combustion are fuel, air and ignition. However, complete combustion can only occur if the air and fuel is present in the exact stoichiometric ratio, which allows all the carbon and hydrogen from the fuel to combine with all the oxygen in the air, with no undesirable polluting leftovers. Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust, and the ECU uses this information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time. To achieve stoichiometry, the air mass flow into the engine is measured and multiplied by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio 14.64:1 (by weight) for gasoline. The required fuel mass that must be injected into the engine is then translated to the required pulse width for the fuel injector. The stoichiometric ratio changes as a

function of the fuel; diesel, gasoline, ethanol, methanol, propane, methane (natural gas), or hydrogen. Deviations from stoichiometry are required during non-standard operating conditions such as heavy load, or cold operation, in which case, the mixture ratio can range from 10:1 to 18:1 (for gasoline). In early fuel injection systems this was accomplished with a thermotime switch. Pulse width is inversely related to pressure difference across the injector inlet and outlet. For example, if the fuel line pressure increases (injector inlet), or the manifold pressure decreases (injector outlet), a smaller pulse width will admit the same fuel. Fuel injectors are available in various sizes and spray characteristics as well. Compensation for these and many other factors are programmed into the ECU's software.

Various injection schemes

This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (May 2010)

Single-point injection
Single-point injection, called Throttle-body injection (TBI) by General Motors and Central Fuel Injection (CFI) by Ford, was introduced in the 1940s in large aircraft engines (then called thepressure carburetor) and in the 1980s in the automotive world. The SPI system injects fuel at the throttle body (the same location where a carburetor introduced fuel). The induction mixture passes through the intake runners like a carburetor system, and is thus labelled a "wet manifold system". Fuel pressure is usually specified to be in the area of 10-15 psi. The justification for singlepoint injection was low cost. Many of the carburetor's supporting components could be reused such as the air cleaner, intake manifold, and fuel line routing. This postponed the redesign and tooling costs of these components. Most of these components were later redesigned for the next phase of fuel injection's evolution, which is individual port injection, commonly known as MPFI or "multi-point fuel injection". TBI was used extensively on American-made passenger cars and light trucks in the 1980-1995 timeframe and some transition-engined European cars throughout the early and mid1990s. Mazda called their system EGI, and even introduced an electronically controlled version called the EGI-S.

Continuous injection
In a continuous injection system, fuel flows at all times from the fuel injectors, but at a variable flow rate. This is in contrast to most fuel injection systems, which provide fuel during short pulses of varying duration, with a constant rate of flow during each pulse. Continuous injection systems can be multi-point or single-point, but not direct. The most common automotive continuous injection system is Bosch's K-Jetronic (K for kontinuierlich, German for "continuous" a.k.a. CIS Continuous Injection System), introduced in 1974. Gasoline is pumped from the fuel tank to a large control valve called a fuel distributor, which separates the single fuel supply pipe from the tank into smaller pipes, one for each injector. The fuel distributor is mounted atop a control vane through which all intake air must pass, and the system works by varying fuel volume supplied to the injectors based on the angle of the air vane, which in turn is determined by the volume flowrate of air past the vane, and by the control pressure. The control pressure is regulated with a mechanical device called the control pressure regulator (CPR) or the warm-up regulator (WUR). Depending on the model, the CPR may be used to compensate for altitude, full load, and/or a cold engine. On cars equipped with an oxygen sensor, the fuel mixture is adjusted by a device called the frequency valve. The injectors are simple spring-loaded check valves with nozzles; once fuel system pressure becomes high enough to overcome the counterspring, the injectors begin spraying. K-Jetronic was used for many years between 1974 and the mid 1990s by BMW, Lamborghini, Ferrari, MercedesBenz, Volkswagen, Ford, Porsche, Audi, Saab, DeLorean, andVolvo. There was also a variant of the system called KE-Jetronic with electronic instead of mechanical control of the control pressure. Some Toyotas and other Japanese cars from the 1970s to the early 1990s used an application of Bosch's multipoint L-Jetronic system manufactured under license by DENSO. Chrysler used a similar continuous fuel injection system on the 1981-1983 Imperial. In piston aircraft engines, continuous-flow fuel injection is the most common type. In contrast to automotive fuel injection systems, aircraft continuous flow fuel injection is all mechanical, requiring no electricity to operate. Two common types exist: the Bendix RSA system, and the TCM system. The Bendix system is a direct descendant of the pressure carburetor. However, instead of having a discharge valve in the barrel, it uses a flow divider mounted on top of the engine, which controls the discharge rate and evenly distributes the fuel to stainless steel injection lines which go to the intake ports of each cylinder. The TCM system is even more simple. It has no venturi, no pressure chambers, no diaphragms, and no discharge valve. The control unit is fed by a constant-pressure fuel pump. The control unit simply uses a butterfly valve for the

air which is linked by a mechanical linkage to a rotary valve for the fuel. Inside the control unit is another restriction which is used to control the fuel mixture. The pressure drop across the restrictions in the control unit controls the amount of fuel flowing, so that fuel flow is directly proportional to the pressure at the flow divider. In fact, most aircraft using the TCM fuel injection system feature a fuel flow gauge which is actually a pressure gauge that has been calibrated in gallons per hour or pounds per hour of fuel.

Central port injection (CPI)

General Motors implemented a system called "central port injection" (CPI) or "central port fuel injection" (CPFI). It uses tubes with poppet valves from a central injector to spray fuel at each intake port rather than the central throttle-body[citation needed]. Pressure specifications typically mirror that of a TBI system. The two variants were CPFI from 1992 to 1995, and CSFI from 1996 and on[citation needed]. CPFI is a batch-fire system, in which fuel is injected to all ports simultaneously. The 1996 and later CSFI system sprays fuel sequentially.[22]

Multi-point fuel injection

Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake ports just upstream of each cylinder's intake valve, rather than at a central point within an intake manifold. MPFI (or just MPI) systems can besequential, in which injection is timed to coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke; batched, in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups, without precise synchronization to any particular cylinder's intake stroke; or simultaneous, in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders. The intake is only slightly wet, and typical fuel pressure runs between 40-60 psi. Many modern EFI systems utilize sequential MPFI; however, in newer gasoline engines, direct injection systems are beginning to replace sequential ones.

Direct injection
Direct fuel injection costs more than indirect injection systems: the injectors are exposed to more heat and pressure, so more costly materials and higher-precision electronic management systems are required. However, the entire intake is dry, making this a very clean system. In a common rail system, the fuel from the fuel tank is supplied to the common header (called the accumulator). This fuel is then sent through tubing to the injectors which inject it into the combustion chamber. The header has a high pressure relief valve to maintain the pressure in the header and

return the excess fuel to the fuel tank. The fuel is sprayed with the help of a nozzle which is opened and closed with a needle valve, operated with a solenoid. When the solenoid is not activated, the spring forces the needle valve into the nozzle passage and prevents the injection of fuel into the cylinder. The solenoid lifts the needle valve from the valve seat, and fuel under pressure is sent in the engine cylinder. Thirdgeneration common rail diesels use piezoelectric injectors for increased precision, with fuel pressures up to 1,800 bar/26,000 psi. Gasoline engines incorporate gasoline direct injection engine technology.

Diesel engines
Diesel engines must use fuel injection, and it must be timed (unlike on petrol engines). Throughout the early history of diesels, they were always fed by a mechanical pump with a small separate cylinder for each cylinder, feeding separate fuel lines and individual injectors. Most such pumps were in-line, though some were rotary. Earlier systems, relying on crude injectors, often injected into a sub-chamber shaped to swirl the compressed air and improve combustion; this was known as indirect injection. However, it was less thermally efficient than the now universal direct injection in which initiation of combustion takes place in a depression (often toroidal) in the crown of the piston.

Petrol/gasoline engines
Main article: gasoline direct injection Modern petrol engines (gasoline engines) also utilise direct injection, which is referred to as gasoline direct injection. This is the next step in evolution from multi-point fuel injection, and offers another magnitude of emission control by eliminating the "wet" portion of the induction system along the inlet tract. By virtue of better dispersion and homogeneity of the directly injected fuel, the cylinder and piston are cooled, thereby permitting higher compression ratios and more aggressive ignition timing, with resultant enhanced power output. More precise management of the fuel injection event also enables better control of emissions. Finally, the homogeneity of the fuel mixture allows for leaner air/fuel ratios, which together with more precise ignition timing can improve fuel efficiency. Along with this, the engine can operate with stratified (lean burn) mixtures, and hence avoid throttling losses at low and part engine load. Some direct-injection systems incorporate piezoelectronic fuel injectors. With their extremely fast response time, multiple injection events can occur during each cycle of each cylinder of the engine.

The first use of direct petrol injection was on the Hesselman engine, invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925.[23][24]

Maintenance hazards
Fuel injection introduces potential hazards in engine maintenance due to the high fuel pressures used. Residual pressure can remain in the fuel lines long after an injectionequipped engine has been shut down. This residual pressure must be relieved, and if it is done so by external bleed-off, the fuel must be safely contained. If a highpressure diesel fuel injector is removed from its seat and operated in open air, there is a risk to the operator of injury by hypodermic jet-injection, even with only 100 psi (6.9 bar) pressure.[25] The first known such injury occurred in 1937 during a diesel engine maintenance operation.[26]

Diesel Fuel Injection System

The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (compression ignition rather than spark ignition). In the true diesel engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 resulting in 40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.4 MPa) (about 200 psi) in the petrol engine. This high compression heats the air to 550 C (1,022 F). At about the top of the compression stroke, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a pre-chamber depending upon the design of the engine. The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel from the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay period during ignition and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft.[23] Engines for scale-model aeroplanes use a variant of the Diesel principle but premix fuel and air via a carburation system external to the combustion chambers.

As well as the high level of compression allowing combustion to take place without a separate ignition system, a high compression ratio greatly increases the engine's efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio in a spark-ignition engine where fuel and air are mixed before entry to the cylinder is limited by the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not introduced into the cylinder until shortly before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not an issue and compression ratios are much higher. [edit]Early

fuel injection systems

Diesel's original engine injected fuel with the assistance of compressed air, which atomized the fuel and forced it into the engine through a nozzle (a similar principle to an aerosol spray). The nozzle opening was closed by a pin valve lifted by the camshaft to initiate the fuel injection before top dead centre (TDC). This is called an air-blast injection. Driving the three stage compressor used some power but the efficiency and net power output was more than any other combustion engine at that time. Diesel engines in service today raise the fuel to extreme pressures by mechanical pumps and deliver it to the combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors without compressed air. With direct injected diesels, injectors spray fuel through 4 to 12 small orifices in its nozzle. The early air injection diesels always had a superior combustion without the sharp increase in pressure during combustion. Research is now being performed and patents are being taken out to again use some form of air injection to reduce the nitrogen oxides and pollution, reverting to Diesel's original implementation with its superior combustion and possibly quieter operation. In all major aspects, the modern diesel engine holds true to Rudolf Diesel's original design, that of igniting fuel by compression at an extremely high pressure within the cylinder. With much higher pressures and high technology injectors, present-day diesel engines use the so-called solid injection system applied by Herbert Akroyd Stuart for his hot bulb engine. The indirect injection engine could be considered the latest development of these low speed hot bulb ignition engines.. [edit]Fuel


A vital component of all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor which regulates the idling speed and maximum speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery. Unlike Otto-cycle engines, incoming air is not throttled and a diesel engine without a governor cannot have a stable idling speed and can easily overspeed, resulting in its destruction. Mechanically governed fuel injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train.[24] These systems use a combination of springs

and weights to control fuel delivery relative to both load and speed.[24] Modern electronically controlled diesel engines control fuel delivery by use of an electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU). The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal, as well as other operating parameters such as intake manifold pressure and fuel temperature, from a sensor and controls the amount of fuel and start of injection timing through actuators to maximise power and efficiency and minimise emissions. Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is a key to minimizing emissions, and maximizing fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine. The timing is measured in degrees of crank angle of the piston before top dead centre. For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection, or timing, is said to be 10 BTDC. Optimal timing will depend on the engine design as well as its speed and load. Advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches to its SOI-TDC) results in higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and higher efficiency, but also results in elevated engine noise and increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions due to higher combustion temperatures. Delaying start of injection causes incomplete combustion, reduced fuel efficiency and an increase in exhaust smoke, containing a considerable amount of particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. [edit]Major


Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines: They burn less fuel than a petrol engine performing the same work, due to the engine's higher temperature of combustion and greater expansion ratio.[1] Gasoline engines are typically 30 percent efficient while diesel engines can convert over 45 percent of the fuel energy into mechanical energy[25] (see Carnot cycle for further explanation).

