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An Euler-Euler CFD Model for Biomass Gasication in Fluidized Bed

Qingluan Xue and Rodney Fox


Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University DE-AC02-07CH11358

NETL Conference on Multiphase Flow Science Morgantown, WV, May 22-24, 2012

Objectives

Provide MFIX-based Euler-Euler CFD models for polydisperse, reacting, variable density solid particles Facilitate the numerical simulation and scale up of energy systems such as gasier

Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

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Background: Multiphysics & Multiscales

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Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

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Physical Models
Spherical particle assumption Porosity and moisture modeled Uniform conversion model for micro-particles
Constant particle diameter (dp ) Variable particle density (p ) with increasing pores Intra-particle transport ignored for micro-particle

Couple continuity and species equation to update

p
N 1

apparent

=
n =1

X s ,n

(n )true
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Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Chemical Models
Devolatilization: Tar reaction: Volatile reaction: Carbon monoxide oxidation Hydrogen oxidation Methane oxidation Water-gas shift Char combustion Partial combustion Char gasication: Boudouard reaction Steam gasication Hydrogen gasication Biomass light gas (CO, CO2 , H2 , CH4 ) + tar + char + H2 O Tar (g) light gas (CO+ CO2 + H2 + CH4 + H2 O) + inert Tar CO + 1/2 O2 CO2 H2 + 1/2 O2 H2 O CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2 O CO + H2 O CO2 + H2 C + 1/2 O2 CO C + CO2 2 CO C + H2 O CO + H2 C + 2 H2 CH4

Reaction rate based on min[k = exp [E /RT ], C (2Sij Sij )1/2 ]

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Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

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Implementation in MFIX-Continuum
Time-splitting approach coupling hydrodynamics and kinetics

(t ) (t + t ) (t + t )
Synchronized time-step for transport and reaction
Time step: t n Back up variables at t
t
n

transport

chemical reaction

Transport calculation iteration


Reset variables values t > dt_min n to t ; reduce t No Reset variables values n-1 n to t ; reduce t t <= dt_min No converged ? treact yes

Converged ?
Yes Back up variables n at t = t + tconv

Source calculation (reaction) Advanced to t


n+1

= t + t
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Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

A Lab-scale Fluidized-bed Reactor


syngas

3.81 cm

biomass coal

air (N2+O2) / steam


Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU) Polydisperse Biomass Gasication May 22-24 7 / 19

10.62 cm

34.29 cm

Simulation Conditions
Phase Species (n) N2 O2 light gasb tarc sand biomassd moisture char ash void Xn 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 T (K)

g , sm
bed, freeboard

true (g/cm3 )

d (cm)

gas (g) solid (s1)

1123 1123

0.41, 1 0.59, 0

EOSa 2.649 0.585 0.649 0.45 0.45 same as gas

0.05

solid (s2)

300

0, 0

0.05

a b c d

quation of state for an ideal gas includes CO, CO2 , H2 O, H2 , CH4 includes active tar and inert tar

air fuel ratio (mair /mbiomass ) is 1.5


Polydisperse Biomass Gasication May 22-24 8 / 19

Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Simulation Cases

Cases

air/biomass ratio 0.4 0.8 1.5 2.1 1.5 1.5

biomass moisture (wt%) 0 0 0 0 15 25

base

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Convergency History
Gas Temperature and mass inside reactor
1300 bio-fed location bed center upper bed bed surface 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 Mass (g) 1200 T (K) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 1100 0.1 0 0 50 100 Time (s) 150 200 0 50 100 Time (s) 150 200 char in bed char outlet 1250

1150

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Biomass Apparent Density

0.1 s

0.5 s

1.0 s

1.5 s

2.0 s

10 s

15 s
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Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

Time- and Spatial-Averaged Density and Temperature (160-200 s)


-20 35 30 Axial height in bed (cm) 25 20 15 10 5
5

y-component of velocity (cm/s) -10 0 10 20 30 40 apparent density y-velocity


Axial height in bed (cm)

35 30 25 20 15 10

gas phase sand phase biomass phase

0 0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0 800 1000 1200 1400


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Averaged apparent density (g/cm3)


Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU) Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

Averaged temperature (K)

Gas Molar Fraction

180 s

O2

N2

CO

H2

CO2

CH4
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Tar
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Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

Biomass Mass Fraction

180 s

Bio
Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Char

Pore

Ash
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Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

Mass Flow Ratio (Air/Biomass)

Gas composition vs. mass flow ratio 0.8

Product yield vs. mass flow ratio 1

Gas composition (mole)

0.6

0.4

CO CO2 H2 CH4 Tar N2

Product yield (mass fraction)

0.8

Tar Char Gas

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.5

1 1.5 Mass flow ratio (air/biomass)

2.5

0.5

1 1.5 Mass flow ration(air/biomass)

2.5

Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

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Bed Temperature

Gas composition vs. temperature 0.15


1

Product yield vs. temperature

Gas composition (mole)

0.1

CO CO2 H2 CH4 Tar

Product yield (mass fraction)

0.8

Tar Char Gas

0.6

0.4

0.05

0.2

0 1000

1050

1100 1150 Temperature at mid-bed (K)

1200

1250

0 1000

1050

1100 1150 Middle bed temperature (K)

1200

1250

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Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

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Moisture Content

Gas composition vs.. moisture content 0.15

Product yield vs. moisture content 1

Product yield (mass fraction)

0.8
Tar Char Gas

Gas composition (mole)

0.1

CO CO2 H2 CH4 Tar

0.6

0.4

0.05

0.2

10 15 Moisture content (wt%)

20

25

10 15 Moisture content (wt%)

20

25

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Summary

Variable particle density implemented for modeling bio-particle transport Biomass (wood) gasication kinetics implemented The model captures the key features of gasication Different conditions tested

Q. Xue & R.O. Fox (A Lab/ISU)

Polydisperse Biomass Gasication

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Acknowledgement

Support for this work was provided by US DOE-NETL (DE-AC02-07CH11358).

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