They have no high voltage electrical ignition system, resulting in high reliability and easy adaptation to damp environments. The absence of coils, spark plug wires, etc., also eliminates a source of radio frequency emissions which can interfere with navigation and communication equipment, which is especially important in marine and aircraft applications.

The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as long as that of a petrol engine[26] due to the increased strength of parts used. Diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than petrol as well.

Bus powered by biodiesel

Diesel fuel is distilled directly from petroleum. Distillation yields some gasoline, but the yield would be inadequate without catalytic reforming, which is a more costly process.

Diesel fuel is considered safer than petrol in many applications. Although diesel fuel will burn in open air using a wick, it will not explode and does not release a large amount of flammable vapor. The low vapor pressure of diesel is especially advantageous in marine applications, where the accumulation of explosive fuel-air mixtures is a particular hazard. For the same reason, diesel engines are immune to vapor lock.

For any given partial load the fuel efficiency (mass burned per energy produced) of a diesel engine remains nearly constant, as opposed to petrol and turbine engines which use proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs.[27][28]


They generate less waste heat in cooling and exhaust.[1]

Diesel engines can accept super- or turbo-charging pressure without any natural limit, constrained only by the strength of engine components. This is unlike petrol engines, which inevitably suffer detonation at higher pressure. The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal, therefore diesel engines are used in underground mines.[31]

Biodiesel is an easily synthesized, non-petroleum-based fuel (through transesterification) which can run directly in many diesel engines, while gasoline engines either need adaptation to runsynthetic fuels or else use them as an additive to gasoline (e.g., ethanol added to gasohol).


and electronic injection

Many configurations of fuel injection have been used over the past century (1901 2000). Most present day (2008) diesel engines make use of a camshaft, rotating at half crankshaft speed, lifted mechanical single plunger high-pressure fuel pump driven by

the engine crankshaft. For each engine cylinder, the corresponding plunger in the fuel pump measures out the correct amount of fuel and determines the timing of each injection. These engines use injectors that are very precise spring-loaded valves that open and close at a specific fuel pressure. Separate high-pressure fuel lines connect the fuel pump with each cylinder. Fuel volume for each single combustion is controlled by a slanted groove in the plunger which rotates only a few degrees releasing the pressure and is controlled by a mechanical governor, consisting of weights rotating at engine speed constrained by springs and a lever. The injectors are held open by the fuel pressure. On high-speed engines the plunger pumps are together in one unit. [32] The length of fuel lines from the pump to each injector is normally the same for each cylinder in order to obtain the same pressure delay. A cheaper configuration on high-speed engines with fewer than six cylinders is to use an axial-piston distributor pump, consisting of one rotating pump plunger delivering fuel to a valve and line for each cylinder (functionally analogous to points and distributor cap on an Otto engine).[24] Many modern systems have a single fuel pump which supplies fuel constantly at high pressure with a common rail (single fuel line common) to each injector. Each injector has a solenoid operated by an electronic control unit, resulting in more accurate control of injector opening times that depend on other control conditions, such as engine speed and loading, and providing better engine performance and fuel economy. This design is also mechanically simpler than the combined pump and valve design, making it generally more reliable, and less loud, than its mechanical counterpart.[citation needed] This system does have have the drawback of requiring a reliable electrical system for operation. Both mechanical and electronic injection systems can be used in either direct or indirect injection configurations. Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently. When this occurs, massive amounts of soot are ejected from the air intake. This was often a consequence of push starting a vehicle using the wrong gear. Large ship diesels are capable of running either direction. [edit]Indirect


Main article: Indirect injection An indirect injection diesel engine delivers fuel into a chamber off the combustion chamber, called a pre-chamber or ante-chamber, where combustion begins and then spreads into the main combustion chamber, assisted by turbulence created in the chamber. This system allows for a smoother, quieter running engine, and because

combustion is assisted by turbulence, injector pressures can be lower, about 100 bar (10 MPa; 1,500 psi), using a single orifice tapered jet injector. Mechanical injection systems allowed high-speed running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speeds of around 4,000 rpm). The pre-chamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the engine's cooling system, and restricting the combustion burn, which reduced the efficiency by 510 percent.[33] Indirect injection engines were used in smallcapacity, high-speed diesel engines in automotive, marine and construction uses from the 1950s, until direct injection technology advanced in the 1980s[citation needed]. Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is easier to produce smooth, quietrunning vehicles with a simple mechanical system. In road-going vehicles most prefer the greater efficiency and better controlled emission levels of direct injection. Indirect injection diesels can still be found in the many ATV diesel applications. [edit]Direct


Direct injection diesel engines have injectors mounted at the top of the combustion chamber. The injectors are activated using one of two methods - hydraulic pressure from the fuel pump, or an electonic signal from an engine controller. Hydraulic pressure activated injectors can produce harsh engine noise. Fuel consumption was about 15 to 20 percent lower than indirect injection diesels. The extra noise was generally not a problem for industrial uses of the engine. But for automotive usage, buyers had to decide whether or not the increased fuel efficiency would compensate for the extra noise. Electronic control of the fuel injection transformed the direct injection engine. This was pioneered by Fiat in 1986 (Croma). The injection pressure remained around 300 bar (30 MPa; 4,400 psi), but the injection timing fuel quantity, EGR, and turbo boost are all electronically controlled. This gives more precise control of these parameters, resulting in lowered emissions and quieter, smoother running engines.[citation needed] [edit]Unit

direct injection

Main article: Unit Injector Unit direct injection also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine. In this system the injector and the pump are combined into one unit positioned over each cylinder controlled by the camshaft. Each cylinder has its own unit eliminating the high-pressure fuel lines, achieving a more consistent injection. This type of injection system, also developed by Bosch, is used by Volkswagen AG in cars (where it is called a Pumpe-Dse-Systemliterally pump-nozzle system) and by Mercedes Benz ("PLD") and most major diesel engine manufacturers in large commercial engines (CAT, Cummins,Detroit Diesel, Volvo). With recent advancements, the pump pressure

has been raised to 2,400 bar (240 MPa; 35,000 psi),[34] allowing injection parameters similar to common rail systems.[35] [edit]Common

rail direct injection

Main article: Common rail In common rail systems, the separate pulsing high-pressure fuel line to each cylinder's injector is also eliminated. Instead, a high-pressure pump pressurizes fuel at up to 2,500 bar (250 MPa; 36,000 psi),[36] in a "common rail". The common rail is a tube that supplies each computer-controlled injector containing a precision-machined nozzle and a plunger driven by a solenoid or piezoelectricactuator. [edit]Cold


[edit]Starting In cold weather, high speed diesel engines can be difficult to start because the mass of the cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, preventing ignition due to the higher surface-to-volume ratio. Pre-chambered engines make use of small electric heaters inside the pre-chambers called glowplugs, while the directinjected engines have these glowplugs in the combustion chamber. These engines also generally have a higher compression ratio of 19:1 to 21:1. Low-speed and compressed-air-started larger and intermediate-speed diesels do not have glowplugs and compression ratios are around 16:1.[citation needed] Some engines (e.g., some Cummins models) use resistive grid heaters in the intake manifold to warm the inlet air until the engine reaches operating temperature. Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) connected to the utility grid are often used when an engine is turned off for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear. Block heaters are also used for emergency power standby Diesel-powered generators which must rapidly pick up load on a power failure. In the past, a wider variety of cold-start methods were used. Some engines, such as Detroit Diesel[37] engines and Lister-Petter engines, used[when?] a system to introduce small amounts of ether into the inlet manifold to start combustion.[citation needed]Saab-Scania marine engines, Field Marshall tractors (among others) used slow-burning solid-fuel 'cigarettes' which were fitted into the cylinder head as a primitive glow plug.[citation needed] Lucas developed the Thermostart, where an electrical heating element was combined with a small fuel valve in the inlet manifold. Diesel fuel slowly dripped from the valve onto the hot element and ignited. The flame heated the inlet manifold and when the engine was cranked, the flame was drawn into the cylinders to start combustion.[citation

International Harvester developed a tractor in the 1930s that had a 7-litre 4-cylinder engine which started as a gasoline engine and ran on diesel after warming up. The cylinder head had valves which opened for a portion of the compression stroke to reduce the effective compression ratio, and a magneto produced the spark. An automatic ratchet system automatically disengaged the ignition system and closed the valves once the engine had run for 30 seconds. The operator then switched off the petrol fuel system and opened the throttle on the diesel injection system.[citation needed] Recent direct-injection systems[which?] are advanced to the extent that pre-chambers systems are not needed by using a common rail fuel system with electronic fuel injection.[citation needed] [edit]Gelling Diesel fuel is also prone to waxing or gelling in cold weather; both are terms for the solidification of diesel oil into a partially crystalline state. The crystals build up in the fuel line (especially in fuel filters), eventually starving the engine of fuel and causing it to stop running. Low-output electric heaters in fuel tanks and around fuel lines are used to solve this problem. Also, most engines have a spill return system, by which any excess fuel from the injector pump and injectors is returned to the fuel tank. Once the engine has warmed, returning warm fuel prevents waxing in the tank. Due to improvements in fuel technology with additives, waxing rarely occurs in all but the coldest weather when a mix of diesel and kerosene should be used to run a vehicle. [edit]Types [edit]Size


Two Cycle Diesel engine with Roots blower, typical of Locomotive Engines

There are three size groups of Diesel engines[38]

Small - Under 188 kW output Medium Large


Types of Diesel Engines

There are two basic types of Diesel Engines[38]

Four Cycle Two Cycle

[edit]Early Rudolf Diesel based his engine on the design of the Gas engine created by Nikolaus Otto in 1876 with the goal of improving its efficiency. He patented his Diesel engine concepts in patents that were set forth in 1892 and 1893.[39] As such, diesel engines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries used the same basic layout and form as industrial steam engines, with long-bore cylinders, external valve gear, cross-head bearings and an open crankshaft connected to a large flywheel.[dubious discuss] Smaller engines would be built with vertical cylinders, while most medium- and large-sized industrial engines were built with horizontal cylinders, just as steam engines had been. Engines could be built with more than one cylinder in both cases. The largest early diesels resembled the triple-expansion steam reciprocating engine, being tens of feet high with vertical cylinders arranged in-line. These early engines ran at very slow speedspartly due to the limitations of their air-blast injector equipment and partly so they would be compatible with the majority of industrial equipment designed for steam engines; maximum speeds of between 100 and 300 rpm were common. Engines were usually started by allowing compressed air into the cylinders to turn the engine, although smaller engines could be started by hand.[40] In 1897 when the first Diesel engine was completed Adolphus Busch traveled to Cologne and negotiated exclusive right to produce the Diesel engine in the USA and Canada. In his examination of the engine it was noted that the Diesel at that time operated at efficiencies of 32 to 35 percent thermodynamic efficiency when a typical triple expansion steam engine would operate at about 18 percent.[10] In the early decades of the 20th century, when large diesel engines were first being used, the engines took a form similar to the compound steam engines common at the time, with the piston being connected to the connecting rod by a crosshead bearing. Following steam engine practice some manufactures made double-acting two-stroke

and four-stroke diesel engines to increase power output, with combustion taking place on both sides of the piston, with two sets of valve gear and fuel injection. While it produced large amounts of power and was very efficient, the double-acting diesel engine's main problem was producing a good seal where the piston rod passed through the bottom of the lower combustion chamber to the crosshead bearing, and no more were built. By the 1930s turbochargers were fitted to some engines. Crosshead bearings are still used to reduce the wear on the cylinders in large longstroke main marine engines. [edit]Modern

A Yanmar 2GM20 marine diesel engine, installed in a sailboat

As with petrol engines, there are two classes of diesel engines in current use: twostroke and four-stroke. The four-stroke type is the "classic" version, tracing its lineage back to Rudolf Diesel's prototype. It is also the most commonly used form, being the preferred power source for many motor vehicles, especially buses and trucks. Much larger engines, such as used for railroad locomotion and marine propulsion, are often two-stroke units, offering a more favourablepower-to-weight ratio, as well as better fuel economy. The most powerful engines in the world are two-stroke diesels of mammoth dimensions.[41] Two-stroke diesel engine operation is similar to that of petrol counterparts, except that fuel is not mixed with air before induction, and the crankcase does not take an active role in the cycle. The traditional two-stroke design relies upon a mechanically driven positive displacement blower to charge the cylinders with air before compression and ignition. The charging process also assists in expelling (scavenging) combustion gases remaining from the previous power stroke. The archetype of the modern form of the two-stroke diesel is the Detroit Diesel engine, in which the blower pressurizes a chamber in the engine block that is

often referred to as the "air box". The (much larger) Electro-Motive prime mover used in EMD diesel-electric locomotives is built to the same principle. In a two-stroke diesel engine, as the cylinder's piston approaches the bottom dead centre exhaust ports or valves are opened relieving most of the excess pressure after which a passage between the air box and the cylinder is opened, permitting air flow into the cylinder.[42][43] The air flow blows the remaining combustion gases from the cylinderthis is the scavenging process. As the piston passes through bottom centre and starts upward, the passage is closed and compression commences, culminating in fuel injection and ignition. Refer to two-stroke diesel engines for more detailed coverage of aspiration types and supercharging of two-stroke diesel engines. Normally, the number of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration. The inline-six-cylinder design is the most prolific in lightto medium-duty engines, though small V8 and larger inline-four displacement engines are also common. Small-capacity engines (generally considered to be those below five litres in capacity) are generally four- or six-cylinder types, with the four-cylinder being the most common type found in automotive uses. Five-cylinder diesel engines have also been produced, being a compromise between the smooth running of the six-cylinder and the space-efficient dimensions of the four-cylinder. Diesel engines for smaller plant machinery, boats, tractors, generators and pumps may be four-, threeor two-cylinder types, with the single-cylinder diesel engine remaining for light stationary work. Direct reversible two-stroke marine diesels need at least three cylinders for reliable restarting forwards and reverse, while four-stroke diesels need at least six cylinders. The desire to improve the diesel engine's power-to-weight ratio produced several novel cylinder arrangements to extract more power from a given capacity. The uniflow opposed-piston engine uses two pistons in one cylinder with the combustion cavity in the middle and gas in- and outlets at the ends. This makes a comparatively light, powerful, swiftly running and economic engine suitable for use in aviation. An example is the Junkers Jumo 204/205. The Napier Deltic engine, with three cylinders arranged in a triangular formation, each containing two opposed pistons, the whole engine having three crankshafts, is one of the better known. [edit]Low-speed


Low-speed diesel engines (as used in ships and other applications where overall engine weight is relatively unimportant) often have a thermal efficiency which exceeds 50 percent.[1][2]



Main article: Free-piston engine Before 1950, Sulzer started experimenting with two-stroke engines with boost pressures as high as 6 atmospheres, in which all the output power was taken from an exhaust gas turbine. The two-stroke pistons directly drove air compressor pistons to make a positive displacement gas generator. Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts. Several of these units could be connected to provide power gas to one large output turbine. The overall thermal efficiency was roughly twice that of a simple gas turbine.[44] This system was derived from Ral Pateras Pescara's work on free-piston engines in the 1930s. [edit]Advantages

and disadvantages versus sparkignition engines

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and fuel economy

The MAN S80ME-C7 low speed diesel engines use 155 gram fuel per kWh for an overall energy conversion efficiency of 54.4 percent, which is the highest conversion of fuel into power by any internal orexternal combustion engine.[1] Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power rating, resulting in lower fuel consumption. A common margin is 40 percent more miles per gallon for an efficient turbodiesel. For example, the current model koda Octavia, using Volkswagen Group engines, has a combined Euro rating of 6.2 L/100 km (38 miles per US gallon, 16 km/L) for the 102 bhp (76 kW) petrol engine and 4.4 L/100 km (54 mpg, 23 km/L) for the 105 bhp (78 kW) diesel engine. However, such a comparison does not take into account that diesel fuel is denser and contains about 15 percent more energy by volume. Although the calorific value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) than petrol at 45.8 MJ/kg, liquid diesel fuel is significantly denser than liquid petrol. This is significant because volume of fuel, in addition to mass, is an important consideration in mobile applications. No vehicle has an unlimited volume available for fuel storage. Adjusting the numbers to account for the energy density of diesel fuel, the overall energy efficiency is still about 20 percent greater for the diesel version. While a higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency, diesel engines are much more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines when at low power and at engine

idle. Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve (throttle) in the inlet system, which closes at idle. This creates parasitic loss and destruction of availability of the incoming air, reducing the efficiency of petrol engines at idle. In many applications, such as marine, agriculture, and railways, diesels are left idling and unattended for many hours, sometimes even days. These advantages are especially attractive in locomotives (see dieselisation). The average diesel engine has a poorer power-to-weight ratio than the petrol engine. This is because the diesel must operate at lower engine speeds[45] and because it needs heavier, stronger parts to resist the operating pressure caused by the high compression ratio of the engine and the large amounts of torque generated to the crankshaft. In addition, diesels are often built with stronger parts to give them longer lives and better reliability, important considerations in industrial applications. For most industrial or nautical applications, reliability is considered more important than light weight and high power. Diesel fuel is injected just before the power stroke. As a result, the fuel cannot burn completely unless it has a sufficient amount of oxygen. This can result in incomplete combustion and black smoke in the exhaust if more fuel is injected than there is air available for the combustion process. Modern engines with electronic fuel delivery can adjust the timing and amount of fuel delivery (by changing the duration of the injection pulse), and so operate with less waste of fuel. In a mechanical system, the injection timing and duration must be set to be efficient at the anticipated operating rpm and load, and so the settings are less than ideal when the engine is running at any other RPM than what it is timed for. The electronic injection can "sense" engine revs, load, even boost and temperature, and continuously alter the timing to match the given situation. In the petrol engine, air and fuel are mixed for the entire compression stroke, ensuring complete mixing even at higher engine speeds. Diesel engines usually have longer stroke lengths in order to achieve the necessary compression ratios. As a result piston and connecting rods are heavier and more force must be transmitted through the connecting rods and crankshaft to change the momentum of the piston. This is another reason that a diesel engine must be stronger for the same power output as a petrol engine. Yet it is this characteristic that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines by making fairly simple and inexpensive modifications. A petrol engine of similar size cannot put out a comparable power increase without extensive alterations because the stock components cannot withstand the higher stresses placed upon them. Since a diesel engine is already built to withstand higher levels of stress, it makes an ideal candidate for performance

tuning at little expense. However, it should be said that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine will increase its operating temperature, which will reduce its life and increase service requirements. These are issues with newer, lighter, high-performance diesel engines which are not "overbuilt" to the degree of older engines and they are being pushed to provide greater power in smaller engines. The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement. Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than on petrol engines, due to the latter's susceptibility to knock, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine. Because the burned gases are expanded further in a diesel engine cylinder, the exhaust gas is cooler, meaning turbochargers require less cooling, and can be more reliable, than with spark-ignition engines. With a diesel, boost pressure is essentially unlimited. It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before breaking apart. The increased fuel economy of the diesel engine over the petrol engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit distance. Recent advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO2, due to the absorption of CO2 by plants used to produce the fuel. Although concerns are now being raised as to the negative effect this is having on the world food supply, as the growing of crops specifically for biofuels takes up land that could be used for food crops and uses water that could be used by both humans and animals. However, the use of waste vegetable oil, sawmill waste from managed forests in Finland, and advances in the production of vegetable oil from algae demonstrate great promise in providing feed stocks for sustainable biodiesel that are not in competition with food production. Diesel engines have a lower rotational speed than an equivalent size petrol engine because the diesel-air mixture burns slower than the petrol-air mixture.[citation needed] A combination of improved mechanical technology (such as multi-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charge" of fuel into the cylinder to warm the combustion chamber before delivering the main fuel charge), higher injection pressures that have improved the atomisation of fuel into smaller droplets, and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures) have mitigated most of these problems in the latest generation of common-rail designs, while greatly improving engine efficiency. Poor power and narrow torque bands have been addressed by superchargers, turbochargers,

(especially variable geometry turbochargers), intercoolers, and a large efficiency increase from about 35 percent for IDI to 45 percent for the latest engines in the last 15 years. Even though diesel engines have a theoretical fuel efficiency of 75 percent, in practice it is lower. Engines in large diesel trucks, buses, and newer diesel cars can achieve peak efficiencies around 45 percent,[46] and could reach 55 percent efficiency in the near future.[47] However, average efficiency over a driving cycle is lower than peak efficiency. For example, it might be 37 percent for an engine with a peak efficiency of 44 percent.[48] [edit]Emissions Main article: Diesel exhaust In diesel engines, conditions in the engine differ from the spark-ignition engine, since power is directly controlled by the fuel supply, rather than by controlling the air supply. Thus when the engine runs at low power, there is enough oxygen present to burn the fuel, and diesel engines only make significant amounts of carbon monoxide when running under a load. Diesel exhaust is well known for its characteristic smell; but in Britain this smell in recent years has become much less because the sulfur is now removed from the fuel in the oil refinery. Diesel exhaust has been found to contain a long list of toxic air contaminants. Among these pollutants, fine particle pollution is perhaps the most important as a cause of diesel's harmful health effects. [edit]Power

and torque

For commercial uses requiring towing, load carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel engines tend to have better torque characteristics. Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600 and 2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a truck). This provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest, and, crucially, allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a petrol engine, making them much more economical for these applications. This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometry turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500 3000 rpm.

While diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than petrol engines, diesel engines tend to have a narrower power band than petrol engines. Naturally aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the top of their speed range. This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 18 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to be used effectively at all speeds. Turbochargers tend to improve power at high engine speeds; superchargers improve power at lower speeds; and variable geometry turbochargers improve the engine's performance equally by flattening the torque curve. [edit]Noise The characteristic noise of a diesel engine is variably called diesel clatter, diesel nailing, or diesel knock.[49] Diesel clatter is caused largely by the diesel combustion process; the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber causes a pressure wave. Engine designers can reduce diesel clatter through: indirect injection; pilot or pre-injection; injection timing; injection rate; compression ratio; turbo boost; and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).[50] Common rail diesel injection systems permit multiple injection events as an aid to noise reduction. Diesel fuels with a higher cetane rating modify the combustion process and reduce diesel clatter.[49] CN (Cetane number) can be raised by distilling higher quality crude oil, by catalyzing a higher quality product or by using a cetane improving additive. Some oil companies market high cetane or premium diesel. Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petrodiesel, typically 55CN for 100% biodiesel.[citation needed] A combination of improved mechanical technology such as multi-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charge" of fuel into the cylinder to initiate combustion before delivering the main fuel charge, higher injection pressures that have improved the atomisation of fuel into smaller droplets, and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures), have partially mitigated these problems in the latest generation of common-rail designs, while improving engine efficiency. [edit]Reliability The lack of an electrical ignition system greatly improves the reliability. The high durability of a diesel engine is also due to its overbuilt nature (see above), a benefit that is magnified by the lower rotating speeds in diesels. Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than petrol so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles (400,000 km) or more without a rebuild.

Due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is harder. More torque is required to push the engine through compression. Either an electrical starter or an air-start system is used to start the engine turning. On large engines, pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine, as well as heating, are required to minimise the amount of engine damage during initial start-up and running. Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge, called a Coffman starter, which provides the extra power required to get the machine turning. In the past, Caterpillar and John Deere used a small petrol pony engine in their tractors to start the primary diesel engine. The pony engine heated the diesel to aid in ignition and used a small clutch and transmission to spin up the diesel engine. Even more unusual was an International Harvester design in which the diesel engine had its own carburetor and ignition system, and started on petrol. Once warmed up, the operator moved two levers to switch the engine to diesel operation, and work could begin. These engines had very complex cylinder heads, with their own petrol combustion chambers, and were vulnerable to expensive damage if special care was not taken (especially in letting the engine cool before turning it off). [edit]Quality

and variety of fuels

Petrol/gasoline engines are limited in the variety and quality of the fuels they can burn. Older petrol engines fitted with a carburetor required a volatile fuel that would vaporise easily to create the necessary air-fuel ratio for combustion. Because both air and fuel are admitted to the cylinder, if the compression ratio of the engine is too high or the fuel too volatile (with too low an octane rating), the fuel will ignite under compression, as in a diesel engine, before the piston reaches the top of its stroke. This pre-ignition causes a power loss and over time major damage to the piston and cylinder. The need for a fuel that is volatile enough to vaporise but not too volatile (to avoid preignition) means that petrol engines will only run on a narrow range of fuels. There has been some success at dual-fuel engines that use petrol and ethanol, petrol and propane, and petrol and methane. In diesel engines, a mechanical injector system vaporizes the fuel directly into the combustion chamber or a pre-combustion chamber (as opposed to a Venturi jet in a carburetor, or a fuel injector in a fuel injection system vaporising fuel into the intake manifold or intake runners as in a petrol engine). This forced vaporisation means that less-volatile fuels can be used. More crucially, because only air is inducted into the cylinder in a diesel engine, the compression ratio can be much higher as there is no risk of pre-ignition provided the injection process is accurately timed. This means that

cylinder temperatures are much higher in a diesel engine than a petrol engine, allowing less volatile fuels to be used. Diesel fuel is a form of light fuel oil, very similar to kerosene/paraffin, but diesel engines, especially older or simple designs that lack precision electronic injection systems, can run on a wide variety of other fuels. Some of the most common alternatives are Jet A-1 type jet fuel or vegetable oil from a very wide variety of plants. Some engines can be run on vegetable oil without modification, and most others require fairly basic alterations. Biodiesel is a pure diesel-like fuel refined from vegetable oil and can be used in nearly all diesel engines. Requirements for fuels to be used in diesel engines are the ability of the fuel to flow along the fuel lines, the ability of the fuel to lubricate the injector pump and injectors adequately, and its ignition qualities (ignition delay, cetane number). Inline mechanical injector pumps generally tolerate poor-quality or bio-fuels better than distributor-type pumps. Also, indirect injection engines generally run more satisfactorily on bio-fuels than direct injection engines. This is partly because an indirect injection engine has a much greater 'swirl' effect, improving vaporisation and combustion of fuel, and because (in the case of vegetable oil-type fuels) lipid depositions can condense on the cylinder walls of a direct-injection engine if combustion temperatures are too low (such as starting the engine from cold). It is often reported that Diesel designed his engine to run on peanut oil. Diesel stated in his published papers, "at the Paris Exhibition in 1900 (Exposition Universelle) there was shown by the Otto Company a small diesel engine, which, at the request of the French Government ran on Arachide (earth-nut or pea-nut) oil (see biodiesel), and worked so smoothly that only a few people were aware of it. The engine was constructed for using mineral oil, and was then worked on vegetable oil without any alterations being made. The French Government at the time thought of testing the applicability to power production of the Arachide, or earth-nut, which grows in considerable quantities in their African colonies, and can easily be cultivated there." Diesel himself later conducted related tests and appeared supportive of the idea.[51] Most large marine diesels (sometimes called cathedral engines due to their size[citation needed] ) run on heavy fuel oil (sometimes called "bunker oil"), which is a thick, viscous and almost flameproof fuel which is very safe to store and cheap to buy in bulk as it is a waste product from the petroleum refining industry. The fuel must be heated to thin it out (often by the exhaust header) and is often passed through multiple injection stages to vaporise it. [edit]Fuel

and fluid characteristics

Main article: Diesel fuel Diesel engines can operate on a variety of different fuels, depending on configuration, though the eponymous diesel fuel derived from crude oil is most common. The engines can work with the full spectrum of crude oil distillates, from natural gas, alcohols, petrol, wood gas to the fuel oils from diesel oil to residual fuels.[52] The type of fuel used is a combination of service requirements, and fuel costs. Goodquality diesel fuel can be synthesised from vegetable oil and alcohol. Diesel fuel can be made from coal or other carbon base using the Fischer-Tropsch process. Biodiesel is growing in popularity since it can frequently be used in unmodified engines, though production remains limited. Recently, biodiesel from coconut, which can produce a very promising coco methyl ester (CME), has characteristics which enhance lubricity and combustion giving a regular diesel engine without any modification more power, less particulate matter or black smoke, and smoother engine performance. The Philippines pioneers in the research on Coconut based CME with the help of German and American scientists. Petroleum-derived diesel is often called petrodiesel if there is need to distinguish the source of the fuel. Pure plant oils are increasingly being used as a fuel for cars, trucks and remote combined heat and power generation especially in Germany where hundreds of decentralised small- and medium-sized oil presses cold press oilseed, mainly rapeseed, for fuel. There is a Deutsches Institut fr Normung fuel standard for rapeseed oil fuel. Residual fuels are the "dregs" of the distillation process and are a thicker, heavier oil, or oil with higher viscosity, which are so thick that they are not readily pumpable unless heated. Residual fuel oils are cheaper than clean, refined diesel oil, although they are dirtier. Their main considerations are for use in ships and very large generation sets, due to the cost of the large volume of fuel consumed, frequently amounting to many tonnes per hour. The poorly refined biofuels straight vegetable oil (SVO) and waste vegetable oil (WVO) can fall into this category, but can be viable fuels on non common rail or TDI PD diesels with the simple conversion of fuel heating to 80 to 100 degrees Celsius to reduce viscosity, and adequate filtration to OEM standards. Engines using these heavy oils have to start and shut down on standard diesel fuel, as these fuels will not flow through fuel lines at low temperatures. Moving beyond that, use of low-grade fuels can lead to serious maintenance problems because of their high sulphur and lower lubrication properties. Most diesel engines that power ships like supertankers are built so that the engine can safely use lowgrade fuels due to their separate cylinder and crankcase lubrication.

Normal diesel fuel is more difficult to ignite and slower in developing fire than petrol because of its higher flash point, but once burning, a diesel fire can be fierce. Fuel contaminants such as dirt and water are often more problematic in diesel engines than in petrol engines. Water can cause serious damage, due to corrosion, to the injection pump and injectors; and dirt, even very fine particulate matter, can damage the injection pumps due to the close tolerances that the pumps are machined to. All diesel engines will have a fuel filter (usually much finer than a filter on a petrol engine), and a water trap. The water trap (which is sometimes part of the fuel filter) often has a float connected to a warning light, which warns when there is too much water in the trap, and must be drained before damage to the engine can result. The fuel filter must be replaced much more often on a diesel engine than on a petrol engine, changing the fuel filter every 2-4 oil changes is not uncommon for some vehicles. [edit]Safety [edit]Fuel


Diesel fuel has low flammability, leading to a low risk of fire caused by fuel in a vehicle equipped with a diesel engine. In yachts diesels are used because petrol engines generate combustible vapors, which can accumulate in the bottom of the vessel, sometimes causing explosions. Therefore ventilation systems on petrol powered vessels are required.[53] The United States Army and NATO use only diesel engines and turbines because of fire hazard. Although neither gasoline nor diesel is explosive in liquid form, both can create an explosive air/vapor mix under the right conditions. However, diesel fuel is less prone due to its lower vapor pressure, which is an indication of evaporation rate. The Material Safety Data Sheet[54] for ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel indicates a vapor explosion hazard for diesel indoors, outdoors, or in sewers. US Army gasoline-engined tanks during World War II were nicknamed Ronsons, because of their greater likelihood of catching fire when damaged by enemy fire. (Although tank fires were usually caused by detonation of the ammunition rather than fuel.) [edit]Maintenance


Fuel injection introduces potential hazards in engine maintenance due to the high fuel pressures used. Residual pressure can remain in the fuel lines long after an injectionequipped engine has been shut down. This residual pressure must be relieved, and if it is done so by external bleed-off, the fuel must be safely contained. If a high-

pressure diesel fuel injector is removed from its seat and operated in open air, there is a risk to the operator of injury by hypodermic jet-injection, even with only 100 psi pressure.[55] The first known such injury occurred in 1937 during a diesel engine maintenance operation.[56] [edit]Diesel


The characteristics of diesel have different advantages for different applications. [edit]Passenger

Diesel engines have long been popular in bigger cars and this is spreading to smaller cars. Diesel engines tend to be more economical at regular driving speeds and are much better at city speeds. Their reliability and life-span tend to be better (as detailed). Some 40% or more of all cars sold in Europe are diesel-powered where they are considered a low CO2 option. Mercedes-Benz in conjunction with Robert Bosch GmbH produced diesel-powered passenger cars starting in 1936 and very large numbers are used all over the world (often as "Grande Taxis" in the Third World). [edit]Railroad

rolling stock

Diesel engines have eclipsed steam engines as the prime mover on all non-electrified railroads in the industrialized world. The first diesel locomotives appeared in the early 20th century, and diesel multiple units soon after. While electric locomotives have now replaced the diesel locomotive almost completely on passenger traffic in Europe and Asia, diesel is still today very popular for cargohauling freight trains and on tracks where electrification is not feasible. Most modern diesel locomotives are actually diesel-electric locomotives: the diesel engine is used to power an electric generator that in turn powers electric traction engines with no mechanical connection between diesel engine and traction. [edit]Other

transport uses

Larger transport applications (trucks, buses, etc.) also benefit from the diesel's reliability and high torque output. Diesel displaced paraffin (or tractor vaporising oil, TVO) in most parts of the world by the end of the 1950s with the U.S. following some 20 years later.

Aircraft Marine Motorcycles

In merchant ships and boats, the same advantages apply with the relative safety of diesel fuel an additional benefit. The German pocket battleships were the largest diesel warships, but the German torpedo-boats known as E-boats (Schnellboot) of the Second World War were also diesel craft. Conventional submarines have used them since before the First World War, relying on the almost total absence of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. American World War II diesel-electric submarines operated on two-stroke cycle as opposed to the four-stroke cycle that other navies used. [edit]Military

fuel standardisation

NATO has a single vehicle fuel policy and has selected diesel for this purpose. The use of a single fuel simplifies wartime logistics. NATO and the United States Marine Corps have even been developing a diesel military motorcycle based on a Kawasaki off road motorcycle, with a purpose designed naturally aspirated direct injection diesel at Cranfield University in England, to be produced in the USA, because motorcycles were the last remaining gasoline-powered vehicle in their inventory. Before this, a few civilian motorcycles had been built using adapted stationary diesel engines, but the weight and cost disadvantages generally outweighed the efficiency gains. [edit]Non-transport


A 1944 V12 2300 kW power plant undergoing testing & restoration works

Diesel engines are also used to power permanent, portable, and backup generators, irrigation pumps,[57] corn grinders,[58] and coffee de-pulpers.[59] [edit]Engine


Within the diesel engine industry, engines are often categorized by their rotational speeds into three unofficial groups:

High-speed engines, medium-speed engines, and slow-speed engines

High- and medium-speed engines are predominantly four-stroke engines; except for the Detroit Diesel two-stroke range. Medium-speed engines are physically larger than high-speed engines and can burn lower-grade (slower-burning) fuel than high-speed engines. Slow-speed engines are predominantly large two-stroke crosshead engines, hence very different from high- and medium-speed engines. Due to the lower rotational speed of slow- and medium-speed engines, there is more time for combustion during the power stroke of the cycle, allowing the use of slower-burning fuels than high-speed engines. [edit]High-speed


High-speed (approximately 1,000 rpm and greater) engines are used to power trucks (lorries), buses, tractors, cars, yachts, compressors, pumps and smallelectrical generators. As of 2008, most high-speed engines have direct injection. Many modern engines, particularly in on-highway applications, have common rail direct injection, which is cleaner burning. [edit]Medium-speed


Medium-speed engines are used in large electrical generators, ship propulsion and mechanical drive applications such as large compressors or pumps. Medium speed diesel engines operate on either diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil by direct injection in the same manner as low-speed engines. Engines used in electrical generators run at approximately 300 to 1000 rpm and are optimized to run at a set synchronous speed depending on the generation frequency (50 or 60 hertz) and provide a rapid response to load changes. Typical synchronous speeds for modern medium-speed engines are 500/514 rpm (50/60 Hz), 600 rpm (both 50 and 60 Hz), 720/750 rpm, and 900/1000 rpm. As of 2009, the largest medium-speed engines in current production have outputs up to approximately 20 MW (27,000 hp). and are supplied by companies like MAN B&W, Wrtsil,[60] and Rolls-Royce (who acquired Ulstein Bergen Diesel in 1999). Most medium-speed engines produced are four-stroke machines, however there are

some two-stroke medium-speed engines such as by EMD (Electro-Motive Diesel), and the Fairbanks Morse OP (Opposed-piston engine) type. Typical cylinder bore size for medium-speed engines ranges from 20 cm to 50 cm, and engine configurations typically are offered ranging from in-line 4-cylinder units to V-configuration 20-cylinder units. Most larger medium-speed engines are started with compressed air direct on pistons, using an air distributor, as opposed to a pneumatic starting motor acting on the flywheel, which tends to be used for smaller engines. There is no definitive engine size cut-off point for this. It should also be noted that most major manufacturers of medium-speed engines make natural gas-fueled versions of their diesel engines, which in fact operate on the Otto cycle, and require spark ignition, typically provided with a spark plug.[52] There are also dual (diesel/natural gas/coal gas) fuel versions of medium and low speed diesel engines using a lean fuel air mixture and a small injection of diesel fuel (socalled "pilot fuel") for ignition. In case of a gas supply failure or maximum power demand these engines will instantly switch back to full diesel fuel operation.[52][61][62] [edit]Low-speed


The MAN B&W 5S50MC 5-cylinder, 2-stroke, low-speed marine diesel engine. This particular engine is found aboard a 29,000 tonne chemical carrier.

Also known as slow-speed, or traditionally oil engines, the largest diesel engines are primarily used to power ships, although there are a few land-based power generation units as well. These extremely large two-stroke engines have power outputs up to approximately 85 MW (114,000 hp), operate in the range from approximately 60 to 200 rpm and are up to 15 m (50 ft) tall, and can weigh over 2,000 short tons (1,800 t). They typically use direct injection running on cheap low-grade heavy fuel, also known as Bunker C fuel, which requires heating in the ship for tanking and before injection due to the fuel's high viscosity. The heat for fuel heating is often provided by waste heat recovery boilers located in the exhaust ducting of the engine, which produce the steam required for fuel heating. Provided the heavy fuel system is kept warm and circulating, engines can be started and stopped on heavy fuel.

Large and medium marine engines are started with compressed air directly applied to the pistons. Air is applied to cylinders to start the engine forwards or backwards because they are normally directly connected to the propeller without clutch or gearbox, and to provide reverse propulsion either the engine must be run backwards or the ship will utilise an adjustable propeller. At least three cylinders are required with two-stroke engines and at least six cylinders withfour-stroke engines to provide torque every 120 degrees. Companies such as MAN B&W Diesel, (formerly Burmeister & Wain) and Wrtsil (which acquired Sulzer Diesel) design such large low-speed engines. They are unusually narrow and tall due to the addition of a crosshead bearing. As of 2007, the 14-cylinder Wrtsil-Sulzer 14RTFLEX96-C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine built by Wrtsil licensee Doosan in Korea is the most powerful diesel engine put into service, with a cylinder bore of 960 mm (37.8 in) delivering 114,800 hp (85.6 MW). It was put into service in September 2006, aboard the world's largest container ship Emma Maersk which belongs to the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. Typical bore size for low-speed engines ranges from approximately 35 to 98 cm (14 to 39 in). As of 2008, all produced low-speed engines with crosshead bearings are in-line configurations; no Vee versions have been produced. [edit]Supercharging

and turbocharging

Most diesels are now turbocharged and some are both turbo charged and supercharged. Because diesels do not have fuel in the cylinder before combustion is initiated, more than one bar (100 kPa) of air can be loaded in the cylinder without preignition. A turbocharged engine can produce significantly more power than a naturally aspirated engine of the same configuration, as having more air in the cylinders allows more fuel to be burned and thus more power to be produced. A supercharger is powered mechanically by the engine's crankshaft, while a turbocharger is powered by the engine exhaust, not requiring any mechanical power. Turbocharging can improve the fuel economy[63] of diesel engines by recovering waste heat from the exhaust, increasing the excess air factor, and increasing the ratio of engine output to friction losses. A two-stroke engine does not have a discrete exhaust and intake stroke and thus is incapable of self-aspiration. Therefore all two-stroke engines must be fitted with a blower to charge the cylinders with air and assist in dispersing exhaust gases, a process referred to as scavenging. In some cases, the engine may also be fitted with a turbocharger, whose output is directed into the blower inlet. A few designs employ a

hybrid turbocharger for scavenging and charging the cylinders, which device is mechanically driven at cranking and low speeds to act as a blower. As turbocharged or supercharged engines produce more power for a given engine size as compared to naturally aspirated engines, attention must be paid to the mechanical design of components, lubrication, and cooling to handle the power. Pistons are usually cooled with lubrication oil sprayed on the bottom of the piston. Large engines may use water, sea water, or oil supplied throughtelescoping pipes attached to the crosshead. [edit]Current

and future developments

See also: Diesel car history As of 2008, many common rail and unit injection systems already employ new injectors using stacked piezoelectric wafers in lieu of a solenoid, giving finer control of the injection event.[64] Variable geometry turbochargers have flexible vanes, which move and let more air into the engine depending on load. This technology increases both performance and fuel economy. Boost lag is reduced as turbo impeller inertia is compensated for.[65] Accelerometer pilot control (APC) uses an accelerometer to provide feedback on the engine's level of noise and vibration and thus instruct the ECU to inject the minimum amount of fuel that will produce quiet combustion and still provide the required power (especially while idling).[66] The next generation of common rail diesels is expected to use variable injection geometry, which allows the amount of fuel injected to be varied over a wider range, and variable valve timing (see Mitsubishi's 4N13 diesel engine) similar to that on petrol engines. Particularly in the United States, coming tougher emissions regulations present a considerable challenge to diesel engine manufacturers. Ford's HyTrans Project has developed a system which starts the ignition in 400 ms, saving a significant amount of fuel on city routes, and there are other methods to achieve even more efficient combustion, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, being studied.[67][68]

Leadacid battery
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Leadacid battery

lead acid car battery specific energy energy density specific power 3040 Wh/kg 6075 Wh/l 180 W/kg

Charge/discharge efficiency 50%92% [3] Energy/consumer-price Self-discharge rate Cycle durability Nominal cell voltage 7(sld)-18(fld) Wh/US$ [4] 320%/month [5] 500800 cycles 2.105 V

Leadacid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Plant, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors.

Leadacid batteries (under 5 kg) account for 1.5% of all portable secondary battery sales in Japan by number of units sold (25% by price).[1]Sealed leadacid batteries accounted for 10% by weight of all portable battery sales in the EU in 2000. [2]

In the charged state, each cell contains negative electrodes of elemental lead (Pb) and positive electrodes of lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) in an electrolyte of approximately 33.5% v/v (4.2 Molar) sulfuric acid(H2SO4). In the discharged state both the positive and negative become lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) and the electrolyte loses much of its dissolved sulfuric acid and becomes primarily water. Due to the freezing-point depression of water, as the battery discharges and the concentration of sulfuric acid decreases, the electrolyte is more likely to freeze during winter weather. [edit]Discharge

Fully Discharged: Two identical lead sulfate plates

During discharge, both plates return to lead sulfate. The process is driven by the conduction of electrons from the positive plate back into the cell at the negative plate. Negative Plate Reaction: Pb(s) + HSO 4(aq) PbSO4(s) + 2e Positive Plate Reaction: PbO2(s) + HSO 4(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)


Fully Charged: Lead and Lead Oxide plates

Subsequent charging places the battery back in its charged state, changing the lead sulfates into lead and lead oxides. The process is driven by the forcible removal of electrons from the negative plate and the forcible introduction of them to the positive plate. Negative Plate Reaction: PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2e Pb(s) + HSO 4(aq) Positive Plate Reaction: PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) PbO2(s) + HSO 4(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2e Overcharging with high charging voltages generates oxygen and hydrogen gas by electrolysis of water, which is lost to the cell. Periodic maintenance of lead acid batteries requires inspection of the electrolyte level and replacement of any water that has been lost. [edit]Voltages

for common usages

These are general voltage ranges for six-cell lead-acid batteries: Open-circuit (quiescent) at full charge: 12.6 V to 12.8 V (2.10 2.13V per cell)

Open-circuit at full discharge: 11.8 V to 12.0 V Loaded at full discharge: 10.5 V.

Continuous-preservation (float) charging: 13.4 V for gelled electrolyte; 13.5 V for AGM (absorbed glass mat) and 13.8 V for flooded cells All voltages are at 20 C (68 F), and must be adjusted 0.022V/C for temperature changes.
1. 2. 3.

Float voltage recommendations vary, according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Precise float voltage (0.05 V) is critical to longevity; insufficient voltage (causes sulfation) which is almost as detrimental as excessive voltage (causing corrosion and electrolyte loss)

Typical (daily) charging: 14.2 V to 14.5 V (depending on temperature and manufacturer's recommendation)

Equalization charging (for flooded lead acids): 15 V for no more than 2 hours. Battery temperature must be monitored.

Gassing threshold: 14.4 V

After full charge, terminal voltage drops quickly to 13.2 V and then slowly to 12.6 V. Portable batteries, such as for miners' cap lamps (headlamps) typically have two cells, and use one third of these voltages.[3] [edit]Measuring

the charge level

A hydrometer can be used to test the specific gravity of each cell as a measure of its state of charge.

Because the electrolyte takes part in the charge-discharge reaction, this battery has one major advantage over other chemistries. It is relatively simple to determine the state of charge by merely measuring the specific gravity (S.G.) of the electrolyte, the S.G. falling as the battery discharges. Some battery designs include a simple hydrometer using colored floating balls of differing density. When used in dieselelectric submarines, the S.G. was regularly measured and written on a blackboard in the control room to indicate how much longer the boat could remain submerged.[4]

A battery's open-circuit voltage can be used to estimate the state of charge, in this case for a 12-volt battery.[5]

[edit]Construction [edit]Plates The leadacid cell can be demonstrated using sheet lead plates for the two electrodes. However such a construction produces only around one ampere for roughly postcard sized plates, and for only a few minutes. Gaston Plant found a way to provide a much larger effective surface area. In Plant's design, the positive and negative plates were formed of two spirals of lead foil, separated with a sheet of cloth and coiled up. The cells initially had low capacity, so a slow process of "forming" was required to corrode the lead foils, creating lead dioxide on the plates and roughening them to increase surface area. Initially this process used electricity from primary batteries; when generators became available after 1870, the cost of production of batteries greatly declined.[6] Plant plates are still used in some stationary applications, where the plates are mechanically grooved to increase their surface area. Faure pasted-plate construction is typical of automotive batteries. Each plate consists of a rectangular lead grid alloyed with antimony or calcium to improve the mechanical characteristics. The holes of the grid are filled with a paste of red lead and 33% dilute sulfuric acid. (Different manufacturers vary the mixture). The paste is pressed into the holes in the grid which are slightly tapered on both sides to better retain the paste. This porous paste allows the acid to react with the lead inside the plate, increasing the surface area many fold. Once dry, the plates are stacked with suitable separators and inserted in the battery container. An odd number of plates is usually used, with one more nagative plate than positive. Each alternate plate is connected.

The positive plates are the chocolate brown color of Lead(IV) Oxide, and the negative are the slate gray of "spongy" lead at the time of manufacture. In this charged state the plates are called 'formed'. One of the problems with the plates is that the plates increase in size as the active material absorbs sulfate from the acid during discharge, and decrease as they give up the sulfate during charging. This causes the plates to gradually shed the paste. It is important that there is room underneath the plates to catch this shed material. If it reaches the plates, the cell short-circuits. The paste contains carbon black, blanc fixe (barium sulfate) and lignosulfonate. The blanc fixe acts as a seed crystal for the leadto lead sulfate reaction. The blanc fixe must be fully dispersed in the paste in order for it to be effective. The lignosulfonate prevents the negative plate from forming a solid mass during the discharge cycle, instead enabling the formation of long needlelike crystals. The long crystals have more surface area and are easily converted back to the original state on charging. Carbon black counteracts the effect of inhibiting formation caused by the lignosulfonates. Sulfonated naphthalene condensate dispersant is a more effective expander than lignosulfonate and speeds up formation. This dispersant improves dispersion of barium sulfate in the paste, reduces hydroset time, produces a more breakage-resistant plate, reduces fine lead particles and thereby improves handling and pasting characteristics. It extends battery life by increasing endofcharge voltage. Sulfonated naphthalene requires about one-third to one-half the amount of lignosulfonate and is stable to higher temperatures.[7] Practical cells are usually not made with pure lead but have small amounts of antimony, tin, calcium or selenium alloyed in the plate material to add strength and simplify manufacture. The alloying element has a great effect on the life of the batteries, with calcium-alloyed plates preferred over antimony for longer life and less water consumption on each charge/discharge cycle. About 60% of the weight of an automotive-type leadacid battery rated around 60 Ah (8.7 kg of a 14.5 kg battery) is lead or internal parts made of lead; the balance is electrolyte, separators, and the case.[6] [edit]Separators

Separators between the positive and negative plates prevent shortcircuit through physical contact, mostly through dendrites (treeing), but also through shedding of the active material. Separators obstruct the flow of ions between the plates and increase the internal resistance of the cell. Wood, rubber, glass fiber mat, cellulose, and PVC or polyethylene plastic have been used to make separators. Wood was the original choice, but deteriorated in the acid electrolyte. Rubber separators were stable in the battery acid. An effective separator must possess a number of mechanical properties; such as permeability, porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area, mechanical design and strength, electrical resistance, ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the electrolyte. In service, the separator must have good resistance to acid and oxidation. The area of the separator must be a little larger than the area of the plates to prevent material shorting between the plates. The separators must remain stable over the battery's operating temperature range. [edit]Applications Most of the world's leadacid batteries are automobile starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) batteries, with an estimated 320 million units shipped in 1999.[6] In 1992 about 3 million tons of lead were used in the manufacture of batteries. Wet cell stand-by (stationary) batteries designed for deep discharge are commonly used in large backup power supplies for telephone and computer centers, grid energy storage, and off-grid household electric power systems.[8] Leadacid batteries are used in emergency lighting in case of power failure. Traction (propulsion) batteries are used for in golf carts and other battery electric vehicles. Large leadacid batteries are also used to power the electric motors in diesel-electric (conventional)submarines and are used on nuclear submarines as well. Valve-regulated lead acid batteries cannot spill their electrolyte. They are used in back-up power supplies for alarm and smaller computer systems (particularly in uninterruptible power supplies) and for electric scooters, electric wheelchairs, electrified bicycles, marine applications, battery electric vehicles or micro hybrid vehicles, and motorcycles.

Leadacid batteries were used to supply the filament (heater) voltage, with 2 V common in early vacuum tube (valve) radio receivers. [edit]Cycles [edit]Starting


Main article: Car battery Lead acid batteries designed for starting automotive engines are not designed for deep discharge. They have a large number of thin plates designed for maximum surface area, and therefore maximum current output, but which can easily be damaged by deep discharge. Repeated deep discharges will result in capacity loss and ultimately in premature failure, as the electrodes disintegrate due tomechanical stresses that arise from cycling. Starting batteries kept on continuous float charge will have corrosion in the electrodes and result in premature failure. Starting batteries should be kept open circuit but charged regularly (at least once every two weeks) to prevent sulfation. Starting batteries are lighter weight than deep cycle batteries of the same battery dimensions, because the cell plates do not extend all the way to the bottom of the battery case. This allows loose disintegrated lead to fall off the plates and collect under the cells, to prolong the service life of the battery. If this loose debris rises high enough it can touch the plates and lead to failure of a cell, resulting in loss of battery voltage and capacity. [edit]Deep

cycle batteries

Main article: Deep cycle battery Specially designed deep-cycle cells are much less susceptible to degradation due to cycling, and are required for applications where the batteries are regularly discharged, such as photovoltaicsystems, electric vehicles (forklift, golf cart, electric cars and other) and uninterruptible power supplies. These batteries have thicker plates that can deliver less peak current, but can withstand frequent discharging.[9] Some batteries are designed as a compromise between starter (highcurrent) and deep cycle batteries. They are able to be discharged to a greater degree than automotive batteries, but less so than deep cycle batteries. They may be referred to as "Marine/Motorhome" batteries, or "leisure batteries".


and slow charge and discharge

Charge current needs to match the ability of the battery to absorb the energy. Using too large of a charge current on a small battery can lead to boiling and venting of the electrolyte. In this image a VRLA battery case has ballooned due to the high gas pressure developed during overcharge.

The capacity of a leadacid battery is not a fixed quantity but varies according to how quickly it is discharged. An empirical relationship exists between discharge rate and capacity, known as Peukert's law. When a battery is charged or discharged, this initially affects only the reacting chemicals, which are at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. With time, the charge stored in the chemicals at the interface, often called "interface charge", spreads by diffusion of these chemicals throughout the volume of the active material. If a battery has been completely discharged (e.g. the car lights were left on overnight) and next is given a fast charge for only a few minutes, then during the short charging time it develops only a charge near the interface. The battery voltage may rise to be close to the charger voltage so that the charging current decreases significantly. After a few hours this interface charge will spread to the volume of the electrode and electrolyte, leading to an interface charge so low that it may be insufficient to start the car.[10] On the other hand, if the battery is given a slow charge, which takes longer, then the battery will become more fully charged. During a slow charge the interface charge has time to redistribute to the volume of the electrodes and electrolyte, while being replenished by the charger. The battery voltage remains below the charger voltage throughout this process allowing charge to flow into the battery. Similarly, if a battery is subject to a fast discharge (such as starting a car, a current draw of more than 100 amps) for a few minutes, it will

appear to go dead, exhibiting reduced voltage and power. However, it may have only lost its interface charge. If the discharge is halted for a few minutes the battery may resume normal operation at the appropriate voltage and power for its state of discharge. On the other hand, if a battery is subject to a slow, deep discharge (such as leaving the car lights on, a current draw of less than 7 amps) for hours, then any observed reduction in battery performance is likely permanent. [edit]Valve


In a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery the hydrogen and oxygen produced in the cells largely recombine into water. Leakage is minimal, although some electrolyte still escapes if the recombination cannot keep up with gas evolution. Since VRLA batteries do not require (and make impossible) regular checking of the electrolyte level, they have been called maintenance free batteries. However, this is somewhat of a misnomer. VRLA cells do require maintenance. As electrolyte is lost, VRLA cells "dry-out" and lose capacity. This can be detected by taking regular internal resistance,conductance or impedance measurements. Regular testing reveals whether more involved testing and maintenance is required. Recent maintenance procedures have been developed allowing "rehydration", often restoring significant amounts of lost capacity. VRLA types became popular on motorcycles around 1983,[11] because the acid electrolyte is absorbed into the separator, so it cannot spill. [12] The separator also helps them better withstand vibration. They are also popular in stationary applications such as telecommunications sites, due to their small footprint and installation flexibility.[13] The electrical characteristics of VRLA batteries differ somewhat from wet-cell leadacid batteries, requiring caution in charging and discharging. [edit]Sulfation Leadacid batteries lose the ability to accept a charge when discharged for too long due to sulfation, the crystallization of lead sulfate. They generate electricity through a double sulfate chemical reaction. Lead and Lead(IV) Oxide, which are the active materials on the battery's plates, react with sulfuric acid in the electrolyte to form lead sulfate. The

lead sulfate first forms in a finely divided,amorphous state, and easily reverts to lead, lead oxide and sulfuric acid when the battery recharges. As batteries cycle through numerous discharge and charges, the lead sulfate slowly converts to a stable crystalline form that no longer dissolves on recharging. Thus, not all the lead is returned to the battery plates, and the amount of usable active material necessary for electricity generation declines over time. Sulfation occurs in all leadacid batteries during normal operation. It clogs the grids, impedes recharging and ultimately expands, cracking the plates and destroying the battery. In addition, the sulfate portion (of the lead sulfate) is not returned to the electrolyte as sulfuric acid. The large crystals physically block the electrolyte from entering the pores of the plates. Sulfation can be avoided if the battery is fully recharged immediately after a discharge cycle.[14] Sulfation also affects the charging cycle, resulting in longer charging times, less efficient and incomplete charging, and higher battery temperatures. The process can often be at least partially prevented and/or reversed by a desulfation technique called pulse conditioning, in which short but powerful current surges are repeatedly sent through the damaged battery. Over time, this procedure tends to break down and dissolve the sulfate crystals, restoring some capacity.[15] Higher temperature speeds both desulfation and sulfation, although too much heat damages the battery by accelerating corrosion. [edit]Stratification A typical leadacid battery contains a mixture with varying concentrations of water and acid. There is a slight difference in density between water and acid, and if the battery is allowed to sit idle for long periods of time, the mixture can separate into distinct layers with the water rising to the top and the acid sinking to the bottom. This results in a difference of acid concentration across the surface of the plates, and can lead to greater corrosion of the bottom half of the plates.[6] Frequent charging and discharging tends to stir up the mixture, since the electrolysis of water during charging forms hydrogen and oxygen bubbles that rise and displace the liquid as the bubbles move upward.

Batteries in moving vehicles are also subject to sloshing and splashing in the cells, as the vehicle accelerates, brakes, and turns. [edit]Risk

of explosion

Car battery after explosion

Excessive charging electrolyzes some of the water emitting hydrogen and oxygen. This process is known as "gassing". Wet cells have open vents to release any gas produced, and VRLA batteries rely on valves fitted to each cell. Wet cells come with catalytic caps to recombine any emitted hydrogen. A VRLA cell normally recombines any hydrogen and oxygen produced inside the cell, but malfunction or overheating may cause gas to build up. If this happens (e.g., by overcharging) the valve vents the gas and normalizes the pressure, producing a characteristic acid smell. Valves can sometimes fail however, if dirt and debris accumulate, allowing pressure to build up. If the accumulated hydrogen and oxygen within either a VRLA or wet cell is ignited, an explosion results. The force can burst the plastic casing or blow the top off the battery, spraying acid and casing shrapnel. An explosion in one cell may ignite the combustible gas mixture in remaining cells. The cell walls of VRLA batteries typically swell when the internal pressure rises. The deformation varies from cell to cell, and is greater at the ends where the walls are unsupported by other cells. Such overpressurized batteries should be carefully isolated and discarded. Personnel working near batteries at risk for explosion should protect their eyes and exposed skin from burns due to spraying acid and fire by

wearing a face shield, overalls, and gloves. Using goggles instead of a face shield sacrifices safety by leaving one's face exposed to acid and heat from a potential explosion. [edit]Environment [edit]Environmental


According to a 2003 report entitled, "Getting the Lead Out," by Environmental Defense and the Ecology Center of Ann Arbor, Mich., the batteries of vehicles on the road contained an estimated 2,600,000 metric tons (2,600,000 long tons; 2,900,000 short tons) of lead. Some lead compounds are extremely toxic. Long-term exposure to even tiny amounts of these compounds can cause brain and kidney damage, hearing impairment, and learning problems in children.[16] The auto industry uses over 1,000,000 metric tons (980,000 long tons; 1,100,000 short tons) every year, with 90% going to conventional lead-acid vehicle batteries. While lead recycling is a well-established industry, more than 40,000 metric tons (39,000 long tons; 44,000 short tons) ends up in landfills every year. According to the federal Toxic Release Inventory, another 70,000 metric tons (69,000 long tons; 77,000 short tons) are released in the lead mining and manufacturing process.[17] Attempts are being made to develop alternatives (particularly for automotive use) because of concerns about the environmental consequences of improper disposal and of lead smelting operations, among other reasons. Alternatives are unlikely to displace them for applications such as engine starting or backup power systems, since the batteries are low-cost although heavy. [edit]Recycling See also: Automotive battery recycling Leadacid battery recycling is one of the most successful recycling programs in the world. In the United States 97% of all battery lead was recycled between 1997 and 2001.[18] An effective pollution control system is a necessity to prevent lead emission. Continuous improvement in battery recycling plants and furnace designs is required to keep pace with emission standards for lead smelters. [edit]Additives

Since the 1950s chemical additives have been used to reduce lead sulfate build up on plates and improve battery condition when added to the electrolyte of a vented leadacid battery. Such treatments are rarely, if ever, effective.[19] Two compounds used for such purposes are Epsom salts and EDTA. Epsom salts reduces the internal resistance in a weak or damaged battery and may allow a small amount of extended life. EDTA can be used to dissolve the sulfate deposits of heavily discharged plates. However, the dissolved material is then no longer available to participate in the normal charge/discharge cycle, so a battery temporarily revived with EDTA will have a reduced life expectancy. Residual EDTA in the leadacid cell forms organic acids which will accelerate corrosion of the lead plates and internal connectors. The active materials change physical form during charge/discharge, resulting in growth and distortion of the electrodes, and shedding of electrode into the electrolyte. Once the active material has fallen out of the plates, it cannot be restored into position by any chemical treatment. Similarly, internal physical problems such as cracked plates, corroded connectors, or damaged separators cannot be restored chemically. [edit]Corrosion


Corrosion of the external metal parts of the leadacid battery results from a chemical reaction of the battery terminals, lugs and connectors. Corrosion on the positive terminal is caused by electrolysis, due a mismatch of metal alloys used in the manufacture of the battery terminal and cable connector. White corrosion is usually lead or zinc sulfate crystals. Aluminum connectors corrode to aluminum sulfate. Copper connectors produce blue and white corrosion crystals. Corrosion of a battery's terminals can be reduced by coating the terminals with petroleum jelly[citation needed] or a commercially available product made for the purpose. If the battery is over-filled with water and electrolyte, thermal expansion can force some of the liquid out of the battery vents onto the top of the battery. This solution can then react with the lead and other metals in the battery connector and cause corrosion.

The electrolyte can weep from the plastic-to-lead seal where the battery terminals penetrate the plastic case. Acid fumes that vaporize through the vent caps, often caused by overcharging, and insufficient battery box ventilation can allow the sulfuric acid fumes to build up and react with the exposed metals.

Electric Generator
In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge (usually carried by electrons) to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is analogous to a water pump, which causes water to flow (but does not create water). The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a handcrank, compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy.

Early 20th century alternator made inBudapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem,West Flanders, Belgium

The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. In fact many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity, and very frequently make acceptable generators.

Main article: Dynamo

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Dynamo Electric Machine [End View, Partly Section] (U.S. Patent 284,110)

The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation into pulsed DC through the use of acommutator. The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent

magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution and solid state electronic AC to DC power conversion. But before the principles of AC were discovered, very large directcurrent dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. Now power generation dynamos are mostly a curiosity. [edit]Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. When used to feed an electric power grid, an alternator must always operate at a constant speed that is precisely synchronized to the electrical frequency of the power grid. A DC generator can operate at any speed within mechanical limits, but always outputs direct current. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding. [edit]Other

rotating electromagnetic generators

Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings (i.e., electromagnets) that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits. [edit]MHD


Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD

generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[2] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined-cycle gas turbines. [edit]Terminology The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical:

Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine

Electrical: Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator.

Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating currentproduced by the armature to direct current, so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine. [edit]Excitation

A small early 1900s 75 KVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, with a separate belt-driven exciter generator.

Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a severe widespread power outage where islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform ablack start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[3] [edit]Equivalent


Equivalent circuit of generator and load. G = generator VG=generator open-circuit voltage RG=generator internal resistance VL=generator on-load voltage RL=load resistance

The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's VG and RG parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load. [edit]Vehicle-mounted


Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by alternators with builtin rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically poweredsteering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 5060% efficient over a wide speed range.[4] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. These tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. Nevertheless, the maximum efficiency is only around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tyregenerator interface from poor alignment, the small size of the generator, bearing losses and cheap design. The use of permanent magnets means that efficiency falls even further at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub generators remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not

require an interface between the generator and tyre. Until recently, these generators have been expensive and hard to find. Major bicycle component manufacturers like Shimano and SRAM have only just entered this market. However, significant gains can be expected in future as cycling becomes more mainstream transportation and LED technology allows brighter lighting at the reduced current these generators are capable of providing. Sailing yachts may use a water or wind powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. [edit]Engine-generator Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. Many different versions are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. [edit]Human

powered electrical generators

Main article: Self-powered equipment

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[5]

A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but

at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[6] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling,(school of the air) medical and other needs in remote stations and towns. [edit]Linear

electric generator

In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes. [edit]Tachogenerator Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds

Starter motor
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about engine starters. For other kinds of starters, see Starter (disambiguation).

An automobile starter motor

A starter motor (also starting motor or starter) is an electric motor for rotating an internal-combustion engine so as to initiate the engine's operation under its own power.

Electric starter


Main Housing (yoke) Overrunning clutch, and Pinion gear assembly Armature Field coils with Brushes attached Brush-carrier Solenoid

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The modern starter motor is either a permanent-magnet or a series-parallel wound direct current electric motor with a starter solenoid (similar to a relay) mounted on it. When current from the starting battery is applied to the solenoid, usually through a key-operated switch, the solenoid engages a lever that pushes out the drive pinion on the starter driveshaft and meshes the pinion with the starter ring gear on the flywheel of the engine. The solenoid also closes high-current contacts for the starter motor, which begins to turn. Once the engine starts, the key-operated switch is opened, a spring in the solenoid assembly pulls the pinion gear away from the ring gear, and the starter motor stops. The starter's pinion is clutched to its driveshaft through an overrunning sprag clutch which permits the pinion to transmit drive in only one direction. In this manner, drive is transmitted through the pinion to the flywheel ring gear, but if the pinion remains engaged (as for example because the operator fails to release the key as soon as the engine starts, or if there is a short and the solenoid remains engaged), the pinion will spin independently of its driveshaft. This prevents the engine driving the starter, for such backdrive would cause the starter to spin so fast as to fly apart. However, this sprag clutch arrangement would preclude the use of the starter as a generator if employed in hybrid scheme mentioned above, unless modifications were made. Also, a standard starter motor is only designed for intermittent use which would preclude its use as a generator; the electrical components are designed only to operate for typically under 30 seconds before overheating (by too-slow dissipation of heat from ohmic losses), to save weight and cost. This is the same reason why most automobile owner's manuals instruct the operator to pause for at least ten seconds after each ten or fifteen seconds of cranking the engine, when trying to start an engine that does not start immediately.

This overrunning-clutch pinion arrangement was phased into use beginning in the early 1960s; before that time, a Bendix drive was used. The Bendix system places the starter drive pinion on a helically cut driveshaft. When the starter motor begins turning, the inertia of the drive pinion assembly causes it to ride forward on the helix and thus engage with the ring gear. When the engine starts, backdrive from the ring gear causes the drive pinion to exceed the rotative speed of the starter, at which point the drive pinion is forced back down the helical shaft and thus out of mesh with the ring gear.
Hear a Folo-Thru starter A starter motor with Bendix FoloThru drive cranks a Chrysler Slant-6 engine. The Folo-Thru drive pinion stays engaged through a cylinder firing but not causing the engine to start

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An intermediate development between the Bendix drive developed in the 1930s and the overrunning-clutch designs introduced in the 1960s was the Bendix Folo-Thru drive. The standard Bendix drive would disengage from the ring gear as soon as the engine fired, even if it did not continue to run. The Folo-Thru drive contains a latching mechanism and a set of flyweights in the body of the drive unit. When the starter motor begins turning and the drive unit is forced forward on the helical shaft by inertia, it is latched into the engaged position. Only once the drive unit is spun at a speed higher than that attained by the starter motor itself (i.e., it is backdriven by the running engine) will the flyweights pull radially outward, releasing the latch and permitting the overdriven drive unit to be spun out of engagement. In this manner, unwanted starter disengagement is avoided before a successful engine start. [edit]Gear


Hear a gear-reduction starter A Chrysler gear-reduction starter cranks a V8 engine

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Chrysler Corporation contributed materially to the modern development of the starter motor. In 1962, Chrysler introduced a starter incorporating ageartrain between the motor and the driveshaft. Rolls Royce had introduced a conceptually similar starter in 1946,[citation needed] but Chrysler's was the first volume-production unit. The motor shaft has integrally cut gear teeth forming a pinion which meshes with a larger adjacent driven gear to provide a gear reduction ratio of 3.75:1. This permits the use of a higher-speed, lower-current, lighter and more compact motor assembly while increasing cranking torque.[3] Variants of this starter design were used on most rearand four-wheel-drive vehicles produced by Chrysler Corporation from 1962 through 1987. It makes a unique, distinct sound when cranking the engine, which led to it being nicknamed the "Highland Park Hummingbird"a reference to Chrysler's headquarters in Highland Park, Michigan.[4] The Chrysler gear-reduction starter formed the conceptual basis for the gearreduction starters that now predominate in vehicles on the road. Many Japanese automakers phased in gear reduction starters in the 1970s and 1980s.[citation needed] Light aircraft engines also made extensive use of this kind of starter, because its light weight offered an advantage. Those starters not employing offset geartrains like the Chrysler unit generally employ planetary epicyclic geartrains instead. Direct-drive starters are almost entirely obsolete owing to their larger size, heavier weight and higher current requirements.
[citation needed]


pole shoe

Ford also issued a nonstandard starter, a direct-drive "movable pole shoe" design that provided cost reduction rather than electrical or mechanical benefits. This type of starter eliminated the solenoid, replacing it with a movable pole shoe and a separate starter relay. This starter operates as follows: The driver turns the key, activating the starter switch. A small electric current flows through the switch-type starter solenoid, closing the contacts and sending large battery current to the starter motor. One of the pole shoes, hinged at the front, linked to the starter drive, and spring-loaded away from its normal operating position, is swung into position by the magnetic field created by electricity flowing through its field coil. This moves the starter drive forward to engage the flywheel ring gear, and simultaneously closes a pair of contacts supplying current to the rest of the starter motor winding. Once the engine starts and the driver releases the starter switch, a spring retracts the pole shoe, which pulls the starter drive out of engagement with the ring gear.

This starter was used on Ford vehicles from 1973 through 1990, when a gearreduction unit conceptually similar to the Chrysler unit replaced it. [edit]Pneumatic


Main article: Air start system Some gas turbine engines and Diesel engines, particularly on trucks, use a pneumatic self-starter. The system consists of a geared turbine, an air compressor and a pressure tank. Compressed air released from the tank is used to spin the turbine, and through a set of reduction gears, engages the ring gear on the flywheel, much like an electric starter. The engine, once running, powers the compressor to recharge the tank. Aircraft with large gas turbine engines are typically started using a large volume of low-pressure compressed air, supplied from a very small engine referred to as an auxiliary power unit, located elsewhere in the aircraft. After starting the main engines, the APU often continues to operate, supplying additional power to operate aircraft equipment. Alternately, aircraft engines can be rapidly started using a mobile ground-based pneumatic starting engine, referred to as a start cart or air start cart. On larger diesel generators found in large shore installations and especially on ships, a pneumatic starting gear is used. The air motor is normally powered by compressed air at pressures of 1030 bar. The air motor is made up of a center drum about the size of a soup can with four or more slots cut into it to allow for the vanes to be placed radially on the drum to form chambers around the drum. The drum is offset inside a round casing so that the inlet air for starting is admitted at the area where the drum and vanes form a small chamber compared to the others. The compressed air can only expand by rotating the drum which allows the small chamber to become larger and puts another one of the cambers in the air inlet. The air motor spins much too fast to be used directly on the flywheel of the engine, instead a large gearing reduction such as a planetary gear is used to lower the output speed. A Bendix gear is used to engage the flywheel. On large diesel generators and almost all diesel engines used as the prime mover of ships will use compressed air acting directly on the cylinder head. This is not ideal for smaller diesels as it provides too much cooling on starting. Also the cylinder head needs to have enough space to support an extra valve for the air start system. The air start system operates very similar to a distributor in a car. There is an air distributor that is geared to the camshaft of the diesel engine, on the top of the air distributor is a single lobe similar to what is found on a camshaft. Arranged radially around this lobe are roller tip followers for every cylinder. When the lobe of the air distributor hits one of

the followers it will send an air signal that acts upon the back of the air start valve located in the cylinder head causing it to open. The actual compressed air is provided from a large reservoir that feeds into a header located along the engine. As soon as the air start valve is opened the compressed air is admitted and the engine will begin turning. It can be used on 2-cycle and 4-cycle engines and on reversing engines. On large 2-stroke engines less than one revolution of the crankshaft is needed for starting. Since large trucks typically use air brakes, the system does double duty, supplying compressed air to the brake system. Pneumatic starters have the advantages of delivering high torque, mechanical simplicity and reliability. They eliminate the need for oversized, heavy storage batteries in prime mover electrical systems. [edit]Hydraulic


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2010) Some diesel engines from 6 to 16 cylinders are started by means of a hydraulic motor. Hydraulic starters and the associated systems provide a sparkless, reliable method of engine starting at a wide temperature range. Typically hydraulic starters are found in applications such as remote generators, lifeboat propulsion engines, offshore fire pumping engines, and hydraulic fracturing rigs. The system used to support the hydraulic starter includes valves, pumps, filters, a reservoir, and piston accumulators. The operator can manually recharge the hydraulic system; this cannot readily be done with air or electric starting systems, so hydraulic starting systems are favored in applications wherein emergency starting is a requirement.

Hydraulic Starter

Hydraulic Starter



Before the advent of the starter motor, engines were started by various methods including wind-up springs, gun powder cylinders, and human-powered techniques such as a removable crank handle which engaged the front of the crankshaft, pulling on an airplane propeller, or pulling a cord that was wound around an open-face pulley. The behavior of an engine during starting is not always predictable. The engine can kick back, causing sudden reverse rotation. Many manual starters included a onedirectional slip or release provision so that once engine rotation began, the starter would disengage from the engine. In the event of a kickback, the reverse rotation of the engine could suddenly engage the starter, causing the crank to unexpectedly and violently jerk, possibly injuring the operator. For cord-wound starters, a kickback could pull the operator towards the engine or machine, or swing the starter cord and handle at high speed around the starter pulley.

Self starting
Some modern gasoline engines with twelve or more cylinders always have at least one piston at the beginning of its power stroke and are able to start by injecting fuel into that cylinder and igniting it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Magneto (disambiguation).

Demonstration hand-cranked magneto

A magneto is an electrical generator that uses permanent magnets to produce alternating current. Hand-cranked magneto generators were used to provide ringing current in early telephone systems. Magnetos adapted to produce pulses of high voltage are used in the ignition systems of some gasolinepowered internal combustion engines to provide power to the spark plugs.[1] The magneto is now confined mainly to

engines where there is no available electrical supply, for example in lawnmowers and chainsaws. It is also universally used in aviation piston engines even though an electrical supply is usually available. This is because a magneto ignition system is more reliable than a battery-coil system. Magnetos were rarely used for power generation, although they were for a few specialised uses.

Power generation
For more details on this topic, see Magneto (generator). Magnetos have advantages of simplicity and reliability, but are inefficient owing to the weak magnetic flux available from their permanent magnets. This restricted their use for high-power applications. Power generation magnetos were limited to narrow fields, such as powering arc lamps or lighthouses, where their particular features of output stability or simple reliability were most valued. [edit]Bicycles One popular and common use of magnetos of today is for powering lights on bicycles. Most commonly a small magneto, termed a bottle dynamo, rubs against the tyre of the bicycle and generates power as the wheel turns. More expensive and less common but more efficient is the hub dynamo. Although commonly referred to as dynamos, both devices are in fact magnetos, producing alternating current as opposed to the direct current produced by a true dynamo. [edit]Medical


The magneto also had a medical use for treatment of mental illness in the beginnings of electromedicine. In 1850, Duchenne, a French doctor, developed and manufactured a magneto with a variable outer voltage and frequency, through varying revolutions by hand or varying the inductance of the two coils, putting out or putting in both ferromagnetic cores. [edit]Ignition


Main article: Ignition magneto It has been suggested that Ignition magneto be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since July 2011. Magnetos adapted to produce impulses of high voltage for spark plugs are used in the ignition systems of spark-ignition piston engines. Magnetos are used in piston aircraft

engines for their reliability and simplicity. Motor sport vehicles such as motorcycles and snowmobiles use magnetos because they are lighter in weight than an ignition system relying on a battery. Small internal combustion engines used for lawn mowers, chain saws, portable pumps and similar applications use magnetos for economy and weight reduction. Magnetos are not used in highway motor vehicles which have a cranking battery and which may require more control over ignition timing than is possible with a magneto system. [edit]Telephone

1896 Telephone, hand crank for magneto on right (Sweden)

For more details on this topic, see Telephone magneto. Many early manual telephones had a hand cranked "magneto" generator to produce a (relatively) high voltage alternating signal to ring the bells of other telephones on the same (party) line and to alert the operator. These were usually on long rural lines served by small manual exchanges, which were not "common battery". The telephone instrument was "local battery", containing two large "No. 6" zinc-carbon dry cells.

Regulator (automatic control)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In automatic control, a regulator is a device which has the function of maintaining a designated characteristic. It performs the activity of managing or maintaining a range of values in a machine. The measurable property of a device is managed closely by specified conditions or an advance set value; or it can be a variable according to a predetermined arrangement scheme. It can be used generally to connote any set of various controls or devices for regulating or controlling items or objects.

Examples are a voltage regulator (which can be a transformer whose voltage ratio of transformation can be adjusted, or an electronic circuit that produces a defined voltage), a pressure regulator, such as a diving regulator, which maintains its output at a fixed pressure lower than its input, and a fuel regulator (which controls the supply of fuel). Regulators can be designed to control anything from gases or fluids, to light or electricity. Speed can be regulated by electronic, mechanical, or electro-mechanical means. Such instances include;

Electronic regulators as used in modern railway sets where the voltage is raised or lowered to control the

speed of the engine

Mechanical systems such as valves as used in fluid control systems. Purely mechanical pre-automotive

systems included such designs as the Watt centrifugal governor whereas modern systems may have electronic fluid speed sensing components directing solenoids to set the valve to the desired rate.

Complex electro-mechanical speed control systems used to maintain speeds in modern cars (cruise control) -

often including hydraulic components,

An aircraft engine's constant speed unit changes the propellor pitch to maintain engine speed.